Pride and Prejudice—Jane Austen

Characters
Mrs. Bennet/Mr. Bennet Lydia Kitty Mary Elizabeth Mr. Darcy Jane—static character, model of virtue Gardiners—The source of wisdom and parental advice to the Bennet sisters. Mrs. Gardiner brings Jane to London after Mr. Bingley breaks contact with her. Mrs. Gardiner also advises both Lydia and Elizabeth to remain cautious of Wickham. Role: Mr. Gardiner is a merchant, putting him in a lower social class than those who had money and did not have to work. However, the Gardiners pleasant demeanor demonstrates that to Austen, some of the best trends break the bounds of social hierarchies. Colonel Fitzwilliam- A cousin of Mr. Darcy -- he is a companion to Elizabeth during her stay with the Collinses. Role: He tells Elizabeth that he must marry someone with a large fortune because he is the second son, the first case in the novel where a man's marriage choices are constrained by financial need. Georgiana Darcy Lady Catherine and Miss De Bourgh—Darcy’s aunt and her daughter. Pompous. Role: Lady Catherine wants Darcy to marry Miss De Bourgh, and this knowledge forces Elizabeth to reflect on class roles for a bit. However, after seeing Miss De Bourgh and weak, unpleasant character, Elizabeth is no longer worried Miss Bingley + Mrs. Hurst—Bingley’s two sisters. Both are pompous and have no virtue. Miss Bingley constantly ridicules the poor manners of Elizabeth’s mother and sisters to try to destabilize the infatutation Darcy initially has with Elizabeth. She pretends to be a genuine friend to Jane but ridicules her behind her back. Charlotte Lucas—Elizabeth’s close friend who marries Mr. Collins not because she is in love with him but because she views it as practical. Role: Acts as foil to Elizabeth’s views on marriage Mrs. Phillips—serves to spread gossip. Mrs. Bennet’s sister. Lives in Meryton. The Bennet sisters, particularly Lydia and Kitty, often visit her in order to socialize with the officers.

Themes
Pride and Prejudice— As said in the words of Mary at the beginning of the novel, "human nature is particularly prone to [pride]. In the novel, pride is a major obstacle to achieving happiness because it prevents people from seeing the truth of a situation.

Collins and Lady Catherine -In the end of the novel Elizabeth accepts class society. but likewise Darcy accepts that it is not an end in itself Individual and society—Society is heavily involved in the individual life. Gender—Austen is critical of gender issues. Bennet’s failure. must be in want of a wife.Family—family is primarily responsible for the moral and intellectual education of children. Even when Elizabeth advises her father not to allow Lydia to go to Brighton. -Darcy believes it is his burden to expose Wickham -The scandal that erupts when Lydia elopes with Wickham . that a single man in possession of a good fortune.It is a truth universally acknowledged. Due to Mr. EX: -Darcy’s pride is rooted in his class consciousness -SATIRE: The relationship between Mr. but it criticizes the overemphasis on class . he ignores the advice because he thinks it would too difficult to deal with Lydia's complaining. The result is the scandal of Lydia's elopement with Wickham. Class—The novel does not propose egalitarianism. Lydia acts out and Kitty follows suit. Society has a strong role to play in individual virtue. Ex: -The entailment of the Longbourn estate is an extreme hardship on the Bennet family -Charlotte’s need to marry someone -The novel’s beginning-. and Mrs.

Septimus often takes things too literally—assuming Thomasina’s rabbit equations are pictures of actual rabbits. not equations that devour its young. Role: Demonstrates the tension between free will and fate—while Ezra thinks he is Deciding whom to forgive and when. Chater lacks moral will—after hearing about Septimus and Mrs. As a mathematician. Love – sex— plays an important role in human life—it is the heat constantly agitating things. In the end. Valentine views history as a collective accumulation of knowledge. feminist research. although one is clearly platonic) -Stoppard’s own criticism of academic eagerness -Biggest contribution: the discovery of the hermit to Hannah Ezra Chater—Poet who is published by Captain Brice only because Brice desires to seduce Chater’s unfaithful wife. She represents the voice of reason. but on all subjects. -She believes sex messes up the universe because it is completely random -When Thomasina and Septimus dance in the end. She asks Septimus what carnal embrace is. her statements about Cleopatra and the Alexandrian library). Chater. Role: Illustrates that cleverness will not only get you so far The tutor/pupil dynamic is often reversed. when almost everything you thought you knew is wrong” Role: Valentine’s conflicting views of knowledge contrast his view of history with that of Bernard’s. creating a dynamic change to her initial character. His evidence is spotty (example: some of the letters he doesn’t bring on stage. by extension. which leads him to jump to conclusions (example: his theory that Lord Byron killed Mr. there is tension between the tutor/student role and the sexual tension between the two Septimus—Thomasina’s tutor not only in academics. with order . Thomasina’s complex ideas surpass Septimus ability to understand. Her ability to think outside the box is what gets her to such a genuine genius stage in the play. Thomasina—A genius clearly driven not only by academic pursuit (examples: the mathematic iterations. Super interested in the march of knowledge.Valentine is the voice of modern science in the play. including “carnal embrace”. but also sexual knowledge. Chater in a love duel). Bernard—Desires fame and recognition. he is simply being manipulated by all the characters in the play Valentine Coverly-. she accepts Gus’ proposal to dance. Ex: -Resists Valentine’s idea of calling her his fiancé -Scorns Gus’ flirtation/reacts passively/awkwardly to it -Rejects Bernard’s proposal that Lord Byron would have killed someone out of love Role: Hannah’s inability to accept love shows her inability to know herself. he explains to Hannah (and. he still forgives Septimus with enough flattery. to the audience) exactly what's going on with fractals and grouse and Thomasina's rabbit equations.Arcadia—Tom Stoppard Characters Hannah—Academic. “It's the best possible time to be alive. but he gives her an A grade on her essay’s about them initially dismissing them.

