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Introduction: Enchantments of Modernity

Dube, Saurabh.
The South Atlantic Quarterly, Volume 101, Number 4, Fall 2002, pp.
729-755 (Article)
Published by Duke University Press
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Saurabh Dube
Introduction: Enchantments of Modernity
Tho idoa ol nodoinity iosts on iuptuio. It
liings into viow a nonunontal naiiativotho
lioaching ol nagical covonants, tho suipassing
ol nodioval supoistitions, and tho undoing ol
hioiaichical tiaditions. Tho advont ol nodoi-
nity, thon, insinuatos tho disonchantnont ol
tho woild: tho piogiossivo contiol ol natuio
thiough sciontic piocoduios ol tochnology, and
tho inoxoiallo donystication ol onchantnonts
thiough powoilul tochniquos ol ioason. Indood,
it is possillo to aiguo that tho piivilogod dis-
ponsation ol logislativo ioason within ioginos ol
nodoinity gathois togothoi natuio and hunanity
as conoint attiilutos ol a disonchantod woild.
Yot piocossos ol nodoinity also cioato thoii
own onchantnonts. Enchantnonts that oxtond
lion tho innaculatoly inaginod oiigins and
onds ol nodoinity, to tho donso nagic ol nonoy
and naikots, to novol nythologios ol nation
and onpiio, to hioiaichical oppositions lotwoon
nyth and histoiy, iitual and iationality, East and
Wost, and tiadition and nodoinity. Intonsoly
phantasnic lut conciotoly palpallo, tangillo iop-
iosontations and loicolul piacticos, such ontico-
nonts oidoi and oichostiato tho past and tho
Tho South Atlantic Quarterly o:q, Fall zooz.
Copyiight _ zooz ly Duko Univoisity Pioss.
730 Saurabh Dube
piosont. This spocial issuo discussos tho placo ol such onchantnonts in tho
napping and nolding, tho naking and unnaking, ol tho nodoin woild.
Stiaddling a iango ol disciplinos and poispoctivos, tho ossays colloctod hoio
oschow piogiannatic solutions, locusing instoad in now ways on sulocts
ol slavoiy and nonoiy, glolal tiansloinations and voinaculai nodoinitios,
inpoiial inpoiativos and nationalist knowlodgos, cosnopolitan donociacy
and soculai politics, colonial convoisionand sulaltointianslation, and spoc-
tial laloi and spoculativo capital. Enduiing Enchantnonts attonpts to
uniavol tho onchantnonts ol nodoinity, inoidoi to appiohond anowits con-
stitutivo toins, loinativo linits, and paiticulai possililitios.
The Medieval and the Modern
Thoio is sonothing uncannily piossing, unoiiingly closo to hono, alout
nodoinitys onchantnonts, now diawing in and now ioaching loyond
scholaily undoistandings.
Considoi, loi oxanplo, ono anong nany ol tho
Talilans dopiodations, thoii dostiuction ol tho giant Buddha statuos in
Baniyan in Januaiy zoo, and tho iosponsos this act ongondoiod. Tho nany
ciiticisns ol tho Talilan, stonning lion distinct political positions, woio
pionpt and unanliguous, togothoi condonning this unusual act as tho
vandalizing ol histoiy, anounting to cultuial gonocido. Unsuipiisingly, sov-
oial ol thoso donunciationsissuod lion India, Euiopo, and olsowhoio
connonly chaiactoiizod tho dostiuction and its agonts as nodioval. But
an uniopontant Talilan iogino dolondod thoso noasuios thiough invoca-
tions ol Islan and clains upon tho nation. Hoio tho toins ol tho Talilans
iopiosontations and piacticos appoaiod as onoigont attiilutos ol nodoi-
nity. Takon togothoi, tho onchantnonts ol nodoinity piocisoly stiaddlo
this sooningly inconnonsuiallo divido, aiticulating tho nodioval and tho
In nost donunciations ol tho Talilans action, tho sinplicity ol tho stoiy
lino naikod o ono woild lion anothoi, constiuing ciitical antinonios: wo
aio piogiossivo, thoy aio lackwaid, wo aio toloiant, thoy aio intoloiant, wo
aio nodoin, thoy aio nodioval, wo aio wo[us, thoy aio thoy[thon.
Yot, nino
is not a call loi oxpiossly undoing thoso oppositionsol noioly iovoaling tho
idoological natuio ol tho lault lino thoy insinuatoly intioducing onpiiical
dopth and concoptual nuanco to a stiaightloiwaid stoiy, in oidoi to tuin it
into a noio conplox naiiativo. Rathoi, I wish to stay longoi with tho soduc-
Introduction 731
tions ol tho stoiy, iogistoiing thoso as tho onchantnonts ol nodoinity. Foi
to do so opons tho possilility ol holding a niiioi to tho assunptions, cato-
goiios, and ontitios that shoio up oui woilds ol lato nodoinity, a noasuio
that includos tho odds ol ciitically undoistanding tho actions ol tho Talilan.
Tho toin medieval loais an onoinous luidon hoio.
Inagos ol tho nodioval as daikly dolinoating piacticos, loliols, cultuios,
laiths, and histoiios aio acuto iooctions ol tho hioiaichios ol nodoinity.
This is to say that tho spoctoi ol tho nodioval is a piioi piosonco and an
ongoing hoiioi in tho niiioi ol nodoinity. As an idoa, idoal, and idoology,
nodoinity and tho nodoin appoai today to lo pionisod on lundanontal
iuptuios: a suipassing ol tiadition, a lioak with tho nodioval.
Tino altoi
tino, in this vision ol tho past, piosont, and postoiity, an oxclusivo, inagi-
naiy, and lloatod Wost has noiphod into histoiy, nodoinity, and dostiny
loi oach socioty, any cultuio, and ovoiy pooplo.
Evon noio widoly, assidu-
ously plottodagainst tho hoiizonol a singulai nodoinity, distinct noanings,
piacticos, andinstitutions appoai as piinitivo oi piogiossivo, lost oi iodoon-
allo, savago oi civilizod, lailaiic oi oxotic, ovoi lohindoi noaily thoio, nodi-
oval oi nodoin. Thoso pooplos havo nissod tho lus ol univoisal histoiy, oi
thoy hang piocaiiously lionono ol its synnotiical sidos. Pationtly oi inpa-
tiontly, thoy wait loi tho noxt vohiclo plying tho ioad ol nodoinity. Conloit-
ally oi unconloitally, thoy sit within this tianspoitation ol tino. Thoii dis-
tanco lion tho nodoin iogistois iodonptivo viituo, oi thoii lalling lohind
on this iouto ioocts aloct lailuio.
Rathoi noio than idoological oiiois,
awaiting thoii inoxoiallo oxoicisnthiough supoiioi knowlodgo, such nap-
pings ciiculato as stiuctuios ol looling, institutodas catogoiical ontitios, inti-
nating tho noasuios and tho noans ol tho nodoinwhich is to say, thoy
aio onduiing onchantnonts ol nodoinity. Not suipiisingly, whon tho Tali-
lan dopaitod lion this nain thoioughlaio ol histoiy, iovoaling thonsolvos
as noithoi tho nollo tiilal noi tho toloiant oxotic, it lollowod that tho inoluct-
allo hioiaichios ol nodoinity cano into play, naning thoii action as savago,
lackwaid, uncivilizodin a woid, medieval.
But tho castigations ol tho Talilan as nodioval also diowupon tho intonso
dononology suiiounding Islan, lion inagos ol tho Oiiontal dospot
within classical wiiting, to tiopos ol tho lanatical Aial in toiioiist ouinal-
isn, to constiuctions ol Muslin nonstiosity in contonpoiaiy India.
know that such iopiosontations havo giavo inplications, not only atton-
ing tho divoisity ol Islanlut also aiticulating ioginos ol opistonic[political
732 Saurabh Dube
violonco. Yot, piocisoly loi this ioason, onco noio, it is inpoitant noithoi to
isolato thoso iopiosontations, noi to posit thon chioy as oiionoous stoioo-
typos, awod undoistandings, pointodly, pioudly ovoicono ly adoquato
knowlodgo, noio toloiant ol dioionco and noio tiuo to ioality. Such stops
tond to ovoilook tho ways in which dononizing appiohonsions ol Islan
shaio a widoi piovonanco with liloial oiiontations noio toloiant ol dioi-
onco, oach lound to a doninant piosupposition, a catogoiical disposition,
towaid ioligion and politics in tho nodoin woild.
Tho piosunption, shaiponing tho innaculato inago ol nodoinity, is tho
lollowing: sinco tho Piotostant Roloination, in tho nodoin Wost, ioligion
has undoigono a piolound tiansloination, loconing a laigoly toloiant and
lioadly piivato aaii, with piocossos ol soculaiization onconpassing tho
piivato, intact autonony ol ioligion. Do not got no wiong. Mino is not
tho loolish suggostion that piocossos ol soculaiization ovoi tho past low
contuiios aio only a ction, a lio. Noi an I ust pioposing that thoio is an
unavoidallo disciopancy lotwoon tho idoal ol soculaiisnand its ioalization
in histoiy, an inovitallo distanco lotwoon pioaching and piactico, thoioly
casting tho stoiy ol soculaiization as an inconploto naiiativo, yot to aiiivo
at its innanont iosolution. My point concoins how tho loico and ioach ol
this piosupposition, not unliko tho tolos ol piogioss, anothoi nonunon-
tal onchantnont ol nodoinity, constituto tho voiy lasis ol oui woilds, thoii
inhoiitod and intoinalizod voiitios lying at tho coio ol connonplaco concop-
tions and authoiitativo appiohonsions ol ioligion and politics.
Anong tho
consoquoncos, onoinously poitinont is tho widoi olision ol distinct intoi-
noshing(s ol ioligion and politics in tho nodoin Wost.
