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Agenda 21 - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Agenda 21
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Agenda 21 is a non-binding, voluntarily implemented action plan of the United Nations with regard to sustainable development.[1] It is a product of the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 1992. It is an action agenda for the UN, other multilateral organizations, and individual governments around the world that can be executed at local, national, and global levels. The "21" in Agenda 21 refers to the 21st Century. It has been affirmed and modified at subsequent UN conferences.

Agenda 21

Contents
1 Structure and contents 2 Development and evolution 2.1 Rio+5 (1997) 2.2 Rio+10 (2002) 2.3 Agenda 21 for culture (2002) 2.4 Rio+20 (2012) 3 Implementation 3.1 Local level 4 National level 4.1 U.S. support 4.2 U.S. opposition 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External links
Cover of the first edition (paperback) Author United Nations

Cover artist United Nations (1992) Country Language Genre Publisher United States English, Chinese, Japanese, Russian, French, Spanish Non-fiction United Nations

Publication April 23, 1993 date Media type Print (Paperback) & HTML Pages 300 pp 978-92-1-100509-7

Structure and contents

ISBN

Agenda 21 is a 300-page document divided into 40 chapters that have been grouped into 4 sections: Section I: Social and Economic Dimensions is directed toward combatting poverty, especially in developing countries, changing consumption patterns, promoting health, achieving a more sustainable population, and sustainable settlement in decision making. Section II: Conservation and Management of Resources for Development Includes atmospheric protection, combating deforestation, protecting fragile environments, conservation of biological diversity (biodiversity), control of pollution and the management of biotechnology, and radioactive wastes. Section III: Strengthening the Role of Major Groups includes the roles of children and youth, men,
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agenda_21 1/6

Wikipedia. something comparable to what Agenda 21 was for the environment. the free encyclopedia women. 1992. Rio+5 (1997) In 1997. and continued deterioration of the global environment. education. including increasing globalization. where 178 governments voted to adopt the program. technology transfer. The final text was the result of drafting.[citation needed ] Rio+20 (2012) Main article: United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development In 2012.org/wiki/Agenda_21 2/6 . Rio+10 (2002) Main article: World Summit on Sustainable Development The Johannesburg Plan of Implementation. A new General Assembly Resolution (S-19/2) promised further action. business and workers and strengthening the role of indigenous peoples. the UN General Assembly held a special session to appraise the status of Agenda 21 (Rio +5).wikipedia. in 2002.[2] They are to be included in various subsections of Agenda 21 and will be carried out through a wide range of sub-programs beginning with G8 countries. their communities. alongside achievement of the Millennium Development Goals and other international agreements. international institutions and financial mechanisms. and negotiation. held in Rio de Janeiro on June 13. agreed at the World Summit on Sustainable Development (Earth Summit 2002) affirmed UN commitment to "full implementation" of Agenda 21. Brazil.9/25/13 Agenda 21 . Section IV: Means of Implementation: implementation includes science. widening inequalities in income. Development and evolution The full text of Agenda 21 was revealed at the UN Conference on Environment and Development (Earth Summit). The Assembly recognized progress as "uneven" and identified key trends. Agenda 21 for culture (2002) Main article: Agenda 21 for culture The first World Public Meeting on Culture. consultation. local authorities. came up with the idea to establish guidelines for local cultural policies. and farmers. at the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development the attending members reaffirmed their commitment to Agenda 21 in their outcome document called "The Future We Want". Implementation en. held in Porto Alegre. NGOs. beginning in 1989 and culminating at the two-week conference.