This means that initially.being largely irrelevant (Ex: “It’s like arguing who got to calculus first…. However. He is like a reality TV producer. The play ends with both Hannah and Gus and Thomasina and Septimus embracing the sexual nature of life. on an empty shore”). Path of Knowledge—Is the journey more important than the end product? Septimus tells Thomasina she should not be upset with the loss of the Alexandrian libraries because those discoveries will be had again . It is where we looked when we have solved the academic mysteries in our life (ex: Hannah solves her academic mystery and turns to Gus and accepts his dance). Themes Emotional Knowledge vs. he changes by the end of the play. he is the main agent for “the descent of thinking into feeling”. we will be alone. Intellectual Knowledge—the text explores the tension between the two and the ways that this tension can be resolved. trying to think out the authentic and genuine. and producing something sculpted and unnatural. Chloe is interested in the sexual nature of things. Richard Noakes: The gardener in charge of transforming Sidley Park from mass produced classical style to “gothic Disneyland”. It casts knowledge into a dull and mundane light (Ex: “When we have found all the mysteries and lost all the meaning. Mystery of Sex—Sex is what constantly tosses life into randomness.it doesn’t matter”). Her relationship with Bernard. Chloe—Hannah’s counterpart. he believes Thomasina’s discoveries don’t matter because they don’t produce any knowledge but pave the way for it.

Martin: Foil to Pangloss. His predictions about the happiness of Paquette and Giroflee). where a powerful god creates the world and therefore the world must be good. Various other religious leaders/men who steal.Candide (Satire Piece) Characters Candide Pangloss: Pangloss’s optimism that “all is for the best in this best of all possible worlds” is the main aim of Voltaire’s satire. and refuse to help unless people are willing to submit to them Corrupting Power of money— Ex—Candide’s money makes him more unhappy. Voltaire’s attitude— -Optimism produces passivity (i. he is overly pessimistic at times. Evidence—Many of the tragic events/catastrophes in the book result from blindly believing in principals based on their philosophical justifications instead of their rational evidence basis. dies multiple times. Pangloss ignores his requests for oil and wine and instead struggles to prove the causes of the earthquake) Hypocrisy of Religion— Ex. people try to steal from him. and often the voice of Voltaire. However. While Candide lies under rubble after the Lisbon earthquake.e. (Ex. Themes The Folly of Optimism—(see Pangloss’ character description) Philosophy vs. keep mistresses. demonstrating the Voltaire prefers a flexible ideology over on that is polarized to either end of the extreme. Pangloss gets syphilis. failing to predict Cacambo’s actions. when Pangloss says not to save Jaques) -This theory is destroyed by tons of evidence—Ex. The branches off into his satire of religion. he tries To buy his way to getting Cunegonde . The novel involves the encounter of a the daughter of a catholic pope (a man who should have been celibate). and yet maintains his optimistic attitude to the point where the reader cannot take his attitude seriously. Martin is much more realistic about the world and this allows him to make accurate predictions about the lives of other characters (ex.

which enables him to understand the manner of his creation. Victor worries that if he makes the monster a female mate. his creation is also unnatural—constructed from trying to work against nature. He connects himself to Adam. they will spawn a race of devils. Victor himself isolates himself from natural tendencies by estranging himself and engaging in obsessive behaviors. Birth Eden—Paradise Lost provides a backdrop for Frankenstein’s identity. turning nature itself into a writing surface.Language plays an enormous role in the monster’s development. murdered by the monster Justine-- Themes Pursuit of Knowledge—Dangerous Sublime and Nature—Nature often contributes to the mood of people. Krempe P.” – opening line Walton serves as a foil to Victor—chooses to steer back during his journey to the country where no man has travelled P. Beautiful scenery cheers up Victor after Justine’s execution for allegedly killing William. By hearing and watching the peasants. Waldman Caroline Elizabeth Cornelius Agrippa Henry—close friend of Victor’s William—Victor’s brother. Shelley was a romanticist writer who believed in the sublime. inscribing words in trees and on rocks. the monster learns to speak and read. Frames of Reference-. but also to the devil. . The monster’s physical appearance is far from that of a normal human being: he is eight feet tall and has yellow skin. Monstrosity—A deviation from the natural pervades the nove. He later leaves notes for Victor along the chase into the northern ice. and serves as symbolic of the conflicts in the novel. as described in Victor’s journal. However.Frankenstein “Oh what a story to hear while the ice is thawing.

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.