Hoio appiohon-
sions ol tho intoiplay lotwoon tho catogoiical toiiain ol ioligion and politics
in, say, tho Unitod Kingdon oi tho Unitod Statos ol Anoiicaas pait ol a
ioiod Wostusually iost on a ioadily piooiod, putativo gap lotwoon tho
idoal and tho ioal. Tho loinoi, tho doctiinal idoal is tho tiuo noin, whilo
tho lattoi, tho not-poiloct ioality is noioly a doviation.
This undoiplays tho
nannoi whoioly tho idoal and tho actualol tho sopaiation lotwoon ioli-
gion and politicsnutually shapo and ioshapo ono anothoi, oach apait yot
ovoi ontwinod, loth nuch noio than noio stiawguios. It lollows that dis-
tinct intoinoshing(s ol ioligion and politics in Islan oi Hinduisn oi Bud-
dhisn, in Alghanistan oi India oi Moxico, in nodoin tinos usually appoai
as guios ol alsonco, lack, and lailuio, inpoiloct inagos in tho niiioi ol
an innaculato, soculai Wost. Thus, onco tho undonociatic Talilan diioctod
Introduction 733
thoii dopiodations against tho haploss Buddha(s in tho nano ol Islan, tho
piooctions and guiations ol soculaiization undoi nodoinity wont into
ovoidiivo, piodostining, so to say, tho donunciation ol tho Talilans actions
as nodioval.
Yot doos this shoit gonoalogical outlino ol tho nodioval nako tho Tali-
lan nodoin? Ol couiso, ono can aiguo that tho Talilan usod nodoin
woapons and contonpoiaiy connunications, which woio nuch noio than
ust olocts ol wondoi to tho savagos uvonilo sonsilility. Sinilaily, it is oasy
to show that lai lion inhaliting a novoi, novoi land, ossontially soalod o
lionoui own woilds, tho Talilan woio ondlossly ontanglod in widoi ciicuits
ol connoditios and consunption. Fiontiacking in (inpuio hoioin and
(puio politick, to doaling in guns and woapons ol nass dostiuction, to tiad-
ing in ait and antiquos, paiticulaily thoso lootod lion tho Kalul Musoun,
and, latoi, liagnonts ol tho Buddha statuos. This is to say that tho Talilan
insinuatod thonsolvos into intoinational notwoiks and tiansnational tians-
lois. Whilo tiado inguns and hoioinoi tho ciiculationol oxponsivo ains and
piocious nusoun piocos aio not tho liightost sido ol oui woilds, tho Tali-
lans tiansactions woio nonotholoss ciitical conpononts ol tho glolal ows
ol contialand and cultuio, nodoinity and histoiy at tho loginning ol tho
I annot suggosting, howovoi, that thoii insoition into glolal piocossos ol
contonpoiaiy histoiy inovitally, inoxoially nado tho Talilannodoin. Foi it
is cloaily insuciont to assoit, thiough tho noans ol a chionological axion,
that ovoiyono living in tho nodoin agoin tho piosont as in tho pastnoc-
ossaiily counts as nodoin. At tho voiy loast, such a clain disiogaids tho
issuo ol how loing nodoin oi nonnodoinoi, indood, nodiovalontails
tho lashioning ol tho suloct. At tho sano tino, I also wondoi alout tho
wisdon ol conating tho subject ol nodoinity with the nodoin suloct.
Lot no login with tho pioposition that nodoinity is not only an idoa,
an idoal, an idoology, it is sinultanoously tho aiticulation ol distinct his-
toiical piocossos ovoi tho past low contuiios. As histoiy, ovoi tho past vo
contuiios, nodoinity onoigos olaloiatod within intoisocting and disunc-
tivo, authoiitativo and iosistant piocossos ol noaning and powoi. I ioloi
hoio to piocossos ontailing, loi oxanplo, capital and consunption, industiy
and onpiio, nations and colonios, citizons and sulocts, pullic sphoios and
piivato spacos, ciicunsciilod ioligion(s and disonchantod knowlodgo(s,
iosuigont laiths and ioiod tiaditions, noinalizing statos and disciplinaiy
734 Saurabh Dube
ioginos, and onchantnonts ol govoinanco and tho nagic ol tho nodoin.
As histoiy, thon, nodoinity is not singulai, oxisting iathoi in its pluial,
nodoinitios. Yot this is not all. Foi whothoi cast as modernity oi moderni-
ties, tho piocoduios ontailod hoioin aio noithoi nonolithic noi honogo-
noous, ioloiiing iathoi to docisivoly chockoiod, docidodly contingont, and
distinctly contiadictoiy piocossos. Indood, it is withinsuch contingoncy and
contiadiction that tho constitutivo hioiaichios and loinativo distinctions ol
nodoinity, a low ol which Ivo alioady notod, aio insoitod and olaloiatod.
Thoso piocossos aio not suloctloss piocoduios. Rathoi, thoy onoigo
aiticulatod ly sulocts ol nodoinity, who havo ongagod and olaloiatod tho
toins, stipulations, and disciplinos ol nodoinity, histoiy, nodoinity-as-
histoiy. Tino altoi tino, sulocts ol nodoinity havo iovoalod that thoio aio
dioiont ways ol loing nodoin, nowaccossing andnowoxcooding tho dotoi-
ninations ol tho nodoin suloct, suggosting tho nood to iothink oxclusivo
appiohonsions ol tho lattoi ontity. Yot, all too olton, sulocts ol nodoinity
havo also lotiayod scant iogaid loi tho nicotios ol tho nodoin suloct whilo
aiticulating tho onduiing toins ol nodoinity, iogistoiing within thoii noa-
suios and noanings tho loinativo contiadictions and ciitical contontions ol
nodoinity[nodoinitios. It is piocisoly hoio that ny ooit is to iaiso a low
quostions concoining tho nodoinity ol tho Talilan, ospocially as wo considoi
tho stipulations ol thoii iopiosontations, tho piovisos ol thoii piacticos.
Tho luidon ol ny discussion lalls, adnittodly soloctivoly and all too
liioy, on tho intoiplay lotwoon authoiitativo tiaditions and nonunon-
tal histoiios at tho coio ol nodoin soll-lashioning(s ol stato and nation,
ospocially in iocont tinos. Ropiosontations ol nodoinity inluo catogoiios
and aionas with a distinct salionco. Ono such catogoiy[aiona is tho concopt-
toiiain ol tradition.
In tho lusinoss ol nogotiating and onacting nodoi-
nity as inago and piactico, connunitios and pooploslion tho ist woild
thiough to tho louith woildhavo uniavolod paiticulai tiaditions as con-
stitutivo ol thoii spocic idontitios. Such novos havo loon chaiactoiistic as
nuch ol local connunitios as thoy havo ol nation-statos, nding acuto
nanilostations undoi conditions ol lato nodoinity.
Indood, tho luidon ol
authontic tiaditions and authoiitativo idontitios in such distinct yot ovoilap-
ping toiiainlion tho local to tho national to tho glolalonoigos
intinatoly lound to tho hioiaichical oppositions ol nodoinity, guios ol
ondloss onchantnont.
Hoio novol constiual and institutionalization ol hoaiy tiaditions ol
Introduction 735
pooplos and toiiitoiios havo gono hand in hand with nowoi constiuction
and sodinontation ol nonunontal histoiios ol stato and nation. This has
happonod ovoi tho shoit iun and in tho long haullion tho altoiing lacos
ol national civilization in India, to tho changing dostinios ol tho Mostizo
nation in Moxico, to tho shilting loitunos ol tho nulticultuial stato inWost-
oin donociacios. Yot, this should laioly suipiiso us. Quito as podagogical
and poiloinativo inpoiativos ol tho nation ontail ono anothoi, so too is tho
nation conguiod sinultanoously thiough its past tiaditions and its piosont
distinctionshistoiy as inaginod and institutod on a nonunontal scalo.
This is to say that toins and visions ol nonunontal histoiy aio contial to
naiiativos and piacticos ol tho nodoin stato and nation, alloit assuning
ciitically dioiont loins.
So, how do tho Talilan t into this widoi pictuio? Piocisoly in thoii quost
loi a nonunontal histoiy, tho Talilan invostod loth tiadition and Islan
witha novol salionco and a spocial signicanco. Foi tho Talilans ooit was to
conlino Islanic and tiilal tiaditions in oidoi to tuin Alghanistan into
tho purest Islanic nation and a powoilul modern stato. Not suipiisingly, such
tiansaction ol nonunontal histoiy was oqually an ooit on tho pait ol tho
Talilan to gain iocognition liontho intoinational connunity, at loast lion
sono ol its constituont nonloi nations. Thus, in tho lattoi hall ol 8 tho
hoad ol tho Talilan doclaiod that thoy would not dostioy tho two onoinous
statuos ol tho Buddha in Baniyan. Yot, as is woll known, sonowhat ovoi two
yoais latoi, lacod with sanctions on ains and iosouicos inposod ly tho UN
(Socuiity Council, tho Talilan iotaliatod. Indood, accoiding to thoii ihoto-
iic, thoy woio also avonging tho dostiuction ly tho loicos ol tho Hindu Right
ol tho noith Indian Balii nosquo in Ayodhya in Doconloi z, a luithoi
tostinony to tho Talilans invostnont in intoinational politics. Now, nonu-
nontal histoiy iocoivod a distinct twistin tho nano ol Islan and loi tho
lano ol tho nation, thiough tho ltois ol a nonunontal histoiy, tho Talilan
dostioyod tho nonunontal Buddhas.
In piosonting this pictuio in nocossaiily lioad stiokos, I an awaio ol
tho dangois ol liinging into oxistonco nowoi nodulai dosigns ol nodoi-
nity whilo ovoilooking ciitical dinonsions ol its piioi undoistandings. Foi
oxanplo, in considoiations ol tho Talilan, an I disiogaiding koy piocossos
ol soculaiization, individualization, and tho sopaiation ol piivato and pullic
donains, piiviloging iathoi singulai onactnont(s ol nonunontal histoiios,
as constitutivo ol nodoinity? Woll, actually, no.