[5] Europe turned out to be the continent where LA21 was best accepted and most implemented. national. as recommended in Chapter 28 of the document. The group. is a signatory. spoke about the importance of adhering to Agenda 21 at the 2002 Earth Summit. These programs are often known as "Local Agenda 21" or "LA21". towns. a "fringe" political organization. formed in 1990. Australia's membership is second only to that of the United States. But support is often closely tied to environmental challenges specific to each country. in 2002 Sam Nujoma.Wikipedia. and makes these reports available to the public on its website. regional and local levels.[8] Australia.[9] Opposition to Agenda 21 in Australia is not covered in the major media outlets though groups such as Act Australia. there is little mention of Agenda 21 at the local level in indigenous media. In some cases. opposition has been legislated into several States limiting or forbidding the participation and/or funding of local government activities that support Agenda 21. the free encyclopedia The Commission on Sustainable Development acts as a high-level forum on sustainable development and has acted as preparatory committee for summits and sessions on the implementation of Agenda 21. opposition to Agenda 21's ideas has surfaced to varied extents. national support for Agenda 21 is strong and most countries are signatories.[10] European countries generally possess well documented Agenda 21 statuses. ICLEI-Local Governments for Sustainability. along with 14 cities. Agenda 21 participation in North African countries mirrors that of Middle Eastern countries. noting that as a semi-arid country. today its members come from 1. and counties in 70 countries and is widely regarded as a paragon of Agenda 21 implementation. Implementation by member states remains essentially voluntary and its adoption has varied.[12] Furthermore. who was then President of Namibia. has labeled Agenda 21 a "threat to freedom". in the Philippines. Some national and state governments have legislated or advised that local authorities take steps to implement the plan locally.[3] For example. the plan is "Philippines Agenda 21" (PA21). Local level See also: International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives The implementation of Agenda 21 was intended to involve action at international. some opponents have expressed that they view Agenda 21 as a "sham". for example.9/25/13 Agenda 21 . towards the adoption of Agenda 21. with most en.[11] In Africa. whose national government. all local governments have implemented a Local Agenda 21 initiative. for example. Like Australia.[6] In Sweden. boasts nationwide programs supporting Agenda 21. France. is a signatory to Agenda 21 and 88 of its municipalities subscribe to ICLEI. for example.[7] National level The UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs' Division for Sustainable Development monitors and evaluates progress. The UN Division for Sustainable Development acts as the secretariat to the Commission and works "within the context of" Agenda 21. Only major municipalities in sub-Saharan African countries are members of ICLEI. an organization that promotes Agenda 21 globally. nation by nation.org/wiki/Agenda_21 3/6 . Namibia sets a lot of store in the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD).200 cities. however.wikipedia.[4] In other countries.

opposition During the last decade. support The United States is a signatory country to Agenda 21.[24] Activists.[15] In January 2011. an international sustainability organization that helps to implement the Agenda 21 and Local Agenda 21 concepts across the world.org/wiki/Agenda_21 4/6 . state.wikipedia."[17][18] Several state and local governments have considered or passed motions and legislation opposing Agenda 21. however.[citation needed ] these include Representative Nancy Pelosi.200 cities promoting sustainable development at a local level. the free encyclopedia countries being signatories but little to no adoption on the local-government level. over 528 cities are members of ICLEI. The United States has nearly half of the ICLEI's global membership of 1. It is therefore not considered to be law under Article Six of the United States Constitution. have spoken in Congress in support of Agenda 21.[4][19][20][21][22][23] Alabama became the first state to prohibit government participation in Agenda 21. jurisdiction from the ICLEI and Agenda 21. and the Republican Party platform stated that "We strongly reject the U. with 21 city members of ICLEI and support of Agenda 21 by national-level government. and federal levels. By contrast. South Africa's participation in Agenda 21 mirrors that of modern Europe.[4][23] Columnists in The Atlantic have linked opposition to Agenda 21 to the property rights movement in the United States. Several congressmen and senators. and 85% thought they didn't have enough information to form an opinion. Commissioner Richard Rothschild of Carroll County.<refname=ICLEI/> The United States also has one of the most comprehensively documented Agenda 21 status reports. have said that Agenda 21 is a conspiracy by the United Nations to deprive individuals of property rights. and Senator Harry Reid. but because Agenda 21 is not a treaty. and close to passing legislation to ban Agenda 21.[13] In the United States. some of whom have been associated with the Tea Party movement by the The New York Times and The Huffington Post.N. including Arizona.[23][25] A poll of 1.Wikipedia.S. 6% opposed it.S. U.300 United States voters by the American Planning Association found that 9% supported Agenda 21. are drafting. Maryland became the first elected official in the United States to successfully remove a U. Senator John Kerry.9/25/13 Agenda 21 .S. opposition to Agenda 21 has increased within the United States at the local.[14] U. Countries in sub-Saharan Africa and North Africa generally have poorly documented Agenda 21 status reports.[23] See also Ecologically sustainable development EarthCheck Earth Summit Education for sustainable development Global Map ICLEI Local Governments for Sustainability USA en.[5] Many other states.[16] The Republican National Committee has adopted a resolution opposing Agenda 21. the Senate was unable to hold a formal debate or vote on it. Agenda 21 as erosive of American sovereignty.

