THE ENDS OF EDUCATING The 26 Annual Conference of UGNAYANG PANG-AGHAM TAO (UGAT), Inc.

Anthropological Association of the Philippines October 21-23, 2004, Capitol University, Cagayan de Oro City
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CURRICULUM INTEGRATION: A STRATEGY IN ACHIEVING HOLISTIC STUDENT DEVELOPMENT GOAL IN STUDENT AFFAIRS by Hector Teodoro Miranda De La Salle University-Manila Introduction In a continuing quest for improving Student Services, Student Affairs Practitioners have already gone a long way in providing programs and services that cater to the different needs of students, all directed toward the valuing of Holistic Student Development. Curriculum Integration (CI) is one of those emerging means by which student affairs organizations or offices operate and deliver results. Presentation Objectives At the end of this presentation, we, the Student Affairs Practitioners should be able to: • • • Clarify our understanding of Curriculum Integration; Maximize our use of CI in providing relevant student services through effective organizational structure and delivery processes; Enumerate implications of its use: • On the Organizational Structure of Student Affairs: • On the Student Affairs Practitioner and the Academic Community

Clarifying Our Understanding of Curriculum Integration The Need for Curriculum Integration Curriculum Integration (CI) has been present in the educational systems ever since we realized the need to know and learn more. Learning in the school sense is an approach to inject ideas in the minds of the students and make it a common knowledge. We also realize the need to reflect on the realities of life and how this knowledge could further improve the quality of living. Recognizing the need to have a better understanding of what we know and how we can use it, is how I understand the word integration. CI therefore, as we all have experienced it as learners, is the summation of all the things that we know and how these complex thoughts can be of use in our everyday living. And this summation is our integrated curriculum, a source of integrated learning. We, educators, as bounded by our academic goals, are its implementers. And these are the reasons why we need CI in Student Affairs and in the Academic System or Curriculum.
Curriculum Integration: A Strategy in Achieving Holistic Student Development Goal in Student Affairs by Hector Teodoro Miranda (De La Salle University-Manila)

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THE ENDS OF EDUCATING The 26 Annual Conference of UGNAYANG PANG-AGHAM TAO (UGAT), Inc. Anthropological Association of the Philippines October 21-23, 2004, Capitol University, Cagayan de Oro City
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Development of CI Heidi Hayes Jacobs describes it as "carefully designing a set of experiences, within a range of disciplines in an organized manner in order to enhance learning." Throughout the years, CI’s definition has evolved and it has tremendously developed. We could also attribute its development to how we constantly redefine Learning. Learning Theories would tell different indicators of learning and which have infected the way we do CI; not to mention all the arising knowledge from different disciplines that led us to the need to consolidate our understanding of these complexities. Logic will bring us to the simple understanding that CI is all about creating an integrated curriculum for students. Tracing its development would take a whole bunch of history of education and development theories. But, a better way of reviewing how CI has emerged is by enumerating Randy Compton‘s Five Ways of CI. These are: Content/Subject Discipline CI It is integrating concepts, skills, and processes involved within a discipline. A classic example is when require students to apply things they learned in class by submitting a project or paper report. Parallel Discipline CI It is when we target the same outputs from two disciplines. How can students forget their History teacher’s lesson about the heroism of the Filipino when on the same week, their Economics teacher gave them a lesson on personal and social responsibility in Economics? Multi-Disciplinary CI It is when teachers collaboratively link lessons from 3 or more disciplines leading to a focused center, program, activity, concept or skill. This is very much reflected in how we consolidate our efforts to maximize our resources by having common activities. Inter-Disciplinary CI This is reflected in an academic curriculum that inter-twines all disciplines. This is when breakdown the given units of a specific course and distribute them to different subjects, electives and majors. Integrated CI This is when we provide opportunity for the practice of the theories taught through the different subjects taken in an academic curriculum. It is seen when we empower our students to initiate projects focused on the application of their learning while in practicum or through thesis researches. These CI strategies may not be new to us, but it is worth reviewing for us Practitioners as a means to validate what we are doing. It should also open our doors to other possibilities or options of providing integrated learning to our students.
Curriculum Integration: A Strategy in Achieving Holistic Student Development Goal in Student Affairs by Hector Teodoro Miranda (De La Salle University-Manila)