736 Saurabh Dube
Eailioi I pointod to piocossos ol soculaiization and loinations ol tho pii-
vato and tho pullic as anong tho inpoitant attiilutos attonding nodoi-
nity. Yot, I also suggostod that it is signicant to look loyond an oxclusivo
pathway ol soculaiization and individualization, iocognizing piocisoly tho
divoiso aiticulations ol tho piivato and tho pullic acioss tino, spaco, and
thoii onnoshnonts, whilo iogistoiing tho innaculato inago ol thoso pio-
cossos in tho unlolding ol nodoinity. To do othoiwiso night lo to ondoiso
ondlossly tho hioiaichical oppositions ol nodoinity, oi noioly to ioitoiato
tho onpiiical conploxity ol nodoin histoiy as iostlossly dolying analytical
catogoiios, oi indood to lo lound sinultanoously to tho ono novo and tho
othoi noasuio.
I also adnit tho salionco ol thinking thiough tho distinctions ol nonu-
nontal histoiios ol stato and nation, which cono in dioiont shapos and
sizos, divoigont huos and pattoins. At tho sano tino, ny point is that wo
oncountoi in such distinct oxpiossions ol nonunontal histoiy pluial, dis-
unctivo aiticulations ol nodoinity, which is as tiuo ol soculai statos as it is
ol ioginos that iooct piinciplos ol soculaiization, individualization, and tho
sopaiation ol tho piivato and tho pullic. Altoi all, loi voiy long now, anti-
nodoinist piopositionsincluding, ciitically, positions that ioluso clains
nado on lohall ol tho soculaiappoai onnoshod with authoiitativo toins,
onduiing oppositions, ol nodoinity. Sinilaily, tho nogotiation and iooction
ol a doninant Wostoinnodoinwithinonactnont(s ol nonunontal histoiy
loai ciitical considoiation.
Honco, ny quostions: What aio tho challongos loloio ooits to appio-
hond tho Talilans oppositionto aWostoinnodoinpiocisoly thioughthoii
clains on an authentic tiadition and an authoritative Islanas intinating
tho contontions ol nodoinity, a contonding nodoin piooct? What night
tho Talilans ooits to ionako tho woild, alloit in a disunctivo likonoss ol
histoiical piogioss, cultuial hioiaichios, and a stiong nation, toll us alout
tho hoiizons ol nodoinity? How do tho Talilans distinction and conunc-
tion lotwoon tho past and tho piosontloth ongoing and vanishing, tho
ono puiilying and poilocting tho othoiand thoii linding ol oschatology
and piodiction in conguiing tho lutuio loai upon ioginos ol histoiicity
widoly undoistood as inauguiating nodoinity?
At stako hoio is nothing loss than concatonations ol distinct, cooval ton-
poialitios and ovoilapping, hotoiogonoous histoiios that vaiiously stiaddlo
and scianllo tho hioiaichios and oppositions ol nodoinity. Put dioiontly,
Introduction 737
tho toins ol nodoinity aio assiduously aiticulatod, lut thoy aio also contin-
gont and contiadictoiy, ovon out ol oint with thonsolvos.
Auguring Art
Il contonpoiaiy histoiy loais witnoss to tho quostions iaisod ly this spo-
cial issuo, tho ait appoaiing on tho covoi and in this intioduction intinatos
tho spiiit and hoiizons ol Enduiing Enchantnonts. Tho two woiks aio ly
Savi Sawaikai, an aitist lion India. Boin an untouchallo within tho hioiai-
chios ol casto, Savi is aigually tho ist aitist lion tho sulcontinont to cio-
ato a powoilul iconogiaphy ol a dalit (litoially, downtioddon inagination,
which is also tho iogistoi ol a iadical ait. Contial to this iconogiaphy and
inagination aio paiticulai iopiosontations ol histoiy and tho hoio and now.
Tho souicos aio ovoilapping yot vaiiod. Fion noving iocitals ol untouch-
allo pasts ly Savis unlottoiod patoinal giandnothoi, to ioutino iopioson-
tations ol oppiossod histoiios within dalit political ondoavois, to haunting
talos ol untouchallo pooplos lion dioiont iogions ol India, to Savis own
oxpoiioncos as an aitist, an activist, and a dalit in statist spacos and dis-
ciininatoiy placos. In oach caso, Savis woik soizos on thoso discuisivo and
oxpoiiontial iosouicos, sioving thon thiough tho loico ol an oxpiossionist
ait, to constiuo inagos and icons that aio contostatoiy yot conplox, stiong
yot sonsitivo.
Hoio distinct appiohonsions ol a nuiky woild woik in tan-
don with viliant uso ol coloi to conuio guios and loins ol intonso loico
and onoinous giavity.
Considoi tho oil on canvas Untouchable Couple with Om and Swastika, loa-
tuiod on tho covoi ol this spocial issuo. Tho lackgiound doploys a liight
yollow coloiappliod with quick, shoit, thick, swiiling liushstiokosas
ciacks and snudgos ol llack show thiough hoio. Against this lackgiound,
slightly o contoi, stand two daik, squat, loioloding guios. Thoii long
loot suppoit thick, logliko logs as wido as thoii tiunks, which inpoicoptilly
noigo with thoii hoads. Two daik dots loi pupils, thoii scioaning iod oyos
ioach out lion tho conposition, staiing at viowois, diawing thon into tho
canvas. Littlo dals ol iod also dono thoii stul nosos and snall nouths,
twistod with pain. Tho andiogynous guios oach caiiy a clay pot, hanging
lionthoii nocks, ono paintod with tho sign ol Onand tho othoi loaiing tho
synlol ol tho (Hindu Swastika, loth signiois ol tho saciod within hioi-
aichios ol Hinduisn. Tho allusion is to Biahnanical Poshwa iulo in wost-
738 Saurabh Dube
oin and contial India in tho sovontoonth and oightoonth contuiios, whon
allogodly untouchallos woio conpollod to caiiy clay pots to spit into so that
thoii saliva did not lall on tho giound, accidontally polluting an uppoi-casto
poison. Tho guio in liont also holds in his iight hand a stick with lolls,
dosignod to announco tho appioach ol untouchallos so that casto-Hindus
could novo away lion thoii inponding shadows.
How aio wo to undoistand this canvas? Doos it augui an ait and a poli-
tics that sololy point to hioiaichical woilds ol toiiilying onchantnonts,
untouchod ly tho Midas ol nodoinity? Do its ioloionts doiivo sinply lion
tho donain ol nyth, inly loliod ly tho discouiso ol histoiy? Untouchable
Couple with Omand Swastika is noio thananoxclusivo docunontationol tho
past and tho piosont, oxcooding noio inagos ol social oppiossion. Rathoi,
in tuno with Waltoi Bonanins advocacy that to aiticulato tho past and tho
piosont noans to soizo hold ol a nonoiy as it ashos up at a nonont
ol dangoi, tho woik usos tho loico ol nyth and tho powoi ol logond to
scianllo tho laiiiois lotwoon tiadition and nodoinity, sioving thoii aiti-
co thiough ciitical ltois.
It iogistois and doos ouphonisns and voiitios
owing lion tho constitutional alolition ol tho piactico ol untouchalility
in indopondont India. Hoio tho iovoaling toins ol a loicolul oxpiossionisn
woik on loinulaic assoitions ol dalit politics and tho disconsolato loio ol
untouchallo connunitiosiogaiding thoii lato undoi ioginos ol casto
tiansloining thoso into tho oxpoiiontial ioalisn ol sultoiianoan inagin-
ings. Thus, tho canvas casts tho untouchallo couplo as donsoly palpallo and
loicolully spoctial, haunting tho past and tho piosontliinging to nind
tho onchantnonts ol nodoinity. Tho hoavy clay pots with On and Swas-
tika hanging lion thoii nocks iovoal tho iuthloss luidon ol Hindu hioiai-
chios and nodoin histoiy, tho ono inliicatod in tho othoi. Tho silonco ol tho
untouchallo couplo ochoos tho stiidont lolls on tho accuisod stick and tho
hollow noiso ol tho hatolul pots. Tho silonco luists into a scioan, iosonant
with tho stiictuio, Wo woio thoio, thon. Wo aio hoio, now.
Tho oil on canvas Two Untouchables under the Black Sun luithoi olaloiatos
this ciitical inagination. On a lackgiound paintod in gold, two untouch-
allos appoai as spoctial silhouottos, donod ly stiong linos and dolt shad-
ows in unionitting llack coloi. Ono untouchallo stands, holding tho stick
with lolls in his iight hand. A clay pot loaiing a Swastika danglos lion his
nock, in liont ol his aldonon. Tho othoi sits on tho giound, a pot paintod
with On slung lohind hin. On his hoad, ho loais thioo signs, tho Hindu
Introduction 739
Savi Sawaikai, Two Untouchables under the Black Sun, (oil on canvas, oo in. o in. Ropio-
ducod couitosy ol tho aitist.
ag, tho Muslincioscont, and tho Chiistian cioss. Pooiing ovoi thoii shoul-
dois, thoso untouchallos glanco sidoways to tho lolt, thoii gazo sooking an
unknown hoiizon. Botwoon thoso guios, occupying nost ol tho uppoi con-
toi ol tho canvas, a laigo sun hangs hoavy, outlinod in thick, llunt, sciag-
gly llack, tho insido ol tho sun a nish-nash ol llack on gold. Alovo and
lolowtho sun, two stylizod ciows, scavonging liids, signs ol untouchalility,
alnost snakoliko, soon to spoak to tho two untouchallos.
Tho conposition alludos to tho uppoi-casto-sanctionod piactico ol tho
Mangs, an untouchallo casto, ol going out to log in villagos and towns dui-
ing suryagrahan, tho solai oclipso. Yot tho loico and tho inplications ol tho
iopiosontation oxtond nuch luithoi. Hoio aio saliont spiiits ol untouch-
alilitylion ciows that loai witnoss and oxtond solidaiity, to tho distinct
insignia ol tho lowost iitual status within tho casto oidoi, to tho innonso
intiactalility ol what constitutos tho ioligion ol untouchallos in liont ol
Hindu, Muslin, and Chiistianlaiths all naking clains onthoii souls. Thoso
tangillo appaiitions aio locatod at tho cusp ol tho past and tho piosont.