"A comparison of Local Agenda 21 implementation in North American. Sébastien (12 March 2012). doi:10. Leslie.agenda21culture. ^ Missouri Senate Bill No. ICLEIUSA.pdf).senate.state.org/esa/agenda21/natlinfo/countr/usa/natur. 19. 265 (http://www.ac.9/25/13 Agenda 21 . Retrieved 8 Dec 2012. ^ Colfax City Council Resolution 12-2012 (http://www.htm) 15. Peter (August 30. "Areas of Work . United Nations.org/li/b2011_12/year2/measures/hr6032/) 21.colfax. ^ ICLEI. 2012. Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal 19 (1): 118–137. 13.un. ^ Kansas resolution HR 6032 (http://kslegislature. ^ "Namibian president calls for implementation of Agenda 21" (http://news.ece). "Alabama Adopts First Official State Ban on UN Agenda 21" (http://www.org/esa/dsd/dsd_aofw_ni/ni_index.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/08/2012GOPPlatform.mo.N. 2012).presse. ^ Jamison. ^ a b Newman.United States (http://www.doi.com/watch?v=9MxMif1tBVk) 14. Retrieved 15 August 2012. 2. 12.nh. 11. Picardie (in French). the free encyclopedia International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives Millennium Development Goals National Strategy for a Sustainable America Polytely References 1.com/news/politics/national/article1248666.html?pagewanted=all). ^ New Hampshire HB 1634 (http://www.1080/09640560220116314 (http://dx. ^ Tennessee House Joint Resolution 587 (http://wapp.doi. ^ UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs.wordpress.org/10. ^ Agenda 21 for culture (http://www.icleiusa. 5. New York Times. "Fears of Agenda 21 go mainstream in the Republican Party platform" (http://www.uk/eae/sustainability/Older/Local_Agenda21. ^ "Republican Platform 2012" (http://www.html) 4. Retrieved 15 August 2012.wikipedia. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management 45 (2): 219–244.fr/article/marne/agenda-21-lopposition-ny-voit-quune-imposture). 6. ^ Laporte. "ICLEI Local Governments for Sustainability: Global Members" (http://www.xinhuanet. "Local Agenda 21 in four Swedish Municipalities: a tool towards sustainability".tampabay. ^ Jörby.mmu. Retrieved 15 August 2012.tn. The New American.iclei.us/3-Docs/PDF/Agenda/4-1112%20Agenda.com/2012/02/04/us/activists-fight-green-projects-seeing-un-plot.thenewamerican. ^ Manchester Metropolitan University (http://www. "Agenda 21 : l'opposition n'y voit qu'une " imposture "" (http://www. ^ Nancy Pelosi Support for Agenda 21 (http://www. 2012.1080%2F09640560220116314). ^ Act for Australia. Retrieved 15 August 2012.us/bill_status/bill_status. Retrieved 15 August 2012.gop. Richard (2008). "Activists Fight Green Projects.org/about-iclei/faqs/faq-iclei-the-united-nations-and-agenda21#what-is-agenda-21).gencourt.org/10.ca. Ardenne. Tampa Bay Times. Republican Party (United States). Kate Zernike (3 February 2012). Retrieved October 23.ace. European and Indian cities". | a c c e s s d a t e =requires | u r l =(help) 8. l'Union: Champagne.aspx? BillNumber=HJR0587) 20. ^ Agenda 21 . Plot" (http://www.net/) 3. 18. Sofie (2002).Wikipedia. Retrieved October 23.com/articles/threats-freedomagenda-21).php? id=11454).pdf) 22.com/2012/07/30/carroll-county-commissioner-opposes-iclei-un-agenda-21/ 17. Seeing U.org/index.actforaustralia. 2 September 2002.youtube.National Information by Country or Organization" (http://www. doi:10. Retrieved 15 August 2012.ci. Alex (4 June 2012). 9. ^ Smardon.un.shtml).org/wiki/Agenda_21 5/6 .lunion.1108/14777830810840408 (http://dx.1108%2F14777830810840408). | a c c e s s d a t e =requires | u r l =(help) 7. "Threats to Freedom: Agenda 21" (http://www.capitol. ^ http://libertyplanet. ^ "What is Agenda 21?" (http://www.aspx? lsr=2669&sy=2012&txtsessionyear=2012&txtbillnumber=HB1634) en.gov/apps/BillInfo/Default.gov/13info/pdf-bill/perf/SB265. Retrieved 15 August 2012. ^ a b c Kaufman.com/english/200209/02/content_547409. 10.nytimes.pdf) 16. Xinhua News Agency.htm).com/tech/environment/item/11592-alabama-adopts-first-official-state-ban-on-unagenda-21).