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THE ENDS OF EDUCATING The 26 Annual Conference of UGNAYANG PANG-AGHAM TAO (UGAT), Inc. Anthropological Association of the Philippines October 21-23, 2004, Capitol University, Cagayan de Oro City
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Maximizing CI in Student Affairs Management Integrating Co-curricular Programs in the Academic Curriculum Student Affairs have always aimed at providing the Academic Curriculum the twin support to further enhance learning. Education and the different areas of disciplines it promotes have made available, the different approaches and techniques to learning. Student Affairs have become more critical at identifying clear indicators of learning. Practitioners usually asked these questions: What is the impact of our programs to our students? Have they reached the emotional maturity that they should have? Have they realized clear career goals? Do they have the skills needed for work? Have they gotten enough motivation to pull themselves up? And so, it has become so spontaneous to hear educators talk about well-balanced education, scientific learning, play-oriented education, and self-regulated learning amongst others. With all idealism I agree with all these goals and strategies. These I believe are all consciously or not, aimed at the primordial goal of Student Affairs; that is to provide venues for Holistic Student Development. Emergence of CI Programs in Student Affairs (The DLSU-Manila Experience) The academic community has initiated a lot of CI programs. De La Salle UniversityManila is one of those schools that present an array based on emerging needs. Cocurricular programs under the Student Affairs Office have always been sensitive to the needs of the academic community. Some are as follows: The Community Service Programs of the Center for Social Concern and Action (COSCA) married the Theology and Religious Education Department (TRED) to bear the RELSTRI and RELSFOUR Community Service Program. The Office of Career Services (OCS) with the Lasallian Pastoral Office (LSPO) has redesigned the Career Preparation Program, to bring career preparation in the context of our faith and spirituality. This was also a response to the OCS initiated research study amongst employers of our graduates, to know the impact of its Orient 3 Program. The Cultural Arts Office (CAO) tied-up with the Literature Department to emphasize the value of culture appreciation by featuring cultural arts presentations in the Art Appreciation Classes. Every student organization in the University is required to coordinate one (1) community service-oriented project/activity every term.

Curriculum Integration: A Strategy in Achieving Holistic Student Development Goal in Student Affairs by Hector Teodoro Miranda (De La Salle University-Manila)

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THE ENDS OF EDUCATING The 26 Annual Conference of UGNAYANG PANG-AGHAM TAO (UGAT), Inc. Anthropological Association of the Philippines October 21-23, 2004, Capitol University, Cagayan de Oro City
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The Student Development Office (SDO) has brought into the classroom, the Personal Effectiveness Seminars in response to the demands of concerned teachers and industry partners. These are but just few of the CI Programs that have emerged in DLSU-Manila in response to the identified, observed, and assumed needs of the students, academic departments, and employers of Lasallian graduates. Student Affairs Practitioners who know the value of achieving the student affairs goal of Holistic Student Development initiated these. The Concept of Infusion/Immersion (I) Another CI concept, which has emerged through identified needs, is Infusion (Randy Compton). It is synonymous to what has already been known to us in the academe as Immersion. Infusion is when the teaching and modeling of concepts and skills are reflected throughout the classroom and school culture. This is very much seen with schools where and when students and adults form a community with its own distinct culture. No wonder why we’ve become familiar with labels amongst schools with their battle cries: “Scholar ng Bayan”, Man for Others, Christian Achiever for God and Country; these are reflections of their distinct school culture. CI vs. I Infusion is an outgrowth of CI. Infusion serves a lot more benefits for the academe since it completes the integration that we want to achieve. It emphasizes the importance referring back to the realities of our time; while CI is somewhat limited to the confines of the disciplines being suggested in the prescribed curriculum. Infusion gives the learner the freedom to self-learn. It provides more options and openness to different perspectives by mere exposure to the realities of life. Infusion Strategies and Programs Immersion Programs started popping when the academic community felt the need to commune with the society. Schools started realizing the need to have a contribution to the society by making itself answerable to the needs of the people as well as the needs of the government. They have become very critical about the responsibility that it is now very much seen in the vision-mission statements of schools. Community exposure and involvement projects/activities are reflections of this trend. In DLSU-Manila, the Office of Student Activities (OSAc) empowered the Council of Student Organization (CSO) in facilitating the Annual Accreditation of the Student Organizations. This is a very challenging Infusion strategy that teaches the students to self-regulate.
Curriculum Integration: A Strategy in Achieving Holistic Student Development Goal in Student Affairs by Hector Teodoro Miranda (De La Salle University-Manila)

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THE ENDS OF EDUCATING The 26 Annual Conference of UGNAYANG PANG-AGHAM TAO (UGAT), Inc. Anthropological Association of the Philippines October 21-23, 2004, Capitol University, Cagayan de Oro City
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The government also had its share. The National Service Training Program (NSTP) is an attempt by the government to inculcate in the minds of the youth the value of Service for your community and the government. From these examples, we notice that Infusion Programs is best invested in reference to the communal needs of people. But, the needs are not the only elements to consider in designing Infusion programs. The National Curriculum Integration Project (NCIP) in Colorado utilized a framework for Infusion program on the integration of their Conflict Resolution Education Program to their school climate change. It has three core elements: • • • Classroom/School Culture – as seen in the teacher modeling, peaceable classroom practices, direct skill instruction Curriculum Content Teaching Strategies

Taking note of these core elements should be one of the best ways to strategize our CI and Infusion Programs. It emphasizes the need for consistency in our ways and means as well as the need for sensitivity to the cultural norms of the school and society. Implications of CI On the Organizational Structure of Student Affairs For CI to completely penetrate into the system, the organizational structure of the school should allow such programs to be accessible to its target clients, the students. Hence, the need for an office devoted to CI Programs. Its Benefits Having the CI Programs available would ensure benefits on the holistic development of our students. It gives us the assurance and confidence in the realization of our school’s vision-mission as well as our strategic objectives. Its Challenging Requirements and Strategies If development programs are consistent with the school vision-mission, it becomes a measure of its relevance. Constant review of its logistical requirements is a must. It also requires having strong internal and external linkages. These make it quite costly to maintain in the organizational structure and delivery processes of student affairs.

Curriculum Integration: A Strategy in Achieving Holistic Student Development Goal in Student Affairs by Hector Teodoro Miranda (De La Salle University-Manila)

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THE ENDS OF EDUCATING The 26 Annual Conference of UGNAYANG PANG-AGHAM TAO (UGAT), Inc. Anthropological Association of the Philippines October 21-23, 2004, Capitol University, Cagayan de Oro City
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Diagnosing infusion by using the skills learning checklist There is also a need to specify clear indicators of positive change. These indicators would vary depending on the educational orientations of the school. But since there is a strong motion to consider skills development as an important learning indicator, I suggest the use of a diagnostic tool to identify infusion in your CI programs and services. With sensitivity to the developmental capacity and limitations of our students and with reference to our need to know the level of infusion we have achieved through our CI Programs, I propose the use of this skills learning stages checklist:

Stages Denial Confused Awkward Lazy Indulgent Doubtful Poised Infused

When the person has no reason to learn the skill When the person realizes the need to have the skill but won’t initiate knowing more about it When there is minimum know-how of the skill but the person has partial appreciation of it When there is already an acceptance of the need for the skill but has not initiated any move to develop it When the person is delighted to acquire the skills but has not developed its mastery When the skill is already present but the confidence to recreate is lacking When the use of the skill is enjoyable and is widely applied When the Skill is already being utilized and consistent with the personal values of the person and has been fully accepted by him and his cultural norms

Skills Learning Indicators

Remarks

*Adapted from the Stages of Skills Learning by George Davis This checklist can help the Student Affairs Practitioners in validating the effectiveness of our CI Programs. It can also provide us the reason for the modification of our programs. This checklist should also impress on us, the value of being critical with results.

Curriculum Integration: A Strategy in Achieving Holistic Student Development Goal in Student Affairs by Hector Teodoro Miranda (De La Salle University-Manila)

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THE ENDS OF EDUCATING The 26 Annual Conference of UGNAYANG PANG-AGHAM TAO (UGAT), Inc. Anthropological Association of the Philippines October 21-23, 2004, Capitol University, Cagayan de Oro City
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Here are some specific skills that we might really want to observe: *active listening, reframing, questioning, impulse control, emotional awareness, perspective taking, critical and creative thinking, consequential thinking, analyzing rules and laws, standing up against violence and injustice and facilitation of meetings, *reflection and internal decision-making, cooperative group work, classroom meetings, negotiation, mediation, arbitration, change management *Adapted from Randy Compton’s Conflict Resolution Skills Indicators On the Student Affairs Practitioner: Part of the requirements of considering CI Programs in student affairs is to maintain a competent Student Affairs Practitioner. The following could be an ideal profile: Knowledge *A good grasp of the theories of learning and development *A clear definition of the role of student affairs in the academic community Skills *Competence in the designing, facilitating and management of developmental programs Attitudes *Appreciative of norms, culture and change *Passionately advocate holistic student development Other expectations could be: Strategies *Establishing and maintaining of networks and linkages *Benchmarking *Evaluation/Analysis/Diagnosing of Needs *Being critical about results These are just some of the requirements that should guide us in the implementation of CI Programs in student affairs. Constant updating and improvements of the CI Programs would solely depend on the readiness of the Practitioners to infuse with the goals and strategies of student affairs. At the same level, the school must also be equally prepared to provide the basic requirements of these developmental programs.

Curriculum Integration: A Strategy in Achieving Holistic Student Development Goal in Student Affairs by Hector Teodoro Miranda (De La Salle University-Manila)

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THE ENDS OF EDUCATING The 26 Annual Conference of UGNAYANG PANG-AGHAM TAO (UGAT), Inc. Anthropological Association of the Philippines October 21-23, 2004, Capitol University, Cagayan de Oro City
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Summary and Conclusion This paper gave us a review of how CI has been utilized by the academic community. By tracing how it developed, we were able to clarify how we educators benefited from its features. We also enumerated its implications on the organizational structure and delivery processes of student services. And more importantly, we reiterated the value, benefits, and the challenging implications of integrating co-curricular programs into the academic curriculum, and what it requires from us, the Student Affairs Practitioners. Our role as Student Affairs Practitioners challenges us to ensure that before we aim for the holistic development of our students and facilitate their integrated learning, we should be able to achieve our own wholeness and integration as persons. After all, it is really impossible to give something that we do not have. Reference: http://www.ncip.org/articles/Promise_Curriculum.html http://www.ncip.org/Resource_Guide.html

Curriculum Integration: A Strategy in Achieving Holistic Student Development Goal in Student Affairs by Hector Teodoro Miranda (De La Salle University-Manila)

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