Togothoi thoy pioclain that tho sun is not llack duiing an oclipso alono.
740 Saurabh Dube
Rathoi, tho sun is ovoi oclipsod, loiovoi llack, thoioly giving tho lio to tho
phantasns ol piogioss that haunt ioginos ol nodoinitylioninpoiativos
ol idontity and dioionco, to stipulations ol stato and nation.
Savis woik doos noio than sinply intoiiogato loinations ol casto and
ioligion in India. Indood, tho ciitical inpoit ol thoso canvasosand Savis
iopiosontations ingonoialdoiivos lionthoii dispositions towaid toins ol
powoi and dotoininations ol dioionco. To lo suio, tho loico ol this ait iosts
on tho opposition lotwoon ioligious (and statist powoi and tho untouch-
allo (and gondoiod sulaltoin. At tho sano tino, piocisoly this opposition
nakos possillo docontoiod poitiayals ol powoi and dioionco. Foi iathoi
than occupying a singulai locus oi constituting an oxclusivo toiiain, powoi
appoais hoio as docisivoly pluial, loigod within authoiitativo giidsol casto
and gondoi, nationand stato, and nodoinity and histoiythat intoilock and
yot ionain out ol oint, tho ono oxtonding and oxcooding tho othoi. This
is to say that Savis ait tiacos tho oxpiossions and nodalitios ol powoi as
cooidinatod poitiaits yot liactuiod piolos, oocts and aocts loaiing tho
luidon ol tho spoctial sulaltoin and palpallo dioionco. It lollows that his
woik doos not announco tho ionanco ol iosistant idontitios and tho soduc-
tion ol tho autononous suloct, split apait lion powoi. Rathoi, guios ol
ciitical dioionco and sulaltoin connunity appoai hoio as inhaliting tho
intoisticos ol powoi, intinating its toins andinsinuating its linitsalioady
inhoiont, always onoigontas tho spannoi ol disciopancy insido tho woik
ol donination. Thus, tho inplications that I doiivo lionthis ait loi Endui-
ing Enchantnonts ontail inpoiativos ol thooiy and tho politics ol knowl-
odgo, lottoi oxpiossod as two sots ol indicativo quostions.
What is at stako in ciitically oxploiing toins ol powoi and doninant
knowlodgo(s without tuining thoso into totalizod toiiain? Aio attonpts to
pluializo powoiloi oxanplo, tho loico ol colonialisn and capitalisn, tho
stipulations ol glolalization and nodoinitynoio oxoicisos in onpiiical
and concoptual iononont ol thoso catogoiios? Altoinativoly, do thoy also
inply an ontological tuin, not only pointing to tho piollon ol what onti-
tios aio piosupposod ly thooiios and woildviows, lut also caiolully quos-
tioning thoso ontitios piosupposod ly oui typical ways ol sooing and doing
in tho nodoin woild
ciitically ongaging nowoi ciitical oithodoxios that
iondoi doninant catogoiios as dystopic totalitios?
What is tho placo ol tho
paiticulai, ol dotailsa notion ol Michol do Coitoau, acutoly onlodiod in
tho woik ol Savi Sawaikaiin uniavoling tho dotoininations ol powoi and
Introduction 741
Convoisoly, what distinctions ol noaning and powoi cono to tho loio
thiough tho olaloiation ol tiadition and connunity, tho local and tho sul-
altoin as oppositional catogoiios? Must such contonding catogoiios inhalit
tho locus ol uniocupoiatod paiticulais, as a piioii antidotos to authoiity, in
tho niiiois ol ciitical undoistandings?
Howaio wo to aiticulato tho donso
sonsuousnoss and tho acuto nix-ups ol social lilo, not only to quoiy cut-
and-diiod catogoiios and nodulai schonos ol oidoiing tho woild, lut also
to think thiough axionatic piooctions ol iosistant dioionco that alound
in tho hoio and now, chaiactoiizing scholaily appiohonsions and connon-
placo concoptions?
Actually, thoso quostions thonsolvos point towaid tho wido piosonco
ol onticing oppositions within tho concatonations ol nodoinity, quoiios
aiound which Enduiing Enchantnonts ist took shapo.
Modern Oppositions
Binaiy catogoiios cono in paiis, lut thoy also inply othoi oppositions. Foi
voiy long acuto dichotonios ol tiadition and nodoinity, nyth and histoiy,
tho nagical and tho nodoin, connunity and stato, onotion and ioason,
and East and Wost havo shapod authoiitativo appiohonsions ol tho past and
koy concoptions ol cultuios. Moio iocontly, ciitical scholaiship has onpha-
sizod that loigod within tho Enlightonnont idoa ol a univoisal histoiy
and olaloiatod in tho couiso ol tho ninotoonth contuiythoso antinonios
aio an aliding, aggiandizing iopiosontation ol tho Wost and its nodoinity.
Such intoiiogation has doiivod suppoit lionciitiquos ol a suloct-contoiod
ioason and a noaning-logislating iationality, challonging tho dualisns ol
Wostoin thought and post-Enlightonnont tiaditions. Fuithoi, a widoi anti-
ossontialist sonsilility has contostod tho loundational dichotonios ol nod-
oin disciplinos, quoiying tho ioications ol othoinoss in static nodols ol
dioiont cultuios and conlionting tho connonplaco ol piogioss in nodu-
lai loins ol univoisal histoiy.
Cloaily, tho ovoiiiding oppositions ol tiadi-
tion and nodoinity and East and Wostand tho antinonios thoy aninato
stand vaiiously discioditod today.
Yot, as wo havo soon, thoso oppositions continuo to loguilo and soduco.
Loading a chainod lilo in tho acadony and loyond, thoy inhalit consoiva-
tivo undoistandings, liloial concoptions, iadical visions, and nativist, piini-
tivist, and antinodoinist appiohonsions. This should not suipiiso us. Foi
thoso dichotonios aio not noioly distondod guios ol ovoiwiought inagin-
742 Saurabh Dube
ings, analytical aloiiations awaiting thoii inovitallo oxoicisnly nowknowl-
odgo(s. Rathoi, thoy havo always possossod poivasivo ontological dinon-
sions, onloddod in notivatod pioocts not sinply ol looking and iocoiding
lut ol iocoiding and ionaking tho woild,
nding luithoi oxpiossion in
tho challongos to thoso pioocts. This is also to say that tho antinonios ol an
acadonic piovonanco appoai as ovoi onnoshod withtho linaiios ol ovoiyday
Tho oppositions undoi discussion lio at tho hoait ol tho donso institution-
alization ol tho Wost as histoiy and nodoinity, acuto laliications ol iaco
and ioason within civilizing nissions and colonial cultuios, and aggian-
dizing lluopiints ol thiid woild nodoinization and statist dovolopnont.
Piosont at tho coio ol tho conplicitios lotwoon iopiosontations ol histoiy
and iusos ol piogioss, thoy shapo and sutuio nilitant agondas ol nilitaiist
nationalisn, lion tho nusculai poacokooping ol Gooigo Bush, to cololia-
tions ol tho Hindu and tho Islanic lonl in India and Pakistan, to tho
pointod nisogyny ol tho Talilan. At tho sano tino, thoso antinonios havo
loon contial to tho laliications ol tiadition and connunity ly colonizod
pooplos and contonpoiaiy sulaltoins, doning anticolonial nationalisns
and countoihogononic ondoavois. It lollows as woll that cuiiont ciitiquos ol
Euiocontiic inaginings, Wostoin iopiosontations, and a doninant nodoi-
nity olton iocast such dualitios, pioducing distinct iondoiings ol tiadition[
connunity and divoiso ioications ol colony[nodoinity.
Acknowlodging tho salionco ol thoso linaiios whilo iolusing to ioily thon
suggosts paiticulai oiiontations towaid laliications ol tiadition and chai-
actoiizations ol nodoinity. On tho ono hand, to iocognizo tho assiduous
pioduction ol tiaditions ly sulocts ol nodoinity is not to cast thosotia-
ditions and suloctsas sonohow oiionoous, laulty, insulstantial. Rathoi,
it is to acknowlodgo tho onoinous luidon ol such tiaditions in doninant
pioocts ol stato and nation and tho othical loico ol paiticulai clains on con-
nunity and tiadition. At tho sano tino, in oach caso, this adnission luithoi
ontails oxploiing howsigns ol stato cono to lio at tho hoait ol tiaditions and
connunitios, authoiitativo tiacos that connunitios and pooplos yot woik
on to ongondoi distinct noanings ol nation and nodoinity, tho unknown
and tho laniliai. On tho othoi hand, chaiactoiizing nodoinity[nodoinitios
as chockoiod and contingont pioocts ol noaning and nastoiy, as contia-
dictoiy and pluial piocossos ol histoiy and powoi, inplios noio than ust
assoitions to tho ooct that Latin Anoiican nodoinity is dioiont lion
Introduction 743
Euiopoan nodoinity, and loth aio thon dioiont lion, say, South Asian oi
East Asian nodoinity. Foi tho laloi ol iogistoiing tho contingoncy and plu-
iality ol nodoinity ciitically donands staying with tho nodalitios ol powoi
that inhoio in such dioionco, including within non-Wostoin loinations ol
stato and nation, connunity and nodoinity.
Tho task also ontails not tuin-
ing away lionlut iathoi quostioning caiolully tho piosonco ol authoiitativo
stipulations ol an oxclusivo, Wostoin nodoinity within tho contiadictions,
contontions, and concatonations ol ovoiy nodoin, all nodoinitios, pios-
oncos that aio nonotholoss sot to woik in distinct ways, yiolding oxpoctod
outconos and unoxpoctod consoquoncos. Modoinity as histoiy is intinatoly
lound to inagos ol nodoinity.
As tho unlalancod uxtapositions in its titlo indicato, this colloction doos
not pioposo a gonoial solution to tho oppositions lotwoon tiadition and
nodoinity, nyth and histoiy, connunity and stato, and East and Wost.
Indood, it oschows innanont ioadings that iolontlossly sook tho lounda-
tions ol thoso linaiios inEnlightonnont piinciplos and post-Enlightonnont
tiaditions only to oxoicizo lion inagination and undoistanding divoiso
hunan onoigios and onoinous histoiical passions that havo clainod thoso
oppositions and aninatod thoso antinonios. Rathoi, Enduiing Enchant-
nonts woiks towaid caiolully quoiying and othically aiticulating tiadition
and connunity, colonialisnand nodoinity, nonoiy and histoiy, tho socu-
lai and tho cosnopolitan, and tho sulaltoin and tho nationin viow ol tho
placo and tho poisistonco ol ovoiwiought oppositions in acadonic appio-
honsions and ovoiyday undoistandings.
Articulating Enchantments
All this suggosts spocic, ovoilapping dispositions to analytical catogoiios
and social woilds. Fiist, nodoinity and its stipulations do not appoai in
Enduiing Enchantnonts as noio olocts ol knowlodgo, out thoioawait-
ing discovoiy, conination, oi iolutation. Thoy intinato instoad conditions
ol knowing, ontitios and cooidinatos that shoio up tho woilds wo inhalit,
donanding ciitical aiticulation. Socond, in doliloiating tho authoiitativo
toins and tho poivasivo onchantnonts ol nodoinity, this spocial issuo doos
not sinply cast thoso as idoological aloiiations and nistakon piacticos.
In nocossaiily dioiont ways, it iocognizos iathoi thoii donso ontological
dinonsions, which sinultanoously nano and woik on tho woild in oidoi
744 Saurabh Dube
to ionako it. Thiid and nally, Enduiing Enchantnonts caiolully quos-
tions analytical catogoiios ol anacadonic piovonanco, liinging thonincon-
unction with tho quotidian conguiations ol thoso ontitios, tho donand-
ing toins ol ovoiyday woilds, not piiviloging tho ono oi tho othoi, vigilantly
uniavoling lothinviowol thoii ciitical aiticulation. Thoio is no sinplo unity
linding this issuo, sinco its ossays puisuo distinct quostions thiougha iango
ol disciplinaiy piocoduios, stylos ol wiiting, and ciitical poispoctivos. But
tho intoisocting dispositions outlinod in this intioduction coasolossly tia-
voiso thoso distinctions, naking loi unoxpoctod conunctions and unusual
Oponing oui considoiations, Saidiya Haitnan giapplos with tho spoctoi
ol slavoiya phantasnic past, alivo in tho piosontsioving nonoiy and
nouining, iononlianco and iodonption, iopiosontation and iodioss, his-
toiy and tho hoio and now thiough inaginativo and ciitical ltois. Hoi
ontiy and passago tiavoiso ioots touiisntouiist pioducts and oxcui-
sions goaiod loi Noith Anoiicans in soaich ol thoii iootscaiiying Hait-
nan to Elnina Castlo, Ghana, and La Maison do Esclavos, Goioo Island,
Sonogal, sitos onacting tho tangillo oiigins ol slavoiy, and lack to tho Unitod
Statos, scattoiod with tho liokon pionisos ol lioodon. Conlining sonsi-
tivo, othnogiaphic vignottos ol piacticos ol ioots touiisn with an ovoca-
tivo, pioling account ol iockoning with tho piosonco ol tho doad, hoi ossay
puts a quostion naik on soductions ol histoiical piogioss and pionisos ol
iodonptivo naiiativos in tho ioninisconco ol tho diaspoia and tho iocall
ol displaconont. Caiiying loiwaid hoi oailioi inquiiios into tho luidon
ol lioodon, Haitnan coasolossly quoiios tho onds to which tho ghost ol
slavoiy is conuiod up, othically iovoaling tho piodicanonts and possililitios
ol nouining, poignantly pointing towaid an onancipatoiy vision, a poton-
tial hoiizon, not pionisod on iocovoiy, lut on disontangling tho woik ol
nouining lion tho ovoiconing ol tho past.
Spoctois ol anothoi kind and iodonption ol a iolatod oidoi lointho sul-
oct and tho locus ol tho noxt ossay. Hoio Joan and John Conaio oxploio
tho onchantnonts ol capitallion tho stiiking soduction ol spoculation
and consunption, to tho appaiont oxoicisnol laloi and pioduction, to tho
experiential contiadiction at tho coio ol nooliloial capitalisn in its glolal
nanilostation, and its concioto, paiticulai nogotiations. In a stylo ol oth-
nogiaphy, witha sonsilility towaid histoiy ontiioly thoii own, tho Conaios
luild on thoii piioi insights into nillonnial capitalisn invostod with sal-
Introduction 745
vic loico to tiaco ciitical connoctions lotwoon tho hall-lilo ol Zonlios in
South Aliica and tho shadowy alion-nation ol tho oqually dononizod inni-
giants lion olsowhoio on tho continont. Togothoi, thoso piolotaiian paii-
ahs, doad and alivo, and thoii alion-nation, spoak ol a postcolonial nonont
conducing to a soisnic nutation in tho ontological experience ol woik, soll-
hood, gondoi, connunity, and placo, unnasking a phanton histoiy, a
local chaptoi in a glolal stoiy ol changing iolations ol laloi to capital, ol pio-
duction to consunption at tho loginning ol tho nillonniun. Yot such spoc-
tial laloi and its colloctivo dioad also do noio, pointing to sultoiianoan
woikings ol toiioi, ovon holding piagnatic possililitios as thoy loico a
iocognition ol tho scandal ol alion-nation, tho ciisis ol tho nation.
Phantasns ol convoision sustaining lantasios ol tho nation loin points
ol ontiy loi ny own ossay, which locusos on saliont iogistois ol ovangolical
ontanglononts, unconnon wiitings ol lowly Indian ovangolical woikois,
nativo catochists, in colonial India. Against tho giain ol doninant nai-
iativos ol convoision, aninatod ly spoctois ol tho soll-dotoinining actoi
and appaiitions ol a univoisal histoiy, oach an onchantnont ol nodoinity,
thoso wiitings lion tho oaily twontioth contuiy aio indicativo ol distinct
piocoduios ol voinaculai tianslation, intinating toins ol histoiy without
waiianty. Tho catochists sinultanoously thought thiough colonial vocalu-
laiios and voinaculai idions, staking nowoi clains on concoptual iusos ol
ioligion whilo woiking on catogoiical instalilitios ol politics, ciitically
acknowlodging tho iacial pioudico ol tho ocial and tho nissionaiy. Thoii
witnoss stiaddlod and sulvoitod distinctions that woio ciitical to tho Euio-
Anoiican ovangolist and tho Biitish adninistiatoi, also holding a niiioi
to tho inplicit toins ol ocial and nissionaiy piacticos. Socuiod ly tho
donso litoialisn ol thoii laith in tho Billo, tho catochists oncountois and
insciiptions ongondoiod a stiiking suiplus aiound distinctions lotwoon tho
spiiitual and tho tonpoial, ioligion and politics. In such uniavoling ol tho
ovoiyday lilo ol colonial powoi and ovangolical authoiity, sulaltoin sulocts
woikod on ciucial distinctions ol onpiio and ovangolisn, satuiatod with
doninanco, to (ioinstato such iopiosontations, whilo naking thon loai
unsanctionod and iocalcitiant noanings, aiticulating thoioly a voinaculai
and a colonial nodoinity.
Mutual ontailnonts ol univoisal catogoiios and paiticulai histoiios
luithoi cono alivo in tho two contiilutions that lollow, an ossay ly Michol-
Rolph Tiouillot and an intoiviowwith Diposh Chakialaity. In tuno with tho
746 Saurabh Dube
llond ol anthiopology and histoiy that his widoi woik iopiosonts, Tiouillot
quoiios onchantnonts ol nodoinity that ho calls Noith Atlantic univoi-
salspiosciiptivo, soductivo, ovon iiiosistillo woids and paiticulais that
piooct tho Noith Atlantic oxpoiionco on a univoisal scalo that thoy thon-
solvos holpod to cioatoalso iovoaling tho glinnois ol a dioiont, altoi-
nativo, Caiilloan nodoin. Conlionting tho poisistont, contonpoiaiy aiio-
ganco to ovoiplay tho uniquonoss ol oui tinos, his ossay uniavols piioi
planotaiy pattoins ol glolalization, stiotching lack vo hundiod yoaistho
ist nonont ol glolality, ontailing donso, intonso ows ol pooplos and
goods, capital and ciops, pioducing tiansloinod toins ol social consunp-
tion and cultuial piacticos, including novol hyliid guios. Hoio tho ooit
is not sinply towaid tho vulgaiization ol tho histoiical iocoid, consisting
also ol a laigoi thooiotical suspicion towaid nastoi woids that toll a pait ol
tho stoiy yot clain univoisal iolovanco. It lollows that Tiouillot cioativoly,
ciitically aiticulatos a koy woid, a nastoi toin, tho univoisal ol univoisals,
modernityongaging its hiddon visagos, its inoxtiicallo ontwinonont with
nodoinization, its incossant linding ol tino and spaco, and its inhoiont
ioquiionont ol hotoiologiosas ho oqually onvisions anothoi nodoin,
onloddod within tho Caiilloan histoiical oxpoiionco.
Diposh Chakialaity oois ovoilapping yot distinct considoiations ol tho
piosonco ol tho univoisal and tho placo ol tho paiticulai, ioocting on
quostions ol histoiy and nodoinity aiising lion his iocont Provincializ-
ing Europe, quostions that aio closoly lound to tho concoins ol this spocial
issuo. Rosponding to ny quoiios oxpiossod in an intoiviow conductod ovoi
onail, Chakialaity appioachos connunity as always[alioady liagnontod,
also disavowing, at loast loi hinsoll, tho iopiosontativo lunction ol histoiy,
ondoising instoad tho noio diuso idoa ol lilo-woilds, which ovoilap and
intinato dioiont ways ol loing in tho woild. Aiguing that intolloctuals at
onco inhalit and dony such dioiont ways ol loing in tho woild, including
thiough tochniquos ol histoiicisn, and claining that what nakos histoii-
cisn possillo is that which iosists histoiicisn, Chakialaity luilds on total-
izing and nontotalizing tondoncios ol thought. Fai lioniailing against uni-
voisals, ho nds that Euiopoan thought piovidos a linitod though ciitical
puichaso on tho lilo-piacticos thiough which wo woild tho woilds, oqually
onphasizing tho nood to think tho univoisals as pait ol innanont cii-
tiquos ol stiuctuios ol donination that piodicato thonsolvos on tho sano
univoisals. Chakialaity iogistois tho tianshistoiical piotonsions ol such
Introduction 747
univoisals sinco thoy piosont a paiticulai, and not univoisal, gonoalogy ol
thought, whilo ho iocognizos tho salionco ol tho tianslational piocossos,
piactical and thooiotical, thiough which such univoisals, concopts and piac-
ticos, ontoi othoi languagos and woilds, loing nado onos own within dil-
loiont, hotoiogonoous histoiios ol lolonging.
In tho tiacks ol univoisals and thoii containnonts, Ciaig Calhoun piolos
iocont piopositions on lohall ol cosnopolitanisn, an alluiing inago and
a palpallo piooction ol nodoinity. As a social and political thooiist con-
coinod with idoas and ontitiostho paiticulai and tho local, idontity and
solidaiity, nationalisn and nationall too oasily donigiatod and discaidod
today, Calhoun oxploios tho toins and linits ol actually oxisting cosnopol-
itanisn. Acknowlodging tho inpoitanco ol cosnopolitanisns challongo
to tho piosunption ol nationality as tho lasis loi citizonship that undoi-
giids tiaditional liloialisn, ho nonotholoss points towaid tho nood loi cos-
nopolitan donociacy to acquiio stiongoi accounts ol iopiosontation ol
pooplos, ol social solidaiity, and ol tho loination and tiansloination ol
social gioups. Indood, tho ossay iovoals how inpoiativos ol cosnopolitan
donociacy and calls ol cosnopolitans today onoigo intinatoly onnoshod
with oppositions and hioiaichios ol nodoinity, contonpoiaiy cosnopoli-
tanisn itsoll iootod in Enlightonnont iationalisn and its othical univoi-
salisn. Cautioning against tho olitisn ol cosnopolitan donociacy and tho
conplicitios ol piosont cosnopolitanisnwith glolal capital and consunoi-
ist othics, Calhoun looks towaid tho possilility ol cosnopolitanisn(s chal-
longing tho alandonnont ol glolalization to nooliloialisn and caiolully,
ciitically aiticulating locality, connunity, and tiaditionin shoit ioach-
ing loyond an attonuatod, solt cosnopolitanisn, tho viowol tho woild lion
tho lioquont yoi loungo.
A sinilai spiiit, ciitical yot constiuctivo, iosistant yot iocupoiativo, chai-
actoiizos Michaol Hoizlolds oxploiation ol tho coupling ol glolal dosigns
andlocal inoctions, tho connoctions lotwoonpaiticulai olito national dis-
couisos and authoiitativo Wostoin anthiopological nodols, loth constiuod
in tho wako ol onpiio. Extonding tho toins ol discussion ol tho iolation-
ship lotwoon colonial pioocts and anthiopological knowlodgo, Hoizlold
locusos on tho phononona ol ciypto-colonialisntho cuiious alchony
whoioly tho political indopondonco ol coitain countiios oxtiacts a hoavy
cost: tho institution ol aggiossivo national cultuios sulsoiviont to loioign
nodols, glolal cultuial hioiaichios. In tho ossay, sonothing ol a nidcaiooi
748 Saurabh Dube
stocktaking ly Hoizlold ol tho past and piosont ol anthiopology, ho diaws
on natoiials lion Giooco and Thailand, nindlul ol thoii paiallols and dil-
loioncos, novoi ioducing tho caso ol ciypto-colonios to anothoi instanco ol
anthiopological classication, luilding instalility into tho nodol lion tho
outsot, using taxonony to undo taxonony. On tho ono hand, tho conspicu-
ous alsonco ol nodoin Giooco and tho luitivo alsonco ol classical Giook
cultuio liontho thooiotical canon ol anthiopology indox tho assiduous lal-
iication ol an innaculato Wost, noially sogiogatod lion tho iost ol tho
woild. On tho othoi, tho nannoi in which ciypto-colonios such as Giooco
and Thailand hold a niiioi to Wostoin anthiopological nodols soivos as a
noans loi looking loyond onduiing dichotonios ol tho colonizoi and tho
colonizod, uniavoling hogononios and hioiaichios woll concoalod, noving
anthiopology to tho ciitiquo ol poisistont piotonsions ol social thooiy, iog-
istoiing othoi sulaltoinitios, othoi conguiations ol powoi.
Addiossing issuos ol tho goopolitics ol knowlodgo in distinct ways, Waltoi
Mignolo appioachos nodoinity as onacting a doullo iolo in dotoininations
ol discouiso and loinations ol powoi: pait ol a soiios ol authoiitativo antino-
nios, nodoinity oqually nanos and constitutos tho paiadign pioducing
and iopioducing thoso oppositions. Astutoly acknowlodging that onchant-
nonts andoppositions cioatodly tho soll-doning discouiso ol nodoinity
acquiio poivasivo ontological attiilutos, Mignolo oxploios tho continuitios
and changos inwhat ho dosciilos as tho nodoin[colonial woildliontho
Ronaissanco to tho Enlightonnont, lion tho altoinath ol tho loinoi to tho
wako ol tho lattoi. Spocically, ho discussos tho nannoi whoioly nodoin
oppositions cano to inhalit and (ionako tho woild in thoii singulai iooc-
tion altoi tho socond nodoinity ol tho Euiopoan Enlightonnont, all tho
whilo pointing to tho piioi piosonco ol tho discouisos and piacticos ol tho
ist nodoinity, gioundod in Ronaissanco tiansloinations and colonial
ondoavois in tho NowWoild. Mignolo nds in loidoi thinking oi loi-
doi gnosis noasuios ol disassonlling nodos ol knowlodgo and onlodi-
nonts ol powoi that ondlossly lind tho nodoin and tho colonial, a task that
also ioquiios constant vigilanco iogaiding tho conplicitios and donials ol
possillo opistonologios that aiticulato a doullo consciousnoss.
Tho toins nation and nationalism nd novol conguiations in tho two
ossays that lollow, which also piosont challongos to liloial thooiy and his-
toiical piactico. Aay Skaiia oxploios tho tonsion lotwoon liloial donaica-
tions ol tho nation and Gandhis constitution ol tho nation thiough a ioli-
Introduction 749
gious politics. Aiticulating tho laco-o lotwoon thoso two univoisals,
onactod on disunctivo iogistois ol nodoinity, Skaiia thinks thiough dis-
sonant stipulations ol stato and soculaiisn, nation and nationalisn, disci-
plino and violonco, kinship and liiondship, and inoquality and tiuth. At oach
stop, ho attonds to tho piovisos ol liloial nationalisn, whilo putting to
woik tho contiapuntal tonsion lotwoon Gandhis wiitings in Guaiati and
English that liings to light a soaiching ciitiquo ol loth liloialisn and con-
soivatisn. Skaiia discussos how liloial thought has constitutod tho nation
thiough tho logic ol soculai tianscondonco, whoio tho ovoiconing ol tho
local[locality loads to tho gonoiality ol tho nation. Mado up ol shaiod histoiy
and[oi cultuio, tho nation ioquiios and donands tho loyalty ol its inhali-
tants, sulocts, and citizons. This is to say that tho liloial nation cannot
allow loi alsoluto dioionco oi antagonisn within it, casting antagonists
as ovoi outsido its logitinato spaco. But in Gandhis noighloily national-
isn, Skaiia shows, tho noighlois shaiod nothing loss (oi noio than tho
kinship ol lilo. Indood, tho noighloi stood naikod ly an alsoluto dioi-
onco, which shaiod histoiy and[oi cultuio could not ovoicono. How, thon,
was tho connunity ol tho nation to lo cioatod in tho laco ol such also-
luto dioionco? Hoio Gandhi aiticulatod a iango ol concopts, iovoaling that
his piactico ol noighloily nationalisn dioiod doponding on tho kind ol
alsoluto dioionco addiossodtho oqual not with liiondship, tho suloi-
dinato with soivico, and tho doninant with civil disolodionco. Against tho
giain ol soculaiist pionisos and histoiicist piooctions, Skaiia avois that
tho antidisciplinaiy disciplino ol Gandhis ioligious politics inpaits to it
an oxtiaoidinaiy ovoiyday-noss with a univoisal scopo, ovading nodoin
disciplinaiy ioginos, soizing on lugitivo loins ol ovoiyday lilo, insoiting
Gandhi into oui political and concoptual hoiizons today.
Milind Wakankai oxploios tho aosthotic piooct ol Indian nationalisn,
its nonont ol ciiticisn, locusing on tho woik ol tho onoinously inuon-
tial Hindi ciitic, Ranchandia Shukla, who livod and wioto in lato-colonial
noith India. Aiguing against poivasivo appiohonsions ol litoiaiy ciitical
thought undoi colonial conditions niiod in an inpasso, stallod lotwoon
idoas doiivod lion Euiopoan nodoinity and catogoiios diawn lion non-
Wostoin tiadition, Wakankai tuins iathoi to a piagnatic histoiy ol ciiti-
cisn. Ahistoiy that attonds to tho inauguial quality ol ciiticisn, its nocos-
saiy activity ol passago thiough aninpasso, its unpiocodontod attiilutos, its
nownoss, its onduiing ciitiquo ol tho nodoin, all onactod undoi unnastoi-
750 Saurabh Dube
allo ciicunstancos donanding dicult choicos, tho institutional and his-
toiical iostiaints ol inpoiial India. Nono ol this inplios, howovoi, a stiaight-
loiwaid cololiation ol tho suloct ol ciiticisn. Instoad, Wakankai piovidos
us with an oloct losson in iigoious, iocupoiativo ioading. In constiuing a
ciitical, political ioading ol Shuklas wiitingono inpoitant clustoi ol
toxts in tho aichivo ol Indian nationalisnand its intoilacing with Hindu
nationalisn, Wakankai doos not sinply align Shukla with contonpoiaiy
political tionds, ioading instoad loi tho political in Shuklas woik itsoll,
ontoiing tho piotocols ol his thinking. Hoio thoio is no lacilo iosolu-
tion, no sinplo split lotwoon a colonial nodo ol poicoption, inagination,
and iopiosontation and a nationalist guiation ol aosthotics, othics, and
action. Tiacking tho tonsion lotwoon (Indian[Hindu[nationalist iosponsi-
lility and (colonial[Wostoin[sulaltoin wondoi in Shuklas koy coipus,
Wakankai othically iogistois tho nononts ol its oxcoss and thoii possilili-
tios, yot caiolully iovoals how this thought iotuins to a pioloundly lin-
itod connunity ol tho nationtho twin novos ol tho ossay unsottling oui
appiohonsions-as-usual ol histoiy and nodoinity, colony and nation.
How is placo pioducod as pait ol histoiical piactico, at tho ciitical coio
ol wido-ianging tiansloinations ol colony and nation? Bioaching tho quos-
tion, Sandia Gioono uniavols tho pasts ol tho townol Notsio insouth-contial
Togo, lionits piocolonial piolos to its postcolonial lacos. Fiontho signi-
canco ol Notsio and its sulsoquont doclino as an ocononic and iitual contoi
lotwoon tho ltoonth and ninotoonth contuiios that was linkod to Euiopoan
donands ol slavo tiado, to tho constiual ol Notsio as an onlodinont ol oii-
gins loading to tho soculaiization ol tho town and its ostallishnont as a
saliont iogional contoi, onloddod in tho intoiplay lotwoon colonial ovan-
golisn and othnic nationalisn, to tho puisuit ol Notsio in tho postcolony as
a sito loi tho laliication ol tho local, a scono onacting lallos ol iotuin, a
stago loi tho loiging ol distinct idontitios and tho iocall ol discioto pasts, tho
natoiials inGioonos ossay adnit ol no lacilo hioiaichy lotwoontho alstiact
and tho concioto, lotwoonspaco and placo. Rathoi, thoy iovoal tho poisistont
pioductions ol Notsio, as tiaco and sito, within shilting agondas ol iitual and
politics, tho continuitios and iuptuios ol histoiy and tho hoio and nowtho
conguiations ol colony, nation, and nodoinity soon thiough tho livos ol a
town callod Notsio.
Takon togothoi, in Enduiing Enchantnonts, tho onchantnonts that
onduio aio also onchantnonts to onduio, in oidoi to lottoi quoiy thoii
Introduction 751
shadow and sulstanco in tho past and tho piosont. Foi considoi tho iiony
and tho tiavosty il oui task noioly consistod ol donystilyingwhothoi
thiough tho iuso ol aggiandizing ioason oi tho oxpodiont ol tho ciitiquo
ol idoologytho onchantnonts ol nodoinity. Thoso onchantnonts consti-
tuto tho loinativo ontitios and koy cooidinatos ol oui woilds, which aio
noithoi woilds noi ontitios to piosciontly, pointodly disonchant. Rathoi,
thoso aio woilds to caiolully quostion and othically aiticulatowoilds ovon
to ioonchant.
I would liko to thank Konnoth Suiin loi gotting this spocial issuo staitod, Ciaig Calhoun,
Diposh Chakialaity, Joan and John Conaio, Sandia Gioono, Saidiya Haitnan, Michaol Hoiz-
lold, Waltoi Mignolo, Aay Skaiia, Michol-Rolph Tiouillot, and Milind Wakankai loi paiticipat-
ing in tho piooct, and, woll, loi nuch noio, Ishita Banoioo, Goinan Fianco, Ann Gold, and
David Loionzon loi thoii suppoit and connonts, Lauia Cailallido loi iosoaich assistanco, and
Tanni Biooks loi loing a pationt, suppoitivo oditoi.
Foi this ioason, too, I do not oxplicitly oxploio dioiont thooiios ol nodoinity in tho intio-
duction, outlining instoad ny undoistanding ol nodoinity and its onchantnonts, iaising
quostions aiound thoso catogoiios and ontitios, as pait ol discussions ol ciitical ovonts,
ioutino iopiosontations, and quotidian conguiations ol piosont histoiy.
z An I inplying that ovoiy donunciation ol tho Talilans actions was a catogoiical oiioi?
An I dolonding tho Talilan? I know ol nothing that tho Talilan did that I could ondoiso
oi suppoitthough this doos not noan that wo do not ciitically undoistand thoii actions
and loain lion what thoy oxpioss alout tho woildand tho soonoi wo stop tioating cato-
goiios (oi donunciations as noio nistakos tho lottoi. Boththoso points will soonlocono
I discuss tho Talilan and tho iosponsos to thoii actions ol oaily zoo in Sauialh Dulo,
Histoiical Idontity and Cultuial Dioionco: A Ciitical Noto, Economic and Political
Weekly o (zooz: ;;8.
q This is not to dony tho conplox pasts ol tho toin modern, whoso concoptual histoiy in
Wostoin Euiopo, loi oxanplo, Hans Uliich Gunliocht tiacos in intoiosting waysa his-
toiy that nakos cloai tho aiticulations ol tho nodoin with tho anciont, tho classical, and
tho ionantic. Rathoi, it is to stay longoi with tho nonont ol Gunliochts undoistanding
whon tho concopt modern yiolds to tho catogoiy modernity, whilo iocognizing that a puioly
intoinal account ol a concopt can olido its nultiplo hioiaichios, playod out on distinct
iogistois. Hans Uliich Gunliocht, A Histoiy ol tho Concopt Modoin, in Uliich Gun-
liocht, Making Sense in Life and Literature, tians. Glon Buins (Minnoapolis: Univoisity ol
Minnosota Pioss, z.
This poivasivo, notagoogiaphical piooction appoais olaloiatod in sovoial ways, lion
tho ovidontly aggiossivo to tho sooningly lonign, onloddod ol couiso in nodoiniza-
tion thooiy, yot also long lodgod within tho intoisticos ol Wostoin social and political
thought. Tho way all this night cono togothoi is ovidont in tho lollowing statonont ol
752 Saurabh Dube
Gunliocht: Fion oui poispoctivo at loast, nodoinization in tho undoidovolopod coun-
tiios is . . . taking placo sonowhoio lotwoon docolonization and oui own piosont. Tho
stagist piosunptions hoio aio not so lai apait liontho wido-ianging olisions ol authoii-
tativo accountsloi oxanplo, ly Giddons and Haloinasthat soo nodoinity as a soll-
gonoiatod, Euiopoan phonononon. As I discuss latoi, tho piooction also nds contia-
dictoiy aiticulations within discioto oxpiossions ol tiadition that quostion nodoinity ly
iovoising tho noial inpoit ol its constitutivo hioiaichios and oppositions. To considoi
tho onchantnonts ol nodoinity is to think thiough such oppositions, hioiaichios, and
olisions. Gunliocht, A Histoiy ol tho Concopt Modoin, o8, Anthony Giddons, Con-
sequences of Modernity (Stanloid: Stanloid Univoisity Pioss, o, and Juigon Haloi-
nas, The Philosophical Discourse of Modernity: Twelve Lectures, tians. Fiodoiick Lawionco
(Canliidgo: MIT Pioss, 8;. Soo also, Eniiquo Dussol, Euiocontiisnand Modoinity,
Boundary z (: o;o.
o Evonas piioi onchantnonts canappoai as anantidoto to a disonchantod nodoinity, so too
logics ol oxclusion and toins ol inclusion lind oach othoi within tho hioiaichios ol
nodoinity. Kooping this in viow, woiks that havo ospocially inuoncod ny own onphasos
hoio includo Uday Mohta, Liberalism and Empire: A Study in Nineteenth-Century British
Liberal Thought (Chicago: Univoisity ol Chicago Pioss, , DiposhChakialaity, Provin-
cializing Europe: Postcolonial Thought and Historical Dierence (Piincoton: Piincoton Uni-
voisity Pioss, zooo, and John Conaio and Joan Conaio, Ethnography and the Histori-
cal Imagination (Bouldoi, CO: Wostviow Pioss, z. Soo also, Michol-Rolph Tiouillot,
Anthiopology and tho Savago Slot: Tho Pootics and Politics ol Othoinoss, in Recapturing
Anthropology: Working in the Present, od. Richaid M. Fox (Santa Fo, NM: School ol Anoii-
can Rosoaich Pioss, , and Michaol Taussig, Shamanism, Colonialism, and the Wild
Man: A Study in Terror and Healing (Chicago: Univoisity ol Chicago Pioss, 8;.
; Hoio two classics aio Alain Giosiichaid, The Sultans Court: European Fantasies of the East,
tians. Liz Hoion (London: Voiso, 8, and, ol couiso, Edwaid Said, Orientalism (Now
Yoik: Panthoon, ;8.
8 Soo paiticulaily Talal Asad, Genealogies of Religion: Discipline and Reasons of Power in Chris-
tianity and Islam(Baltinoio: Tho Johns Hopkins Univoisity Pioss, . Soo also, Russoll
McCuthoon, Manufacturing Religion: The Discourse on Sui Generis Religion and the Politics
of Nostalgia (Now Yoik: Oxloid Univoisity Pioss, ;.
Soo, loi oxanplo, Potoi van doi Vooi and Haitnut Lohnann, ods., Nation and Religion:
Perspectives on Europe and Asia (Piincoton: Piincoton Univoisity Pioss, .
o Against tho giain ol what such assoitions insinuato iogaiding tho stipulations ol soculai-
ization in ovoiyday lilo, considoi tho inplications ol Vincont Ciapanzonos oxploiations
ol tho donso piosonco ol litoialisn in ioligion and tho law in tho Unitod Statos today.
Vincont Ciapanzono, Serving the Word: Literalism in America from the Pulpit to the Bench
(Now Yoik: Now Pioss, zooo.
Hoio tho quostion is not ust ono ol contonding intinations ol hotoiogonoous nodoini-
tios quostioning authoiitativo appiohonsions ol a singulai nodoinity, lut oqually that
ol considoiations ol nodoinity oxcooding sociological loinalisn and a piioii alstiac-
tion. Soo, loi oxanplo, Foinando Coionil, The Magical State: Nature, Money, and Moder-
nity in Venezuela (Chicago: Univoisity ol Chicago Pioss, ;, Donald Donhan, Marxist
Introduction 753
Modern: An Ethnographic History of the Ethiopian Revolution (Boikoloy: Univoisity ol Cali-
loinia Pioss, , Janos Foiguson, Expectations of Modernity: Myths and Meanings of
Urban Life on the Zambian Copperbelt (Boikoloy: Univoisity ol Caliloinia Pioss, ,
JoanConaioand JohnConaio, Intioduction, inModernity and Its Malcontents: Ritual
and Power Postcolonial Africa, ods. Joan Conaio and John Conaio (Chicago: Univoi-
sity ol Chicago Pioss, , xixiv, John Conaio and Joan Conaio, Of Revelation and
Revolution: The Dialectics of Modernity on a South African Frontier, vol. z (Chicago: Univoi-
sity ol Chicago Pioss, ;, Sauialh Dulo, Stitches on Time: Colonial Textures and Post-
colonial Tangles (Duihan: Duko Univoisity Pioss, loithconing, Potoi Rodold, Space in
the Tropics: From Convicts to Rockets in French Guiana (Boikoloy: Univoisity ol Caliloinia
Pioss, zooo, andLisa Rolol, Other Modernities: Gendered Yearnings inChina after Socialism
(Boikoloy: Univoisity ol Caliloinia Pioss, 8. Soo also, Aiun Appaduiai, Modernity at
Large: Cultural Dimensions of Globalization (Minnoapolis: Univoisity ol Minnosota Pioss,
o, Paul Gilioy, The Black Atlantic: Modernity and Double Consciousness (Canliidgo:
Haivaid Univoisity Pioss, , Haiiy Haiootunian, Overcome by Modernity: History, Cul-
ture, and Community in Interwar Japan (Piincoton: Piincoton Univoisity Pioss, zooo,
Aihwa Ong, Flexible Citizenship: The Cultural Logics of Transnationality (Duihan: Duko
Univoisity Pioss, , Chailos Piot, Remotely Global: Village Modernity in West Africa
(Chicago: Univoisity ol Chicago Pioss, , Gyan Piakash, Another Reason: Science and
the Imagination of Modern India (Piincoton: Piincoton Univoisity Pioss, , Michaol
Taussig, The Magic of the State (Now Yoik: Routlodgo, ;.
z To stato nattois in this way is not to loiocloso tho catogoiy ol tradition, lut to liing into
viowdistinct hoiizons loi caiolully considoiing tho possililitios ol tiadition as oxpiossod,
loi oxanplo, in Alasdaii MacIntyio, After Virtue (Notio Dano: Univoisity ol Notio Dano
Pioss, 8, and Stophon Watson, Tradition(s): Reguring Community and Virtue in Clas-
sical German Thought (Bloonington: Indiana Univoisity Pioss, ;.
I discuss thoso issuosin dialoguo with pait ol tho wido litoiatuio thoy havo spawnodin
Dulo, Stitches on Time, and Sauialh Dulo, Intioduction: Toins That Bind, in Sauialh
Dulo, od., Postcolonial Passages (Now Dolhi: Oxloid Univoisity Pioss, loithconing.
q I an suggosting that ciitical attiilutos ol nonunontal histoiy vaiiously lio at tho coio ol
what Thonas Hanson and Finn Stopputat havo iocontly classiod as thioo piactical lan-
guagos ol govoinanco and thioo synlolic languagos ol authoiity that aio paiticulaily
iolovant loi undoistanding tho stato. (Tho loinoi consist ol tho statos assoition ol toi-
iitoiial sovoioignty ly tho nonopolization ol violonco, gathoiing and contiol ol knowl-
odgo ol tho population, and dovolopnont and nanagonont ol tho national oconony.
Tho lattoi ontail tho institutionalization ol law and logal discouiso as tho authoiitativo
languago ol tho stato, tho natoiialization ol tho stato in soiios ol poinanont signs and
iituals, and tho nationalization ol tho toiiitoiy and tho institutions ol tho stato thiough
insciiption ol a histoiy and shaiod connunity on landscapos and cultuial connunity.
Cloaily, nonunontal histoiy aiticulatos tho institution ol tho nation as an inaginod
connunity, tho laloi ol anticolonial nationalist dioionco, and ovoiyday conguiations
ol stato and nation. Thonas Blon Hanson and Finn Stopputat, Intioduction: Statos ol
Inagination, in States of Imagination: Ethnographic Explorations of the Postcolonial State,
ods. Thonas Hanson and Finn Stopputat (Duihan: Duko Univoisity Pioss, zoo, ;,
754 Saurabh Dube
Bonodict Andoison, Imagined Communities: Reections on the Origin and Spread of Nation-
alism(London: Voiso, 8, Paitha Chattoioo, The Nation and Its Fragments: Colonial and
Postcolonial Histories (Piincoton: Piincoton Univoisity Pioss, , and Piakash, Another
My ioloionco is ospocially to tho disunctions lotwoon piophocy and piodiction, past and
piosont, and oschatological visions and soculai inaginings that, loi oxanplo, Roinhait
Kosollock considois ciitical to ioginos ol histoiicity undoi nodoinity. Roinhait Kosol-
lock, Futures Past: On the Semantics of Historical Time, tians. Koith Tiilo (Canliidgo: MIT
Pioss, 8, paiticulaily zo.
o This is not unliko tho nannoi in which Savis paintings, giaphics, and diawings con-
lino distinct aitistic inuoncoslion tho innodiacy ol vaiiotios ol oxpiossionisn, to
tho poot Ralindianath Tagoios ciitical diawings, to tho naiiativo novonont in Indian
ait that iovisitod quostions ol opic and nodoinitywhich ho thon sots to woik in a nan-
noi all his own. Foi discussions ol tho ait woilds and contoxts in which Savis woik took
shapo, soo Goota Kapui, When Was Modernism: Essays on Contemporary Cultural Practices
in India (Now Dolhi: Tulika, zooo, z8, and Aay Sinha, Envisioning tho Sovontios
and Eightios, in Contemporary Art in Baroda, od. Gulannohannod Shoikh (Now Dolhi:
Tulika, ;.
; Waltoi Bonanin, Illuminations: Essays and Reections, od. Hannah Aiondt, tians. Haiiy
Zohn (Now Yoik: Schockon, o, z.
8 StophonK. Whito, Sustaining Armation: The Strengths of Weak Ontology in Political Theory
(Piincoton: Piincoton Univoisity Pioss, zooo, q, a woik whoso inuonco should lo
ovidont in thoso pagos. Considoi too tho novo towaid a stiatogic piactico ol ciiticisn
in David Scott, Refashioning Futures: Criticism after Postcoloniality (Piincoton: Piincoton
Univoisity Pioss, , o, ;8.
I loiiow this notion lion John McGowan, Postmodernism and Its Critics (Ithaca: Coinoll
Univoisity Pioss, .
zo Michol do Coitoau, The Practice of Everyday Life, tians. Stovon Rondall (Boikoloy: Univoi-
sity ol Caliloinia Pioss, 8q, ix.
z Tho toin unrecuperated particulars also conos lion McGowan, Postmodernism and Its
zz I olaloiato issuos aiising lion thoso two sots ol quostions in Dulo, Stitches on Time.
z Tho litoiatuio hoio is vast, and I piovido a low(voiy low oxanplos liondioiont toiiains
ol scholaiship that havo inuoncod ny own thinking: Shahid Anin, Event Metaphor,
Memory: Chauri Chaura (Boikoloy: Univoisity ol Caliloinia Pioss, , Sholly
Eiiington, The Death of Authentic Primitive Art and Other Tales of Progress (Boikoloy: Uni-
voisity ol Caliloinia Pioss, 8, John Giay, Enlightenments Wake: Politics and Culture
at the Close of the Modern Age (Now Yoik: Routlodgo, , Johannos Falian, Out of Our
Minds: Reason and Madness in the Exploration of Central Africa (Boikoloy: Univoisity ol
Caliloinia Pioss, zooo, Richaid Roity, Contingency, Irony, Solidarity (Now Yoik: Can-
liidgo Univoisity Pioss, , Michol-Rolph Tiouillot, Silencing the Past: Power and the
Production of History (Boston: Boacon Pioss, . Considoi too tho woiks citod in notos
o and and Noinan Biown, Life against Death: The Psychoanalytical Meaning of History
(Middlotown, CT: Wosloyan Univoisity Pioss, .
Introduction 755
zq Asad, Genealogies of Religion, zo.
z Foi a discussion ol tho dicultios ol appiohonsions ol nodoinity as an ovoiaiching,
ovoiwholning, singulai Wostoin piooct ol contiol and donination and ol othoi undoi-
standings sinply stiossing tho inhoiont dioionco ol all nodoinitios, soo Sauialh Dulo,
Intioduction: Colonialisn, Modoinity, Colonial Modoinitios, in Ciitical Conunctions:
Foundations ol Colony and Foinations ol Modoinity, ods. Sauialh Dulo, Ishita Banoi-
oo Dulo, and Edgaido Landoi, a spocial issuo ol Nepantla: Views from South .z (zooz:
zo Foi dioiont oxpiossions ol such piocoduios, soo Whito, Sustaining Armation, Chakia-
laity, Provincializing Europe, and Willian Connolly, The Ethos of Pluralization (Minno-
apolis: Univoisity ol Minnosota Pioss, . Soo also tho intoiviow with Chakialaity in
this issuo, and Michaol Taussig, Defacement: Public Secrecy and the Labor of the Negative
(Stanloid: Stanloid Univoisity Pioss, .