americanthinker. Llewellyn (29 August 2012). Strzelczyk. Scott. Plot" (http://www. 2009).earthsummit2012. Intelligence Report (Southern Poverty Law Center) (145).9/25/13 Agenda 21 . Rothschild. Retrieved 16 October 2012. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. "Antigovernment Conspiracy Theorists Rail Against UN's Agenda 21 Program" (http://www.php?title=Agenda_21&oldid=574255656" Categories: International environmental organizations United Nations documents 1992 in international relations This page was last modified on 24 September 2013 at 00:08. Earth Summit 2012 (http://www. "UN Agenda 21 . By using this site.html).splcenter.un.org/wiki/Agenda_21 6/6 . 25.wikipedia. Arizona Daily Star. additional terms may apply.Wikipedia. 24. Richard (October 28. "The Anti-Environmentalist Roots of the Agenda 21 Conspiracy Theory" (http://www. Further reading Lenz. 15 October 2012. Seeing Threatening U.html) Retrieved from "http://en.org/get-informed/intelligence-report/browse-allissues/2012/spring/behind-the-green-mask). Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation.Coming to a Neighborhood near You" (http://www.unep. Inc.html). Ryan (Spring 2012). ^ Hinkes-Jones.com/news/local/govt-and-politics/arizona-senate-oks-bill-rejecting-un-declaration-onenvironment/article_2f542a48-a8dc-5feb-af62-a762be4d8194..wikipedia.N. Retrieved 16 October 2012. en.com/politics/2012/08/anti-environmentalist-roots-agenda-21-conspiracytheory/3091/).com/2012/10/15/agenda-21-tea-party_n_1965893.theatlanticcities.org/index. Howard (21 March 2013). ^ a b c d "Tea Party Activists Fight Agenda 21.org/w/index.com/2009/10/un_agenda_21_coming_to_a_neigh.org/Documents.huffingtonpost.org/about-us/historical-documents/93-agenda-21) External links Agenda 21 text (http://www. ^ Fischer. a non-profit organization. the free encyclopedia 23.asp?documentid=52) United Nations Sustainable Development Knowledge Platform (http://sustainabledevelopment. Retrieved 14 August 2013.Multilingual/Default.html). American Thinker. "Arizona Senate OKs bill rejecting UN declaration on environment" (http://azstarnet. you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy.