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W. A. WEA.VER
ALl. COMMUNICATIONS SHOULD BE ACCOMPANIED BY CARBON COpy AND ADDRESSED TO
OFFICE: OF THE: CHIEF OF ORDNANCE
HFNeil/mp
?3'JJ 8
TO INSURE PROMPT ATI'ENTlON
IN REPLYING REFER TO:
___ NOo _
WASHINGTON. D. c.
A1TENTION OF
SPOTH 8 Octo,per 1945
.....
SUBJECT: Tra,nsmittal of Technical Data
TO: Commandant
Command &General Staff School
Fort Leavenworth, Kansas
1. Forwarded herewith are copies of Volume III (Bomb,s,
Artiller.y &Mortar Fire & Rockets) to be added to your
sent sets of Terminal Ballistic Data Which included Volume I
(Bombing), and Volume II (Artiller,yFire).
2. This volume includes additional data Which have
been accumulated on terminal ballistics, and revises and ex
pands in scope data already presented in the first two volumes
of the "Terminal Ballistic Data" series. The \revisions were
made in view of the new and more complete data which are now
available.
3. Additional copies will be supplied upon request.
FOR THE CHIEF oIi' ORDNANCE:
Incl
Booklet (5 copies)
Colonel, Ordnance Department /
Assistant
DECLASSIFIED

. " .' . "" ..'.
", I' ... .
,
....
. AI..L. COMMUNI.CATI.ONS SHOULD BE ACCOMPANI.ED BY CARBON COfY AND ADDRESSED TO
TOI.NSUREPROMPT ATTENTI.ON
I.N REPLYI.NG REFER TO:
___ NO. _
, OFFICE
WAR DEPARTMENT
OF THE CHIEF OF ORDNANCE
. WASHINGTON, D. C.
ATTENTI.ON OF
Sl1&1I<n: Tra,Dsmttalcfr.lhnlcal Data
':1'('h
eo..D<1:GtDer
a1i
titattS<llocl
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lIor'a:r 111'.'100_"') to be . to
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... ' . '".V61... .. d.ata ...
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(, oopt)
IESTftlC1EO
--------- ------------
TERMINAL BALLISTIC DATA
Volume III
Bombs, Artillery,
Mortar Fire & Rockets
"':"
-
--------
"PhCE 11= TNI CHII' IF aRDIlAIC,
e;
..,

September 1945
.
I NTRO DU CT ION
This volume reports additional data which have been accumulated
on terminal b:dlistics, and revises and expandsin scope data already pre-'
sented in the first two volumes of the "Te,rminal Ballistic Data" series. The
revisions were required'in view of the new and more complete data which
are now available. . .
Listed below are the portions of VolumesIancl II. which are super
seded. by this volume.
Superseded Material , Superseded. By
Volume I,Part 2 Volume III,Parts 2 and 3 .
Volume I,Part 3, Volume III, Part 1
,,.,
Pages 64 to 72 inclusive.
(Bomb patterns at Pages 73 to
115 inclusive, are not superseded.)
Volume II, Part 1,
Pages 1 to 29 inclusive.
{Vulnerability of German Tanks at Pages
31 to 52 inplusivehave no.t been
but will in the revision' of the
pocket-size booklet "Vulnerability Tests
ofGermanTanks pz Kw III,IV, arid VI"
dated 15 March 1944.
Vol'ume II, Part 3
Pages 126 to 139 inclusive.
(Shell fragment patterns at Pages 140 to
173 have notbeensllperseded.)
Volume III, Part 11
'Volume' III,; Part'S
Comlllents,suggestions as to changes, and data field .
experience in the use of this book are invited. Additions and revisions' will'
be made in ,the futllre as may be deemed necessary. . .
't' 4" .. f I ". / : "'\ , ",' ...
I __.III__ ..... ,
). '" ..
........



iii
PART 1--BOMB FRAGMENT DAMAGE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1. Tables of Fragment Damage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
2,. Damage Patterns : .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
3. Types of Damage , . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . 1
4. SaFety Limits. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
5. The Choice of Bombs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
GROUND BURSTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
6. The Required Bomb Density. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . 2
AIR BURSTS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
7. General ; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
8. The Optimum Height of Air Burst ' . . 3
PART !-BOMBING OF CONCRETE 0.............. 25
1. General .. '. 25 0" .'. .'0 0.0 0.0 0 . 0 00. o'
2. DeFormation, Rupture and Low Order Detonation. . . . . . . . . .. 25
3. EFFects of Detonation on Concrete. . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 25
4. Cratering in Concrete 25 0 '
5. Back Face EFFects-Scabbing 25 0 0 0
6. Rebound 26 0 0
7. Attack of a Vertical Wall. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 26
8. EFFect of Dirt Covering Upon Concrete ..... 26 0 0 0
9. EFFect of Underground Detonation .. . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. . . . . .. 26,
PART 3-EARTH PENETRATION AND CRATER
FORMATION BY BOMBS 32
1. General 32 o' 0 0 ','
2. Quality of the Soil 32 0
3. Shape of the Underground Trajectories. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 32
4. Time of Operation of Fuzes. . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 32
5. Volume of Material to Fill Craters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. 32
6. Bombing From Minimum Altitude. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... 33
7. Earth Shock EFFects of Underground Detonation. . . . . . . . . . . .. 33
8. UnderFooting of Columns and Stanchions. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. 33
9. Orientation of a Detonating Bomb ; .. : .. . . . . . .. 33
CONTENTS

VOLUME III-TERMINAL BALLiSTIC DATA
.. .... :: : : : : : : : pa;:
SECTION 1-BOMBS
.' - 2. DeFormation, Rupture and Detonation. . . . . . . . . .. 49
3. EFFects of Detonation on Armor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 49
4. Quality of Armor. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. 49
PART 5-BOMB FUZE FUNCTIONING ON THIN ROOFS 51
1. General. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 51
PART 6-BLAST.......................................... 53
1. General 0 53
2. Peak Pressure , .." . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. 53
3. Demolition of a Wall-Impulse. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 53
4. Radii and Areas of EFFectiveness '. . . .. 53
5. EFFects of Confineme,nt '. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 53'
6. Protecti,on From Blast 0,' ........ ; . . . 55
7. EFFect of the Type of Explosive " . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. 55
8. EFFect of Charge/Weight Ratio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 55
9. EFFect of Blast on Industrial Structures : . . . . . . . . .. 55
PART 7-LOW ALTITUDE BOMBING TRAJECTORIES; . .. 61
1. Dive Bombing Trajectories " 61
2. Bombing From Level Flight 61 0 '.
3.' Bombing From a Climb. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 61
!-ARTILLERY, MORTAR AND ROCKET FIRE
PART a-SHELL FRAGMENT DAMAGE . 64
1. Tables of Fragment Damage .... 0 64
2. Damage Patterns 64 0
3. Types of Damage ' " . 64
4. SaFety Limits . 64
GROUND BURSTS . 64
5. The Choice of Shell. . 64
6.
7. Types .
8. The

9. The Re
"'"'--"
The Required Shell Density . '65
AIR BURSTS . 65
66
.'''orr 65

..
. . . 66'
fl
iv E o
CONTENTS . ''?1 !'fb Page
120 .. '.. , ,., , ,..
1. General. " " ,
2. The Target. :,'
3. Aimed Fire
4. Area Fire
5. Impact Fire
6. Time Fire
, . 120
120
.120
120
121
; . . . . . . . . . . 121
7. Comparison of Ground Burst and Air Burst .. ' 121
8. Comparison of Aimed and Area Fire 121
PART10-RICOCHET TRAJECTORy 125 .
1. General 125
PART PENETRATION 134
1. General ' '.' . . . . . . . . . . . 134
2. Armor Penetration and Striking Velocity Curves'. . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
3. Charts., 134
4. Illustrative Examples. " 134
PART 12-ATTACK OF JAPANESE LOG AND/OR EARTH
FORTIFICATIONS 166
1. GeneraJ. . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
2. Bornbing of Log andlor Earth Fortifications. '.' 166
3. Artillery and Mortar Attack ' ," 166
4. Rocket Attack ; . . . . . . . .166
PART 13-ROCKET, DEMOLITION, 7.2 INCH, T37 .... .' .1 185'
1. Number of Effective Rounds Required For Reasonable Assurance
of Breaching Various TypesoF Obstacles to Permit Passage of
Medium Tank ' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 185
2. Accuracy....... . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 198
ILLUSTRATIONS
FRAGMENT DAMAGE FROM BOMBS
CASUALTIES J. vs. HEIGHT OF BURST h FT .
20 Ib Fragmentation Bomb, AN-M41or
lij: i.:
,\",; ;',' MJ
4.5 in. HE Rocket Shell,T22'
1il)
1. 0 Shielding
'.... '
. , ,.. , ,.
4. 10 Shielding , 18
100 Ib GP Bomb AN-M300r AN-M30A1
5 10 Shielding .' 19
. 260 Ib AN'-M81' (110j .
,0 Shielding. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 20
7. 10 Shielding " . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. 21
8. 30 Shielding. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 22
500 Ib GP Bomb, AN-M64 orAN-M64A1 .
9. 0 Shielding
10. 10 Shielding
; : . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . ..
;.
23
24
BOMBING OF CONCRETE
BOMB DAMAGE TO UNDERGROUND CONCRETE SLABS
11. General Purpose Bombs ..'. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
12. Semi-Armor Piercing and Armor Piercing Bombs. . . . . . . . . ..
30
31
ARMOR PENETRATION BY BOMBS
13. Armor Penetration of Various Bombs : .. .. .. 50
BLAST
14. Radii' of Demolition and Visible Damage.' '. 54
15. Dependence of Blast Pressure on the Orientation of the
SurFace on Which it is Measured ... : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... 55
16. Demolition of Buildings with Load Bearing Walls by Direct
Hits of Delay-Fuzed GP Bombs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 56
17. Peak Pressure vs. Distance For GP Bombs. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. 59
18. Peak Pressurevs. Distance for' SAP and AP Bombs ; .. 60
LOW LEVEL BOMBING TRAJECTORIES
19. Chart Showing Terms Used in Discussion. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. 62
20. Low Level Bombing Trajectories-Level, Dive and Climb
Bombing ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 63
SHELL FRAGMENT DAMAGE PATTERNS
Burst-Shell at Rest .......... . . . . . . 84
v
ILLUSTRATIONS
SHELL DENSITY REQUIRED IN AREA FIRE-GROUND BURSTS
ROCKETS
4.5 in. HE Rocket Shell, T22
25.Casualties.and PerForation of Vs in. Mild Steel. . . . . . . . . . . .. 78
GUNS
75 mm HE Shell, M48
26. Casualties... . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . 79
27. PerForation of Vs in. Mild Steel. .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
28. PerForation of Iii, in. Mild Steel. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
3 in. HE Shell, M42A1
90 mm HE Shell, M71
29. Casualties " . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 91
30. PerForation of l/
S
in.-Mild Steel. .. -' , . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 92
31. PerForation of 1,.4 in. Mild Steel. , . , . ; ... , . . . . . . . . . .. 93
155 mm HE Shell, M101 _
32. Casualties ,' , , . . .. 94
33. PerForation of Vsin. Mild Steel , ., ; .. 95
34. PerForation of 1,.4 in. Mild Steel. . ' " .. '" 96
HOWITZERS
75 mm HE Shell, M48
35. Casualties............................................ 97
PerForation of Vs in. Mild Steel " .. " ; . ; . . . . .. 98
37. PerForation oFl,.4 in. Mild Steel. : . . . . . 99
105 mm HE Shell, M1
38. Casualties " " ., , ., , .. 100
39. PerForation of Vs in. Mild Steel. ; . ' 101
40. PerForation of 1/
4
in. Mild Steel. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
..
155 mm HE Shell, M107
41. Casualties .. ; .. ' , '.' " . . ..; 1,03 .
42. PerForation of Vs in. Mild Steel . . . .
43. PerForation of 1,.4 in. Mild Steel. : :::( {Of
S
):)
SHELL REQUIRED IN AREA FIRE-AIR BURSTS
GUNS
, 3 in. HE Shell, M42A1
50. Casualties-'10 Foxhole.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
90 mm HE Shell, M71 '
51. Casualties-10 Foxhole - 114
HOWITZERS
75 mm HE M48
52. Casualties-10 Foxhole. ; ; ' " 115
105 mm HE'Shell, M1
53. Foxhole , 116
54. Casualties-10 Foxhole , .. . . . . . . . . 117
55. Casualties-30 Foxhole; , \ 118
155 mm HE Shell,'M1 07
56. Casualties-10 Foxhole. .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 119
ARMOR PENETRATION
57. Illustrative Example ., , , ., " .. " 135
58..30 cell Bullet, AP, M2-Homogeneous Plate ; 137
59..30 cal Bullet, AP, M2-Face Hardened Plate 138 '
60..50 cal Bullet, AP, M2-Homogeneous Plate " . 139
61 ..50 cal Bullet, AP, M2-Face Hardened Plate '" 140
62.20 mm Shot, AP-T, M75-Homogeneous Plate " .. " . 141
63. 20 mm Shot, AP-T; M75.-FaceHardened Plate........... 142
64. 20 mm Shot, AP-T, M95 (T9E5)-Homogeneous Plate .... , 143
fIIln Shot, AP-T, M95 (T9E5)-Face Hardened Plate. . .. 144
Shot, APC-T, M51B10rM51B2-Homogeneous Plate 145
APC-T, M51B1 or
g( Plate '.' , '.' '.' .. ' 146,
vi
ILLUSTRATIONS , IlLUSTRATIONS
. .""6'" Page

68. 37 mm Shot, APC.T, Plate .. .....
69. 37,mm Shot, APC.T, Hardened Plate
M1'01":::::::::::::
70. 37 mm Shot, AP.T, Plate.; 1
71. 37 mm Shot, AP.T, Hardened Plate 150
72. 40 mm Shot, AP.T,M81 or 151
73. 40 mm Shot, AP.T, M81 or M81 A 1-Face Hardened Plate. 152
74. 57 mm Shot, AP.T, M70-Homogeneous Plate 153
75. 57 mm Shot, AP.J, M70---,.Face Hardened Plate 154
76. 57 mm Projectile, APC-T, M86-Homogeneous Plate :155
77. 57 mm Projectile, APC.T, M86-Face Hardened Plate 156
78. 75 mm Projectile, APe.T, M610r M61 A 1-Homogeneous '
Plate ,' , , . 157
79.75 mm Projectile, APC-T, M610rM61A1-Face Hardened
Plate , .. .' , ',' .. , . ',' , . , 158
80. 3 in. and 76 mm Projectile, APC.T, M620r M62A1
Homogeneous P,ate .. , : , , 159
81. 3 in. and 76 mmProjectile, APC-T,M62 or M62A1-Face
, Hardened Plate. , , , .. , ',' , . . . .. 160
82. 3 in. and 76 mm Shot, M93 (T4E20) or T4E17-,
Homogeneous Plate ',' , , 161
83. 90 mm Projectile, APC.T, M82-Homogeneous Plate 162
84. '90 mm Projectile, APC-T, M82-Face Hardened Plate 163
85. 90 mmShot, AP-T, T33-Homogeneous Plate .. , 164
86. 90 mmShot, HVAP.T, T30E16-Homogeneous Plate 165
ATTACK OF JAPANESE LOG FORTIFICATIONS
PENETRATION INTO MEDIUM EARTH AND LOGS BY VARIOUS
WEAPONS
VERTICAL LOG FIRE
87. 90 mm Guns,M1A1, M2,M3; Shell, HE, M71;
MV 2 700 f/s '
3 in. M7; Shell, HE, M42A1; MY 2,800 f/s
76 mm Guns, M1 A 1, M1 A 1C, M1 A2; Shell, HE, M42A1;
MV 2,700 f/s' ..'
75 mm Gun,M3 or M6; Shell, HE, M48; MV 1,980 f/s
57 mm Gun, M1 orM1A1; Shell, HE, M303; MV 2,720 f/s
37 mm Gun,M30r M3A1; Shell, HE,M63; MV 2,600 f/s .. 167
88. 105 mm Howitzer, M2A1;,Shell, HE, M1;MV 1',550 f/s '
105 mm HOWitzer, M3; Shell, HE, M1, MV 1,020 f/s
75mm Howitzer, M1, M1 A1, M2, M3; Shell, HE, ,
M48; MV 1,250 f/s " " " . 168
) 4.5 in. Gun, M1; Shell, HE, M65 171
92. 155 mm Howitzer, M1; Shell, HE, M1 07 172
93. 8 in,. Howitzer, M1; Shell, HE, M106 173
94. 8 in. Gun, M1 orM2; Shell, HE, M1 03 174
95. 240 mm Howitzer, M1; Shell, HE, M11.4 175
HORIZONTAL LOG WALLS-HIGH-ANGLE FIRE
96. 75 mm Howitzer, Mt, M1A1, M2,M3; Shell, HE, M48 176
'97. 105 mm Howitzer,M2A1, M3; Shell, HE, M1 177
98. 81 mm Mortar, M1; Shell, HE, M56 178
99. 105 mm Mortar, T13; Shell, HE, T17. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. 179
100. 4.2 in. Chemical Mortar; Shell, HE, M3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 180
101. 155 mm Mortar, T25; Shell, HE, T26E1
102. 155 mm Gun, M1; Shell, HE, M101
4.5 in. Gun, M1; Shell, HE,M65
,103. 155 mm Howitzer, M1; Shell, HE, M1 07. '"
104. 8 in. Howitzer, M1; Shell, HE, M114
" 181
182
183
184
ROCKET, DEMOLITION, 7.2 INCH, T37
NUMBER OF ROUNDS REQUIRED FOR REASONABLE ASSURANCE
OF BREECHING VARIOUS TYPES OF OBSTACLES SUFFICIENTLY
FOR PASSAGE OF MEDIUM TANK
105. JoP Log Weills "
106. Jap Stump Walls :
107. jap Coral Walls "
108. Unmortared Belgium Block Walls .. ,
109. Unmortared Belgium Bloek Walls
110. Mortared Granite Block Beach Walls
C (Concrete Wall Gates)
r
ii
; "Concrete Sea Walls
(;;ihtly Wall.s
.' .( ,:1",;:. , -'-- ..,.: P;f I'y,' -
186
187
188
189
190
" .. ; . . . . . . . 191
" 192
, . 193
194
-
'1,1t41 Walls 195
11'5. Reinforced
Concrete , . , . . 196
116. Number of Rounds of to Fall in '
Target Area " " . "," 199
vii
TABLES QEC L\,''''' -'ill!"']__ . TABLES
FRAGMENT DAMAGE FROM BOMBS '. .tltD..F . '. Page
1. The Choice of Bombs for Fragment Effect ow 'P\ Itu e .
Bombing) ; . . . . 4
2. The Choice of Bombs for Fragment Effect (Alt. of Release
10,000 ft) 5
3. The Choice of Bombs for. Fragment Effect (Alt. ofRelease
20,0,00ft) 6
4. The Choice of Bombs for Fragment Effect (Alt. of Release
30,000 ft). . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
FRAGMENT DAMAGE TABLES
20 Ib Fragmentation Bqmb, AN-M41 or AN-M41 A 1
5. Casualties.: , .. . . .. .. . . .. .. . . .. .. .. .. . . . . . . . . .. . 8
6. Perforation of Vg in. Mild Steel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
90 IbFragmentation Bomb, M82 (T9)
, 7. Casualties " . . 9
8. Perforation of Vg in. Mild Steel.. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
9. Perforation of l/.t in. Mild Steel. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . 9
100 Ib GP Bomb
l
AN-M30 or AN-M30A1
10. Casualties ;....... . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 10
11. Perforation of Vg in. Mild Steel. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. 10
12. Perforation of l/.t in. Mild Steel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 10
260lb Fragmentation Bomb, AN-M81 (T10)
13. Casualties 11
14. Perforation of Vg in. Mild Steel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 11
15. Perforation of l/.t in. Mild Steel : . .. . . . . . .. 11
16. Perforation of V2 in. Mild Steel . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . .. 11
500 Ib GP Bomb, AN-M64 or AN-M64A1
17. Casualties .................. ;......................... 12
18. Perforation of Vg in. Mild Steel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 12
19. of l/.t Steel ..
. . of General Bombs on Concrete Slabs.. . .. . .. 27
24. Effects of Semi-Armor Piercing Bombs on Concrete Slabs. . .. 28
25. E'ffectsof Armor Piercing Bombs on Concrete Slabs. " . . . . .. 29
EARTH'PENETRATION AND CRATER FORMATION
26. GP Bombs 34, 35, 36,37, 38,39; 40, 41
27. SAP Bombs ',' ..42, 43, 44, 45
28. AP Bombs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 46
29a. Typical Penetration. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .... 47
29b. Estimated Crater Size and Shape . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 48
/ARMOR PENETRATION BY BOMBS
30. Armor Penetration-GP and SAP Bombs .... , . . . .. . . . . .. 49
BOMB FUZE FUNCTIONING ON THIN ROOFS .
31. of Roof Necessary to Cause Functioning of
Tail Fuzes '.' ;.' . .. . .. .. 52
BLAST
32. Radii and Areas .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 57
33. Corrective Factors for Various Explosives. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. 58
SHELL FRAGMENT DAMAGE
Hand Grenade, MK. II .
34. Casualties .. ; ;........ 68
35. Perforation of 1;8 in. Mild Steel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. 68
20 mm HE Shell, T16
36. Casualties , ;' .. .. 69
20 mm HEI Shell, M97 (T23)
.. ... .
37. Casualties ' ; .. . . . . . .. .. .. . . .. 69
75 mm HE Shell, M48
n J
20,pe.,lo,allo 01% 'n. M,ldSteel..... .'';; .. ,.&j J. ':1<.'.:. t'J. '.n.'.. 1:: ...;J.
Casualties..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . .. 70
BOMB DENSITY D PER SQUARE FT X 100 if' ;] U "" ( ..'
Perforation of Vgin. Mild Steel .. ; .: 0' ".,' 70
3 in. HE Shell, M42A1
21. Required in Area Bombing to Cause 50% Casualties. . . . . . . 13 ,,,
. Casualties. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 71
22. Required in Area Bombing to Cause Damage to 50% of
41. Perforation of Vg in. Mild Steel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . .. 71
Materiel Target Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 14
81 mm HE Shell, M43A1
o
viii
43. Perforation of lh in. Mild Steel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .
81 mm HE Shell, M56
44. Casualties... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 73
45. Perforation of Va in. Mild Steel. . . . . . . . .. 73
90 mm -HE Shell, M71
4 6 ~ Casualties ; ' : ":' 74
47. Perforationof Va in. Mild Steel '" .. 74
105 mm HE Shell, M1 - '
48. Casualties ; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 75
49. Perforation of Va in. Mild Steel. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . .. 75
105 mm HE Shell, M38A1
50. Casualties... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 76
51. Perforation of lh in. Mild Steel. ; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 76
4.5 in. HE Shell, M65
52. Casualties..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. 77
53. Perforation oFlh in. Mild Steel , 77
120 mm HE Shell, M73 '
54. Casualties..... . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 78
55. Perforation of Va in. Mild Steel. , 78
155 mm HE Shell, M107
56. Casualties..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 79
57. Perforation of Va in. Mild Steel ; : . . .. 79
8 in. HE Shell; M103
58. Casualties " . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 80
59. Perforation of Va in. Mild Steel. .. ;-. ;. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. 80
60. Perforation of 1;4 in. Mild Steel. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. 80
61. Perforation of V2 in. Mild Steel. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 80
240 mm HE Shell, M114
62. Casualties ......................... " .... '. . . . . . .. . . ... 81
63. Perforation of Va in. Mild Steel. .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. 81
64. Perforation of 1;4 in. MildSteel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
65. Perforation of 112 in. Mild Steel. ' , . . .. 81
4.5 in. HE Rocket Shell, T22
Nose Section
66. Casualties -:-: - ~ . ; . . . . . .. 82
67. Perforation of Va in. Mild Steel ~ ........ '" 82
Sidewall Section '
TABLES
lJ' Perforation ,of Va in. Mild Steel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
83
83
. Percentage Factor Table..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 86
ARTILLERY FIRE AGAINST ARTILLERY
71. Area Fire " . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . 122
72. Aimed Fire : .' 123,'124
RICOCHET TRAJECTORY
73. 75 mmHowitzer, M1, MtA1,M2, M3; Shell, HE; M48 126
74. 75 mm Gun, M1897 Series; Shell, HE,M48 126
75. 76 mm Gun, M1A1, M1A1C, M1A2; Shell, HE, M42At. 127
76. 90 mm Gun, M1, M1 A 1, M2, M3; Shell, HE, M71 127
77. 105 mm Howitzer, M2, M2A1, M4;Shell,HE, M1 ~ . 127
78. 4.5 in. Gun, M1; Shell, HE, M65 ' ; 128
79. 155 mm Howitzer, M1917 Series, M1918 Series;
Shell; HE, M1 02 " " .. ' 128
80. 155 mm HOWitzer, M1; Shell,HE, M107.; 129
81'. 155 mm Gun, M1917 Series, M1918 Series;
Shell, HE, Mt01 " 129
82. 155 mm Gun, M1, M1 A 1, M2; Shell, HE, M1 01 1-30
83. 8 in. Howitzer, M1; Shell; HE, M106 : 131
84. 8 in. Gun, M1 i Shell, HE, M1 03 132
85.8 in. Gun, M1; Shell, HE; M1 03 ' ~ : 132
86. 240 mm HOWitzer, M1; Shell, HE, M114 : 133
ARMOR PENETRATION
87. Armor-Piercing Ammunition Characteristics ..... . . . . . . . .. 136
88. Rounds Required to Breach Jap Log or Drum Type Pillboxes
ROCKET, DEMOLITION, 7.1 INCH,T37
to Allow Passage of Medium Tank 197
89. Rounds. Required to 1 ~ a r Minefields or Wire Entanglements
to Allow Passage of Medium Tank 197
Page 1
Volume III, Part 1
DAMAGE
PART suULII (THIS
1. TABLES OF FRAGMENT DAMAGE.
These tables give the number B of effective hits per square foot of target
area at a given distance r from the burst. The numbers B are averages for
different directions
l
fro:ql the burst. They are properly applied only to a
considerable number of bursts with random orientation of the bomb axis
relative to the target.
t. ,DAMAGE PATTERNS.
As distinguished from damage tables, the damage patterns represent
typical individual cases and vary with the remaining velocity of the bomb,
angle of fall, and the height of burst. Both damage tables and dam,age patterns
presuppose a graze or air burst with no shielding oj the target. The user of the
data given here must make due allowance for target shielding and the
penetration of the bomb into the ground hefore burst. The amount this
penetration will depend upon the remaining velocity, the angle of fall of
the bomb, the nature of the soil, and the bomb and the fuze. In the fragment
damage patterns, shadings of different types indicate regions of decreasing
density of hits. The regions distinguished are those where there is at least
one hit per 1, 4, 10, or 25 square feet of area. These units of area are under
stoop. as normal to the fragment trajectories. Unshaded regions entering near
the burst do not indicate that there are no effective hits in these regions, but
merely that the density of effective hits is less than that belonging to the
nearest shaded area.
The white centers of the fragment patterns are used to indicate the origin
of the polar system -above which the missile bursts. In general these areas suffer
the highest type of fragment damage as well as blast damage.
3.' TYPES. OF DAMAGE.
The _types of damage considered are and normal perforation
of mild steel of 7'S i.nch, 7i inch, and 72 inch thickness. s lilt wAs !t.aken
as caused pya with at 58 of energy. .
and not necessarIly death. Damage comprIsmg perforat eli m.t.ldi
steel is considered effective against airplanes on the groun .,
which there is perforation of 7i inch or 72 inch mild steel is effective against
trucks, light armored vehicles, railway rolling stock, and targets of similar
resistant nature.
64 TO 711. PAGES 73 TO 115 ARE NOT SUPERSEDED.)
4. SAFETY LIMITS.
The fragment damage tables are useful in determining the distance from
a burst at which a soldier stands a given chance of being wounded by a
fragment. Suppose, for example, that a soldier isrequired to take a 1-1,000
chance of being wounded by a fragment from a' 20 pound bomb. Suppose
that the soldier is in open terrain in such a position that a 2 square foot
area of his body is 'exposed to fragments coming directly from the bomb.
Accordingly, the number of casualty producing fragments, 'per square foot,.
to which the soldier is exposed is 1/1,000 X72 = 0.0005 and by Table 5
this fragment density occurs at a little more than 300 feet from the bomb.
Thus on the average the soldier should be at a distance at least somewhat
greater than300 feet from the bomb.
If account is to he taken of the most dangerqus directions from the bomb,
the average densities B oj effective jrqgments as given in the tables should be .
multiplied bya factor of about six and then used as in the above example.
In the case of a man in' an airplane wearing standard flyer's body armor,
a fragment capable of piercing the plane fuselage, the body armor, and then
wounding a man, would be capable of perforating approximately 7'S inch
mild steel. Safety limits relative to hits of this type may be found by using
the tables for perforations of 7'S inch mild steel in the manner indicated in,
the above example.
5. THE CHOICE OF BOMBS.
Tables 1, 2, 3, and 4
2
which follow this discussion will be found useful in
making a choice of bomb against unshielded targets according to the type
of fragment damage desired. At low or medium altitudes the 20 pound
Fragmentation Bomb, AN-M41 or AN-M41A1, is to be preferred against
personnel or when only light damage is desired. For low altitude bombing,
as noted in Table 1, the parachute on the 23 pound Fragmentation Bomb,
AN-M40 or AN-M40A1, greatly improves the effect of the
"'>li4,Bomb, AN-M41, which' except for having fins instead of a parachute is
P.
,(4i '.t"-' .. :" the A"N-M40, Bomb. When released fro, m high altitudes,' the 1,
" tation Bomb, AN-M41 or AN-M41Al, is reduced in
. :
t i ctions to side wall directions in the case of bombs.
2The ratios in 1,2 and 3 have been revised over those appearing in Volume I, Part 3,
to make an allowance of 2 in the angle of fall on account of the yaw of the bomb and
variation in the slope of the ground.
Page 2
power. The bombs should be used in accordance the type of damage
required consl1lting Tables 1, 2, 3, 4, 21 and 22.
The 90 pound Fragmentation Bomb, M82(T9), may be used in clusters
of six and when so used will be particularly effective, if the required damage
is at most equivalent to perforation of .%, inch mild steel. For heavier
damage, the 260 pound Fragmentation Bomb, AN-M81 (T10), or the 500
pound GP Bomb) AN-M64 or AN-M64Al, may be'used.
The altitudes of release given for bombs assume a true airspeed of
250 miles per hour.
GROUND BURSTS
6. THE REQUIRED BOMB DENSITY.
Let a target be given interms of square feet units of area 100 feet x 100 feet
(i.e. multiples of 100 feet x 100 feet). Let it be required to wound 50 percent
of the enemy personnel (4.5 square feet of area) on the area or to
damage 50 percent of matefiel target elements (2 square feet of area)
vulnerable to fragments of a given perforative type. Tables 21 and 22 give
the number D of bombs of a given type required per unit of area (100 feet
x 100 feet).
To obtain the desired effect it is necessary to distribute the bombs over
an area somewhat larger than the given target area. The fringe of additional
area around the given target area has a width W given in Tables 21 and 22.
This enlarged area should receive D bombs per unit of area.
Unless the edge of the target area is very well defined and of marked
importance it will usually be more' profitable confinethe D bombs per
unit area to the given target area A rather than use the enlarged area. In
such cases points within A at a distance at least W from the edge of A will
receive the desired fragment. effect.
The calculations are based on a random
3
distribution of bombs oVer the
enlarged area with an expected bomb density D. The manner ot achieving
this bomb distribution will depend on the C.E.P., the plane formation) and
the timing of the bomb releases and will not be discussed here) except to
remark that the total number of bombs which be dropped to obtain
the bomb density D on the enlarged area A) will considerably exceed D times
the number of units of area (100 feet x 100 feet) in A. This is due to the
errors in bombing.
Example. Let the target area be 500 feet x 1)000 feet and suppose it is
desired to wound 60 percent of enemy personnel on the area using 20 pound
fragmentation bombs released at an altitude of 20)000 feet. Suppose that
the terrain is flat and unshielded. '
3Any two bursts are independent in position.
Solution. The width W of the additional fringe of area is 65 feet according
t(j'Tabl.e 21. Thus the enlarged, area is 630 feet x 1,130 feet and contains
71 units of area. For each of these units 0.73 bombs are required in accord
ance with Table 21. When thepercent of" 'Y0llnded is to be 60 instead of 50,
a multiplicative factor of 1.32 is called for as given in Table 21. Thus the
number of bombs which should be distributed over the enlarged area is
0.73 x 71 x 1.32 = 69. The number to be dropped must be properly
increased to take account of probable errors in bombing.
In the case of enemy materiel each target is supposed divided into a number
of elements each 2 square feet in area and vulnerable to a hit of a given
perforative type) i.e., perforations of 78 inch, }i inch, or 72 inch mild steel.
The tables give the number D of bombs per unit area required to effectively
damage 50 percent of these target elements. For example, an enemy vehicle
may present eight of these target elements vulnerable to hits capable of
perforating 78 inch mild steel. If the bomb density isD per unit area as
given in Table 22) four of the eight target elements may be expected to be
effectively damaged. As in the case of casualties) the distribution of bombs
with the density D must be made over an area somewhat larger than the
given target area. The width W of this additional fringe of area. is given
in the tables.
If the percent p of target elements which it is desired to effectively damage
is not 50 percent, it is sufficient to multiply the bomb density given in
Table 22 by a factor F given in the same table to obtain the correct bomb
density D.
Shielding. The bomb densities D are calculated forHat unshielded terrain
and, in the case of personnel, for men who are standing. For prone men or
for terrain which is rolling or shielded) the .bomb densities should be multi
plied by appropriate factors. Estimates for some of the more important
cases are given following Tables 21 for casualties and Table 22 for materiel
targets.
Blast. Blast is effective against personnel in the open for relatively small
distances, in every case for distances considerably less tha,n those at which
a casualty is certain to becaused by fragments (see page 53).
AIR BURSTS
7. GENERAL.
Against personnel in medium foxholes or on rough terrain, or against
other moderately shielded targets, an air burst of the 500 pound GP bomb,
AN-M64 or AN-M64A1, orthe 260 pound Bomb, AN-M81
(T10), is recommended. A height of burst from 35 to 60 feet would be
effective, with the higher burst counteracting the greater shielding.
Released from an altitude of 15,000 feet or more, the 20 pound Frag
mentation Bomb, AN-M41 or AN-M41A1with impact type fuze, is dimin
ished in fragment damage not only from the effects illustrated in the damage
patterns (Vol. I, Part 3, pages 74 and 75), but also because the bomb
penetrates the soil to some extent before bursting. From these altitudes an
air burst of the 500 pound GP Bomb, AN-M64or AN-M64A1, or the
260 pound Fragmentation Bomb, AN-M81 (TID), will be highly effective.
8. THE OPTIMUM HEIGHT OF AIR BURSTS.
The optimum height of burst of a bomb depends upon the type of shield
ing of the targets to be attacked. In the complete absence of shielding,
both by the terrain and by other targets, and on open level' ground the
optimum heigp.t of burst is just off the ground; to raise the height of burst
still higher would cause a loss of effect approximately as follows:
Percent loss in targets
Height of burst effectively damaged
30 ft 5-15%
50 ft 25-50%
100 ft 90-80%
Types of shielding. Air bursts are recommended against men in foxholes
or open trenches and against personnel shielded by rough terrain. The type
of shielding labelled "10
0
foxholes" is believed to be commonly
encountered and will correspond to the shielding afforded men in foxholes
when the men are somewhat below the level of the ground,4 or to the shield
ing afforded prone men by rough terrain. The term "10
0
foxhole" 'arose
from its definition as a foxhole in which an occupant will on the average be
unharmed by fragments with an angle of fall less than 10 degrees.
Hastily dug in positions on level ground will correspond to "00 foxholes,"
as will trenches in which the heads of men are even with the ground.
The optimum heights of burst against personnel in the absence of dis
persion in the height of burst may be read from Figures 1 to 10.
5
From
these figures one reads the number of casualties against the height of
assummg that there is one man in each foxhole and that the foxholes ,are
ten feet apart. In those cases where a fuze for regulating the height of
burst is available and causes a known dispersion in the height of burst,
it is possible to use Figures 1 to 10 to determine the mean height to which
the burst should. be adjusted, as is done in the case of time fire with shell.
This mean optimum height in the case of dispersion is in general larger
than the optimum heights read from the figures.
4See illustration, page 3.
5The terminal velocities for which. these curves are drawn are based on a true air speed of
400 miles per hour. For the angles of fall indicated on Figures 1 to 10 the curves will not be
materially changed if the true air speed is reduced to as low as' 250 miles per hour.
Page 3
As the type of shielding runs from the weak zero degree shielding to the
strong 30 .degree shielding, the optimum heights of burst run approxi
mately.as follows: ,
Optimum height of burst
Bomb No disF;>ersion
20 Ib BombAN-M41 or AN-M41 A 1 20 ft-30 ft
90 Ib Bomb M82 (19) 30 ft-50 ft
100 Ib Bomb AN-M30 or AN-M30A1 30 ft-50 ft
260 Ib Bomb AN-M81 (110) 35 ft- 70ft
500 Ib Bomb AN-M64 or AN-M64A1 30 ft-60 ft
This optimum height is greater the greater the shielding. In the case of
heavy shielding, the low angles of fall (around 45 degrees) are superior to
the high angles of fall (around 75 degrees). For average shielding the angles
offall (45 degrees-75 degrees) do not affect the result to any considerable
degree. Computations show that a tail initiation of the burst would more
than double the in the case of low shielding and high angle of fall.
tIl\'
--
. . ';:.:
II 00 FOXHOLEI'

-=-_-::_-. -'


u 10' FOXHOLE"


"30' FOXHOLE U
TABLE 1
LOW ALTITUDE BOMBING
The choice of bombs For Fragment effect For low altitude bombing may be made with the aid of the
Following table giving the ratio of the number of. effective hits For the two .sets of bombs listed at the
leFt. The number of bombs compared in eath case are those which can be carried in the same station
in the bomb bay. .
Bombs Compared
.
Casualties l/
S
in. Mild Steel
PerF.
14 in. Mild Steel
PerF.
1/
2
in. Mild Steel
PerF.
Six 20 Ib bombs*
One 100.Ib bomb
1.83 2.38 0.94
Six 20 Ib bombs*
One 260 Ib bomb
1.03
. ~
0.96 0.52
One 100 Ib bomb
One 260 Ib bomb
0.56 0.40 0.55
Twenty 20 Ib bombs*
1.05
.
1.07 0.69
Six 90 Ib bombs
Twenty 20 Ib bombs*
1.91 2.05 1.12
One 500 Ib bomb
Six 90 Ib bombs
One 500 Ib bomb
1.81 1.92 1.45 0.28
Two 100 Ib bombs
One 500 Ib bomb
0.79 0.65 0.67
Two 260 Ib bombs
One 500 Ib bomb
1.42 1.61 1.21
"
0.85
20 Ib Fragmentation Bomb, AN-M41 or AN-M41 A 1i TNT Loading.
90 Ib Fragmentation Bomb, M82 (T9), RDX Comp B Loading.
100 Ib GP Bomb, AN-M30 or AN-M30A1, Amatol Loading.
260 Ib Fragmentation Bomb, AN-M81 (T10), RDX Comp B Loading.
500 Ib GP Bomb, AN-M64 or AN-M64A1, Amatol'Loading.
A Fragment with at least 58 Ft-Ib of energy is considered as "causing
U
a casualty. Other measures
of damage are normal perForations of mild steel at various thicknesses.
The above table applies in the strict sense to attacks on unshielded targets Yf,ith ground bursts
and with relatively low altitudes of 'release. .
*Replacing the 20 Ib fragmentation bomb, AN-M41, by the 23 Ib fragmentation bomb, AN-M40, with parachute greatly increases the
value of this fragment bomb released at low altitudes. '
TABLE 2
ALTITUDE OF BOMB RELEASE, 10,000 FT
The choice of bombs For Fragment effect may be made with the aid of the Following table giving the
ratio of the number of effective hits For the two sets of bombs listed at the leFt. The number of bombs
compared in each case are those which can be carried in the same station in the bomb bay.
Bombs Compared Casualties Vs in. Mild Steel
PerF.
lit in. Mild Steel
PerF.
V2 in. Mild Steel
PerF.
Six 20 Ib bombs
One 100 Ib bomb
3.00 2.48
Six 20 Ib bombs
One 260 Ib bomb
1.41 0.88
One 100 Ib bomb
One 260 Ib bomb
0.47 0.35 0.49
Twenty 20 Ib bombs
1.05 0.81
Six 90 Ib bombs
Twenty 20 Ib bombs
2.88 2.13
One 500 Ib bomb
Six 90 Ib bombs
One 500 Ib bomb
2.74 2.64 1.80
Two 100 Ib bombs
One 500 Ib bomb
0.78 0.66 0.68
-
Two 260 Ib bombs
One500 Ib bomb
1.65 1.87 1.39 0.98
20 Ib Fragmentation Bomb, AN-M41 or AN-M41 A 1, TNT Loading.
90 Ib Fragmentation ~ o m b , M82 (T9), RDX Comp B Loading.
100 Ib GP Bomb, AN-M30 or AN-M30A1, Amatol Loading.
260 Ib Fragmentation Bomb, AN-M81 (T10), RDX Comp B Loading.
500 Ib GP Bomb, AN-M64 or AN-M64A1, AmatolLoading.
A Fragment with at least 58 Ft-Ib of energy is considered as "causing" a casualty. Other measures
of d a m a g ~ are normal perForations of mild steel at various thicknesses. .
I
The above table applies in the strict sense to attacks on unshielded targets with ground bursts.
TABLE 3
ALTITUDE OF BOMB RELEASE, 20,000 FT
The choice of bombs for fragment effect may be made with the aid of the following table'giving'the
ratio of the number of effective hits for the first two sets of bombs listed at the left.. The number of bombs
compared in eac'h case are tho,se which can be carried in the same station in the bomb bay.
Bombs Compared Casualties 1;8 in. Mild Steel
Perf.
1,4 in. Mild Steel
Perf.
1/
2
in. Mild Steel
Perf.
Six 20 Ib bombs
One 100 Ib bomb
1.67 1.19
Six 20 Ib bombs
One 260 Ib bomb
0.68 0.40
One 100 Ib bomb
One 260 Ib bomb
0.41 0.33 0.47
Twenty 20 Ib bombs )
Six 90 Ib bombs
0.79 0.66
Twenty 20 Ib bombs
One 500 Ib bomb
1.86 1.38
Six 90 Ib bombs
One 500 Ib bomb
1-
2.34 2.09 1.32
Two 100 Ib bombs
One 500 Ib bomb
-
0.85 0.71 0.74
Two 260 Ib bombs
One 500 Ib bomb
2.09 2.14 1.58 1.13
20 Ib Fragmentation Bomb, AN-M41 or AN-M41 A 1, TNT Loading.
90 Ib Fragmentation Bomb, M82 (T9), RDX Comp B Loading.
100 Ib GP Bomb, AN-M30 or AN-M30A1, Amatol Loading.
260 Ib Fragmentation Bomb, AN-M81 (T10), RDX Comp B Loading.
500 Ib GP Bomb, AN-M64 or AN-M64A1, Amatol Loading.
A fragment with at least 58 ft-Ib of energy is considered as "causing" a casualty. Other measures
of damage are normal perforations of mild steel at various thicknesses.
The above table app'lies in the strict sense to attacks on unshielded targets with ground b u ~ s t s .
TABLE 4
ALTITUDE OF BOMB RELEASE, 30,000 FT
The choice of bombs For Fragment effect may be made with the aid of the table giving the
ratio of the number of effective hits For the two sets of bombs listed at the leFt. The number of bombs
compared in each case are which can be carried in the same station in the bomb bay.
Bombs Compared Casualties lfa in. Mild Steel
PerF.
1/.i in. Mild Steel
PerF.
lf2 in. Mild Steel
PerF.
Six 20 Ibbombs
One 100 Ib bomb
1.05 0.79
Six 20 Ib bombs
One 260 Ib bomb
0.51 0.35
One 100 Ib bomb
One 260 Ib bomb
0.48 0.44 0;61
Twenty 20 Ib bombs
1.08 0.65
, Six 90 Ibbombs
Twenty 20 Ib bombs
1.46 0.99
One 500 Ib bomb
Six 90 Ib bombs
..
One 500 Ib bomb
1.36 1.51 0.98
Two 100 Ib bombs
One 500 Ib bomb
0.93 0.75 0.78
Two 260 Ib bombs
One 500 Ib bomb
1.91 1.70 1.27 0.91
20 Ib Fragmentation Bomb, AN-M41 or AN-M41A1, TNT loading.
90 Ib Fragmentation Bomb, M82 (T9), RDX Comp B loading.
100 Ib GP Bomb, AN-M30 or AN-M30A1, Amatol loading.
260 Ib Fragmentation Bomb, AN-M81 (T10), RDX Comp B loading.
500 IbGP Bomb, AN-M64 or AN-M64A1, Amatol loading.
A Fragment with at least 58 ft;lb of energy is considered as "causing
U
a casualty. Other measures
of damage are normal perforations of mild steel at various thicknesses.
The above table applies in the strict sense to attacks on unshielded targets with ground bursts.
......
i
Page 8
20 LB FRAGMENTATION, BOMB, AN-M41 OR AN-M41Al
TNT Loading
I ~ I T I A L FRAGMENT VELOCITY 2,810 F/S
TABLE 5 TABLE 6
CASUALTIES PERFORATION OF Va IN. MILD STEEL
Distance Total number
Average
number of
For the lightest
effective fragment
from burst
(ft)
of effective
fragments
effective frag
ments per sq ft
Weight.
(oz)
Velocity
(f/s)
r N B m v
20 1,180 0.386 0.0075 2,810
30 1,090 0.158 0.011 2,320
40 1,000 0.0817 0.016 1,930
60 952 0.0345 0.028 1,460
80 895 0.0183 0.042 1,190
100 829 0.0108 0.055 1,040
150 677 0.0039 0.085 836
I
200 576 0.0019 0.111 731
300 377 0.0006 0.170 591
400 202
I
0.0002 0.243 502
Distance
from burst
(ft)
Total number
of effective
fragments
Average -I
number of
effective frag
ments per sq ft
For the lightest
effective fragment
Weight Velocity
(oz) (f/s)
r
-
N B m v
20 930 0.304 - 0.032 2,810
30 875 0.127 0.045 2,470
40 799 0.0652 0.060 2,230
60 617 0.0224 0.102 1,880
80 399 0.0081 0.161 1,660
100 229 0.0030 0.230 1,470
120 106 0.0010 0.308 1,340
140 31 , 0.0002 0.397 1,240
160 10 0.0001 0.493 1,170
Page 9
90 LB FRAGMENTATION. BOMB, M82 (T9)
RDX Comp B Loading
INITIAL FRAGMENT VELOCITY 3,100 F/S
TABLE 7
CASUALTIES
Distance Total number
from burst of effective
(Ft) Fragments
r N
40 4,520
50 4,240
60 3,980
80 3,490
100 2,880
150 2,000
200 1,770
300 1,400
400 1,040
600 646
800 413
For the lightest
Average
effective fragment
I number of
------._---
I
Weight
I
Velocity
ments per sq ft I (oz)
I effective lrag.
(f/s)
I B m v
I
0.369 0.014 2,060
0.221 0.019 1,770
0.144 0.024 1,575
0.0112
0.0376
I
0.036
0.050
1,280
1,090
I
0.0116 0.080 862
0.0058 0.105 753
0.0020 0.160 610
0.0009 0 . 2 ~ 0 509
0.0002 0.405 383
0.0001 0.632 307
TABLE 8
PERFORATION OF Ya IN. MILD STEEL
Distance Total number
from burst of effective
(ft) Fragments
r N
20 3,980
30 3,510
40 3,010
60 1,980
80 1,620
100 1,2'90
120 975
140 760
170 580
200 435
300 149
Average
number of
effective frag
ments per sq Ft
ii}
B
1.30
0.510
0.245
0.0716
0.0331
0.0168
0.0088
0-.0051
0.0026
0.0014
0.0002
For the lightest
effective Fragment
Weight
(oz)
Velocity
O/s)
m v
0.024 3,100
0.034 2,720
0.048 2,410
0.082 2,010
0.125 1,790
0.180 1,590
0.250 1,430
0.330 1,310
0.465 1,190
0.605 1,100
1.12 952
TABLE 9
PERFORATION OF ~ IN. MILD STEEL
r N B m v
20
30
40
60
80
100
120
140
170
200
1,220
1,040
896
681
540
395
285
193
83
18
0.398
0.151
0.0731
0.0247
0.0110
0.0052
0.0026
0.0013
. 0.0004
0.0001
0.192
0.230
0.275
0.380
0.500
0.650
0.815
0.992
1.36
1.74
3,100
2,900
2,720
2,420
2,200
2,020
1,870
1,750
1,610
.1,490
Page 10
100 LB GP' ORANM30Al
Amatol Loading
INITIAL FRAGMENT VELOCITY 7,320 F/S
TABLE 11
TABLE 10
CASUALTIES
PERFORATION OF 'Va IN. MILD STEEL
For the lightest
Distance Total number
Average
number of
For the lightest
effective fragment
from burst
(ft)
of effective ,
fragments
effective frag
ments per sq ft
Weight

Velocity
(f/s)
r N B m v
70 4,286 0.114 0.009 2,570
,80 3,943 0.0804 , 0.011 2,320
100 3,310 0.0432 0.017 1,8'70
120 3,040 0.0276 0.024 1,570
140 2,730 p.0182 0.033 1,340
170 2,300 0.0104 0.047 1,130
200 1,880 0.0061 0.062 980
300 1,080 0.0016 0.107 746
500 519 0.0003 0.214 531
700 2,32 0.0001 0.357 411
Distance
from burst
(ft)
Total number
of effective
fragments
Average
number of
effective frag
ments per sq ft
r N B
40 4,120 0.336
50 3,480 0.182
60 3,330 0.121
80 3,040 0.0620
100 2,620 0.0342
120 2,150 0.0195
140 1,670 0.0111
170 1,090 0.0049
200 758 0.0025
400 58 0.0001
effective fragment
I
Weight
(o%)
m
0.009
0.012
0.016
0.024
0.037
0.052
0.071
0.105
0.150
0.68
Velocity
(f/s)
v
4,350
4,060
3,670
3,100
2,650
2,350 .
2,110
1,870
1,700
1,070
TABLE 12
PERFORATION OFY4 IN. MILD STEEL
r N
B m v
20
30
40
60
80
1,00
120
140
170
200
300
3,070
2,830
2,560
1,950
1,370
990
758'
594
393
239
55
1.00
0,411
0.209
0.0707
0.0279
0.0129
0.0069
0.0040
0.0018
0.0008
0.0001
0.022
0.029
0.039
0.060
.0.086
0.115.
0.1.50
0.191
0.265
0.352
0.750
7,320
6,390
5,660
4,760
4,140
3,780
3,470
3,110
2,760
2,490
1,930
Page 11
26Q LB FRAGMENTATION BOfJIB, 'AN-M81 (nO)
RDX Comp B Loading
3,410 F/5
TABLE 13 TABLE 14
CASUALTIES PERFORATIONOF,Vs IN. MILD STEEL
Distance Total number
Average
number of
For the lightest
effective Fragment
From burst
(Ft)
of eFFective
Fragments

ments per sq Ft
Weight
(0%)
Velocity
(F/s)
r N B m v
40 6,620 0.540 0.012 2,230
50 6,490 0.339 0.016 1,930
60 .6,300 0.228 0.021 1,680
80 5,910 0.120 0.033 1,340
100 5,450 0.0711 0.047 1,130
150 4,540 0.,0263 0.076 886
200 3,990 0.0130 0.101 768
300 3,230 0.0047 0.157 616
500 2,190 0.0011 0.301 444
700 1,620 0.0004 0.492 348
1,000 1,090 0;0001 0.887 259
Distance Total number
Average
number of
For the lightest
effective Fragment
From burst
(Ft)
of effective
Fragments
effective Frag
ments per sq Ft
Weight
(0%)
Velocity
(F/s)
r N B m v
,20 6,330 2.070 0.020 3,410
30 6,070 0.880 0.029 2,880
40 5,680 ,0.463 0.040
I
2,570
60 4,8,30 0.175 0.066 2,160
80 4,010 0.0817 Q.100. 1,890
100 3,330 0.0434 0.149 1,710
150 2,170 0.0126 0.307 1,340
200 1,580 0.0052 0.513 1,160
300 999 0.0014 0.994 967
400 587 0.0005 1.55 863
600 170 0.0001 ' '2.85 742
TABLE 15 TABLE 16
PERFORATION OF lA, IN. MILD STEEL PERFOR,ATION OF V2 IN. MILD STEEL
r N B m v
20
30
40
60
80
100
150
200
250
300
I
3,330
3,040
2,640

1,840
1,580
1,080
685
379
189
1.090
0.440
0.216
0.0798
0.0375
0.0206
0.0063
0.0022
0.0008
0.0003
0.149
0.176
0.225
0.300
0.400
0.515
0.890
1.38
2.00
2.75
,3,410
3,240
2,920
2,620
2,380
2,180
1,820
1,600
1,420
1,300
r N B m v
20
30
40
60
80
100
120
140
170
200

770
679
509
379
281
189
117
43
25
' 0.283
0.112
0.0554
I 0.0185
0.0077
0.0037
0.0017
0.0008
0.0002
0.0001
1.15
1.27
1.40
1.68
2.01
2.37
2.75
3.16
3.85
4.62
3,410
3,330
3,200
2,990
2,790
2,640
2,510
2,380
2,230
2,100
Page 12
500 LB GP BOMB, AN-M64 OR AN-M64Al
- Amatol Loading
INITIAL FRAGMENT VELOCITY 7,390 F/S
TABLE 17 TABLE 18
CASUALTIES PERFORATION. OF Ya-IN. MILD STEEL
-
Distance
from burst
(ft)
Total number
of effective
fragments
Average
number of
effective frag
ment;s per sq ft
For the lightest
effective 'fragment
Weight Velocity
(0%) (f/s)
Distance
from burst
(ft)
Total number
of effective
fragments
. Average
number of
effective frag
ments per sq ft
For the lightest
effective fragment
Weight Velocity
(0%) (f/s)
r N B m v r N B m v
70
.80
100
150
200
250
300
500
700
1,000
14;940
13,450
11,830
8,160
6,100
4,920
4,160
2,340
1,330
430
0.398
0.274
0 ~ 1 5 4
0.0473
0.0199
0.0103
0.0060
0.0012
0.0004
0.0001
0.009
0.012
0.017
0.037
0.061
0.084
0.106
0.214
0.356
0.653
2,570
2,230
\ 1,870
1,270
990
840
750
531
411
302
40
50
60
80
too
150
200
300
400
600
14,940
13,450
12,450
10,330
8,280
5,030
3,160
1,260
410
137
1.22
0.702
0.451
0.211
0.108
0.0292
0.0103
0.0018
0.0003
0.0001
0.009
0.012
0.015
0.023
0.036
0.081
0.148
0.370
0.680
1.48
4,350
4,060
3,770
3,150
2,670
2,020
1,710
1,270
1,070
873
TABLE 19 TABLE 20
PERFORATION OF ~ IN. MILD STEEL PERFORATION OF Y2 IN. MILD STEEL
r N B m v
, 20
30
40
60
80
100
150
200
300
500
10,770
9,210
8
/
030
6,250 ,
4,890
3,920
2,380
1,390
361
100
.3.51
1.34
0.655
0.227
0.0998
0.0512
0.0138
0.0046
0.0005
0.0001
0.021
0.029
0.038
0.059
0.085
0.114
0.209
0.345
0;735
2.12
7,390
6,390
5,730
4,800
4,160
3,790
2,990
2,510
1,940
1,400
r N B m v
20
30
40
60
80
100
150
200
250
300
2,790
2,480
2,190
1,670
1,170
872
349
237
137
116
0.910
0.359
0.179
0.0605
0.0239
0.0114
0.0020
0.0008
0.0003
0.0002
0.17
0.20
0.23
0.30
0.39
0.47
0.74
1.05
1.44
1.86
7,390
6,770
6,460
5,740
5,180
4,810
4,030
3,550
3,160
2,880
TABLE 21
BOMB DENSITIES D PER SQUARE 100 FT x 100 FT
REQUIRED IN AREA BOMBING TO CAUSE-50% CASUALTIES. GROUND BURSTS.
INSTANTANEOUS FUZE. FLAT TERRAIN. NOSHIELDING. MEN STANDING.
Bomb
IAltitude 01 Release I The Required Bomb
I It I Density D
IWidth- Win F
01 Fringe
20 Ib FRAG, AN-M41 or AN-M41 A1
\
Low
10,000
20,000
30,000
0.70
0.45
0.73
0.98
65
90 Ib FRAG, M82 (19)
Low
10,1000
20,000
30,000
I 0.24
0.17
0.21
0.35
90
100 Ib GP, AN-M30 or AN-M30A1
Low
10,000 ,
20,000
30,000
0.25
0.25
0.20
0.17
95
'"
260 Ib FRAG, AN-M81(T1 0)
Low
10,000
20,000
30,000
0.14
0.12
0.083
0.083
140
500 Ib GP, A N - ~ 6 4 or AN-M64A1
Low
10,000
20,000
30,000
0.099
0.096
0.087
0.079
125
*Width of fringe around target area requiring the burst density D.
To obtain p percent casualties the above value of D should be multiplied by the factor F in the
following table:
Percent p 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
The factor F 0.150 0.322 0.516 0.740 1.00 1.32 1.74 2.32 3.32
In case the target area is not flat or is shielded, or the men are not standing, the above values of D
should b,e multipliedby an appropriate factor. Estimates of this factor are given below fora number
of typical cases.
Factor The Tactical Case
3 Men prone, flat terrain, no shielding.
2 Men standing, rolling terrain, no shielding.
-4 Men prone, rolling terrain, country fields.
10- 20 Men firing from trenches.
20-100 Mef'l in foxholes.
The above values of D were calcuJatedfor the case of a plane speed of 250 mph.
TABLE 22
BOMB DENSITIES D PER SQUARE 100 FT x 100 FT
REQUIRED IN AREA BOMBING TO CAUSE DAMAGE TO 50% OF MATERIEL TARGET ELEMENTS
(2 SQ FT) VULNERABLE TO A FRAGMENT OF GIVEN PERFORATIVE TYPE. GROUND
BURSTS. INSTANTANEOUS FUZE. FLAT TERRAIN. NO SHIELDING.
.
-
Bomb
The'required bomb density D for
the following perforative type Width*W in ft of fringe
Altitude Vs in. 1/tt in. 1
12
in. l/
S
in. 1/tt in. V2 in.
of Release Mild Steel Mild Steel Mild Steel Mild Steel Mild Steel Mild Steel
ft Perf Perf Perf Perf Perf Perf
20 Ib FRAG, AN-M41 or
AN-M41A1
Low 2.73
10,000 2.61
27
20,000 4.47
30,000 5.73
~
90 Ib FRAG, M82 (T9)
100 Ib GP, AN-M30 or
AN-M30A1
Low 0.99 1.91
10,000 0.73 1.45
50 30
20,000 0.91 1.77
30,000 1.12 2.14
J
Low 1.17 1.38
10,000 1.08 1.27
60 45
20,000 0.89 1.06
30,000 0.76 0.90
260 Ib FRAG, AN-M81
(T10)
Low 0.47 0.76 2.41
. 10,000 0.38 0.63 1.98
70 55 30
20,000 0.30 . 0.50
1.55
30,000 0.33 0.55 1.74
.
500 Ib GP, AN-M64 or
AN-M64A1
Low 0.38 0.46 1.02
-.
10,000 0.36 0.44 0.97
80 65 40
20,000 0.32 0.39 0.88
30,000 0.28 0.35 0.80
*WWidth of fringe around target area requiring the burst densityD.
To obtainp percent damage the above value of D should be multiplied by the factor F in the
following table: .
Percent p 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
The factor F 0.150 0.322 0.516 0.740 1.00 1.32 1.74 2.32 3.32
In case the target area is not flat or is shielded, the above values of D should be multiplied by an
appropriate factor. Estimates of this factor are given below for two typical cases.
Factor The Tactical Case
2 Rolling terrain, no shielding.
3 Rolling terrain, rough country.
The al10ve values of D were calculated for the case of a plane speed of 250 mph.
J
24
22
20
18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
H-++++-H BOMB, FRAGMENTATION, 20 LB, AN-M41 and AN-M41Al
0 SHIELDING
, Casualties Jvs. Height of Burst h Feet
One ma'n per foxhole.
Foxhole interval 10 Feet.
w Angle of Fall degrees.
V Remaining Velocity fIs
. , .PREPARED BY ORDNANCE DEPT :
I I

o
10 20 30 40 50
60 70
80
90
100
h Height of Burst-feet
FIGURE 1
BOMB, FRAGMENTATION, 20 LB ,AN-M41 and AN-M41Al
14 '1111111111 t 10 SHIELDING
I-l-+--l-+-I-++-++++-++++++++++++-H-t-H I I I
Casualties Jvs. Height of Burst hFeet
12
11
10
9
8
J
7
6
+++++-+++-t-t+++++-++
1--+-,f.-,4--l-++++,++++++++-,H-t-+--i
+
T
" +-,-H
- PREPARED
++++++++++-++++++++++--+-+-
3 man per foxhole.
2 I Foxhole interval 10 Feet. : .
w Angle of Fall degrees.
:1 V.Remaining Velocity
, T"TT"' ,T'T "
1-+-+++-I-+-+-++1i+++ -+-++t-H+-rTt-t'-+
'n-t
,
"+,'-1"#"+1+-'" -t-r, ::=t t
, 't-i' +i---f-ttt, ill,', , +
.. i ' ,
BY ORDNANCE DEPT I
o 10 20 30 40
50 60 70 80 90 100
h Height of Burst-feet
FIGURE 2
5
4
BOMB, FRAGMENTATION, 20 LB, AN-M41 and AN-M41Al >+++++++f
. - .- ..
Feet
J
3
2 One' man per foxhole.
Foxhole interval 10 Feet.
w Angle of Fall degrees.
V RemainingVelocity fls
PREPARED BY ORDNANCE DEPT
o 10
20 30 40 50 60 70
80 90
h Height of Burst-feet
FIGURE 3
100
42
40
38
36
34
32
30
J
28
26
24
22
20
18
16
BOMB, FRAGMENTATION, 90 LB ,M82 (19)
I
SHIELDING
- -
10
- - -
Casualties Jvs. Height of Burst h,Feet
I
f hC(,
! ,>. ~
N\. ~
I ~ o .
Cc,
I
~
~
~ o
~
~
, ~
~
,:,
~ o
"O!.
~ ~ ~
~
~
;
~
~
~
~
.,'
One I man per foxhole.
Foxhole intervallO Feet.
I
w Angle of Fall degrees.
V Remaining Velocity fls
PREPARED BY ORDNANC
~
~ DEPT t
- - . ~ _ . -
o 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
h Height of Burst-feet
FIGURE 4
-a
I
OQ
CD
co

BOMB, GP, 100 LB ,ANM30 and ANM30Al c


10 SHIELDING.
Casualties J vs. Height of Burst hFeet
40
38
36
34
J
32
30
.
\\

. tJ'o

')

ee:,
\\



.


.


. ua .
\\
28


ua
26
24
22
H-++++-t-t-t-H One'man per foxhole.
20 I-I-IO-I--I-H-I-I-+-I
I-I-+-++-H-H-H Foxhole interval 10 Feet.
H-+-H-t-t-t-H-IW Angle. of Fall degrees.
1E I-+-+-t--I-H-I-I-+-I
1-++-H-H-t-H-1 V Remaining Velocity fls
16
PREPARED BY ORDNANCE DEPT
I II
o 10 20 30 40 50 60 10 80 90 100
I
h Height of Burst-feet
FIGURE 5
110
100
I-l-+++++-H-+-H-++-l BOMB, FRAGMENTATION, 260 IB , AN-M81 (T10) .
-++. _ ++-+++++'rH-++++++-t-++i-+++++++-+++-H1-H-I-I--I
Casualties JYS. Height of Burst h Feet
One man per foxhole.
Foxhole interval 10 Feet. '111
H-++-+-+++++++++++HH-+-H+-f-++++-H-H+-H'--!-H-i---H-+I-++-H-I-I-H W =Angle of Fall-degrees.
V Remaining Velocity fls -l-H-HH-H-+-H-+++--H-I
PREPARED BY ORDNANCE DEPT H-+-+-++++-HH-l
I I " " I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I
0
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
hHeight of Burst-feet
FIGURE 6
J
50
40
30
10
.
--
----
II I J I_J. I j.I_I_11 I_I J 1.1 1.1 I
70
. I. I J "'.LI J I I. J.L I.j JJ I J.. J...LJJ.. J..IJ.. __ l.-I.
BOMB, FRAGMENTATION, 260 LB ,-AN-M81 (T10)
I l IT r ., ,,-r .'-'''' -. _
10 SHIELDING
II 11.1 I,J . .J-..J I I I J.JJ-.l.-I-l-
Casualties Jvs. Height of Burst hFeet H-+++-t-I-++'H-++++++H-++,-++++-1-+1

50
t-+++++++++++-+++-f .
l=I=I=ttt:t::tmm II ++t:!+I$;;ld=t:l:t:t::t:tI

mmw One man per foxhole.
t-+-H-t-H-+++ik Foxhole interval 10 Feet.
++ J;

1=1=tt1::J::+h

V Remaining Velocity
J
fIs mEeElWI:E
H-H-+-H-I-+++Il1qs
H-++-f-+-H-++h' II -II++++++-i-+++H+++++-f-+++-H-++++-H-+++-H-+++++++++-t-+++-H++++-HH-H-H++++-H-+++-H-++++++++-HH-++-I
o '# ./

30 I '
r-i' II
H- rJ
ttJ, 1

PREPARED BY ORDNANCE DEPT,
o 10 20
.
30 40 50
60
h Height ,of Burst-feet
FIGURE 7
70 80 90 100

.BOMB, FRAGMENTATION, 260 LB, AN-M81 (TIO)
I I r 1'1 1 I I I I I I I I I
28 OOfi-mBmE 30 SHIELDING I
I I 1 I-I. 1-1.1 I
H-+-t-IH-t-++-t+ Casualties J. vs.Height of Bursth Feet
V 700 f/s
H-++i-+t-++-l-+++-t-t-H
24
22
w 60 V 860 f/s-++++-+-+++++-++++++++-+-'P'IooId-++-+-H
20
18
16
J
14
12
10
8
6
4
One man per foxhole.
-
Foxhole interval 10 Feet.
.
w Angle of Fall degrees. :
-
V Remaining Velocity tis::
-
2
o 10
20
30 40 50
PREPARED BY
- 60
70
ORDNANCE DEPT
80 90
100
h Height of Burst-feet
FIGURE 8
1111I111 I I
J-+++++++-l-+-I-I 1--I-H-+-l-+--1-1-+4 BOMB, GP, 500 LB, AN-M64, AN-M64Al and AN-M43
I 0 SHIELDING 11m J I III&EIIIIII
130
120
110
J
100
Casualties Jvs. Height of Burst hFeet :t:t:1+\::U:t:!:t:I:ttmtttt:t:l:lttttl:j
I
90
80
70
60
50
.I-H-+++++-I-l-I One. man per foxhole.
tI:tt'ttttjttJ Foxhole interval 10 Feet.
40
w Angle of Fall degrees..
V- Remaining Velocity fls
30
PREPARED BY ORDNANCE DEPT
o 10
20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
h Height of Burst-feet
FIGURE 9
100
" ..
I-++H-H-I-+++ BOMB, GP, 500 LB, AN-M64, AN-M64Al and AN-M43
I
10 SHIELDING,
.4,..1-.1-..11 .....1...1-.1 - . ~ . ! . ! - . .-.....
I-+-H-I-+++-l-++-+-HH-+-H-++++-I--l--I-H-i Casualties J vs. Height of Burst h Feet Wt:EElms:tnEtmWI:E
120
110
90
J
y"
1
010 !Is
40
20
30~ ~ : t t One man per foxhole.
Foxhole interval 10 Feet.
w Angle of Fall degrees.
V Remaining Velocity f/s
10
PREPARED BY ORDNANCE DEPT r
o 10 20" 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
h Height of Burst-feet
FIGURE 10
Page 25
Volume III Part 2
BOMBINGOF'CONCRETE
(THIS PART SUPERSEDES VOLUME I PART 2, BOMBING OF CONCRETE)
1. GENERAL.
The relatively large dispersion and low striking velocities of bombs
prevent the bombing of strongly built concrete fortifications from being
generally profitable. Large Armor Piercing (AP) Bombs dropped from con
siderable altitude are effective in perforating all but the thicker roofs of
fortifications, but the general area effect of the many unavoidable misses
is negligible. On the other hand, General Purpose (GP) bombs are effective
for area bombing of defensive positions but generally ineffective against
thick concrete because of bomb case rupture and low penetrative efficiency.
Finally, Semi-Armor Piercing (SAP) bombs are specifically designed so as
to have' the largest pqssible charge consistent with sufficient structural
strength to withstand impact stresses. Thus they ought to possess optimum
characteristics against concrete; however, the accompanying data (Tables
23 and 24) show that the range of circumstances in which they are to be
. preferred to GP bombs is rather narrow.
To evaluate the effort required to hit a specific target the following table
may be used: (The smaller numbers are based on good accuracy (15 mil);
under operational conditions the larger numbers may be more realistic).
Altitude of plane (ft) 5,000 10,000 20,000 30,000
Number of bombs re 50% 25-250 100-1,000 400- 4,000 1,000-1 0,000
quired to hit a 10 yd x
10 yd target with a prob 90% 80-800 350-3,500 1,300-13,000 3,500-35,000
ability of
!. DEFORMATION, RUPTURE AND LOW ORDER
DETONATION.
General Purpose bombs with a delay fuze do not withstand impact on
thick concrete slabs. Such an impact leads to deformation or breakage of
the casing which is generally accompanied by a low order detonation of the
explosive filling (Amatol, TNT or RDX Comp B). Breakage is also expected
, when a delay fuzedGP bomb a strong fortification covered with a
layer of earth that is thinner than the maximum earth penetration
(see Vol. III, Part 3). However, when a GP bomb hits a sufficiently thin
slab, the slab rather than the bomb is ruptured so that a perforation results
without effective damage to the bomb. Estimates of the slab thicknesses
that can be thus defeated are shown in Table 23. I
Semi-Armor Piercing and Armor Piercing bombs withstand impact on
strong concrete without damage that may impair their effective detonation.
However, SAP bombs dropped from high altitude (over 15,000 feet) are
known to deform appreciably and this may somewhat reduce their pene
trative ability. .
Hits against heavy concrete columns or beams result in damage impairing
the effectiveness of GP but not of SAP or AP bombs.
3. EFFECTS OF DETONATION ON CONCRETE.
The destructive effect achieved by the detonation of AP or SAP bombs
that have not succeeded in perforating a concrete slab is small to moderate.
General Purpose bombs fitted with an instantaneous nose or, better, with a
non-delay tail fuze achieve a substantial effect. The accompanying tabu
lations (Tables 23, 24 and 25) contain estimates of the total effect of
impact and explosion of American bombs on concrete. Since speci!ic data
on the quantitative effects of detonation on concrete are scarce and frag
mentary, extensive extrapolation was necessary in the preparation of the

4. CRATERING IN CONCRETE.
The shallow penetration of GP and SAP bombs that do not succeed in
perforating concrete slabs res'ults in wide cracking and spalling of the front
face of the slab with formation of a crater. The size of this crater is quite
variable. Estimates of the expected depth are shown in the accompanying
tables. As a guide to the expected diameter of the crater one 'may assume
that it will be about four times the depth.
When AP bombs succeed in penetrating deeper than 2 or feet, there
is no further increase of the crater depth, but, rather, a bore hole of the
diameter of the bomb is formed at the bottom of the crater.
5. BACK FACE EFFECTS-SCABBING.
A shock travels across a concrete slab ahead of a penetrating bomb or
of the expanding gases that result from its detonation. As this shock is
reflected from the back face of the slab, this face tends to crack with violent
ejection of loose pieces of concrete and formation of a back crater. This
phenomenon, called "scabbing," actually occurs when the bomb or its'
detonation products come sufficiently close' to the back face and may do
Page 26
serious damage to personnel or light material behind the slab. Special forms
of surface steel reinforcement are sometimes used to prevent scabbing.
Estimates of the maximum thickness of shtb .which will be scabbed under
various conditions are given in the accompanying tabulations.
Complete perforation is achieved when the front face crater and the
scab crater merge. Thicker concrete can therefore be perforated than the
depth of penetration in a very thick slab.
Heavily scabbed roofs will show considerable sag even when not blown
through.
6. REBOUND.
A bomb that does not perforate a slab tends to rebound. It is not known
how long it takes under various conditions for a bomb to penetrate and
rebound the small amount necessary to render detonation ineffective
against the slab. It seems probable that it will take longer than 0.025 second
for a medium or large bomb to rebound this amount, but probably less
than 0.1 second.' It is practically certain that whenever a fuze delay in
excess orO.l second is used, that the bomb will rebound sufficient to cause
an ineffective detonation.
7. ATTACK ON A VERTICAL WALL.
Minimum altitude attack of vertical walls is generally impractical because
of the necessity of using long delay fuzing for safety. Also the penetrating
effect would be no better than that attained from 5,000 feet on horizontal
roof slabs.
8. EFFECT OF DIRT COVERING UPON CONCRETE.
Dirt covering on the roof or ~ a l l of a concrete fort'ification may cushion
the impact of the bomb so as to reduce its penetrating power. Data on the
penetration of bombs in various soils are shown at pages 34 to 48 inclusive.
A thickness of earth of 20 percent of the maximum underground trajectory
of a bomb is expected to reduce its penetrating power in underlying concrete
by less than 20 percent. Newly piled dirt is likely to cushion the impact of
a bomb even less than wet clay.
9. EFFECT OF UNDERGROUND DETONATION.
The underground detonation of bombs is comparatively effective against
the underground portion 'of concrete fortifications because of the confining
effect of the earth.. Figures 11 and 12 show what damage can be expected to
result to an underground concrete slab by a given bomb detonating at a
given distance. The difficulty with this method of attack is that the bomb
must be made- to detonate within a comparatively narrow region around
the target, at a sufficient depth underground. In the case of GP bombs,
if the concrete target is hit by the bomb before its velocity is very consider
ably reduced, rupture of the bomb and consequent failure to detonate
effectively would be expected.
TABLE 23
EFFECT OF GENERAL PURPOSE BOMBS ON CONCRETE SLABS
Bomb
Fuzing
100lb
AN-M30,
AN-M30A1
250lb
AN-M57,
AN-M57A1
500lb
AN-M43,
AN-M64,
AN-M64A1
1,OOOIb
AN-M44,
AN-M65,
AN-M65A1
2,OOOIb
AN-M34,
AN-M66,
AN-M66A1
Crater Depth
(Ft)
Inst Nose
Non-Delay Tail
%
1lh
%
1%
1
2
1
,4
1lh
2%
1%
3%
Delay*
% %
1 1
1
,4 1V2
.D
0
-wi
...:
0
*
*::G)
G).D
~ =
Scabbed
Blown
Inst Nose
Non-Delay. Tail
Delay*
Inst Nose
2lh
3lh
1%
1%
3
4lh
2
1%
3%
5lh
2%
2lh
4%
6%
3
1
,4
3
6
8%
4%
3%
- ~ ~
~ o
-i!
--.:;
...1
Through
Perfo
rated
Non-Delay Tail
Delay
2lh
1
3
1lh
3%
1%
4%
2lh
6
3
The performance presented in this table is achieved with dive bombing or with bombing from horizontal flight at
5,000 ft altitude. No better performance is expected by bombing from higher altitude due to breakage of the bomb.
*No effect of detonalion is included in these data-since the bomb is likely to break up prior to fuze operation and/or
to detonate low order_
**The effect indicated will occur in all slabs of thickness up to the limit thickness indicated but not for thicker slabs.
TABLE 24
EFFECT OF SEMI-ARMOR PIERCING BOMBS ON CONCRETE SLABS
,
41;2
5
4
Bombing from Horizontal Flight.
DiveBombing600Dive, True Air Speed 250 mph
Bomb
Fuzing
5,000 ft
I
10,000 ft . 20,000 ft
350 mph, 4,000 ft
Altitude Altitude Altitude
Altitude
Crater Depth Inst Nose
%
(Ft)
Non-Delay Tail 1%
I
2th
I
2%
I
2
1
11
Delay 1% 2th 3 2th
oD Inst Nose 3th
500lb
c
AN-M58,
en
Scabbed Non-Delay. Tail 4%
I
5
I
.,
5%.
I
4%
-41
AN-M58A1,
OoD
*
Delay 4% 5 53,4 5
AN-M58A2
*=1
I
41_
Blown Inst NOle 2
C c
Through
~ . ;
Non-Delay Tail 3th 3% 4th 31;2
,
.c_
1-..::
Delay'
3th 3% 41;2 31;2
-
'E
.::;
Perforated Delay 2th 3 31;2 2%
Crater Depth Inst Nose 1
(Ft)
Non-D,elay Tail 2th
I
2%
I
3th
I
21;2
Delay 21;2 3th 4 3,
oD Scabbed Inst Nose 4
c
en
Non-Delay Tail 5%
I
6th
I
63,4
I
6
-41
OoD
61;2 71;2
-
1,0001b *
Delay 6
I
6th
*=
AN-M59, .
:: ~
Blown Inst Nose 2%
AN-M59A1
41_
C c
Through
~ - : E
Non-Delay Tail 4 5 4th
.c_
1-':::
Delay 4th 6
-
43,4
'E
.::;
Perforated Delay 3 5 33,4
These data have been computed f.or strong concrete, of compressive strength 5,000 Ib/sq in; they should be increased
by 5-15% for medium quality concrete of 3,000 Ib/sq in.
It has been assumed that the bomb does not rebound prior to the time of fuze operation. Rebound may occur, how
ever, with a fuze delay of 0.1 sec, in which case the effect of detonation is lost:'
**The effect, indicated will occur in all slabs of thickness up to the limit thickness indicated but not for thicker slabs.
TABLE 25
EFFECT OF ARMOR PIERCING BOMBS ON CONCRETE SLABS
Bomb
Bombing from Horizontal Flight
True Air Speed 250 mph
5,OOOft 10,000 ft 20,000 ft 30,000 ft
Altitude Altitude Altitude Altitude
Dive Bombine. 60
Q
Dive, True Air peed,
350 ft
Altitu e
, 1,000 Ib Crater Depth (ft) 1V2 2% 33,4 4% 21,4
AN-Mk 33
Limit Thickness** of
slab (ft) that will be
Scabbed
Blown thru
Perforated
4
3
23,4
5
1
/.1
41,4 "
4
71,4
6
53,4
81,4
63,4
6%
51,4
4
33,4
1,600lb , Crater Depth (ft) 13,4 31,4 5 61,4 23,4
AN-Mk 1
Limit Thickness** of
slab (ft) that will be
Scabbed
Blown thru
Perforated
5
33,4
3%
63,4
5%
5
1
/.1
91,4
73,4
7%
11
91,4
9
61,4
5
43,4
These data have been computed for strong concrete, of compressive strength 5,000 Ib/sq in; they should be increased
by 15-30% for medium quality concrete of 3,000 Ib/sq in.
It has been assumed that the bomb does not rebound prior to the time of fuze operation (0.08 sec 'nominal for the
AN-MK 228 fuze). In case of rebound the crater depth and the limit thickness of slab scabbed and blown thru should
be reduced by about %ft or 1/.1 ft.
**The effect i,ndicated will occur in all slabs of thickness up to the limit indicated but not for thicker slabs.
I
--- - ---- - -
Page 30
BOMB DAMAGE TO UNDERGROUND CONCRETE SLABS MAXIMUM THICKNESS OF
SLAB DAMAGED VS. DISTANCE FROM BOMB BURST
c
5
B
A
I
U.
Cf)
Cf)
w
z

0
-
I
:I:

,
m -I
: <I:
.-J
-I
Cf)
-0 -0 -0 JOt
IOOLBGPO I
'0
A
.
5
GENERAL
8
PURPOSE BOMBS
-
PREPARED BY ORDNANCE DEPT. -
. FIGURE 11
Curve A-Breaching of the slab.
Curve damage
(Heavy cracks, heavy
. scabbing).
Curve C-Moderate damage
(Medium cracks,
slight scabbing).
Curve D-Slight, damage (Fine
cracks on back face of
slab).
The bombs are assumed to de
. tonate at the depth for which
0 maximum crater diameter is ob
tained (see page 38). The effect
C
is reduced by at least 30% if the
depth is only 25% of the assumed
depth. .
EXAMPLE-A 10 ft concrete wall
will be heavily damaged by a
2,000 lb GP bomb detonating
10 ft away.
10 15
1'1111 L'II} IrtrrrriJTFl1OJTI1Tmr'll JlI 'n IFIo-n UJHfr'! rmJlllll'lllJ IllllT(rTTT nFllfi11H
250 LBGpOI 5 10 15 20
.-tndITllTTr(nrtrnTIFI( IJtnltrrrtrrriooT111'IIFltrnulIlmllll'lll iJ [[fhTltmtFlIIIIII' II rTIF!
500 LB GPO I 5 . 10 15 20 25 30
Irrtntl T[I II' I II'tLI'I:! I'111111 irrlrrtrrtrrtr[EJIT'm1rJlll tflinIIDlo'LII'1I l'EuFntrrtn I',rtrrtlll'ffil
1000 LB GPO I 5 \0 15 20 25. 30 35 40
I AN-M44 .... 1.. , , j , , , I , I ' , ,1,,'. uh+"J..+n-'rrhf +TniTTrn 1 h' , , I 1 L. T + rh I
AN-M65,AN-M65AI' tEllUlIl1l1UHlElllLUIIIIIIllllmEIIIJ hrlllllllllll FFrhlDJ lJ
2j)00 0, I , , tP-h-+r+ri2P .. I ,2,5 .. , ,3P. , , ,3P. '... ' ,4p, , ,4p . .. ,5,0 I
.-,j 1llllTuwumrlt-UJlliI /IlJHHH Ifill [1111111 )11111111111111111111111111111111111111111111]]
DISTANCE OF BURST - FT
--
BOMB DAMAGE TO UNDERGROUND CONCRETE SLABS
MAXIMUM THICKNESS OF SLAB DAMAGED VS. DISTANCE FROM BOMB BURST
(SEMI- ARMOR PIERCING AND ARMOR PIERCING. BOMBS)
5
5
,...1
I
D
C
PREPARED BY ORDNANCE DEPT.
B
5 A
l
lL.
5
(J)
(J)
laJ
0
Z
:ll'
2
C :r::: A 8

m

..J
(J)
500LBSAPO I 5. 10 . 15 20 25
AN M58' -- I ., I I , I I , L l..- I I I , .1 .J 1 ,-l 'Wt,J _, ,I, r.-I
AN-M5.8AI,AN:M58A2
r
JITlfi 11111 f III Ilium
IQOO LB SAP I. - '. 15 . 20 . 30
J
r-r IE ll'III'III'IIIJ (1IiI'III'III'III'1 utfl'III'III'III'III'JII'III'III'III'O f 111'IIIII'rrdntEEtrrtFlJI11111'1 Ulll 1'111
LB A POI 5 1015' 20 . 25
AN-MK.33 I I I I I ,.' t I I ,_. J. .. ,J l.-.-.:r:.......
I 11111111111111111111H11111I1111tT111111111'11111111 HuuuUUlwwlll LffiuuJJWWW[uUUL!
IPOO LB APO' I . 5 - 10 - 15
M52 EEEHBfEHE' , .. I I 'ffia3 I I b=:cuh::rrr=& X 1 I I I 1
1,600 LB AP I I IILIUtlllll1 f I 11111.1111111111
AN MKI I. I I I I I I I I' I , I I I I '1- I I , 1- 1 I h-,' I I
- . I I11IIIII11 .11111111111111111111111111111 [ I1II1I11 11/111' 1111/11111'11 tlll/11111 ittllllill
DISTANCE OF BURST - FT
Page. 31
FIGURE 12
Curve A-:-Breaching of the slab.
Curve B-Heavy damage
(Heavy cracks, heavy
scabbing).
Curve C-Moderate damage
(Medium cracks,
slight scabbing).
, Curve D-Slight' damage (Fine
cracks on back face of
slab).
The bombs are assumed to de
tonate at the depth for which
maximum crater diameter is ob
tained (see page 39). The. effect
is reduced by at least 30% if the
depth is only 25% of the assumed
depth. .
EXAMPLE-A 5 it concrete wall
will be heavily damaged by a
1,000 Ib AP (AN-Mk 33) bomb
detonating 5 ft away.
Page 32
Volume III Part 3
EARTH PENETRATION AND CRATER FORMATION BY BOMBS
(THIS PART SUPERSEDES VOLUME I PART 2, PAGES 54, 55, 56, 57, 58 AND 59)
1. GENERAL.
Information on the travel of bombs in earth, on the depths at
definite fuze settings, and on the size and types of craters produced in
different soils is presented in the. following tables (26 to 29 inclusive).
The underground trajectory may be of importance in considering the at
tack on fortifications. (See pages 26, 30 and 31.)
Accidental a:nd irreproducible factors such as the type of earth, differences
in the constitution of the earth at the point of impact, stones, etc., have a
large influence on the behavior of penetrating bombs.
2. QUALITY OF THE SOIL.
Different soils may be arranged in a rough scale with respect to their
resistance to bomb penetration and detonation. Dry sand, because it does
not easily transmit and distribute the action of the bomb over a wide region,
and because its successive layers have to be crushed with considerable
waste of energy, is extremely high in resistance. Conversely, wet clay is
extremely low in resistance. The water content tends to distribute the
effects of bomb penetration and detonation over wide ranges, so that wet
clay can more easily "give in" to a bomb without being crushed. In general,
the greater the soil's water content and plasticity, the easier it is penetrated
and the more readily call-large craters be formed.
Data for three types of soil are given in the accompanying tables. These
soils have been labeled f-lS "soft", corresponding to a fairly wet clay; "me
dium", corresponding, for example to a sandy clay loam or to soft chalk;
and "hard pan", corresponding to sand or gravel or mixtures thereof. Some
degree of interpolation between these types of soils should be possible.
It appears that the maximum crater diameter does not depend on the
quality of the soil to the same extent as does the depth of penetration.
3. SHAPE OF THE UNDERGROUND TRAJECTORIES.
The underground trajectories 'of bombs are generally A bomb
travels ,straight as long as its yawl remains small, but swerves after its
instability (i.e., tendency to tumble) has resulted in a considerable yaw.
lYaw is the deviation of the longitudinai axis of the bomb from the line of flight.
Swerving generally occurs in such a direction to bring the bomb nearer
to the ground surface, but it is quite erratic. Bombs 'frequently swerve to
o the right or leftof their initial trajectory, resulting in considerable lateral
offset, sometimes even in a backwards direction with respect to the motion
of the bombing plane.
It is reported that American bombs swerve to a considerably lesser extent
than similar British orGerman bombs, that is, the J-shape of their path is
less pronounced.
4. TIME OF OPERATION OF FUZES.
The times of operation of the instantaneous nOse fuze (AN-M103) and
any of the standard tail fuzes with a non-delay detonator have been esti
mated to be as follows:
Instantaneous Nose 0.0005 second
Non-'Delay Tail 0.002 to 0.003 second
(depending on size of the bomb)
The time limits for delay elements of the American tail fuzes, with
Primer-Detonator M14, are set by acceptance tests as follows:
0.01 second nominal delay: 0.008 to 0.013 second
0.025 second nominal delay: 0.018 to 0.032 second
0.1 second nominal delay: 0.10 to 0.15 second
Variations within these limits may affect the depth of the burst and hence
the crater sizeto a considerable extent.
5. VOLUME OF MATERIAL TO FILL CRATERS.
The amount of material that must be trucked in to refill a bomb crater
affects considerably the amount of effort that must be spent in repairing it.
This amount of material-excludes, of course, the loose material that is
already available in the bottom or on the lip of the crater. Also, this amount
does not depend only on the apparent volume of the crater, but also on the
amount of soil crushed, loosened or displaced in the crater bottom. Crude
estimates of the volume of loose soil that must be trucked in for repair are
shown in the accompanying tables. (Figures given are based on the assump
tion that all the available loose and trucked-in soil must be packed hard.)
It is also estimated that the manpower requirement for repair may run at
about 172 per cubic yard of material
Page 33
6. BOMBING FROM MINIMUM ALTITUDE.
Bombs dropped on level or gently sloping soil from planes flying at
minimum altitude, generally ricochet. Such bombs will penetrate steep
If the releasing plane flies very fast, for example at nearly
400 miles per hour, and the embankment has a 45 degree inclination, the
penetration path followed will not differ much from that of a bomb dropped
from 5,000 feet on level ground. Less penetration will be achieved if the
plane is slower or the embankment is not as steep.
7. EARTH SHOCK EFFECT OF UNDERGROUND DETONATION.
A violent shock is propagated earthquake-like through the earth around
the point of a bomb explosion.
The demolition of buildings by earth shock is somewhat unpredictable,
since it appears to depend, among other things, on whether the building can .
vibrate in with the shock waves from the detonated bomb..
Demolition does not appear to extend to buildings at a distance from the
point of burst greater than the maximum crater diameter produced by
the bomb.
Damage to fixed gun emplacements by the bomb action tilting them
effectively seems to be confined to a distance of about % of the maximum
crater diameter.
Damage to ceramic service pipes (of earthenware, brick or tile) seems to
extend to pipes whose closest approach to the point of detonation is equal
to or slightly greater than the maximum crater diameter. Damage to cast
iron pipes is likely' to occur up to distances from the point of burst of about
0.6 of the maximum crater diameter.
Any trench or duct tends to absorb a ground shock, even though its
walls may be damaged. In particular, service pipes laid in ducts. are effec
. tively protected, unless included in the crater itself.
Adjacent structures or earthworks will shift the center of the crater off
from the point of detonation. The presence of a trench relieves the earth
pressure, so that 'craters will be directed towards that direction. On the
contrary, craters are shifted away from embankments or strong structures
that withstand the earth shock.
The effect or earth shock on the underground portions of fortifications is
discussed at page 26.
8. UNDERFOOTING OF COLUMNS AND STANCHIONS.
Cratering action of bombs may be exploited to remove the ground support
from columns or stanchions in industrial structures. It is estimated that this
form of attack will be successful whenever the foot of a structural element
falls within the crater limits.
Attack of structures by cratering seems to be particularly valuable against
the strongest type of factory buildings, namely those with gantry cranes.
These structures may be strong enough to withstand the removal of a single
column. Consequently, bombs large enough to contain two columns in one
crater are recommended.
9. ORIENTATION OF A DETONATING BOMB.
The orientation of a bomb detonating. underground and the thickness of
the bomb casing do not seem to have much influence on the resulting effects.
Only the nature and amount of charge and the position of its center have to
be considered.
TABLE 26
EARTH PENETRATION AND CRATER FORMATION
Bomb
ALTITUDE OF RELEASE/ 20/000 Ft-AIRSPEED/ 250 mph-LEVEL FLIGHT
Fuze Delay
Type of
Earth
Displace
ment
Feet****
Depth
Penetrated
Feet****
CRATER MEASUREMENTS. AND TYPE
Diameter
Feet
Appar
ent
Depth
Feet***
Actual
Depth
Feet***
Volume
for Refill
Cu Ft*
Crater
Type**
~
Soft ....:0.17 -0.72 10.0 2.8 3.1
-
-1.7
0.0005 Medium -0.17 -0.72 7.9 3.0 3.4
-
-1.9
(INST) Hard -0.17 -0.72 6.0 1.6 1.8
-
-2.4
Soft 0.11 0.50 13 3.9 4.8 12 1.2
0.002 Medium 0.11 0.48 11 3.4 3.9 4 1.3
100 LB
GP
(NON-DELAY) Hard 0.10 0.46 9.9 2.7 3.3 2 1.5
AN-M30A1/ Soft 1.5 6.1 22 6.9 12 46 14
AN-M30 0.01 Medium 1.6 5.6 20 5.1 9.3 30 15
Hard 1.4 5..1 16 2.6 8 15 17
Soft 3.5 12.0 21 2.8 14 24 28
0.025 Medium 3.6 9.6 19 3.0 14 18 25
Hard 2.9 6.8 16 3.0 10 14 23
Soft 4.9 14.0 16 1.3 19 18 32
0.10 Medium 3.8 9.6 19 3.0 14 18 25
Hard 2.9 6.8 16 3.0 9.9 14 23
Soft -0.25 -1.0 13 4 3.5 -
-1.8
0.0005 Medium -0.25 -1.0 11 3 3.2
-
-2.0
(INST) . Hard -0.24 - .97 8 2.4 2.2
-
-2.4
Soft 0.15 0.59 17 5.7 5.1 19 1.0
0.0023 Medium 0.14 0.58 15 4.5 4.0 13 1.2
250 LB
GP
(NON-DELAY) Hard 0.14 0.55 12 4.1 3.5 10 1.4
AN-M57A1/ Soft 1.7 6.7 29 7.8 12 100 12
AN-M57 0.01 Medium 1.6 6.3 25 6.9 11 66 13
Hard 1.5 6.0 21 5.4 10 35 15
Soft 3.8 15 28 4.3 21 60 26
0.025 Medium 4.2 13 25 3.7 18 40 26
Hard 4.1 9.1 21 2.3 13 33 23
Soft 7.1 19 20 1.1 25 40 33
0.10 Medium 5.4 14 24 3.2 19 37 27
Hard 4.1 9.1 21 2.3 13 32 23 .
Soft -0.38 -1.3 16 4.4 5.1
-
-1.8
0.0005 Medium -0.38 -1.3 14 3.2 4.2
-
-2.0
(INST) Hard -0.38 -1.3 10 2.6 3.1
-
-2.6
Soft 0.14 0.50 24 9.3 10 48 0.68
0.0025 Medium 0.14 0.49 19 5.4 6.4 33 0.76
500 LB
GP
(NON-DELAY) Hard 0.13 0.46 15 4.5 5.1 19 0.90
AN-M64A1/ Soft 2.0 6.9 35 9.8 14 200 9.4
AN-M64/ 0.01 Medium 1.9 6.6 31 8.6 12 140 10.0
AN-M43 Hard 1.8 6.2 26 7.1 11 72 12.0
Soft 4.9 17 38 7.0 24 200 23
0.025 Medium 4.8 15 33 6.1 21 120 24
Hard 5.1 12 26 4.6
,;'
17 61
.
24
0.10
Soft
Medium
10.3
7.7
25
18
'22
30 .
3.5
3.8
33
25
81
100
35.0
28.0
Hard 5.8 13 26 4.3 18 48 25.0
*Volume of refill is the cubic feet of earth that it is necessary to cart in to fill the crater. This volume assumes that
all loose earth in the crater has been tamped into the crater.
**Crater type refers to values given in Table 29b. Values other than those indicated in table must be interpolated.
***Apparent and actual depths are illustrated in Table 29b.
****Displacement and depth penetrated are illustrated in Table 2 ~ a .
TABLE 26' (Continued)
EARTH PENETRATION AND CRATER FORMATION
ALTITUDE OF RELEASE, 20,000 Ft-AIRSPEED, 250 mph-LEVEL FLIGHT
CRATER MEASUREMENTS. AND TYPE
Appar-
Displace- Depth Actual ent Volume
Type of ment Penetrated Diameter Depth Depth for Refill Crater
Bomb Feet**** Feet**** Feet*** Feet*** Earth Feet Cu Ft* Type** Fuze Delay
-0.46 -1.6 Soft 6.4 20 5.8
-
-1.7
0.0005
-
--0.46 -1.6 Medium 18 4.9 5.7
-
-2.0
(INST) -1.6 -0.46 Hard 11 3.6 3.9 -2.5
0.14 Soft 0.49 27 7.9 8.8 100 0.53
0.0027
~ 2 4 0,48 0.14 Medium 6.9 8.1 64 0.59
(NON-DELAY) Hard 0.13 0.46 19 6.5 5.5 34 0.71
Soft 2.0 7.0 42 12 16 1,000 LB 360 7.5
GP
. 1.9
6.7 37 Medium 10 15 0.01 250 8.3
AN-M65A1, 1.8 6.3 Hard 31 8.8 12 140 9.7
AN-M65,
AN-M44 5.1 18 Soft 50 11 27 450 19
Medium .4.3 15 43 10 0.025 23 300 18
- 13 5.2 Hard 35 7.7 19 150 20
11.2 28 Soft 40 4.2 42 200 30
8.4 20 Medium 42 0.10 6.9 28 220 24
14 6.3 Hard 35 7.1 20 150 21
-0.63 -2.2 Soft 26 7.2 8.2
-
-2.0
-
-0.63 -2.2 Medtum 21 0.0005 6.3 6.9
-
-2.2
-0.63 -2.2 Hard 16 ,(INST) 4.1 4.9 -2.7
0.066 0.23 Soft 32 9.4 10 160 0.19
0.062 0.22 Medium 29 0.0030 8.2 9.3 100 0.22
0.054 (NON-DELAY) Hard 0.19 22 6.5 7.4 55 0.23
2,000 LB
GP Soft L9 6.6 48 13 18 600 5.6
1.8 Medium 0.01 6.4 43 AN-M66A1, 13 16 420 6.3
Hard 1.8 6.2 AN-M66, 37 11 14 240 7.6
AN-M34
Soft 5/3 18 61 15 30 900 16
4.9 Medium 17 0.025 54 13 .28 600 18
- 4.9 Hard 15

44 9.8 23 300 19
Soft 15.0 38 42 15 51 350 33
12.0 Medium 27 0.10 50 17 38 320 27
Hard 8.7 19 47 8 27 290 23
*Volume of refill is the cubic feet of earth that it is necessary to cart in to fill the crater. This volume assumes that
all loose earth in the crater has been tamped into the crater.
**Crater type refers to values given in Table 29b. Val.ues other than those indicated in table must be interpolated.
***Apparent and actual depths are illustrated in Table 29b. .
****Displacement and depth penetrated are illustrated in Table 29a.
TABLE 26 (Continued)
EARTH PENETRATION AND CRATER FORMATION
ALTITUDE OF RELEASE, 10,000 Ft-AIRSPEED, 250 mph-LEVEL FLIGHT
CRATER MEASUREMENTS AND TYPE
"
Appar.
Bomb Fuze Delay
Type of
Earth
Displace.
ment
Feet****
Depth
Penetrated
Feet****
Diameter
Feef
ent
Depth
Feet***
Actual
Depth
Feet***
Volume.
for Refill
Cu Ft*
Crater
Type**
Soft -0.29 -0.76 9.6 2.7 3.0
-
-1.7
0.0005 Medium ~ 0 . 2 9 -0.76 8.2 2.3 2.5
-
-2.0
(INST) Hard -0.29 -0.76 6.0 2.0 1.8
-
-2.5
Soft 0.087 0.23 12 3.7 4.1 9.0 .53
0.002 Medium 0.076 0.20 11 3.2 3.6 6.0 .53
100 LB (NON.DELAY) Hard 0.070 0.18 8.7 2.6 2.8 3.0 .60
GP
Soft 1.8 4;7 21 6.4 9.6 43 11.0
AN.M30A1,
ANM30
0.01 Medium
Hard
1.7
1.6
4.4
3.9
20
15
5.2
4.1
7.9
6.8
29
15
12.0
13.0
Soft 4.4 9.9 23 2.3 14 42 23.0
0.025 Medium 3.8 7.3 21 4.5 11 30 19.0
Hard, 3.2 5.1 16 3.9 8.1 15 17.0
Soft 5.8 11 22 3.7 15 30 25.0
0.10 Medium 4.3 7.6 20 4.3 12 30 20.0
Hard 3.2 5.1 16 3.9 8.1 15 17.0
Soft -0.41 -1.0 12 315 4.0
-
-1.8
0.0005 Medium -0.41 -1.0 11 3.0 3,4
-
-2.0
(INST) Hard -0.41 -1.0 8.0 2.2 2.4
-
-2.5
250 LB
GP
0.0023
(NONDELAY)
Soft
Medium
Hard
0.087
0.074
0.075
0.22
'0.18
0.18
16
14
11
4.7
4.0
3.2
5.3
4.5
3.6
20
13
7
0.38
0.36
0.45
AN-M57A1,
AN-M57 0.01
Soft
Medium
Hard
2.0,
1.9
1.8
5.0
4.7
4.4
27
24
20
5.9
6.6
5.5
10
9.4
8.2
91
61
33
8.7
9.4
11.0
0.025
Soft
Medium
Hard
4.8
4.9
4.2
12
9.6
6.8
31
26
21
6.3
6.0
5.2
17
'14
11
100
68
35'
21.0
19.0
17.0
0.01
Soft
Medium
Hard
8.1
6.1
4.6
15
10
7
29
27
21
4.3
5.4
5.0
20
15
11
65
68
35
26
21
18
0.0005
(INST)
Soft
Medium
Hard
-0.58
-0.58
-0.58
-1.4
-1.4
-1.4
16
14
9.7
4.4
3.8
2.8
5.1
5,0
3.1
-
-
-
-1.90
-2.20
-2.70
500 LB
GP
0.0025
(NON-DELAY)
Soft
Medium
Hard
0.038
0.024,
0.016
0.089
0.057
0.039
20
18
14
6.0
5.1
4.0
6.7
5.8
4.6
40
26
13
0.12
0.089
0.076
AN-M64A1, Soft 2.1 5.0 33 9.2 12.0 170 6.8
AN-M64,
AN-M43
0.01 Medium
Hard
2.0
1.9
4.8
4.5
29
24
8.3
6.6
11.0
8.7
118
64
7.5
8.8
0.025
Soft
Medium
Hard
5.5
5.2
5.4
13.0
11.4
8.8
39
34
27
9.2
8.1
6.6
20
18
14
220
150
74
18.0
18.0
17.0
0.10
Soft
Medium
Hard
11.0
8.2
6.1
19.4
13.6
9.2
36
34
27
5.0
6.9
6.4
27
20
19
130
140
74
26
21
18
*Volume of refill is the cubic feet of earth that it is necessary to cart in to fill the crater. This volume assumes that
all loose earth in the crater has been tamped into the crater.
**Crater type refers to values given in Table 29b. Values other than those indicated in table must be interpolated.
***Apparent and actual depths are illustrated in Table 29b. .
****Displace
l11
ent and depth penetrated are illustrated in Table 29a.
.TABLE 26 (Continued)
EARTH PENETRATION AND CRATER FORMATION
Bomb
ALTITUDE OF RELEASE, 10,000 Ft-AIRSPEED, 250 mph-LEVEL FLIGHT
Fuze Delay
Type of
Earth
Displace.
ment
Feet****
Depth
Penetrated
F e ~ t * * * *
CRATER MEASUREMENTS AND TYPE
Diameter
Feet
Appar.
ent
Depth
Feet***
Actual
Depth
Feet***
Volume
for Refill
Cu Ft*
Crater
Type**
Soft -0.69 -1.6 21 6.5 5.7
-
-1.7
0.0005 Medium -0.69 -1.6 18 6.3 5.5
-
-2.0
(INS1) Hard -0.69 -1.6 13 3.9 3.6
-
-2.5
Soft -0.0042 -0.010 25 8.4 7.4
-
-0.011
0.0027' Medium -0.0105 -0.0248 10 7.3 6.5
-
-0.031
(NONDELAY) Hard -0.0187 -0.0442 18 5.2 5.8
-
-0.068
1,000 LB Soft 2.2 5.2 38 11 14 300 5.6
GP 0.01 Medium 2.1 5.0 34 9.9 13 210 6.2
AN.M65A1,
AN.M65,
Hard 2.0 4.7 29 8.4 11 120 7.2
ANM44 Soft 5.6 13.2 49 13 22 450 14.0
0 . 0 2 ~ Medium 5.2 11.8 42 11 19 300 15.0
Hard 5.4 9.3 34 8.8 16 150 14.0
Soft 11.9 20.9 49 9.3 30 420 22
0.10 Medium 8.8 14.6 43 10 23 300 18
Hard 6.6 9.9 34 8.8 16 150 15
..
Soft -0.97 -2.2 26 7.6 8.4
-
-1.9
0.0005 Medium -0.97 -2.2 21 6.6 6.0
-
--"2.2
(INS1) Hard -0.97 -2.2 16 4.5 4.8
-
-2.7
Soft -0.15 0.33 22 7.0 5.8
-
-2.8
0.0030 Medium -0.15 0.34 17 4.8 5.1
-
-3.3
(NON.DELAY) Hard -0.16 0.36 11 2.8 2.8
-
-4.4
2,000 LB
GP Soft 2.0 4.6 44 13 15 460 3.9
AN.M66A1, 0.01 Medium 2.0 4.4 39 12 14 300 4.3
AN.M66, Hard 1.9 4.2 33 9.8 12 190 5.1
ANM34
-.
Soft 6.1 14 58 16 25 850 12
0.025 Medium 5.7 13 52 14 22 560 13
Hard 5.0 10 41 11 18 300 13
Soft 17 28 61 9.9 40 620 24
0.10 Medium 12 ' 20
55 12.0 30 580 20
Hard 9.3 14 43 11.0 22 300 17
"'Volume of refill is the cubic feet of earth that it is necessary to cart in to fill the crater. This volume assumes that
all loose earth in the crater has been tamped into the crater.
"'*Crater type refers to values given in Table 29b. Values other than those indicated in taDle nlust be interpolated.
"''''*Apparent and actual depths are illustrated in Table 29b.
"''''''''''Displacement and depth penetrated are illustrated in Table 29a.
TABLE 26 (Continued)
EARTH PENETRATION AND CRATER FORMATION
Bomb
ALTITUDE OF RELEASE, 5,000 Ft-AIRSPEED, 250 mph-LEVEL FLIGHT
-
Fuze Delay
Type of
Earth
Displace
ment
Feet****
Depth
Penetrated

CRATER MEASUREMENTS AND TYPE
Diameter
Feet
Appar
ent
Depth
Feet***
Actual
Depth
Feet***
Volume
for Refill
Cu Ft*
Crater
Type**
Soft -0.45 -0.76 9.6 2.7 3.0
-
-1.7
0.0005 Medium -0.45 -0.76 8.2 2.3 2.5
-
-2.0
(INST) Hard -0.45 -0.76 6.0 1.6 1.8
-
-2.5
Soft -0.021 -0.035 12 3.5 3.9
-
-0.08
0.002 Medium -0.029 -0.048 10 3.0 3.3
-
-0.13
100 LB
GP
(NON-DELAY) Hard -0.036 -0.060 8.1 2.4 2.7
-
-0.20
AN-M30A1, Soft 2.0 3.3 20 5.6 7.4 37 7.6
AN-M30 0.01 Medium 1.8 3.1 17 4.9 6.6 25 8.2
Hard 1.8 2.6 15 4.1 6.8 15 13.0
Soft 4.9 7.0 23 5.6 11 46 16
0.025 Medium 4.5 5.2 20 5.2 8.9 30 14
Hard 3.5 3.5 15 4.2 6.3 14 12
Soft 6.2 7.6 24 5.5 12 46 18
0.10 Medium 4.6 5.2 20 5.2 30 14
Hard 3.5 3.5 15 4.2 6.3 14 12
Soft -0.62 -0.99 12 3.5 4.0
-
-1.7
0.0005 Medium ....:::0.62 '-,-0.99 11 3.0 3.4
-
-2.0
(I NST) Hard -0.62 -0.99 8.0 2.2 2.4
-
-2.5
Soft -0.049 -0.079 15 4.5 5.1
-
-0.14
0.0023 Medium -0.055 -0.088 13 3.8 4.3
-
-0.17
250 LB
GP
(NONDELAY) Hard -0.063 -0.012 11 3.2 3.6 -
-0.25
AN-M57A1, Soft 2.2 3.4 24 6.9 8.6 71 5.9
0.01 Medium 2.0 3.3 21 6.2 7.9 51 6.6
Hard 1.9 3.0 18 5.2 7.2 28 7.5
Soft 5.2 8.5 30 7.7 14 100 15
0.025 Medium 5.3 6.7 25 6.8 11 67 14
Hard 4.7 4.7 20 5.4 8.3 34 12
Soft 8.6 10 30 7.2 16 100 18
0.10 Medium 6.5 7.1 26 6.7 12 68 14
Hard 4.8 4.8 20 5.5 8.8 32 12
Soft -0.83 -1.3 16 3.7 4.4
-
-1.8
0.005 Medium -0.83 -1.3 14 4.2 3.2
-
-2.0
(INST) Hard -0.83 -1.3 10 3.1 2.6
-
-2.6
Soft -0.18 -0.29 20 6.0 6.7
-
-0.39
0.0025 Medium -0.18 -0.30 17 4.8 5.4 -
-0.47
500 LB
GP
(NON-DELAY) Hard -0.20 -0.31 13 3.6 4.1
-
-0.60
AN-M64A1, Soft 2.1 3.3 28 8.4 10 130 4.5
AN-M64, 0.01 Medium 2.0 3.2 26 7.6 12 92 5.0
AN-M43 Hard 1.8 2.9 21 6.1 7.6 50 5.7
Soft 5.7 9.1 37 10 16 220 12
0.025 Medium 5.1 8.2 33 8.9 14 150 12
Hard 5.7 6.0 26 7.0 11 71 12
Soft 11.2 13.5 39 8.9 21 220 18
0.10 Medium 8.3 9.3 3,4 8.6 15 150 14
, Hard 6.1 6.2 26 7.1 11 72 12
*VoJume of refill is the cubic feet of earth that it is necessary to cart in to fill the crater. This volume assumes that
all loose earth in the crater has been tamped into the crater.
**Crater type refers to values. given in Table 29b. Values other than those indicated in table must be interpolated.
***Apparent and actual depths are illustrated in Table 29b.
****Displacement and depth penetrated are illustrated in T 29a.
TABLE 26 (Continued)
EARTH PENETRATION AND CRATER FORMATION
Bomb
ALTITUDE OF RELEASE, 5
1
000 Ft-AIRSPEED, 250 mph-LEVEL FLIGHT
Fuze Delay
Type of
Earth
Displace
ment
Feet****
Depth
Penetrated
Feet****
CRATER MEASUREMENTS AND TYPE
Diameter
Feet
Appar
ent
Depth
feet***
Actual
Depth
Feet***
Volume
for Refill
Cu Ft*
Crater
Type**
Soft -1.0 -1.6 21 6.5 5.7
-
-1.7
0.0005 Medium -1.0 -1.6 18 6.3 5.5
-
-2.0
(INST) Hard -1.0 -1.6 13 3.9 3.6
-
-2.5
Soft -0.25 -0.40 24 7.0 7.9
-
-0.43
0.0027 Medium -0.26 -0..41 21 6.0 6.9 -
-0.51
1,000 LB
(NON-DELAY) Hard -0.26 -0.42 16 4.9 5.5
-
-0.65
GP Soft 3.2 34 10 12 230 3.4
AN-M65A1, 0.01 Medium 1.9 3.0 30 8.9 10 150 3.7
AN-M65,
AN-M44
Hard 1.9 2.8 25 7.2 8.8 85 4.3
Soft 5.8 9.2 45 13 18 400 9.9
0.025 Medium 5.6 8.4 40 11 16 280 10.0
Hard 5.4 6.2 32 8.8 12 140 9.5
Soft 12.0 14.5 48 13 23 450 16
0.10 Medium 8.9 10.0 41 11 18 300 1'2
Hard 6.6 6.6 32 8.8 13 140 10
0.0005
Soft
Medium
-1.3
-1.3
-2.1
-2.1
26
21
7.6
6.6
8.4
6.0
-
-
-1.8
' -:2.1
(INST) Hard -1.3 -2.1 16 4.5 4.8
-
-2.6
Soft -0.46 29 9.9 8.8
-
-0.63
0.0030 Medium -0.47 -0.75 25 7.4 8.2 -
-0.73
2,000 LB
(NON-DELAY) Hard -0.49
-
-0.78 20 5.7 6.5
-
-0.96
GP Soft 1.8 2.8 40 12 12 350 2.4
AN-M66A1, 0.01 Medium 1.7 2.7 35 10 12 230 2.6
AN-M66, Hard 1.6 2.6 29 8.6 10 140 3.2
AN-M34
Soft 6.0 9.5
' 53
15 20 740 8.1
0.025 Medium 5.5 8.8 47 13 17 500 8.6
Hard 5.5 5.5 34 10 13 300 6.7
Soft 17 20 62 15 32 .900 17
0.10 Medium 12 14 52 14 24 570 14
Hard 9.1 9.2 40 11 17 290 13
*Volume of refill is the cubic feet of earth that it. is necessary to cart in to fill the crater. This volume assumes that
all loose earth in the crater has been tamped into the crater. .
**Crater type refers to values given in Table 29b. Values other than those indicated in table must be interpolated.
***Apparent and actual depths are iIIustrQted'in Table 29b.
Cilnd depth in 29a:
TABLE 26 (Continued)
EARTH PENETRATION AND CRATER FORMATION
Bom.b
ALTITUBE OF RELEASE
1
4
/
000 Ft--AIRSPEED
1
350 mph-60 DIVE
Fuze Delay
".
Type of
Earth
Displace.,
ment
Feet****
Depth
Penetrated
Feet****
CRATER MEASUREMENTS AND TYPE
Diameter
Feet
Appar
ent
Depth
Feet***
Actual
Depth
Feet***
Volume
for ReFiI(
Cu Ft*
Crater
Type**
Soft -0.29 -0.79 10 2.7 3.0
-
-1.8
0.0005 Medium -0.29 -0.79 7.9 2.'3 2.6
-
-,-2.1
(INST) Hard -0.29 -0.80 5.7 1.6 1.8
-
-2.7
Soft 0.03 0.09 12 3.5 4.0 8.2 0.21
0.002 Medium 0.03 0.08 10 3.0 3.4 5.4 0.21
100 LB
GP
(NON-DELAY) Hard 0.02 0.07 8 2.4 2.7 2.7 0.23
AN-M30A1
1
Soft 1.6 4.5 21 5.9 8.7 42 10
AN-M30 0.01 Medium 1.4 4.0 18 5.1 7.6 28 11
Hard 1.5 3.5 15 4.2 6.3 14 12
Soft 3.8 9.0 23 4.8 13 46 21
0.025 Medium 3.8 6.8 20 4.6 11 30 18
Hard 3.0 4.7 16 4.0 7.6 15 16
Soft 5'.2 10 23 4.2 14 41 23
0.10 Medium 3.9 6.9 20 .4.6 11 30 18
Hard 3.0 4.7 16 4.0 7.6 15 16
Soft -0.29 -0.78 13 3.9 4.3 - 1.4
0.0005 Medium -0.29 -0.78 11 3.7 3.1
-
1.6
(INST) Hard -0.29 -0.78 8.6 2.4 2.7
-
2.0
Soft 0..12 0.32 16 4.9 5.4 22 0.56
0.0023 Medium 0.12 0.31 14 4.2 4.8 15 0.62
250 LB
GP
(NON-DELAY) Hard 0.11 0.30 12 3.4 3.8 8.5 0.75
AN-M57A1,
"
Soft 1.7 4.6 26 7.4 10 86 8.0
AN-M57 0.01 Medium 1.6 4.3 23' 6.4 8.9 59 8.7
Hard 1.6 3.9 19 5.4 7.6 32 9.8
,Soft 4.1 11 30 7.0 16 105 18
0.025 Medium 4.3 8.6 26 6.4 13 69 17
Hard 4.0 6.2 21 5.3 10 35 16
Soft 7.0 13 30 5.5 19 98 23
0.10 Medium 5.3 9.2 26 6.0 14 68 18
Hard 4.0 -6.2 21 5.3 10 35 16
Soft -0.55 -1.4 16 4.6 4.9
- -1.9
0.0005 Medium -0.55 \ -1.4 13 4.4 3.8 -2.2
(I NST) Hard -0.55 -1.4 9.9 3.1 2.8
- -2.7
Soft ::-0.07 -0.18 20 5.1 5.8
-
-0.24
0.0025 Medium -'-0.07 -0.19 17 4.7 5.4
-
-0.30
500 LB
GP
(NON-DELAY) Hard -0.08 -0.20 13 4.5 3.8
-
-0.39
AN-M64A1
1
Soft 1.6 4.2 30 8.1 11 150 5.7
AN-M64
1
0.01 Medium 1.5 4.0 27 7.8 9.9 100 6.2
AN-M43 Hard 1.4 3.7 22 6.6 8.4 58 7.2
Soft 4.3 11 38 9.9 18 220 15
0.025 Medium 4.2 9.8 33 8.6 16 150 15
Hard 4.8 7.9 27 6.9 13 74 16
Soft 9.1 17 39 7.0 24 200 23
0.10 Medium 6.9 12 34 7.7 18 150 18
Hard 5.2 8 27 6.9 13 74 16
*Volume of refill is the cubic feet of earth that it is necessary to cart in to fill the crater. This volume assumes that
all loose -earth in the crater has been tamped into the crater.
**Crater type refers to values given in Table 29b. Values other than those indicated in table must be interpolated.
***Apparent and actual depths are illustrated in Table 29b.
****Displacement and depth penetrated are illustrated in Table 29a.
TABLE 26 (Continued)
EARTH PENETRATION AND CRATER' FORMATION
ALTITUDE OF RELEASE, 4,000 Ft-AIRSPEED, 350 mph-60 DIVE
CRATER MEASUREMENTS AND TYPE
Appar.
Displace. Depth ent Actual Volume
Type of Diameter Depth Depth ment Penetrated for Refill Crater
Bomb Feet**** Feet**** Feet*** Feet*** Type** Fuze Delay Feet Cu Ft* Earth
-1.7 -0.65 20 5.8 Soft 6.5
-
-1.8
-
-1.7 -0.65 17 4.8 0.0005 Medium 5.6
-
-2.1
.
-1'.7 (INST) -0.65 13 3.5 4.0 Hard -2.6
-0.11 -0.29 25 Soft 6.4 7.2 88 0.31
6;1 -0.31 0.0027 -0.12 21 Medium 6.9 58 0.38
(NON.DELAY) -0.32 -0.12 23 11.0 12.0 Hard 32 0.49
1,000 LB
GP 4.0 35 10 1.5 Soft 13 250 4.3
ANM65A1, 3.8 9.1 32 1.5 0.01 Medium 11 170 4.7
ANM65, 1.4 3.6 27 7.8 9.8 Hard 100 5.5
ANM44
Soft 13.2 48 13 4.3 22 450 14
11 4.1 10 40 18 290 Medium 0.025 12
Hard . 14 4.4 8.0 33 9.0 150 12
11 Soft 9.8 18 52 27 450 20
11 7.4 13 42 21 300 0.10 Medium 16
Hard 5.5 8.6 33 15 150 13 9
-2.3 -0.83 7.2 8.2 Soft 26
-
-2.0
0.0005
-
-2.3 0 ~ 8 4 6.0 Medium 21 6.6
-
-2.2
(INST) -0.84 -2.3 16 4.5 Hard 4.9 -2.8
-0.68 -0.25 8.8 Soft 29 9.9 -0.58
0.0030
-
-0.25 -0.69 Medium 26 7.3 8.2 -0.68
(NON.DELAY)
-
5.9 .. -0.26 -0.71 Hard 20 6.7 -0.87
-
.
2,000 LB
Soft 1.3 3.6 12 41 15 400 GP 3.1
0.01 Medium 1.3 3.5 11 AN.M66A1, 37 13 270 3.4
ANM66, Hard 1.2 3.3 31 11 9 160 4.0
ANM34
Soft 4.2 12 16 56 22 800 9.8
0.025 Medium 3.9 11 50 14 20 540 10
Hard 4.1 9.3 40 11 17 290 11
Soft 13 25 63 12 37 880 21
0.10 Medium 9.7 17 54 13 28 580 17
Hard 7.3 12 42 11 20 300 14
*Volume of refill is the cubic feet of earth that it is necessary to cart in to fill the crater. This volume assumes that
all loose earth in the crater has been tamped. into the crater.
**Cratertype refers to values given in Table 29b. Values other than those indicated in table must be interpolated.
***Apparent and actual depths are illustrated in Table 29b.
****Displacement and depth penetrated are illustrated in Table 29a.
TABLE 27
EARTH PENETRATION AND CRATER FORMATION
Bomb
ALTITUDE OF RELEASE, 20,000 Ft-AIRSPEED, 250' mph-LEVEL FLIGHT
Fuze Delay
Type of
Earth
Displace
ment
Feet****
Depth
Penetrated
Feet****
CRATER MEASUREMENTS AND TYPE
Diameter
Feet
Appar
ent
Depth
Feet***
Actual
Depth
Feet***
Volume
for Refill
Cu Ft*
Crater
Type**
Soft -0.38 -1.4 12 4.0 3.4
-
-2.3
0.0005 Medium -0.38 -1.4 10 3.2 2.9 -
-2.6
(INST) Hard -0.38 -1.4 7.3 1.9 1.8
-
-3.3
Soft 0.18 0.65 17 4.9 4.3 44 1.0
0.0027 Medium 0.17 0.64 15 4.9 4.4 25 1.2
500 LB
(NON-DELAY) Hard 0.16 0.61 12 4.0 3.5 14 1.4
SAP Soft 1.9 7;0 31 8.5 13 120 11
AN-M58A2,
AN-M58A1,
AN-M58 '
0.01 Medium
Hard
1.8
1.7
6.8
6.5
27
' 22
7.4
5.8
12
11
83
44
13
15
Soft 4.8 18.0 28 3.2 24 60 29
0.025 "Medium 4.4 16 22 2.1 22 37 31
Hard 4.9 14 16 1.3 18 18 32
Soft 12 31
- - 39 30 51
0.10 Medium 9 22 4.8
-
28 20 41
Hard 6.8 15 12.0
-
19 16 35
Soft -0.51 -1.8 19 4.6 5.0
-
-2.3
0.0005 Medium -0.51 -1.8 13 3.0 3.4
-
~ 2 . 7
(INST) Hard -0.51 -1.8 9.2 2.4 2.9
-
-3.3
Soft 0.20 0.68 22 6.7 7.4 60 0.88
0.0030 Medium 0.19 0.66 20 6.6 5.9 43 0.98
1,000 LB
(NON-DELAY) Hard 0.18 0.63 16 4.9 5.4 24 1.20
SAP Soft 2.1 7.2 37 10 14 230 9.3
AN-M59A1, 0.01 Medium 2.0 7.0 33 9.1 14 160 10
AN-M59 Hard 1.9 6.7 27 7.4 12 85 12
Soft 5.5 19 40 6.6 27 170 25
0.025 Medium 5.1 18 32 5.1 25 97 26
Hard 4.2 14 26 4.0 20 50 26
'.'
Soft 15 38
- - 48 60 50
0.10 Medium 12 27 7.7
-
35 40 40
Hard 8.6 19 16.7 5.9 24 32 34
*Volume of refill is the cubic feet of earth that it is necessary to cart in to fill the crater. This volume assumes that
all loose earth in the crater has been tamped into the crater.
**Crater type refers to values given in Table 29b. Values other than those indicated in table must be interpolated.
***Apparent and actual depths are illustrated in Table 29b.
****Displacement and depth penetrated are illustrated in TClble 29Cl.
TABLE 27 (Continuecl)
EARTH PENETRATION AND CRATER FORMATION
Bomb
ALTITUDE OF RELEASE, 10,000 250 mph-LEVEL FLIGHT
Fuze Delay
Type of
Earth
Displace.
ment
Feet****
Depth
Penetrated
Feet****
CRATER MEASUREMENTS AND TYPE
, Diameter
Feet
Appar.
ent
Depth
Feef***
Actual
Depth
Feet***
Volume,
for Refill
CuFt*
Crater
Type**
Soft -0.58 -1.4 12 4.0 3.4
-
-2.3
0.0005 Medium -0.58 -1.4 10 3.2 2.9
-
-2.6
(INST) , Hard --'0.58 -1.4 7.3 1.9 1.8
-
-3.3
Soft -0.067 -0.16 16 4.8 5.4
-
-0.26
500 LB
0.0027
(NON.DELAY)
Medium
Hard
-0.060
."...0.053
-0.15
-0.13
15
12
4.4
4.0
:4.9
3.5
-
-'
-0.28
-0.30
SAP Soft 2.1 5.1 28 8;0 11 110 8.3
AN.M58A2, 0.01 Medium 2.0 5.0 25 7.1 9.9 77 9.3
AN.M58A1,
ANM58
Hard L9 4.7 21 5.9 8.8 42 11.0 -
Soft '5.5 14 33 6.2 20 123 ,22
0.025 Medium 5.1 12 28 5.1 18 75 23
Hard 5.8 10 22 3.6 35 35 24
Soft 13 24 10
-
31
-
38
0.10 Medium 9.7 16 22 2.1 22
-
31
Hard 7.4 11
-
21 3.2 16 25 26
Soft -0.58 -1.4 12 4.0 ' 3.4
-
-2.3
0.0005 Medium -0.58 -1.4 10 3.2 2.9
-
-2.6
(INST) Hard -0.58 -1.4 7.3 1;9
1.8
-
-3.3
, Soft
-0.067 -0.16 '
16 4.8 5.4
-
-0.26
0.0030 Medium -0.060 -0.15 15 4.4 4.9
-
-0.28
(NONDELAY) Hard -0.053 -0.13 12 4.0 3.5
-
-0.30
1,000 LB
SAP Soft 2.1 5.0 33 9.6 12 190 6.4
AN.M59A1, 0.01 Medium 2.0 4.8 30 8.6 11 170 7.1
ANM59 Hard 2.0 4..6 25 7.0 9.7 76 8.5
0.025
Soft
Medium
6.0
5.6
14
13
41
36
9.4
8.1
22
20
260
170
18
19
Hard 5.6 11 29 5.9 17 88 21
0.10
Soft
Medium
Hard
16
12
8.9
28
20
14
18
30
28
-
3.4
4.3
37
27
19
80
78
55
37
30
25
*Volume of refill is the cubic feet of earth that it is necessary to cart in to fill the crater. This volume assumes that
all loose earth in the crater has been tamped into the crater.
**Crater type refers to values given in Table 29b. Values other than those indicated in table must be interpolated.
***Apparent and actual depths are illustrated in Table 29b.
****Displacement and depth penetrated are illustrated in Table 29a.
TABLE 2.7 (Continued)
EARTH PENETRATION AND CRATER FORMATION
Bomb
ALTITUDE OF RELEASE/ 5/000 Ft-AIRSPEED/ 250 mph-LEVEL FLIGHT
Fuze Delay
Type of
Earth
Displace
ment
Feet****
Depth
Penetrated
Feet****
CRATER MEASUREMENTS AND TYPE
Diameter
Feet
Appar.
ent
Depth
Feet***
Actual
Depth
Feet***
Volume
for Refill
Cu Ft*
Crater
T y p e ~ *
-2.3 Soft -0.87 -1.4 12 4.0 3.4
-
0.0005 Medium -0.87 -:--1 .4 10 3.2 2.9
-
-2.6
(INST) Hard -0.87,' -1.4 7.3 1.9 1.8
-
-3.3 .
Soft -0.14 "":""0.22 16 4.7 5.2
-
-0.38
0.0027
(NON.DELAY)
Medium
Hard
-0.17
-0.18
-0.26
-0.29
13
11
4.5
3.2
5.0
3.5
-
-
-
-0.48
-0.67
500 LB Soft 2.1 3.4 25 7.4 9.2 86 5.5
SAP 0.01 Medium 1.7 2.8 21 6.4 7.8 54 5.2
AN.M58A2/
ANM58A1/
Hard 1.5 2.4 18 4.8 6.0 28 5.6
ANM58 Soft 6.0 9.6 32 8.1 15 130 16
0.025 Medium 5.6 8.8 28 7.0 14 84 16
Hard 5.7 6.9 23 5.5 11 45 16
Soft 14 16 30 4.3 23 72 27
0.10 Medium 10 11 29 5.9 17 86 21
Hard 7.5 7.6 23 5.5 12 45 18
-2.3 Soft -0.87 -1.4 12 4.0 3.4
-
0.0005 Medium -0.87 -1.4 10 3.2 2.9
-
-2.6
(INST) Hard -0.87 -1.4 7.3 1.9 1.8
-
-3.3
Soft -0.14 -0.22 16 4.7 5.2
-
-0.38
0.0030 Medium -0.17 -0.26 13 4:5 5.0
-
-0.48
(NONDELAY) Hard -0.18 "":""0.29 11 3.2 3.5
-
-0.67
1/000 LB Soft 2.0 3.2 29 8.7 10 140 4.1
SAP 0.01 Medium 1.9 3.1 26 7.8 9.4 98 4.6
ANM59A1/ Hard 1.9 3.0 22 6.4 8.1 58 5.6
ANM59
Soft 6.1 9.8 39 11 17 250 13
0.025 Medium
Hard
5.7
4.3
12
6.5
36
28
8.4
7.4
19
12
170
85
I'
18
12
Soft 16 19 40 6.2 28 160 25
0.10 Medium 12 14 36 7.7 20 170 20
Hard 8.9 9 29 7.0 14 88 17
*Volume of refill is the cubic feet of earth that it is necessary to cart in to fill the crater. This volume assumes that
all loose earth in the crater has-been tamped into the crater.
**Crater type refers to values given in Table 29b. Values other than those indicated in table must be interpolated.
***Apparent and actual depths are illustrated in Table 29b.
****Displacement and depth penetrated are iIIust.rated in Table 29a.
--
--
--
TABLE 27 (Continued)
EARTH PENETRATION AND CRATER FORMATION
ALTITUDE OF RELEASE, 4,000 Ft-AIRSPEED, 350 mph-60 DIVE
\
CRATER MEASUREMENTS AND TYPE
I
Bomb Fuze Delay
Type of
Earth
Displace
ment
Feet****
Depth
Penetrated
Feet****
Diameter
Feet
Appar
ent
Depth
Feet***
Actual
Depth
Feet***
Volume
For Refill
Cu Ft*
Crater
Type**
-0.58 -1.5 SoFt 2.7 12 3.0 -2.4
0.0005
-
Medium -0.58 -1.5 10 2.8 -2.8
(I NST)
2.9
-
-1.5 Hard -0.58 8.8 2.4 -3.5 2.6
-
SoFt -0.05 -0.12 17 4.9 5.5 -0.20
0.0027
23
Medium -0.05 -0.13 15 4.3 4.8 -0.24
(NON-DELAY)
15
Hard -0.06 -0.14 12 3.5 4.0 8.7 -0.32
500 LB
SAP Soft 1.6 4.2 27 7.7 9.8 100 6.8
AN-M58A2, Medium 1.5. 4.0 .7.0 0.01 24 9.1 69 7.5
AN-M58A1, Hard 1.5 3.8 20 5.6 7.7 8.8
AN-M58
SoFt
39
4.4 12 33 7.5 18 130 19
Medium 4.2 11 0.025 78 29 6.2 16 20
Hard 4.5 8.6 23 4.9 13 40 20
SoFt' 11 20 21 1.2 27 50 33
Medium 8.3 14 26 3.7 48 0.10 20 26
Hard 6.2 9.6 23 4.3 14 42 22
Soft -0.73 -1.9 15 4.2
-
-2.4
0.0005
4.6
Medium -0.73 -1.9 13 3.7 3.4 -2.8
(lNST) -0.73 -1.9 Hard 3.5 2.7 2.4 -3.5
-
SoFt -0.11 -0.30 20 6.5 7.3 -0.39
0.0030 -0.12 -0.31 Medium 18 5.7 6.4 -0.46
(NON-DELAY)
-
Hard -0.12 -0.33 14 4.0 -0.61 4.6
SoFt 1.5 4.0 31 1,000 LB 9.3 11 170 5.2
SAP Medium 1.5 0.01 3.8 8.1 10 28 115 5.6
AN-M59A1, Hard 1.4 3.6 23 6.8 14 66 6.7
AN-M59
SoFt
/
4.5 12 40 10 19 260 15
Medium 0.025 4.2 11 38 9.1 18 170 16
Hard 4.4 9.4 29 6.8 15 88 17
Soft 24 13 31 3.1 32 110 31
Medium 0.10 9.8 17 34 5.4 24 110 25
Hard 7.4 12 30 5.9 17 87 21
*Volume of refill is the cubic Feet of earth that itis necessary to cart in to fill the crater. This volume assumes that
all loose earth in the crater has been tamped into the crater.
**Crater type reFers to values given in Table 29b. Values other than those indicated in table must be interpolated.
***Apparent and actual depths are illustrated in Table 29b.
****Displacement and depth penetrated are illustrated in Table 29a.
TABLE 28
EARTH PENETRATION AND CRATER FORMATIO'N
Bomb
- ALTITUDE OF RELEASE, 20,000 Ft-AIRSPEED, 250 mph-LEVEL FlIt?HT
Fuze Delay
Type of
Earth
Displace
ment
F e e t * * ~ *
Depth
Penetrated
Feet****
CRATER MEASUREMENTS AND TYPE
Diameter
Feet
Appar
ent
Depth
Feet***
Actual
Depth
Feet***
Volume
for Refill
Cu Ft*
-Crater
Type**
1,000 LB
AP
AN-MK 33
1,600 LB
AP
AN-MK 1
0.08
0.08
Soft
Medium
Hard
Soft
Medium
Hard
18
16
13
18
18
15
50
38
26
55
- 44
31
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-'
-
10
8
5
4
3
1
113
99
78
80
74
65
ALIITUDE OF RELEASE, 10,000 Ft-AIRSPEED, 250 mph-LEVEL FLIGHT
CRATER MEASUREMENTS AND TYPE
Bomb Fuze Delay
Type of
Earth
Displace
ment
Feet****
Depth
Penetrated
Feet****
Diameter
Feet
Appar
ent
Depth
Feet***
Actual
. Depth
Feet***
Volume
for Refill
Cu Ft*
Crater
Type**
1,000 LB
AP
AN-MK 33
0.08
Soft
Medium
Hard
19
17
13
37
28
19
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
10
8
5
83
72
57
-
1,600 LB
AP
AN-MK 1
0.08
Soft
Medium
Hard
19
19
15
41
32
22
-
-
-
-
-
-
4
3
2.8
4
3
1
59
53
46
Bomb
ALTITUDE OF RELEASE, 5,000 Ft-AIRSPEED, 250 mph-LEVEL FLIGHT
Fuze Delay
Type of
Earth
Displace
ment
Feet****
Depth
Penetrated
Feet****
CRATER MEASUREMENTS AND TYPE
Diameter
Feet
Appar
ent
Depth
Feet***
Actual
Depth
Feet***
Volume
for Refill
Cu Ft*
Crater
Type**
1,000 LB
AP
AN-MK 33
1,600 LB
AP
AN-MK 1
0.08
0.08
Soft
Medium
Hard
Soft
Medium
Hard
19
16
15
19
18
15
-
-
-
27
22
15
-
-
-
11
15
19
-
-
-
-
-
1.9
-
-
-
34
28
20
10
8
5
4
-3
2.6
58
48
45
39
36
31
Bomb
ALTITUDE OF RELEASE, 4,000 Ft-AIRSPEED, 250 mph-LEVEL FLIGHT
Fuze Delay
Type of
Earth
Displace
ment
Feet****
Depth
Penetrated
Feet**** .
CRATER MEASUREMENTS AND TYPE
Diameter
Feet
Appar
ent
Depth
Feet***
Actual
Depth
Feet***
Volume
for Refill
Cu Ft*
Crater
Type**
1,000 LB
. AP
AN-MK 33
1,600 LB
AP
AN-MK 1
0.08
0.08
Soft
Medium
Hard
Soft
Medium
Hard
14
14
10
14
14
12
31
23
16
36
27
19
-
-
-
-
1.2
8.8
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
20
-
34
24
10
8
5
4
3
1
70
59
48
53
45
39
*Volume of refill is the cubic feet of earth that it is necessary to cart in to All the crater. This volume assumes that
all loose earth in the crater has been tamped into the crater.
**Crater type refers to values given in Table 29b. Values other than those indicated in table must be interpolated.
***Apparent and actual depths are illustrated in Table 29b. .
****Displacementand depth penetrated are illustrated in Table 29a.
TY PI CAl-
PENETRATION
PATHS OF 500LB. GP BOMBS
o
__-60 DIVE
....-----HORI Z b NTAL FLI GH"T----.....o---.
250 MPH 350 MPH
20,QOO FT 10,000 F T 5,000 F T 4,000 F T
INST "...----INST
'" '. " t
r
.... :.:.
. ;,:,: . - NO
-- __NO ." ",. NO ....
,025
- ---_._- ----,_--:-.--'--....:........
__ .1
--

-,---
....:,
-.. .. ----_..- .. ------_._._---
INST

.. _--------- .:...-I-
-I
.

z
:r: ...J
I
a.
LLJ ::;:1
o :J
C
L1J_
'""r --0'

________ , .. .. _


.".....--- INST
.. INST
NO

, '.. \.
....
-'_ O. .
"
\
. ,
o
(J) -\::;"""_-'"'-=--= . 0 I
Z
<C
a..
BOMBS ARE SHOWN AT EXPECTED POINT OF DETONATION
FOR V ARIOUS F UZ I GS
TABLE 29a
ESTIMATED CRATER SIZE AND SHAPE
1000 LB. TNT CHARGES IN AVERAGE SOIL
SCALE I CM = 10 FEET
I
I,
TYPE 10
TYPE 0
DIAMETER ---;0...1
TYPE 20
TYPE 30
~ .....
L TYPE 40
1\-(;'.'.:'1 LOOSE MATERIAL
* POINT OF DETONATION
1':.
.."
.'
h ..
~ :
.
,.
,
."
.:
i ~
':'
~ ,
-
-
-/
1\
-
'1..
\
"'I'
lJ
-
"-
.,..-./
t
-
L i :
_______--,_T-YPE--50------_l
TABLE 29b
Page.49
Volume III Part 4
ARMOR PENETRATION BY BOMBS
1. GENERAL.
The relatively large dispersion and low striking velocity of bOlnbs prevent
the direct attack Qf armored targets for perforation from being generally
profitable, except for targets of unusual importance or size. However, large
Armor Piercing (AP) bombs dropped from high altitudes can perforate the
armored decks of battleships of current construction. Also, the detonation
of large high capacity bombs may tear armor plate of considerable thickness.
2. DEFORMATION, RUPTURE AND LOWORDER
DETONATION.
General Purpose (GP) and Semi-Armor Piercing (SAP) bombs with delay
fuze do not withstand impact on heavy armor. Such an impact leads to de
formation and breakage of the casing, which is generally accompanied or
preceded by a low order detonation of the explosive filling (Amatol, TNT or
RDX Comp B). However, when a GP orSAP bomb hits a sufficiently thin
armor plate, the plate rather than the bomb is deformed and ruptured so
that a perforation results without effective damage to the bomb. Estimates
of the plate thicknesses that can be thus defeated are shown in Table 30.
SAP bombs perform better than GPbombs of equal weight.
Armor Piercing bombs with standard Explosive D filling withstand
impact on all but the heaviest armor without appreciable deformation or
danger of low order detonation. The expected performance of AP bombs is
shown in Figure 13. Notice that use of the 1,000 pound and 1,600 pound
bombs against armor thicker than seven and eight inches respectively is
not recommended, because of the danger of deformation.
3. EFFECTS OF DETONATION ON ARMOR.
General Purpose, and to some extent Semi-Armor Piercing, bombs pro
vided with a quick fuze achieve considerable effect when hitting armor plate
of moderate thickness which would withstand the impact of the same bombs
with delay fuze. Estimates of the plate thicknesses that can be thus punched
through, letting fragments and some of the detonation gases pass through
the plate, are shown in Table 30. It is realized, however, that no substantial
demolition can be thus effected on heavy structures behind the defeated
plate in contrast to the effect of a delay fuzed perforating bomb that would
burst behind the plate.
The detonation of uncased or lightly cased charges of TNT-laid on armor
produces penetrations greater than those from corresponding weights of
explosive in bombs dropped on armored targets. The compactness of the
charge and its proximity to the armor increases penetration. The following
rule appears to hold approximately: W pounds of TNT pierces up to 3YW
inches of armor:
4. QUALITY OF ARMOR.
The data given here refers to Homogeneous Armor which is also commonly
referred to as "Special Treatment Steel" or "Class B" or "Machinable
Quality" armor. One inch thickness of this armor is roughly equivalent to
0.6-0.7 inch "Class A" or "Face Hardened" armor, to 0.9-1.0 inch of
"Homogeneous Hard" armor, and to 1 ~ inches of mild steel.
TABLE 30
ARMOR PERFORATION
GP AND SAP BOMBS
-
Bomb
Maximum Thick
ness of Plate Per
forated With Delay
Fu.ze Without
Break-up or Low
Order Detonation
1
(in.)
Maximum Thick
ness of Plate
Punched Through
By Detonation
With Quick Fuze
2
(in.)
100 Ib GP
AN-M30 and AN-M30A1 1.0 1.8
250 Ib GP
AN-M57 andAN-M57A 1 1.3 2.3
500lbGP
AN-M43, AN-M64 and AN-M64A1 1.5 3.0
1,000 Ib GP
AN-M44, AN-M65 and AN-M65A1 1.7 3.8
2,000 Ib GP
AN-M34, AN-M66 and AN-M66A1 2.0 4.8
500 Ib SAP
AN-M58, AN-M58A1 and AN-M58A2 2.0 2.0 EST
1,000 Ib SAP
AN-M59 and AN-M59A1 2.5 2.5 EST
lThe perforations shown in this column can be obtained under the following conditions:
(a) Against horizontal plate:
Level Bombing: about 5,000 ft altitude or more.
Dive Bombing at 60 dive, 350 mph air speed, any altitude.
(b) Against vertical plate:
Minimum Altitude Bombing: 400 mph air speed.
About 30% loss of thickness perforated can be expected for level bombing from
1,500 ft or for minimum altitude bombing at 300 mph air speed.
No increase of thickness perforated above the figures shown in table can be obtained
by increasing the striking velocity, since with thicker plate break-up and/or low order
detonation would probably occur.
2The figures shown refer to use of. an instantaneous nose fuze. Use of a non-delay tail f u z ~
should increase the thickness punched through, possibly by 20%.
Page 50
ARMOR PENETRATION BY AP BOMBS
THICKNESS OF PLATE PERFORATED THICKNESS OF PLATE PERFORATED
VS. STRIKING VELOCITY VS. ALTITUDE OF RELEASE
BOMBING FROM HORIZONTAL FLIGHT 250 MPH
FOR VARIOUS OBLIQUITIES
(w.. ANGLE OF FALL)
DIVE BOMBING, 60DIVE. 350 MPH
10 10
8
i z
.. J
~ 6 ~ s
IU IU
Z Z
1,000-LB A P
~
AN- MK.33
~
o 0
~
t- 4 ~ 4
2
2
DIVE
HORIZ ONTAL FLIGHT
0
o
O' 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 0 5 10 15 20 25 30
STRIKING VELOCITY (f/s) ALTITUDE (THOUSANDS OF FT)
FIGURE 13
1. The graphs on the left side serve to determine
8 the maximum thickness perforated under any
condition of impact. If the armor plate is not
horizontal, the angle formed by the trajectory
with the plate should be entered instead of the
angle of fall.
2. The graph on the right side serves to de
termine the maximum thickness of horizontal
plate perforated under typical conditions of
bomb release.
2
3. The bomb 1,000 lb AP AN-M52 is some
what heavier than the AN-Mk.33 and hence
it performs slightly (about 4%) better under
equal conditions of impact. However, its
o
, 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 explosive charge is smaller and its exterior
STRIKING VELOCITY (fls) ballistics poorer.
Page 51
Volume III Part 5
BOMB FUZE FUNCTIONING ON THIN ROOFS
1. GENERAL.
The nose fuze in bombs will presumably be initiated by all roofs, but the
tail fuze in bombs is inertia activated and will.not function on the thinnest
roofs. The effective thickness of roof necessary depends only on the weight
per square foot. The following table (Table31) gives, for various bombs
and altitudes of release, the thinnest roof which will cause Junct,oning of
most of the bombs dropped when using any of the AN-MIOO, AN-MIOI or
AN-MI02 series fuzes.
Values are given for the General Purpose (GP) bombs, and also for Semi
Armor Piercing (SAP) bombs. For the latter category (SAP) the use of such
a table will be to determine whether the fuze will be. 'initiated on the roof or.
the cellar, when bombs strike protected cellars that are covered by thin
roofed buildings. In this case heed should be given that thinner roofs than
those tabulated will still initiate the fuze of a considerable fraction of the
bombs. Only roofs one-third of the thickness tabulated or less will pass most
of the dropped bombs without initiation of the fuze.
Roof and floor thicknesses are not to be added in estimating fuze action.
That is, if the bomb .must pass many layers of floors (spaced 'more than five
feet apart) and no single one of the layers would initiate the fuze, then the
multiple layers will in general not initiate the fuze.
TABLE 31
THICKNESS OF ROOF NECESSARY TO CAUSE FUNCTIONING OF THE TAIL FUZES
AN-Ml00Al, AN-Ml00A2, AN-Ml01Al, AN-Ml02Al OR
AN-Ml02A2
Altitude
from which
bomb is
dropped
Bomb
Roofing
GP, 100 Ib
AN-M30
AN-M30A1
GP, 250 Ib
AN-M57
AN-M57A1
GP, 500 Ib

AN-M64A1
AN-M43
GP, 1,000 Ib
AN-M65
AN-M65A1
AN-M44
GP, 2,000 Ib

AN-M66A1
AN-M34
SAP, 500 Ib
AN-M58
AN-M58A1
AN-M58A2
SAP, 1,000 Ib
AN-M59
AN-M59A1
(a}lb/sq ft 3 4.5 6
5,000 ft (b) in. concrete 1/4 3/8 1/2
-
(c) in. metal 1/12 1/8 1/6
(d) gage metal 14 11 9
(a) Ib/sq ft 2.5 3.5 4.5
10,000 ft (b) in. concrete 1/4 1/3 3/8
(c) in. metal 1/15 1/10 1/8
l (d) gage metal 16

13 11
(a) Ib/sq ft 2 3 4
(b) in. concrete 1/6 1/4 1/3
20,000 ft
.'
(c) in. metal 1/20 1/12
14
1/10
(d) gage metal 18 12
(a) Weight in pounds per square foot
(b) Thickness in inches if roof is concrete
(c) Thickness in inches if roof is sheet metal (steel)
(d) U. S. Standard Gage of sheet metal roof
Page 53
Volume III Part 6
BLAST
1. GENERAL.
The hot gases ejected by a detonating bomb sweep out and compress the
surrounding air and throw that compressed body of air against adjacent
layers of air. In this way a belt is formed within which the air has high
pressure and high outward velocity. This belt is limited by an extremely
sharp front (less than one thousandth of an inch) called the "shock front"
in which the pressure rises abruptly.
The shock front travels away from the point of detonation with an ex
tremely high initial velocity (3,000 feet per second at 60 feet from a 4,000
pound Light Case (LC) bomb where the pressure jump is 100 pounds per
square inch). The velocity then decreases rapidly towards the velocity of
sound (about 1,100 feet per second) as the shock front travels on and the
pressure jump decreases.
The excess pressure prevailing at a point in the air after the arrival of
the shock front decreases and vanishes in a short time (about 0.04 second
at 400 feet from a 4,000 pound Light Case (LC) bomb; about 0.006 second
at 50 feet from a 100-po_und General Purpose (GP) bomb) and is followed
by minor disturbances which often include a partial vacuum. The entire
disturbance produced in air by the detonation of a bomb is called "blast."
2.. PEAK PRESSURE.
The "peak pressure", that is the highest excess pressure which, is attained
right at the shock front, gives a measure the maximum force exerted
against a structure by the blast (Pressure times area = force). Figures
17 and 18 show the peak blast pressure V8. the distance from the point of
burst, for various bombs. The peak pressure required to produce certain
specific effects is also shown.
The numbers in Figures 17 and 18 refer to the hydrostatic pressure,
which is that measured on a surface which is "side on" to the blast (i.e.
parallel to the direction of travel). Larger pressures (up to eightfold) would
be measured on surfaces at a right angle to the direction of travel due to
the impact of the blast. (Figure 15.)
3. DEMOLITION OF A WALL-IMPULSE.
A blast cannot quickly travel around anything as large as the wall of
a house; therefore the pressure d,ifference established by the blast on the
outer and inner faces of a wall persists until the blast has subsided.
As a result of the great inertia of walls, the deformation produced by the
blast seldom attains the point of collapse before the blast has. subsided;
,the wall .keeps on deforming further after that time, again a result of its
inertia, which now tends to overcome the structural strength. The eventual
attainment of a deformation leading to collapse will depend on the velocity
acquired by the wall under the impact of the blast. This velocity depends
in turn not only on the blast pressure but also on its duration, specifically,
on its measurable impulse which is the average pressure multiplied by
the duration, (i.e., the integral of pressure over time).
4. RADII AND AREAS OF /EFFECTIVENES$.
The damage caused by various types of bombs in German load bearing
construction can actually be correlated with the blast impulse measured
at various distances from the bomb. Therefore, the known impulse V8.
distance relation for any type of bomb can be used to estimate the distance
at which a bomb would cause a certain degree of damage. Radii and areas of
blast effectiveness for bombs have been obtained in this way and are shown
in Table 32 and Figure 14.
Data for bombs and fuzes are included in Table 32.which do not cor
respond to a normal tactical employment, because these data also serve to
indicate the comparative blast effectiveness of different bombs on targets
other than German load bearing. wall construction.
Data for the effectiveness of bombs on Japanese light construction are
not yet available. However, it has been estimated that the areas of effective
ness may be at least five times greater than the corresponding areas for
German construction.
5. EFFECTS OF CONFINEMENT.
The presence of obstacles that prevent the travel of blast in some direction
may increase the effect of blast in other directions.
A blast traveling along a tunnel, a corridor, a trench. and In the case of
large bombs, even along a street, is effectively confined, so that its intensity
decreases much more slowly than in the open.
When a bomb-detonates inside a house, demolition of the walls may occur
even if the jistance to the walls exceeds the radius of demolition fqr the
same for the same type of bomb bursting in the open. This is due
to a variety of effects, among which is the "multiple punch" effect created
by the blasts hitting on a wall in quick succession after having been re
flected by other walls. For this reason, separate radii and areas of demoli
tionare given in Table 32 for bombs bursting inside and outside of buildings.
If the effect of a blast is intensified on one side of a wall by its confining
action, it is reduced by the same token on the opposite side of the wall by
its screening (see Figure 16).
Page 54
RADII OF EFFECTIVENESS OF GP BOMBS
4,000 LB LC
BOMB. AN-M56
AND AN-M56AI
2.000 LB GP
BOMB. AN-M34.
AN-M66 AND AN-M6SAI w,j
54 118
1,000 LB GP
BOMB. AN-M44,
AN- M65 AND AN- M65AI
500 LB GP
BOMB. AN- M43.
AN- M64 AND AN- 64AI
lEE!.
liill
o
155!!
.11
Ali
~ .
KEY
_ TOTAL DEMOLITION
__.J VISIBLE DAMAGE
250 LB GP
BOMB. AN-M57 -ONE IN.
AND AN-M57AI
ONE IN. EQUALS APPROX. 33 FT
100 LB GP
BOMB. AN- M30
AND AN-M30AI
PREPARED BY ORDNANCE DEPT.
FIGURE 14
6. PROTECTION FROM BLAST.
A wall effectively reduces blast pressure and impulse on objects close
to it if it is about 10feet by 10 feet or larger and it is of sufficient strength
to withstand the blast.
Foxholes, slit or ditches reduce the blast pressure by about
50 percent in the range where serious injury can occur to persons.
A simple right-angle bend in a tunnel reduces the blast pressure about
50 percent. A system of four such bends reduces it to about 15 percent.
7. EFFECT OF THE TYPE OF EXPLOSIVE.
The data in Table 32 and Figures 14 to 18 inclusive' refer to TNT fillings.
Corrective factors to obtain data for other explosives are given iIi Table 33.
8. EFFECT OF CHARGE/WEIGHT RATIO.
, The action of the explosive of a bomb detonating in air imparts a great
speed to the bomb casing. The casing breaks up into fragments. Later the
action produces an air blast. The lighter the casing, the less energy it takes
to accelerate it. Therefore, a high charge/weight ratio increases the effect
of detonation in ail' in a twofold manner; (1) it will reduce the fraction of
FIGURE
Page
energy taken up by fragments, and (2) it will increase the weight of charge
in a bomb of given weight. The LG bombs are best among present
bombs from the stand-point of blast effectiveness.
9. EFFECT OF BLAST ON INDUSTRIAL STRUCTURES.
The demolition of industrial structures, which are gen,erally steel framed,
cannot be analyzed in the same comparatively simple terms as the demolition
of buildings with load bearing walls.
H, has been estimated that the factory area whose structure is effectively
damaged by a direct hit with the 500 pound GP Bomb AN-M64 with a
0.01 second fuze delay averages about square yards (1,600-1,800
square yards per ton). A considerable reduction of damageisl experienced
if the same bomb is fuzed 0.025 second delay, because its detonatio'n then
occurs far below the roof structure.
The area of factory structure damaged by various' otherGP bombs is
not very different, when expressed in square yards per ton of bombs.
No direct evidence is available on the effectiveness of the U.S. 4,000
pound LC bomb on factory structures, but Allied experience indicates that
the damage by this type of bomb is greater than tllat of all GP bombs,
when expressed in square yards per ton of bomb load.
15
DEPENDENCE OF BLAST PRESSURE ON THE ORIENTATION OF
THI: SURFACE ON WHICH IT IS MEASURED
1. The peak pressure on the surface (A) parallel to the direction of travel
of the blast, at 20 ft from the point of burst of a 2,000 lb GP bomb is about
580 lb/sq in.
2. The peak pressure on the surface B at right angle to the' direction of
travel of the blast, at 20 ft from the point of burst of a 2,000 lb GP bomb
is about 4,100 lb/sq in., that is, more than 7 times the pressure at A.
3. The peak pressure on the surface C parallel to the direction of travel
of the blast, at 200 ft from the point of burst of a 2,000 lb GP' bomb is
about 2.7Ib/sq in.
4. The peak pressure on the D at right angle to the direction of
travel of the blast, at 200 ft from 'the point of burst of a 2,000 lb GPbomb
is about 5.8 lb/sq in., that is, little more than 2 times the pressure onC.
5. The ratio of the peak pressure on pairs of surfaces oriented like A and
B, or C and D decreases with increasing distance from the burst. It is equal
to 8 at very short distances from the burst, and equal to 2 at very great
distance. The pressure on a surface oblique to the direction of travel of the
burst is intermediate between the pressure on surfaces parallel and at right
angles' to the same direction.
... /{'
._
200 FT
---'--

Page 5&
FIGURE 16
DEMOLITION OF BUILDINGS WITH LOAD
BEARING WALLS BY DIRECT HITS OF DELAY
FUZED GP BOMBS.
Circles represent mean radii of demolition of:
(1) 250 lb GP (22 Ft)
(2) 500 lb GP (35 Ft)
(3) 1,0001b GP (55 Ft)
Bombs detonating inside houses, as given in Table 32, for
buildings of German construction with load bearing walls.
A series of duplex houses, each unit iueasuring30 ft x 45 ft
is shown at the left of a street, a 50 ftdeep block is shown
on the right. Cross hatched areas indicate extent of prob
able demolition.
Notice that:
(a) The area within the circles increases faster than
the weight of the bomb.
(b) With increasing weight of the bomb, the radius of
effectiveness exceeds the dimensions of the build
ings, resulting in a loss of effectiveness.
(c) The larger bombs are more efficient against the
larger buildings, the smaller against smaller
buildings. .
(d) Demolition does not extend to buildings other
than the one directly hit (upper left corner.)
Near misses by delay-fuzed bombs produce cratering and
earth shock effect (see p ~ g e 32).
IPOO LB
G P
250LB
G P
SCALE
Pap 51
TABLE 32
RADII AND AREAS OF EFFECTIVENESS
APPROXIMATE VALUES FOR TYPICAL GERMAN BUILDINGS WITH LOAD BEARI'NG WALLS
(TNT LOADING)
Detonation outside Building on ground or roof
(Bomb must be fu.zedinstantaneous)
Detonation inside building
(Direct penetration hit only)
(Bombs must be fuzed delay)
Demolition Visible Damage Demolition
Bomb
Mean
Radius
(ft)
Maximum
Radius
(ft)
Mean
Area
(sq yd)
Mean
Radius
( ~ )
I
Maximum
Radius
(ft)
.Mean
Area
(sqyd)
Mean
Radius
(ft)
Mean
Area
(sq yd)
4,000 Ib LC
AN-M56 or AN.;M56A1
120 150 5,000 265 (330) 24,000 (200)tt (14,OOO)*tf
2,000 Ib GP
AN-M34, AN-M66 or AN-M66A1
54 66 1,000 118 (150) 4,900 (90)tt (2,900)*tt
1,000 Ib GP
AN-M44, AN-M65 or AN-M65A1
(33) (40) (375) (72) (90) (1,800) 55 1,000*
500 Ib GP
'AN-M43, AN-M64 or AN-M64A1
(20)t (25)t (150)t (45) (56) (700) 35 400*
250 Ib GP
AN-M57 or AN-M57A1
(13)t (15)t (60)t (28) (35) (275) 160
100 Ib GP
AN-M30 or AN-M30A1
(7)t (9)t (17)t (16)t (20)t (90)t 12 50
1,000 Ib SAP
. AN-M59 or AN;.M59A1
500 Ib SAP
AN.M58, AN;,M58A1 or AN-M58A2
(18)t
(11 )t
(22)t
(13)t
(110)t
(40)t
(39)
i
(24)
(48)
(30)
(500)
(200)
30
18
300
100
1,600 Ib AP
AN-Mk.1
(12)t (14)t (50)t (26) (32) (240) (20) (150)
1,000 Ib AP
AN-Mk.33
(9)t (11)t (28)t (20)t (25)t {140)t (15) (80)
260 Ib Frag
AN-M8t (T10)
(3)t (4)t (3)t (7)t (9)t (17)t (5)t (9)t
See text for significance of these data. Figures in parentheses do not correspond. to
normal or advisable tactical employment of the bomb in question, and are shown mainly
for .purpose of comparison. Starred figures should be' scaled down in keeping with limited
size of buildings. This table purports only to represent the results of mathematical extrapola
tion of rules that have been established for medium and large bombs, and ilmainly intended
al a guide to the relative effectiveness of different bombs. However figures marked with a t
are believed to be lower than the actual damage due to the neglect of fragment damage
and lome other effects. The figures marked tt ar.e probably greater than the real damage
due to the effect of building design and other neglected effects.
TABLE 33
CORRECTIVE FACTORS
CORRELATING THE BLAST EFFECTIVENESS OF VARIOUS EXPLOSIVE FILLINGS
(TNT. 100)
Explosive
Peak Pressure
(At Equal Distance)
Radius of Effectiveness
Load Bearing Wall
Construction
Area of Effectiveness
Load Bearing Wall
Construction
Torpex
(RDX/TNTI AL,42/40/18)
.
1221j2 125 160
150
130
140
130
120
HBX
(RDX/TNT/ AL/Wax, 40/38/17/5)
1171j2 120
.
Minol
(NH4NOa/TNT/ AL, 40/40/20)
115 1171j2
Tritonal
(TNT/AL,80/20)
1121j2 1171j2
DBX
(NH4NOa/RDX/TNT/ AL, 21/21/40/18)
1121j2 112
1
12
RDXComp B
(RDX/TNT,60/40)
110 110
Ednatol
(Halite/TNTI 57/43)
105
-
105 110
TNT 100 100 100
100
95
-
80
Picratol
(Expl. D/TNT, 52/48)
100 100
Amatex
(NH4NOa/RDX/TNT
/
43/9/48)
100 971j2
Amatol
(NH4NOa/TNT,50/50)
95 87lf2
PEAK BLAST PRESSURE VS.
DISTANCE FROM BOMB BURST
1000:
-
(TNT LOADING GP AND OTHER BOMBS)
PREPARED BY ORDNANCE DEPT
.1' ," ..
i-o-< "'1--....... I
,:.!..,. : l''''>. ;"::' ; . '
;': ; ' : .... :.co;.::.::..
+-.: ..... ,':'l';' c
c.. ,. c:;; .. :'C;. c'
':',
,.
.; :
til
...
..
..'
. ' ,
10: I '.
c' ..
Ie 1-+,-+-+-4-+++.....
t
'-1-; c..c......-J.
IOO-LB GP
AN-M30,AN -M30AI
250-LB G P
AN - M57, AN - M57A I
500-LB GP
AN-M43,AN-M64,
, AN-M64AI
I,OOO-LB GP
AN-M44, AN-M65,
AN-M65AI
2,OOO-LB GP
AN-M34,AN-M66,
AN-M66AI
4,OOO-LB LC
AN- M56,AN-M56AI
FROM POINT OF DETONATION (FT)
FIGURE 17
PEAK BLAST PRESSURE VS.
DISTANCE FROM BOMB BURST
(TNT LOADING -S A PAND OTHER BOMBS)
PREPARED BY ORDNANCE DEPT
=t:.:=....1:=. _, __ - .

200
FLANGE FACING
BURST Tr" ""!'"'i-+-+++-+-++--H-I-t-+-t-I-H-t-H
1H++-H-+-l+-H-+-iIH-'-H,-I--+-+,t .. .
100 _.=; -=10' E;-cJ MEN SERIOUSLY
_INJURED (5CWct> =
STEEL COLUMNS
- ... - .i="-+
( I BEAMS)
SERIOUSLV DAMAGED
MEN STANDING BLOWN
AWAV AT 25 f Is
fill
WEB FACING
ILl

a:
30
::)
en
CJ)
20
,-MEN's EARDRUMS
IJJ
..H-Ht-t-t-t-H
a:
a-
I I I I I I
---:!=.. -::.3=.f-=J;=:":.
=E;
;
lii

<l: +'+-+-=1=1=1=1=
., .
m
___ .. - --- - -'E'.o'. _."
- i=1?.'1=:J- a . ; ':.=- =:'dC",c: =:
...J
r
..
3
<l:
ILl
Q.
2
o 50 100. 150
I, , ' 'TTt:rn' 1'1' t
LlII.1111l10 H.I%? HI lIt UJ IlI1J86UIIUIIII: 111 '6' II/II 'tnifl
1
I,OOO-LB SA P Ani! III U'III'I!ll'n11 f!11ITIlI'11 Elil
AN-M59, AN-M59AI 50 IQO
p 11' II! t' 11 f I J'.i t , n'11-111111111
1
1f ] nJ11111 'Ill III' IIIII'IIIIE Iitl tBII r III Fill
50 1:0
: :
AN- M81 (TIO)
DISTANCE FROM POINT OF DETONATION (FT)
,
FIGURE 18
Page 61
Volume III Part 7
LOW ALTITUDE BOMBING TRAJE(:TORIES
LEVEL, DIVE, AND CLIMB BOMBING
1. DIVE BOMBING TRAJECTORIES.
The following chart (Figure 20) gives the
(a) Angle of Fall
(b) Striking Velocity
(c) Time of Flight
of a bomb dropped from a dive. The chart isbased on trajectories,
and neglects air resistance. It will be accurate for low altitude release, and
more accurate for heavy than light bombs.
1
.
Enter the chart with
(1) The plane speed
(2) Altitude of release
(3) Angle of dive .' ..'
At the top the plane speed must be entered in miles per hour or feet per
second. The circles are those of the plane speed shown at the top. On the
circle of correct plane speed, at the angle of dive, is the initial/point. Verti
cally above and below this initial point are i.dentica;l horizoIl;tal giving
the horizontal component of the bomb velOCity, which remams constant. At
the left, on the level of the initial point, the scale gives the initial vertical
component of the bomb velocity..
Use the curve'of fallon the right, starting at the initial vertical component
(the level ofthe initial point) and follow the curve as far as the altitude
of release, shown at the top. The level of thiS curve, read on the extreme left,
is the final vertical component. of bomb velocity. The point on this level
directly.under the initial point.is the final point. The circle on which this
point lies gives the striking velocity. The angle of this point is the angle offall.
The time of fall is given in the lower right corner as the number of seconds.
The correct time is that. corresponding to the straight slanting line (scaled
1 to 12 seconds) intersecting the curve of fall at the correct altitude of release.
The range is the time of flight multiplied by the horizontal component of
velocity. .
For ease in using this chart, Figure 19 gives the location of each of the
above italics terms.
Example of Bombing from a Dive:
A bomb released at 4,000 feet altitude from a plane diving at 60 degrees
and 350 miles per hour, will fall atan angle of 69 degrees and with a striking
velocity. of 7.20. feet per second. Its range will be 255 feet per second x
7 seconds = 1,800 feet.
IForlevel bombing at 300 miles per hour from 4,000 feet the values
obtained from the chart are in error as follows: .
Angle of fall 4 degrees too low
100 pound GP bomb Striking velocity 17 p.er.cent too high
{
Range 9 percent too long
Angle of fall 2 degrees too low
1,600 pound AP bomb Striking velocity 5. percent too high
{
Range 2 percent too long
The errors for Give bombing trajectories from the same altitude .aire less.
2. BOMBING FROM LEVEL FLIGHT.
The procedure is the same as for dive bombing except that the angle
of dive is zero. The initial point lies on the' upper edge of the chart,and
the horizontal component of velocity is then the plane' speed. The .curve of
fall to be used is that at the extreme right.' The time of flight is read from
the figures along this curove.
3. BOMBING FROM A. CLIMB. .
The graph may also be used for bombing from a climb. It is necessary
to enter the chart with" the angle of climb, plane speed, and altitude of
release, as is the case for dive bombing. The trajectory of the bomb, when
released from a climb, can be .considered to 'consist of two. parts; first,. a
climb over the apex and descent to the same altitude as the point of release,
and then the faU from the altitude of release. At the' end of the first portion,
wlien the bomb has returned to the release altitude, it is moving with the
release velocity, and with an angle of faU equal to the original angle of
climb. From then on. the trajectory is the same as if.released from a' dive
with the same plane 'speed as. the actual' plane speed, same altitude of release
as the actual, but with angle of dive equal to the actual angle of climb. The final
striking velocity and angle of fall of the bomb is the same as for the correspond
ing dive, but the time of flight is longer by the time required to climb over
and down from the apex in the ip.itial part of the bomb trajectory. This latter
time is just twice the time which would have been required to attain the
initial vertical component of velocity of the bomp if it had been dropped
from level flight. These'times are marked on the curve on the extreme right.
The directions for obtaining data for climb bombing are then as follows:
(1) Use actual plane speed.
(2) Use actual altitude- of release.
(3) Use angle of dive equal to the actual angle of climb.
(a) Read the angle of fall as usual for the case of dive.
(b) Read the striking velocity' of the bomb as usual for the case
of dive.
(c) Obtain the time of flight by adding the time taken from the
case of dive to the time required by the bomb to go over the
apex. To obtain the latter time proceed as follows: Use the
initial vertical velocity from the dive and follow at this level
along the chart to the curve on the extreme right. Take the ,
number of seconds marked on that curve at this velocity, and
multiply by two. .' .
(d) The range will be, as always, thetrue time of flight times the
initial horizontal component of the plane speed.
Example of Bombing from a Climb:
A bomb released at 3,000 feet altitude from a plane' climbing at 20 degrees
and 310 miles per hour, will fall at an angle of 47 degrees and with a striking
velocity of 625 feet per second. Its range will be 420 feet per second x 19.8
seconds = 8,316 feet. Time of flight was 10 seconds + 2 x 4.7 seconds
= 19.8 seconds.
Page 62
SPEED AND STRIKING __
-l
<t
o
f=
0:::

-I
<t
Z
U.
m
:i
0
m
LL
0
>
....
<3
0
-I
LLJ
>
HORIZ ONTAL SPEED
BOTH PLANE AND BOMB
-1m
<t:i
00
m
.... u.
ffio
>:>
Z I
o
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I
I
I
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IN FEET ...:
TIME OF FLIGHT
FIGURE 19
LOW ALTITUDE TRAJECTORY
PLANE SPEED f /s

. mph I ,lqO
I
I 3cPo I I
I
ALTITUDE OF RELEASE
,
400 500 6(0 0 6< 0 f/s
100< 000 3000 4000

o
100
200

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t
0400
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1LI
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t
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700
800
900
..
,I SECOND
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4

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tit 12
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00
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100 200 300 400 . 500 600 700 800 234 5
Page 63
FT
5000 6 0o
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;::c
m
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m
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tp ,
-<
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Z

Z
()
m
0
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6 7
HORIZONTAL VELOCITY f/s TIME OF FLIGHT SEC
FIGURE 20
Page 64
Volume III Part 8
SHELL ,FRAGMENT DAMAGE
(THIS PART SUPERSEDES VOLUME II PART 3, PAGES
1.TABLES OF FRAGMENT DAMAGE.
These tables give the number B of effective hits per square foot of target
area at a giv,en distance r feet from theburst. The numbers B are averages
I for different directions from theburst. They are properly applied on y to a
considerable number of bursts with random orientation of the projectile
axis relative to the target.
2. DAMAGE PATTERNS.
As distinguished from damage tables, the damage :patterns represent
typical individual cases and vary with the remaining velocity of the shell
or rocket, the angle of fall, and the height of burst. Both damage tables
and damage patterns presuppose a graze or air burst with no shielding of
target. The user of the data given here must make due allowance for target
shielding and the penetration of the shell,or rocket, into the ground before
burst. The amount of this 'penetration will depend upon the remaining
velocity, the angle of fall of the shell or rocket, the nature, of the soil, and
the shell or rocket and, the fuze. In the fragment damage patterns, shadings
of different types indicate regions of decreasing density of hits. The regions
distinguished are those where there is at least 'one hit per 1, 4, 10, or 25
square feet of area. These units of area are understood as normal to the
fragment trajectories. Unshaded regions entering near the burst do not indicate
that there are no effective hits in these regions, but merely that the density of
effective hits is less than that belonging to the nearest shaded area.
The white centers of the Fragment patterns are used to indicate the origin of
the polar system above which the missile bursts. In general, these areas suFFer
the highest type of Fragment damage as well as blast damage.
This part of Volume III contains damage patterns only for the 4.5 inch
HE Rocket Shell, T22. The damage patterns for various other shell are
contained in Volume II Part 3, pages 140 to 173.
3. TYPES OF DAMAGE.
The types of damage considered are casualties,' and normal perforations
of mild steel of Y8 inch, 7.i inch, and inch thickness. A casualty is sup
posed caused by a hit with at least 58 foot-pounds of energy. It is
tion and not necessarily death. Damage occasioned by perforation of Y8 inch
mild steel is considered effective against airplanes on the ground. In anti
aircraft fire against modern bombers, the most effective damage varies
lIncluding the 4.5 inch HE Rocket Shell,T22.
126 TO 139. PAGES 140 TO 173 ARE NOT SUPERSEDED.)
from that with Y8 inch perforation to % inch perforation of mild steel.
Damage in which there are perforations of >i inch or inch mild steel is
effecti;ve against light armored vehicles, railway rolling stock, and
targets of similar resistant nature.
4. SAFETY LIMITS.
The fragment damage tables are useful in determining, the distance from
a, burst at which a soldier stands a given chance of being, wounded by a
fragment. Su;ppose, for example, that a soldier is required to take a 1-1,000
chap.ce of being wounded by a fragment from the 105mm HE Shell, Ml.
Suppose that the soldier is in open terrain in such a position that f.5 square
feet of his body are exposed to fragments coming directly from the shell.
Accordingly, the number of casualty producing fragments per square foot
to which the soldier is exposed is 1/1,000 x 1/2.5 = 0.0004 and by Table 48
this fragment density occurs at 300 feet from the shell. Thus on the average
the soldier should not be much I\earer than 300 feet from the shell.
If account is to be taken of the most dangerous directions from the
shell, the average densities B of fragments as given in the tables
should be multiplied by a factor of about six and then used as in the above
example. In the case of a man in an airplane wearing standard flyer's body
armor, a fragment capable of piercing the plane fuselage, the body 'armor,
and then wounding a man, would be capable of perforating approximately
7B inch mild steel. Safety limits relative to hits of this type may be fOl1nd
by using the tables for perforations of Y8 inch mild steel in the manner
indicated in the above example.
GROUND BURSTS
5. THE CHOICE OF SHELL.
Ground bursts are recommended in all cases" where' the targets are, rela
tively unshielded. This will Include'most cases of materiel targets, 'and of
personnel other than those in foxholes or prone on rough. terrain. In the
case of materiel targets, the artilleryman should first decide upon the type
of perforation necessary, to effectively damage his target. Given the type
of perforation and the range; the shell, propelling charge and elevation
must be chosen. One of the factors bearing on this choice will be a knowledge
of the minimum number of shell per unit area required to do the predeter
mined fragment damage. This can be obtained from Figures 25 to 49.
Example. Suppose an area target given at 10,000 yards range using the
155mm Howitzer M1 and that effective damage of the target requires
fragments which will perforate 7.i inch mild steel. Figure 43 shows that
the minimum number of .shell for this range is required if Charge 5 and high
angle are used.
6. THE REQUIRED SHELL DENSITY.
Let a target area be given in terms of square units of area 100' feet x 100
feet (i.e. multiples of the 100 feet x 100 feet area). Let it be required to
wound 50 percent of the enemy personnel (4.5 square feet of area) on the
given area or to damage 50 percent of materiel target elements (2 square
feet' of area) vulnerable to fragments of a given perforative. type. The
number D of shells of a given type required per unit of area (100 feet x 100
feet) is given by Figures 25 to 49 against range and charge.
To obtain the desired fragment effect, it is necessary to distribute shell
over an somewhat larger than the given target area. The fringe of
additional area around the given target area has a width W indicated on
each graph. This enlarged area should receive D shell per unit of area.
Unless the edge of the target area is very well defined and of marked im
portance it will usually be more profitable to confine the D shell per unit
area to the given'target area A rather than use the enlarged area. In such
cases points within A at a distance at least W from the edge of A will
the desired' fragment effect. The calculations are based on a. random dis
tribution of shell over the enlarged area with an expected shell density D.
The manner of achieving this shell distribution will depend on the burst
dispersion and type of fire.
. In the case of enemy materiel, each target is supposed divided into a
number of elements each 2 square feet in area and vulnerable to a hit of a
given perforative type, i.e., inch, 74: inch, or inch perforations of mild
steel. The figures give the number D of shell per unit area required to ef
fectively damage 50 percent pf these target elements. For example, an
eRemy vehicle may present eight of these target. elements vulnerable to
hits capable of perforating inch mild steel. If the shell density is taken
from Figures 25 to 49 for inch perforations, four of .these eight target'
elements may be expected to be effectively damaged.' As in the case of
casualties, the distribution of shell with the density D must be made over
an area somewhat larger than the given target area. The width W of this
additional fringe of area is indicated on the figure.
Page 65
If the percent of target elements whichit is desired to effectively damage
is not 50 percent, it is sufficient to multiply the shell density given in the
figures by afactor F given in Table 70 to obtain the correct shell density D.
Shielding. The shell densities D are calculated for flat unshielded terrain
and, in the case of personnel, for men who are standing. For prone men
or for terrain which is rolling or shielded, the shell densities should be
multiplied by appropriate factors. Estimates for some of the more im
portant cases are given following Table 70.
Blast. Blast is effective against personnel in' the open for relatively small
distances, in every case for distances considerably less than those at 'which
a casualty is. certain to be caused by fragments.
.Example. 'Let the target area be 500 feet' x 1,000 feet and at 5,000 yards
and suppose it is desired to wound 60 percent of the enemy personnel on
the area using the 105mm HE Shell, Ml and Charge 4, high angle
Suppose that the terrain is flat and unshielded.
Solution. The width W of the additional fringe of area is 58 feet according
/to Figure 38. The enlarged target dimensions are 616 feet x 1,116 feet.
Thus the enlarged area contains 69 units of area. For each' of these
. 0.58 shell are required in accordance with Figure. 38.. When the percent of
. wounded is to be 60 instead of. 50, a multiplicative factor of 1.32 is called
for as given in Table 70. Thus the number of shell which should be dis
tributed over the enlargedarea is 69 x 0.58x 1.32 = 53.
AIR BURSTS
7. TYPES OF SHIELDING. .
Air bursts are recommended against men in foxholes or open trenches
arid against personnel shielded by rough terrain. The type of shielding
labelled "10
0
foxholes" is believed to' be that .most commonly encountered
and will correspond to the shielding afforded men in foxholes when the'
men are somewhat below the level of the ground, or to the shielding afforded
prone term by rough terrain. The term "io
o
foxhole" from its definition,
as a foxhole in which an occupant will on the average be 'by
fragments with an angle of fall less than 10 degrees. (See on page 67.)
Hastily dug in positions on level ground will correspond to "0
0
foxholes,".
as will trenches in which the heads of men are even with the ground. Men
in "30
0
foxholes" are relatively safe from attack by high explosive
Page 66
. even by air burst fire. In general, Figures 50 to 56 are drawn for "10
0
fox
holes." In the case of "0
0
and 30
0
foxholes," figures are given for the 105mm
Howitzer only, and will serve as a guide for other guns and shell.
8. THE CHOICE OF SHELL.
Given the range, Figures 50 to 56 will show which weapon and which
charge will obtain a 50% casualty effect with the minimum number of
bursts per unit area. With the range, gun, shell and propelling charge
determined, the artilleryman can use the firing tables to obtain the probable
error in the height of burst. This will be needed in Rule A which follows.
Height of burst. For the shells considered, the optimum height of burst
against shielded personnel is for the most part between 25 and 50 feet.
This optimum is' for a controlled height of burst without dispersion in
height. In actual practice the height of burst of. a shell in time fire suffers
considerable dispersion and the best mean height of burst is generally higher
than the best controlled height. The following practical rule assures fragment
damage near the optimum against enemy personnel in medium foxholes.
RULE A
ADJUST THE MEAN HEIGHT H OF BURST'TOA VALUE WHICH IS TWICE
THE PROBABLE ERROR IN THE HEIGHT OF BURST AS LISTED IN THE
FIRING TABLES, RESTRICTING H, HOWEVER, TO VALUES BETWEEN 30
FEET AND 120 FEET.
,. THE REQUIRED SHELL DENSITY.
As in the case of ground bursts, the target area is given in terms of units
of area (100 feet x 100 feet): Once the range, weapon and charge have
been chosen, Figures 50 to 56 give. the number D of air bursts. per unit
of area required to cause 50% casualties with the type of shielding indicated
on the figure. It is assumed that the mean height of burst has been adjusted
in accordance with Rule A.
As in the case of ground bursts, it is necessary 'to distribute D bursts
per unit area not only over the given target area but also over a
larger area.. To this end Rule B may be used.
RULE B
THE WIDTHW (FEET) OF THE ADDITIONAL FRINGE OF AREA IS VERY
APPROXIMATELY EQUAL2TO THE MEAN HEIGHT H OF BURST,AS
PRESCRIBED BY RULE A, PLUS 10 FEET.
If the percent casualties desired is p and not 50 percent it is sufficient
as in the case of ground bursts to multiply the shell density D given by
the graphs by the factor F written below p in Table 70.
Example. Given an area target 100 feet x 500 feet, consisting of men
in "10
0
foxholes," let it be required to wound 20 percent of the enemy
personnel in the area using the 105mm Howitzer, M2A1 and Shell H.E.,
Ml. the range is 5,000 yards.
Solution. For a range of 5,000 yards and for Charge 7, the firing table
gives a probable errorin the height,of burst of 1 mil or 15 feet. Following
Rule A, adjust the mean height H of burst to a value which is twice the
probable error in the height of burst as listed in the firing tables, restricting.
H, however, to values between 30 feet and 120 feet. This gives' H = 30
feet. According to Rule B, the width of additional fringe required is 30 + 10
= 40 feet so that the total area to be covered is 180 feet x 580 feet or 11
units (100 feet x 100 feet). Figure 54 shows that 7.5 shells are required
per unit area so that 7.5 x 11= 82.5 shells must be distributed over the
enlarged area to obtain 50 percent casualties. To obtain 20 percent casualties,
'it appears from Table 70 that 82.5 x0.322 = 27 shells should be distributed.
2Except in the case of the 155mm Howitzer in which case take W=2H.
- -
- - - -
-
PATH OF FRAGMENT
= ~ - ~ ~ -
-- - = - ~ -
- -
=-- '=--- -=- .. -
- ~ .. --
~ . : : - -
- -
11 00 FOXHOLE II
II 10
0
FOXHOLE II
- - ~ - - - . . : . - -
- ~ -
-- - . ~ -
-:....
=.-=:..-
- -
~ ~ . . . : : - - - -
- - - -
::::- -
=..---- - - =
-
,. ' -
- - t r ~ ~ ~ 1 ~
- - ~ ~
"300 FOXHOLE II
Page. 68
TABLE 34
CASUALTIES
HAND GRENADE, Mk. II
TNT Loading
INITIAL FRAGMENT VELOCITY 2,900 F/S
TABLE 35
PERFORATION OF Vg IN. MILD STEEL
Distance Total. number
Average
number of
For the lightest
effective Fragm'ent
From burst
(Ft)
of effective
Fragments
effective Frag
ments per sq Ft
Weight
(oz) ,
Velocity
(F/s)
r N B m v
10 312 0.217 0.011 2,330
20, 254 0.0505 0.015 1,990
30 188 0.0166 0.022 1,640
40 147 0.0073 0.028 1,460
50 111 0.0035 0.035 1,310
60 86 0.0019 0.041 1,210
70 64 0.0010 0.048 1,120
80 47 0.0006 0.055 1,040
100 30 0.0002 0.067 943
120 19 0.0001 0.079 870
140 13 0.0001 0.089 817
Distance Total number
Average
number of
For the lightest
effective Fragment
From burst
(Ft)
of effective
Fragments
effective Frag
ments per sq Ft
Weight
(oz)
Velocity
(f/s)
r N B m v
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
86
43
22
11
7
4
3
0.0686
0.0086
0.0020
0.0005
0.0002
0.0001
0.0001
0.041
0.057
0.075
0.095
0.120
0147
0.176
2,550
2,270
2,080
1,920
1,810
1,710
.1,610
PIp.
20 mm HE SHELL, T16 2Q mm HEI SHELL, M97 (T23)
INITIAL fRAGMENT VELOCITY 2,160 F/S INITIAL FRAGMENT. VELOCITY 1,960 F/S
TABLE 36 TABLE 37
CASUALTIES CASUALTIES
Distance Total number
Average
number of
For the lightest.
effective fragment
from. burst
(ft)
of effective
fragments
effective frag
ments per sq ft
Weight
(ox)
Velocity
(f/s)
r N B m v
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
38
27
18
12
7
6
5
5
0.0304
0.0054
0.0016
0.0006
0.0002
0.0001
0.0001
0.0001
0.018
0.025
0.033
0:040
0.050
0.056
0.062
0.068
1,820
1,540
1,340
1,220
1,090
1,030
980
935
Distance Total number
Average
number of
For the lightest
effective fragment
from burst
(ft)
of effective
fragments
effective frag
ments per sq ft
Weight
(ox)
Velocity
(f/s)
r N B m v
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
30
21
15
1t
10
9
8
7 /
0.0239
0.0042
0.0013
0.0005
0.0003
0.0002
0.0001
0.0001 .
0.024
0.033
0.042
0.050
0.057
0.063
0.069
0.075
>
1,.570
1,340
1;190
1,090
1,020
972
. 929
891
Page 70
7S mm HE SHELL, M48
INITIAL FRAGMENT VELOCITY 3,120 F/S
TABLE 38 TABLE 39
CASUALTIES PERFORATION OF Ya IN. MILD STEEL
Distance Total number
Average
number of
For the lightest
effective fragment
from burst
(ft)
of effective
fragments
effective frag
mentsper sq ft
; Weight
(ox)
Velocity
(f/s)
r N B m v
20 1,070 0.213 0.014 2,060
30 920 0.0809 0.018 1,820
40 750 0.0375 0.024 1,570
60 640 0.0141 0.037 1,270
80 510 0.0064 0.051 1,080
100 450 0.0036 0.063 972
150 370 0.0013 0.090 813
200 320 0.0006 0.116 716
300 250 0.0002 0.173 587
400 200 0.0001 0.244 494
Distance
from .burst
(ft)
r
20
30
40
60
80
100
130
160
190
225
Total number
of effective
fragments
N
534
I
442
386
300
242
197
132
86
57
39
A v ~ r a g e
number of
For the lightest
effective fragment
effective frag
ments per sq Ft
Weight
(ox)
Velocity
(f/s)
B m if
0.106 0.049 2,390
0.0391 0.065 2,180
0.0192 0.082 2,010
0.0066 0.127 1,790
6.0030 0.185 1,580
0.0016 0.253 1,430
0.0006 0.375 1,270
0.0003 0.508 1,160
0.0001 0.655 1,080
0.0001 0.820 1,020
Page 71
3 in. HE SHELL,M42Al
INITIAL FRAGMENT VELOCITY 2,260 F/S
TABLE 40 TABLE 41
CASUALTIES PERFORATION OF Va'IN. MILDSTJEL
Distance
from burst
(Ft)
Total number
of effective
fragments
Average
number of
effective frag
ments per sq ft
r N B
20 547 0.109
30 498 0.0440
40 465 0.0231
60 409 0.0090
80 370, 0.0046
100 331 0.0026
150 282 0.0010
200 244 0.0005
300 191 0.0002
400 149 0.0001
For the lightest
effective Fragment
Weight
(0%)
m
0.026
0.033
- 0.040
0.055
:
0.067
0.080
0.108
0.137
0.197
0.21'5
Velocity
(F/s)
v
1,510
1,340
1,220
1,040
943
' Q62
742
660
549
466
Distance Total' number
Average
number of
For the lightest
effective fragment
from burst
(Ft)
of effective
fragments
effective frag-'
ments per sq ft
Weight
(0%)
Velocity
(f/s)
r N B m v
20
30
40
60
80
100
130
160
190
284
242
205
151
113
90
64
43
28
0.0565
0 . 0 ~ 1 4
0.0102
0.0033
0.0014
0.0007
0.0003
0.0001
0.0001
0.106
0.139
0.177
0.270
0.375
0.480
'0.648
0.825
1.01'
1,860
1,740
1,600
1,400
1,270
1,180
1,080
1,020
963
Page 72
TABLE 42
(:ASUALTIES
81 mm HE SHELL, M43Al
INITIAL FRAGMENT'VELOCITY 3,930 F/S
TABLE 43
PERFORATION OF Ys IN. MILD STEEL
Distance Total number
Average
number of
For the lightest
effective Fragment
From burst
1Ft)
of eFFective
Fragments
eFFective Frag
ments. per sq Ft
Weight
(ox)
Velocity
(F/s)
r N B m v
20 818 0.163 0.009 2,570
30 695 0.0615 0.014 2,060
50 645
- .
0.0321 0.017 1,870
60 541 0.0120 0.027 1,480
80 459 0.0057 0.038 .1,250
100 384 0.0031 0.051 1,080
150 267 0.0009 0.077 880
200 169 0.0003 0.104 758
300 76 0.0001
-
0.159 611
Distance Total number
Average
number of
For the lightest
eFFective Fragment
From burst
(Ft)
of eFFective
Fragments
eFFective Frag
ments per sq Ft
Weight
(ox)
Velocity
(Fjs)
r N B
/
m v
20
30
40
60
80
100
120
140
180
541
473
407
282
164
88
58
40
23
0.108
0.0418
0.0202
0.0062
0.0020
0.0007
0.0003
0.0002
0.0001
0.027
0.036
0.047
0.073
0.105
0.146
0.197
0.258
0.399
2,970
2,670
2,430
2,090
1,870
1,720
1,530
1,420
1,240
Page 73
TABLE 44
CASUALTIES
81 111m HE SHELL, MS6
INITIAL FRAGMENT VELOCITY 6,180 F/S
TABLE 45
PERFORATIONOF1jg IN. MILD STEEL
Distance Total number
Average
number of
For the lightest
eFfective Fragment.
From burst
(Ft)
of eFfective
Fragments
eFfective Frag
mentsper sq Ft
Weight
-(oz)
Velocity
(F/s)
r N B m v
20
30
40
60
80
,100
150
200
300
2,580
2,060
1,680
906
614
412
170
112
63
0.513
0.182
0.0836
0.0200
0.0076
0.0033
0.0006
0.0002
0.0001
0.004
0.006
0.008
0.014
0.021
0.029
0.056
0.080
0.128
3,860
3,150
2,720
2,060
1,680
1,430
1,030
862
682
Distance Total number
Average'
number of
For the lightest
eFfective Fragment
From burst
(ft)
of eFfective
Fragments
eFfective Frag
mentsper sq Ft
Weight'
(oz)
Velocity
(F/s)
r N B m v
20
30
40
60
80
100
120
140
170
1j040 .
762
583
314
193
130
76
63
40
0.208
0.0674
0.0290
0.0069
0.0024
O.OOto
0.0004
0.0003
0.0001
0.012
0.017
0.022
0.035
0.051
0.071
0.097
0.128
0.188
4,060
3,580
3,200
2,700
2,360
2,110
1,900
1,780
1,560 i
Page 74
TABLE 46
CASUALTIES
90 mill HE SHELL, M71
INITIAL FRAGMENT VELOCITY 2,900 F/S
TABLE 47
PERFORATION OF % IN. MILD STEEL
Distance Total number
Average
number of
For the lightest
effective fragment
. from burst
(Ft)
of effective
fragments
effective frag
ments per sq ft
Weight
(ox)
Velocity
(f/s)
r N B m v
20 668 0.133 J
0.015 1,990
30 594 0.0525 0.022 1,640
40 547 0.0272 0.028 1,460
60 474 0.0105 0.041 1,210
80 427 0.0053 0.055 1,040
100 398 0.0032 0.067 943
150 347 0.0012 0.094 796
200 319 0.0006 0.120 705
300 264 0.0002 0.180 575
500 208 0.0001 0.340 418
Distance Total number
. Average
number of
For the lightest
effective fragment
from burst
(ft)
of effective
fragments
effective frag
ments persq ft
Weight
(ox)
Velocity
(f/s)
r N B m v
20 424 0.0844 0.057 2,270
30 . 380 0.0336 0.075 2,080
40 345 0.0172 0.095 1,920
60 288 0.0064 0.147 1,710
80 243 0.0030 0.210 1,500
100 222 0.0018 0.287 1,370
120 203 0.0011 0.377 1,260
150 163 0.0006 0.519 1,150
200 113 0.0002 0.772 1,040
275 59 0.0001 1.16 935
Page 75
Distance Total number
Average
number of
For the lightest
effective Fragment
From burst
(Ft)
of effective
Fragments
effective Frag
ments per sq Ft
Weight
(0%)
Velocity
(F/s)
r N B m v
20 1,160 0.231 0.010 2,440
30 1,115 0.0986 0.014 2,060
40 1,072 . 0.0533 0.019 1,770
60 996 0.0220 0.030 1,410
80 932 0.0116 0.043 1,180
100 875 0.0070 0.055 1,040
150 745 0.0026 0.083 846
200
.. 642
0.0013 0.109 738
300 513 0.0004 0.166 598
400 433 0.0002 0.232 507
500 358 0.0001 0.312 438
105 mmHE SHELL,' Ml
INITIAL FRAGMENT VELOCITY 3,500.F/S
TABLE 48 TABLE 49
CASUALTIES PERFORATION OF l/
S
IN. MILD STEEL
Distance
From burst
(Ft)
r
20
30
40
60
80
100
120
140
170
200
300 .
Total number
of effective
Fragments
N
975
923
853 '.
700
570
470
403
341
262
210
88
. Average
number of
For the lightest
effective Fragment
effective Frag
ments persq Ft
Weight
(0%)
Velocity
(F/s)
B
/
m v
0.194 0.035 2,700
0.0816 0.047 2,430
0.0424 0.061 2,220
0.0155 . 0.095 1,920
0.0071 0.137 1,750
0.0037 0.192 1,550
0.0022 0.255 1,420
0.0014 0.326 1,320
0.0007 0.448 1,200 .
0.0004 0.580 1,120
0.0001 1.05 9.55
Page 76
TABLE 50
CASUALTIES
105 mmHESHELL, M38Al
INITIAL FRAGMENT VELOCITY 3,320 F/S
TABLE 51
PERFORATION OF VS IN. MILD STEEL
Distance Total number
Average
number of
For the lightest
effective fragment ~
from burst
(ft)
of effective
fragments
effective <frag
ments persq ft
Weight
(oz)
Velocity
(f/s)
r N B m v
20 1,120 0.222 0.012 2,230
30 1,090 0.0967 0.017 1,870
40 917 0.0456 0.023 1,620
60 807 0.0178 0.034 1,320
80 735 0.0091 0.047 1,130
100 680 0.0054 0.060 1,000
150 592 0.0021 0.088 822
200 529 0.0011 0.112 729
300 431 0.0004 0.170 592
400 360 0.0002 0.237 501
600 256 0.0001 < 0 ~ 4 1 2 380
Distance Total number
Average
number of
For the lig<htest
effective fragment
from burst
(ft)
of effective
fragments
effective frag
ments per sq ft
Weight
(oz)
Velocity
(f/s)
r N B m v
20 751 0.149 0.043 2,510
30 707 0.0625<' 0.053 2,330
40 652 0.0324 0.069 2,130
60 538 0.0119 0.107 1,860
80 448 0.0056 0.15-9 1,670
100 372 0.0030 0.222 1,480
120 326 0.0018 0.290 1,360
140 282 0.0011 0.367 1,280
170 223 0.0006 0.495 1,170
200 175 0.0003 0.632 1,090
300 85 0.0001 1.13 940
Page 77
TABLE 52
CASUALTIES
4.5 HE SHELL, M65
INITIAL FRAGMENT VELOCITY 2,810 F/S
TABLE 53
PERFQRATION OF Ys IN. MILD STEEL
Distance
from burst
(ft)
Total number
of effective
Fragments
Average
number of
effective Frag
ments' per sq Ft
For the lightest
effective fragment
Weight Velocity
(oz) (f/s)
I
. r N B m v
20 1,310 0.261 0.017 1,870
30 1,220 0.108
-
0.023 1,620
40 1,180 0.0588 0.028 1,460
60 1,080 0.0240 0.043 1,180
80 1,030 0.0128 0.057 1,020
100 966 0.0077 0.069 928
150 879 0.0031 0.095 792
200
300
802
661
0.0016
0.0006
0.122
0.183

570
500 482 0.0002 0.342 417
700 371 0.0001 0.550 329
Distance Total number
Average
number of
For the lightest
effective Fragment.
From burst
(Ft)
of effective
fragments
effective Frag
ments per sq Ft
Weight
(oz)
Velocity
(F/s)
r N B m v.
-
20 993 0.198 2,220
30
-
940 0.0831 0.079 2,040
40 864 0.0430 0.100 1,890
60 735 0.0162 .0.153 1,690
80 606 0;0075 0.222 1,480
100 515 0.0041 0.303 1,340
120 443 0.0024 0.400 1,240
140 399 0.0016 0.493 1,170
170 337 0.0009 0.642 1,090
200 282 0.0006 0.802 1,020
300 155 0.0001 1.36 896
Page 78
TABLE 54
CASUALTIES
120 mm HE SHELL, M73
INITIAL FRAGMENT VELOCITY 2,410 F/S
TABLE 55
PERFORATION OF % IN. STEEL
Distance Total number
Average
number of
For the lightest
effective fragment
from burst
(ft)
of effective
fragments
effective frag .
ments per sq ft
Weight

Velocity
(f/s)
r N B m v.
20
30
40
60
80
100
150
200
300
400
500
484
467
458
435
413
398
367
333
290
263
239
;
0.0963
0.0413
0.0228
0.0096
0.0051
0.0032
0.0013
0.0007
0.0003
0.0001
0.0001
0.022
0.028
0.036

0.065
0.077
0.103
0.133
0.199
0.275
0.366
1,640
1,460
1,280
1,080
958
880
760
669
547
465
403
Distance
from burst
(ft)
Total number
of effective
fragments
Average
number of
effective frag
ments per sq ft
For the lightest
effective fragment
Weight
(0%)
Velocity
(F/s)
-
r. N B m v
20
30
40
60
80
100
120
140
170
200
300
376
350
319
278
246
228
212
198
178
160
118
0.0748
0.0309
0.0159
0.0061
0.0031
0.0018
0.0012
0.0008
0.0005
0.0003
0.0001
0.089
0.117
0.149
0.230
0.333
0.427
0.531
0.640
0.809
0.987
1.58
1,960
1,820
1,710
1,470
1,310
1,220
1,150
1,090
1,020
968
859
Pagel9
TABLE 56
CASUALTIES
155 mm .HE SHELL, Ml07
'INITIAL FRAGMENT VELOCITY 3,500 F/S
TABLE 57
PERFORATION OF Vg IN. ~ I L D STEEL
Distance Total number
Average
number of
For the lightest
eFFective Fragment
From burst
(Ft)
of eFFective
Fragments
eFFective Frag-,
ments per sq Ft
Weight
(oz)
Velocity
(f/s)
r N B m v
20 1,460 0.291 0.010 2,440
30 1,400 0.124 0.Q14 2,060
40 1,360 0.0676 0.019 1,770
60 1,280 0.0283 0.030 1,410
80 1,190 0.0148 0.043 1,180 ,
100 1,130 0.0090 0.055 1,040 '
150 990 0.0034 0.083 846
200 900 0.0018 0.109 738
300 767 0.0007 0.161 598
400 669 0.0003 0.233 505
600 540 0.0001 0.402 383
Distance Total number
Average
number of
For the lightest
eFFective Fragment
from burst
(ft)
of eFFective
frdgments
eFFective Frag
ments per sq ft
Weight
(oz)
Velocity
(f/s)
r N B m v
20 1,240 0.247 0.035' 2,700
30 1,170 0.104 0.047 2,430
40 1,100 0;0547 0.061 2,220
60 945 0.0209 0.095 1,920
80 820 0.0102 0.137 1,750
100 717 0.0057 0.192 1,550
120 648 0.0036 0.255 1,420
140 592 0.0024 ,0.326 1,320
170 513 0.0014 0.448 1,200
200 440 0.0009 0.580 1,120
300 265 0.0002 1..05 955
400 111 0.0001 1.61 856
80
8 HE. SHELL, M103
INITIAL FRAGMENT VELOCITY 2,500 F/S
TABLE 58 TABLE 59
CASUALTIES
PERFORATION OF Vs IN. MILD STEEL
Distance Total number
Average
number of
For the lightest
effective Fragment
From burst
(Ft)
of effective
Fragments
effective Frag
ments per sq Ft
Weight
(0%)
Velocity
(F/s)
r N B m v
20 1,860 0.370 '0.020 1,730
30 1,770 0.156 0.027 1,480
50 1,680 0.0533 0.040 1,220
70 1,560 ,0.0253 0.055 1,040
100 1,470 0.0117 0.074 897
150 1,360 0.0048 0.101 768
200 1,260 0.0025 0.130 676
300 '1,080 0.0010 0.195 553
500 865 0.0003 0.359 407
800 647 0.0001 0.715 289
Distance Total number
Average
number of
For the lightest
effective Fragment
From burst
(Ft)
of effective
Fragments
effective Frag
ments per sq Ft
Weight
(0%)
Velocity
(F/s)
r N B m v
20 1,440 0.286 0.082 2,010
30 1,330 0.118 0.107
1,860
40 1,250 0.0622 0.136 1,750
60 1,060 0.0233 0.207 1,510
80 922 0.0115 0.293 1,360
100 835 0.0066 0.390 1,250
150 670 0.0024 0.655 1,080
200 567 0.0011 0.934 983
300 418 0.0004 1.52 867
500 257 0.0001 2.98 733
TABLE 60 TABLE 61
PERFORATION OF 1fiI IN. MILD STEEL PERFORATION OF Y2 IN. MILD STEEL
r N B m v
20
30
40
60
80
100
150
200
275
400
762
711
670
590
514
447
323
252
179
106
0.j52
0.0629
0.0333
0.0130
0.0064
0.0036
0.0011
0.0005
0.0002
0.0001
0.485
0.566
0.655
0.855
1.10
1.37

' 3.15
4.70
7.45
2,230
2,110
2,020
1,850
1,710
1,600
1,390
1,240
1,110
983
r N B
I
m v
20
30
40
60
80
100
120
140
170
225
245
232
225
188
156
133
119
100
80
40
0.0487
0.0205
0.0112
0.0042
0.0019
0.0011
0.0007
0.0004
0.0002 ,
0.0001
3.27
3.55
3.86
4.53
5.23
5.97
6.81
7.72
9.20
13.3
2,360
2,290
2,230
2,110
2,010
1,930
1,850
1,780
1,680
1,470
Page 81
TABLE '62
CASUALTIES
Total number Distance
of eFFective From burst
Fragments (Ft)
N r
4,160 20
4,080 30
3,660 50
3,310 70
1,00 3,000
. 2,720 150
2,360 250
1,990 400
1,520 700
1,050 1,000
Average
number of
eFFective Frag
ments per sq Ft
B
0.825
0.360.
0.117
0.0538
'0.0239
0.0096
0.0030
0.0010
0.0002
0.0001
TABLE 64
240 mm HE SHELL, M114
INITIAL FRAGMENT VELOCITY 3,300 F/S
TABLE 63
PERFORATION OF% IN. MILD STEEL
Weight
(6%)
m
0.013
0.017
0.028
0.040
0.060
0.087
0.140
0.240
0.521
I
0.928
.
Velocity
(f/s)
For the lightest
,eFFective Fragment
v
2,140
1;870
1,460
1,220
1,000
827
652
498
338
253
Average
I For the lightest
Distance Total number number of
eFFective Fragment
From burst of eFFective eFFective Frag- Weight Velocity
(Ft) fragments ments per sq Ft (0%) (F/s)
.
r N B m v
20 3,250 0.647 0.042 2,530
30 3,070 0.271 0.055 2,300
50 2,720 0.0865 0.087 1,970
70 2,420 0.0393 0.132 1,110
100 2,040 0.0162 0.220 1,480
150 1,670 0.0059 0.412 1,230
200 1,360 0.0027 0.639 1,090
275 1,010 0.0011 0:980 970
400 638 0.0003 1.70 841
600 379 . 0.0001 3.05 729
TABLE 65
PERFORATION OF .1fiI IN. MILD STEEL PERFORATION OFY2 IN. MILD STEEL
r N B m v
20
30
40
60
80
100
150
200
300
500
2,000
1,910
1,820
1,640
1,460
1,280
885
622
362
177
.
0.399
0.169
0.0903
0.0362
0.0182
0.0102
0.0031
0;0012
0.0003
0.0001
0.235
0.276
0.325
0.436
0.560
0.700
1.17
1.75
3.28
7.05
2,880
2,720
2,560
2,310
2,120
1,970
1,680
1,480
1,230
997
r
-
N B m v
20
30
40
60
80
100
150
200
250
300
700
638
597
498
432
383
333
251
165
82
0.139
0.0564
0.0291
0.0110
0.0054
0.0030
0.00t2
0.0005
0.0002
0.0001
1.54
1.70
1.85
2.23
2.60
3.01
4.22
5.60
7.27
9.15
3,070
2,980
2,880
2,700
2,550
2,420
2,160
1,970
1,810
1,680
Page'S2
4.5 in. HE ROCKO SHELL, T22
TNT Loading
I N I T I A ~
NOSE SECTION
FRAGMENT VELOCITY 3,500 F/S
TABLE 66
CASUALTIES
TABLE 67
PERFORATI'ON OF 'Is I N ~ MILD STEEL
Distance Totalnumber
Average
number of
For the lightest
effective fragment
from burst
(ft)
of effective
fragments
effective frClg..
ments per sq ft
Weight
(oz)
Velocity
(f/s)
~
r N B m v
20 377 0.228 0.010 2,440
30 316 0.0850 0.014 2,060
40 264 0.0400 0.019' 1,770
60 199 0.0134 0.030 1,410
80 152 0.00S7, 0.043 1,180
100 125 0.0030 0.055 1,040
150 102 0.0011
0.083 ' 846
200 93 0.0006 0.109 738
300 76 0.0002 0.166 598
400 59
,
0.0001 0.232 507
Distance Total number
Average
number of
For the lightest
effective ,fragment
from burst
(ft)
of effective
fragments
effective frag;.
ments per sq ft
Weight
(oz)
Velocity
(f/s)
r N B m
-
v
20 179 0.108 0.035 2,700
30 143 0.0384 0.047 ,2,430
40 1'12 0.0170 0.061 2,220
60 99 0.0066 0.095 1,920
80 84 0.0032 0.137 1,750
100 68 0,0016 0.192 1,550
120 52 0.0009 0.255 1,420
150 36 0.0004 0.365 1,280
200 23 0.0001 0.580 1,120
225 18 0.0001 0.700 1,060
Remaining velocity of rocket = 500 fls '
The nose section limits are 0Qnd 70from the nose.
PageB3
4.5 in. HE ROCKET SHELL,T22
TNT Loading
SIDEWALL SECTION
INITIAL FRAGMENT VELOCITY 4,000 F/5
TABLE 68 TABLE 69
CASUALTIES PERFORATION OF % IN. MILD STEEL
Distance'
from burst
(ft)
r
20
30
40
60
80
100
150
200
300
400
Total number
'of effective
fragments
N
868
695
601
I
456
353
289
231
207
168
Average
numberof
For the lightest'
effective fragment
effective frag
ments per sqft
Weight
(0%)
Veloc:ity
(Fts)
B m v
0.410 ,0.009, 2,570
0.146 0.014 2,060
0.0710 . 0.018 1,820
0.0240 0.028 1,460
0.0104 0.040 1,220
0.0054 0.052 1,070
0.0019 0.078 873
0.0010 0.104 758
0.0004 0.160 610
0.0002 0.223 51'7
,
130/
Distance Total number
Average
number of
For the lightest
effective fragment
From burst
(Ft)
of effective
fragments
effective frag
ments per sq ft
Weight
(oz)
Velocity
(Fts)
r N B m
20 481 0.227 0.026 3,020
30 390 0.0819 0.035 2,700
40 321 0.0379 0.045 2,470
60 236 0.0124 0.071 2,110
80 207 0.0061 0.104 1,870
100 180 0.0034 0.144 1,720
120 148 0.0020 0.195 1,540
150 102 0.0008 0.290 1,360
200 61 0.0003 0.474 1,190
250 41 0.0001 1,070
Remaining velocity of rocket = 500 fls
The sidewall section limits are 70 and 120 from the nose.
v
0.680
Page 84
4.5-IN. HE ROCKEl SHEll, T22
CASUALTIES PERFORATIONS OF V.IN. MILD STEEL

FIGURE 21 FIGURE 22
GroundS""t
Rocket Horizontal at Rest
At least 1 hit per 4 sq. ft.
At least 1 hit per 10 sq. ft.
Page 85
4.S-IN. HE ROCKET SHEll, T22
PERFORATIONS OF V.IN. MILD STEEL
CASUALTIES
0 .
901----4-----I----+
901----+----+-
FIGURE 24
FIGURE 23
Ground Burst
Remaining Velocity 500 f/s
At least 1 hit per 4 sq. ft.
At least 1 hit per 10 sq. ft.
GROUND BURSTS
SHELL DENSITIES REQUIRED IN AREA FIRE
Figures 25 to 49 give the shell densities D per unit area (100 feet x 100 feet) required to cause damage of the type
specified on the graph. To obtain p percent c a s ~ a l t i e s or damage to p percent of the materiel target elements (see
paragraph 6), the values of D obtained from the graphs should be multiplied by the factor F given in the following
table under p.
TABLE 70
Percent p 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
The factor F 0.,150 0.322 0.516 0.740 1.00 1.32 1.74 2.32 3.32
In case the target area is not flat or is shielded, or the men are not standing, the above values of D should be
multiplied by an appropriate factor. Estimates of this factor are given below for a number of typical cases.
MEN MATERIEL
Factor
3
2
4
The Tactical Case
Men prone, Rat terrain, no shielding.
Men standing, rolling terrain, no. shielding.
Men prone, rolling terrain, country rields.
Factor
2
3
The Tactical Case
Rolling terrain, no shielding.
Rolling terrain, rough country.
Page8T'
ROCKET DENSITY DREQUIRED, IN AREA FIRE
W 15 Ft
GROUND BURSTS NO SHIELDING
REMAINING VELOCITY 500 f/s
ROCKET, HE', 4.5 INCH, .T22
, ,
Damage Type: VB in. Mild Steel Perforations
Expected Damage Coverage' 50% by Number,
of Vulnerable Target Elements (2 Sq Ft)
4
.:t
0
~
)(
...:
LL.
0
-0
Ql
0
::l
~
Qj
a.
""0
~
'3
0'".
~
2
Ql
-5i
(;
Qj
- ..0
E
::l
-z
II
C'l
W
25 Ft
Damage Type Casualties
Expected Casualties 50%
, by Number, of Enemy Personnel
1.
PREPARED BY ORDNANCE DEPT
Angle of Fall deg.
o 15 30 45
W=Width of fringe aropnd target area requiring the burst density D.
FIGURE 2S
0.4

2. 0 ""T""'l""Mr-T""T"T""T"'T'T"T'''''''''''''''..,...,...,..,n-r-r-......,...,..T""T"'":'"T'TT r-T""T"T""T"'T'T"T'"T""':""T"T'"T"T'"1"""1M"'T"T""I""T"T'"T".,.,.-r-r.,-,-,
,I' t
SHELL DENSITY D REQUIRED IN AREA FIRE E
SUPERQUICK GROUND BURSTS NO SHIELDING :
1.8
l"ll
r _
u..
0
1.6
0
....
><
....
..
u..


1.4
\0

Q)
I
0
:::l .
0'"
III
I-
1.2
i- Q)
Q. . Reduced Charge
'"0
Q)
'5
I-
"Normal Charge .
g
1.0

I-
Supercharge
Q) ,
...c.
III
'Damage Type Casualties
0.8 0
I-
Expected Casualties 50%
..0
E by" Number, of Enemy Personnel
Q)
:::l
.
i-
z
0.6
I-- II
0 Gun, 75 mm, M3
Shell, HE, 75mm, M48
I
W 37 Ft

o
1,0002,000 3,000 _ 4,000 5,000 6,000 7,000
Range
8,000
Yd
9,000 10,000 11,000 12,000 13,000 14,000 15,000
PREPARED BY ORDNANCE DEPT
I "TTlI1 I nTTTI n I I I I I I I I I I I
W::;:Width of fringe around target area requiring the burst density D.
FIGURE 26
6.5
7 . 5 . m r = = = ~ ~ ~
SHELL DENSITY D REQUIRED IN AREA FIRE
SUPERQUICKGROUNDBURsrs NO SHIELDING
6.0
5.5
5.0
-
,u..
0
0
..-
,>(
4.5
-
u..
0
0
..-
(I)
s...
4.0
0
:;)
0'"
III
s...
Reduced Charge
(I)
3.5
Q.
'""0
(I)
s...
5
Normal Charge
, Supercharge
0'"
(I)'
s...
3.0
....
0
Damage Type: VB in. Mild Steel Perforations ,
..a
s...
Expected Damage Coverage 50% by Number,
2.5
(I)
:;)
E
of Vulnerable Target Elements (2 Sq Ft)
Z
II
2.0
:)
Gun, 75 mm, -M3
Shell, HE, 75 mm,M48
1.5
W 20 Ft
1.0
0.5
PREPARED BY ORDNANCE DEPT, '
Range Yd
o
2,000 4,000 6,000 8,00010,000 12,000 14,000 16,000 18,000 20,000
W=Width of fringe around target area requiring the burst density D.
FIGURE 27
20
19
SHELL DENSITY D REQUIRED IN AREA fiRE
18
" SUPERQUICK GROUND BURSTS NO SHIELDING
17
16
15
13 ~
GI
o
12 [
~
a.
""0
. ~
11 g.
~
4l Supercharge
10 ~
'0
Reduced Charge
Normal Charge
~
.:0
9
Z
II
o
-Damage Type: 1;4 in, Mild Steel Perforations
Expected Damage Coverag'e 50% by Number,
of Vulnerable Target Elements (2 Sq Ft )
Gun, 75 mm, M3
5,
Shell, HEI 75 mm, M48
W 13 Ft
PREPARED BY ORDNANCE DEPT'
R a n g ~ yd.
o
o 2,000 4,000 6,000 8,000 10,000 12,000 14,000 16.00018.000 20,000
W=Width of fringe around target area requiring the burst density D.
FIGURE 28

SHELL DENSITY D REQUIRED IN AREA FIRE
SUPERQUICK GROUND BURSTS NO SHIELDING
26
Gun,90 mm, M1, M1A1, M2" or M3 -+-I"W-f-t-+-++-l-++++I
Shell, HE, 90 mm, M71
W 46 Ft
Normal Charge
6
4
2
Damage Type Casualties
Expected Casualties 50%
Number, of Enemy Personnel
r _..... . .
!"
PREPARED BY ORDNANCE DEPT
. . .
2,000 4,000 6,000 8,000 10,000 12,000 14,000 16,000 18,000 20,000
-H-++-r+++++++-H-+-+++-I-H-H-++f-++-++++-I-++H-t-+-++-l-+-H
W=Width of fringe around target area requiring the burst density D.
FIGURE 29
10.0 . Reduced Charge ;a
0C1
Normall:harge
CD
~
9.5
9.0
Gun, 3!n.,M3, M5 or M7
8.5
Sbell, HE, 3jn., M42Al
W18 Ft
8.0
1.5
7.0
u:
6.5
0
~ Normal Charge
)(
LI
-
6.0
0
~
CD
C
:;)
5.5
Gi
go
Gun, 90 min, Ml, Ml Al,M2 or M3
a.
-c
Shell,H E, 90 mm, M71
~
'5
5.0
0-
W 23 Ft
~ .
CD
~
4.5
0
...
CD
..0
E
:;)
4.0
Z
II .
0
3.5
SHELL DENSITY D REQUIRED IN AREA FIRE
3.0
SUPERQUICK GROUND BURSTS NO SHIELDING
Damage Type: Vsin. Mild Steel Perforations
2.5
Expected DamageCoverage 50% by Number,
of Vulnerable Target"Bements (2 Sq Ft)
2.0
1.5
1.0
PREPARED BY OR DNANCE DEPT
o. 5
o Range Yd
o 2,000 4,000 6,000 - 8,OnO 10,000 12,000 14,000 16,000 18,000 20,000
W=Width of fringe around target area r e q u i r i ~ g the burst density D.
FIGURE 30
14
.
Normal Charge :
12
11
....
u..
1
10
8
....
><
....
u..
9
0
....
0
SHELL DENSITYD REQUIRED IN AREA FIRE
CI>

0
SUPERQUICK GROUND BURSTS-NO SHIELDING
::::>
0
8
I
II)

CI>
0
. . , . .
-0

Damage Type: 1;4 in. Mild Steer .perforations
wm:amsm Expected Damage Coverage-50% by Number,
::::>
7 0
CI>

Q;
OOmOOOOft of I ,(2, Sq Ft)
..c. ., .
I
II)
6 ......
0

Gun, 90 mm, Ml, M1Al, M2 or M3
CI>
...a Shell, HE, 90 mrri, M71
E
::::>
5
Z
W 16 Ft
II
:)
4
2
iDiEiPTi'l
o Range Yd ' ,'.

o 2,000 4,000 . 6,000 8,000 10,000 12,000 14,000 16,000 18,000 20,000
W=Width of fringe around target area requiring the burst density D.
FIGURE 31
Page 94 .
0.9
0.8

U-
o
o
-
x
-
0.7 ~
o
-
Q)
...
o
0.6 5
II)
'eu
a.
-0
'5
Q)
0.5
0'"
Q).
...
0.4 1
...
II)
o
...
Q) r Gun, 155 mm, Ml, M1A1 or M2
0.3
..0
E
Shell, HE, 155 mm, M101
:::)
Z I I
II
'0
--Low Angle Fire
0.2
- -High Angle Fire
1\ I r
'W 72 Ft
0.1
o
o 2,000 4,000 6,000 8,000
~ ~ . ~ .
I" II II I'll I ~ '-.
SHELL DENSITY DREQUIRED IN AREA FIRE
SUPERQUICK GROUND. BURSTS-NO SHIELDING .
Normal Charge
Supercharge
Damage Type Casualties
Expected Casualties 50%
by Number, of Enemy Personnel e.a
rtttm:f:tt=ttmm:t:tttttt PREPARED BY ORDNANCE DEPT
Range Yd I-+++-t-+++++++++-H--++-H-++-I-II--l-. .' TTl I I , I '" I I .,.,
"l
10,000 12,000 14,000 16,000 18,000 20,000 22,000 24,000 26,000 28,000 30,000
W=Width of fringe around target area requiring the burst density D.
FIGURE 32
Page 95
III I I I I I
Normal Charge
SHELL DENSITY D REQUIRED IN AREA FIRE
SUPERQUICKGROUND BURSTS-NO SHIELDING.
Supercharge
Damage Type: l/
S
in. Mild Steel Perforations '11
Expected/ Damage Coverage 50% by Number, m
. of. Vulnerable Target Elements (2 Sq Ft)
Range Yd
I I
I
18,00020,000 22,000 24,000 26,000 28,000 30,000
. I
2.25
2.00
-.
u.
o
0
-
l75
><
u.
-
0
0
-
CI)
l50
"
0
:::
0"
II)
"
CI)
l25 .-0
0
CI)
5
"
0"
CI)
lOO
~ "
..r::
II)
CI)
Gun, 155 mm, M1, M1A1 or M2
.....
0
"-
Shell,
.
HE, 155 mm, M101
0.75 CI)
...a
E
:::.
Low Angle Fire
Z
II
- High Angle Fire
,
" r., 0.. 50
0
W' 34 Ft
0.25
o
o 2,000 4.000 6.000 8.000 10;000. '12.000 14,000 16,000
W=Width of fringe around target area requiring the burst density D.
FIGURE 33
Page 96
I I
SHELL DENSITY D REQUIRED IN AREA FIRE
SUPERQUICK GROUND BURSTS NO SHIELDING 4.5
4.0
Supercharge
f-
f-LL.
f-O
3 ~ 5 ~ ~
><

3.0 f - ~
2.5 - Q;
2.0
~
Q)
..c.
Gun, 155 mm, M1, M1A1 or M2
1.5 . '0
II)
Shell, HE, 155 mm, M101
-
LL.
o
Q)
~
o
:>
0
Il)
Q.
\J
Q)
~
3
Normal Charge
g-
1.0
~
Q)
-01.-..
E
:> .
z
1/
o
I-'
W 29 Ft
--low Angle Fire
- - High Angle Fire
II II I 1IIIII11
0.5
2,000 4,000 6,000 8,000
Damage Type: 1/4 Mild Steel Perforations
Expected -Damage Coverage 50% by Number,
of Vulnerable Targel Elements (2Sq Ft)
PREPARED
in..
BY ORDNANCE
I
I I
DEPT F
Range Yd I
1
10,000 12,000 14,000 16,000 18,000 20,000 22,000 24,000 26,000 28,000 30,000
W=Width of fringe around target area requiring the burst density D.
FIGURE 34
Page 97

LL.
o
o
......
><

LL.
o
o
......
CI)
..c:
III
....
o
Ch 1
Ch 2 ~ l - + - - I - + - Ch 3 H+I-++++++++++-I+
s-
CI)
...a
E
~ : Howitzer, 75 m m ~ Ml, M1Al, M20r M3
o : Shell, HE, 75 mm, M48
- I 1 I I 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 I I II I I I I I I 1
II
---low Angte Fire.
- - -High Angle Fire
,",
I
W 37 Ft
Range Yd
1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 7,000 8,000
W=Width of fringe around target area requiring the burst density D.
Damage Type Casualties ~
ExpectedCasualties 50%
by Number, of Enemy Personnel
PREPARED BY ORDNANCE DEPT ::
"'11"'1",.'-'"1"1""""'1-"1"" ",",
9,000 10,000 11,000 12,000 13,000 14,000 15,000
SHELL DENSITY D REQUIRED IN AREA ~ I R E
SUPERQUICK GROUND BURSTS
Ch 4
-
~
NO SHIELDING ~
FIGURE 35
6
SHELL DENSITY DREQUIRED IN AREA FIRE

SUPERQUICK GROUND BURSTS NO SHIELDING


:
--low Angle Fire
- - - High Angle Fire
,Ch 1 Ch2 Ch 3 Ch 4
...;
3 a Q)
h-5;
'0 Damage Type: in. Mild Steel Perforations
p Q) Expected Damage Coverage 50% by' Number,
:1 .. of Vulnerable Target Elements (2 Sq Ft) i
_Z
- II
.0
Howitzer, 75 mm, Ml, M1Al, M2 or M3
, HE, 75 mm, M48'
111111 "'11
W 20 Ft
PREPARED BY ORDNANCE DEPT -
o Range Yd
1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 7,000
W=Width of fringe around target area requiring the burst density D.
FIGURE 36
8,000" 9,000 10,000
20
SHELL DENSITY DREQUIRED IN AREA FIRE
SUPERQU'CK GROUND- BURSTS NO SHIELDING
18
17
15 ,
14
. Ch 1 Ch 2 Ch 3 Ch 4
I!:
12 g
><
...
u..
1 1 ' ~
Gl
C
:;:)
10' [
. :D
: a.
"'0
Gl
9 s
0"
~
Gl
8 -5i
'0
:D
..0
7 5
z
II
Q
. Damage Type: % in. Mild Steel Perforations
Expected Damage Coverage 50% by, Number,
of Vulnerable Target Elements (2 Sq Ft)
Howitzer, 75 mm, Ml, M1Al, M2 or M3 :
Shell, HE, 75 mm. M48
low Angle Fire
- - - - - -High Angle Fire
W==13 Ft
PREPARED BY ORDNANCE DEPT
o
Range Yd
o 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 '5,000 6,000 7,000 8,.000 9,000 10,000
W=Width of fringe around target area requiring the burst density D.
FIGURE 37
Page 100
2
Shell, HE, 105mm, Ml SUPfRQUICK GROUND BURSTS NO SHIELDING
I I TTlTl
--Low Angle Fire
- - - -High Angle Fire
u:
o
o
-
><
u.

o
o
-
CI>
..c:
CIl
.....
o

CI>
..0
E
:::
Ch 1 Ch 2! 'Ch 3' Ch 4 5++++-1--1-+1-'
Z
II
CI
W 58 Ft
Ch 6
Ch 7
Damage Type Casualties
'. Expected Casualties 50%
by Number, of Enemy Personnel
I
I I I
I I _
1
.-H-++++-t--+++l--l-l-HH-++-H-1 PRE PAR E0 BY ORO NAN CEDE PT :
-
1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000. 6,000 7,000 8,000 9,000 10,000 11,000 . 12,000 13,000 14,000 15,000
W=Width of fringe around target area requiring the burst density D.
FIGURE 38
PagelDI
5
p
I
,
SHELL DENSITY D REQUIRED IN AREA .FIRE
Low Angle Fire
I,
SUPERQUICK GROUND BURSTS NOSHIELDIN
G
High Angle Fire
- 4
u..
-
0
0
-
><
-
u..
""0
0
-
CI)
'
0
~
3
0
lI)
'
CI)
a.
-0
CI)
'
'3
0
CI)
'-
Ch 7 :
2
CI)
...c
lI)
......
0
'-
Ch 1 - Ch 2
-
Ch 3 Ch 4:
-
Ch 5 Ch 6
CI)
..0
I E
~
Z
II
0
1-'
I
W 29 Ft
Damage Type: VB in. Mild Steel Perforations ..~
Expected Damage Coverage 50% by Number, :
of Vulnerable Target Elements (2 Sq Ft)
1I11II1I1111111
PREPARED BY ORDNANCE DEPT Howitzer, 105 mm, M2, M2A1 or M4

1,000 2,000
I
1
3,000 4,000
I
5,000 6,000
Range Yd
I
7,000 8,000 9,000 10,000
Shell, HE, 105 mm, M1
..
11,000 12,000 13,000 14,000 15,000
W=Width of fringe around target area requiring the burst density 0,
FIGURE 39
Page 102
I
.Ch Ch 4
Ch 5
I I I I
I I I
I II
II
SHELL DENSITY D REQUIRED IN AREA FIRE
--Low Angle Fire
- High Fire 9
SUPERQUICK GROUND BURSTS-NO
H++++++-H-+H+-r+++++++-Ht-+++++-+-I
SHIELDING
Howitzer, 105 mm, M2, M2A1or M4
8
Shell, HE, 105 mm, Ml
u..

o
o
..
7
><
u..

o
o
..
6
o
Q)
L
:;)
0'"
&II
L
Q) Ch 7
Ch 6

Ch 1 Ch 2
0'"
Q)
L
Q)
....c.
&II
.....
o
L
3 Q)
..0
.E
:;)
Z
2
Damage Type: 1;4. in. Mild Steel Perforations ++++++-+-1
Expected Damage Coverage 50% by Number,
of Vulnerable Target Elements (2 Sq Ft)
W 19 Ft
I
Range Yd ..-1-1r-t-++-11-+-H-1-+ PREPARED BY 0 RDNANCE DEPT
-+-t-t-H-t-t-t-+-H- II I I I I I I I I I I I I 1.1 I I I I I I :
o0 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 7,000 8,000 9,000 10,000 11,000 12,000 13,000 14,000 15,000
W=Width of fringe around target area requiring the burst density D.
FIGURE 40
Page 103
1.0
II
--low Angle Fire
- High Angle Fire
0.9
LL
-
0.8
0
0
x
LL
-
0
0
0.7 ......
dl
C
:::l
e
."
0.6 Q;
a.
""0
~
'5
0.5
e-
Ch 1
~
Ch 3
Ch 5
Ch 2 Ch 4 Ch 6 dl
..c
Ch 7
0.4
."
'0
J,;,
dl
..0
E
0.3 z
:::l
II
SHELL DENSITY D REQUIRED IN AREA FIRE
Cl
SUPERQUICK GROUND BURSTS NO SHIELDING
0.2
Damage Type Casualties
:TTTT
Howitzer, 155 mm, M1 or M1A1
Expected Casualties 50%,
Shell, HE, ;155 mm, M107
by Number, of Enemy Personnel
0.1
1.1
W 72 Ft
PREPARED BY ORDNANCE DEPT
0
0 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 7,000 8,000 9,000 10,000 11,000 12,000 13,000 14,000 15,000 16,000 17,000
Range-Yd
W=Width of fringe around target area requiring the burst density D.
FIGURE 41
Page 104
2.50
-------'-low Angle Fire
-- - - - -High Angle Fire
2.25
....
2.00
0
LL.
0
><
....
Ch 1 Ch 2 Ch 3 Ch 4 Ch 5 Ch 6 Ch 7.
1.75
0
LL.
0
Q)
...
0
~
1. 50 0
Ill,
:n,
Q.
-0
1.25
~ ,
'5
0
~
SHELL DENSITY D REQUIRED IN AREA FIRE
Q;
1. 00 ..r=
III
SUPERQUICK GROUND BURSTS-NO SHIELDING
(;
...
Q)
Howitzer, 155 mm, M1 or M1A1
...0,
0.75 E
~
Z
Shell, HE, 155 mm, M107
II
Q
Damage Type: Vs-in. Mild Steel Perforations
Expected Damage Coverage-50% by Number,
of Vulnerable- Target Elements (2 Sq Ft)
0.25
W=34 Ft
PREPARED BY ORDNANCE DEPT
o
o 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 7,000 8.000 9,000 10,000 11,000 12,000 13,000 14,000 15,000 16,000 17,000
Range-Yd
W=Width of fringe around target area requiring the burst densityD.
FIGURE 42
Page 105
5.0
SHELL DENSITY D REQUIRED IN AREA FIRE
4.5
SUPERQUICK GROUND BURSTS-NO SHIELDING
u..
-
4.0 0
0
><
u..
-
3.5 0
0
Q)
0
:::)
C'"
3.0
III
Ch 6 Ch 7
Q)
, Ch' Ch 2 Ch 3 Ch 4 Cn 5
a.
. "1J
~
5
2.5 0
~
4i
--;c
2.0
III
'0
...
Q)
...c
E
:::)
1.5
z'
Howitzer, 155 mm, M1 or M1A1 Damage Type: Ih-in. Mild Steel Perforations
0
1\
Shell, HE, 155mm, M107
Expected Damage Coverage-50% by Number,
of Vulnerable Target Elements (2 Sq Ft)
--Low Angle Fire
1.0
- - - - - -High Angle Fire
W=29 Ft
0.5
- Range-Yd
o 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 7,000 8,000 9,000 10,000 11,00n 12,000 13,000 14,000 15,000 16,000' 17,000
W=Width of fringe around target area requiring the burst density D.
FIGURE 43
Page 106
I
SHELL DENSllY D REQUIRED IN AREA FIRE
SUPERQUICK GROUND BURSTS NO SHIELDING
1.8
" r . II
Ch 3 -++-H-H-+++r Ch 4 ++++-H-+-H Ch 5 Ch 6
Damage Type Casualties
Expected Casualties 50% .
by Number, of Enemy Personnel'
002
PREPARED BY ORDNANCE DEPT
Range Yd I I
I
r-T I I

o 250 500 750 1,000 1,250 1,500 1,750 2,000 2,250 2,500 2,750 3,000 3,250 3,500 3,750
\
W=Width of fringe around .target area the burst density D.
FIGURE 44
7.0
_Lll _l..LLLLLI..LI.LLL.LJ.
7.5. I
SHELL DENSITY D REQUIRED IN AREA FIRE __
SUPERQUICK GROUND BURSTS NO
TITTllll I
6.5
Mortar, 81mm, Ml
Shell, E, 8lmm, M43Al
6.0
u:
0
0
-
5.5
><
-
LL.
b
0
-
5.0
(\)
'
0
=>
0
ell
ChO.
Ch 1
4.5
'
(\)
a.
"1J Ch 2
Ch 3
Ch 4
Ch 5_
(\)
'
.:;
Ch 6
0
4.0
r
(\)
-'
(\)
..c
ell
.....
0
3.5
'- .
(\)
..0
E
=>
z
3.0
II
Cl
-

1.5
1.0
Damage Type: Vs in Mild Steel Perforations
0.5
W 21 Ft .
Expected Damage Coverage 50% by Number,
of Vulnerable Target Elements (2. Sq Ft)
I PREPARED BY ORDNANCE DEPT


o
o 500 1,000 1,500 2,000 2,500 3,000 3,500 4,000 4,500 5,000
Range-Yd
W=Width of fringe around target area requiri.ng the burst density D.
FIGURE 4S
17
16
15 .
14
13
12
11
10
8 Lt
o
~
><
7 Lt
o
o
Q)
o
6 ::;)
CT
III
...
Q)
5e
a.
5
CT
~
4 Q)
..s::.
III
o
Gi
-0
E
::;)
Z
II
Cl
o
o
SHELL DENSITY D REQUIRED IN AREA FIRE
SUPERQUICKGROUND BURSTS NO SHIELDING
Ch 0
Mortar, 81 mm, M1.
Ch 1
Shell, HE,81 mm, M43A1
Ch 3
Ch 4
Ch 5
Ch 6
Ch 2
Damage Type: % in. Mild Steel Perforations
Expected Damage Coverage 50% by Number, .
of Vulnerable Target Elements (2 Sq Ft)
W 11 Ft
PREPARED BY ORDNANCE DEPT
500 1,000 1,500 2,000 2,500 3,000 3,500 4,000 4,500 5,000
Range-Yd
W=Width of fringe around target area requiring the burst density D.
FIGURE 46
Page 109
2.25
2.00
1.75
1.50 ~
..
1

25
1.00
0.75
~
~
~
0.25
o
u.;

g
.....
><
u.

g
.....
Q)
~
o
;:)
0'"
:
Q)
a.
"""0
Q)
Ch 1 I
'3

0'"
Q)
~
Q)
~
.....
o
~
Q)
..0
Z
E
II _
:) :
-
I I,
SHELL DENSITY D REQUIRED IN AREA FIRE
SUPERQUICK GROUND BURSTS NO SHIELDING
Ch
Ch 3
2 t t : : t + t t : : t + 1 + t t t t : : t : t : ~ ~ : t t t t t t t t t t t t l , Ch 4
Damage Type Casualties
Expected Casualties 50%
by Number, of Enemy .Personnel
-'11111111111111
'
Range Yd
-, I 1111"" I
,PREPARED
.,
1
1
BY ORDNANCE DEPT:
__ ,_...-": _,. l ._,_
o 250 500 750 1,000 1,250 1,500 1,750 2,000 2,250 2,500 2,750 3,000 3,250 3,500 3,750
W=Width of fringe around target area requiring the burst density D.
FIGURE 47
Page 110
I .- I
5.0
I .- -.- I
-I
-1
I

I
SHELL DENSITYD REQUIRED IN AREA FIRE
SUPERQUICK GROUND BURSTS-NO SHIELDING l3fiEmiBEmmiEmfimimEEEm3

T
Mortar, 81 mm, M1 4.0 u:
o
o
'X

'Shell, HE, 81 mm,M56


3.5 u-
o
o
-
Q)
g
Ch 1
3.0 0- Ch 3
Il)
Ch 1 Ch 4

Q)
Q.
-0
2.5 ~
5
0
Q)
~
2.0 ~
II)
~
Q)
1.5 . ~
.:::
Z
II
:)
1.0
W 22 Ft
Damage Type: VB in. Mild Steel Perforations
0.5
Expected Damage Coverage 50% by Number,
PREPARED BY ORDNANCE DEPt
of Vulnerable Target Elements (2 Sq Ft)
.- I.
I I I

o I I I -. I I111 I I
o 250 500 750 1,000 1 ~ 2 5 0 1,500 1,750 2,000 2,250 2,500 2,750 3,000 3,250 3,500 3,750
, Range-Yd
W=Width of fringe around target area requiring the burst density D.
FIGURE 48 .
Page 111
9
Ch 1
8 u..

o
o
-
><
_.
7 0
u..
O'
-
...
(I)
a.
""tl
(I)
5
0'",
(I)'
... ,
4 -5i
(I)

o
...
(I)
...!l
3
Z
E
++++-+-t-++-t-H-t SHELL .DENSITY D REQUIRED IN AREA FIRE
H-H-f-I-H-f-H+++H- Ch '3 +-H+++++++-++

Ch' 2 Ch
BURSTS-NO
4 !
81 mm, Ml

1
H 81
of Vulnerable Target Elements (2 Sq Ft)
1!!1!lIIIIIiShielil'iIE'11mimi' -r-r-r1'""rl-H-t-H
W 14 Ft PREPARED BY ORDNANCE DEPT++++ :H-+++-+-t
o I :H-+++-+-t
o 250 500 750 1,000 1,250 1,500 1,750 2,000 2,250 2,500 2,750 3,000 3,250 3,500 3,750
Range-Yd
W=Width of fringe around .target area requiring the burst density D.
FIGURE 49
Plge 112
AIR BURSTS
BURST DENSITIES REQUIRED IN AREA FIRE
Figures 50 to 56 give the shell densities D per unit area (100 feet x 100
feet) required to caiuse 50 percent casualties over a given target area. It
is understood that the mean height H of burst has been adjusted to the
value which is twice the probable error in the height of burst as listed in
the firing tables, restricting H, however, to values between 30 feet and
120 feet, and that the width WI of the additionalfringe of area over which
the burst density D is'to be extended equals H + 10. To obtain p percent
casualties the values of Dobtained from the graphs should be multiplied
by the factor F written beneath p in Table 70.
IThe one exception to this of W is in the case of the 155mm Howitzer when W
should be taken as 2H.
28
26
III
/:I:l:tt:I::l:tttt::t:I=l SHELL DENSITY D REQUIRED IN AREA FIRE
AIR BURSTS AT OPTIMUM* MEAN -HEIGHT
Gun, 3in., M3, M5 or M7
Shell, HE, 3in., M42A1
11I1111111111111111111111111
24
Fuze, MT, M43 or Modifications
22
....
LL
20 0
o
><
....
LL
18 0
o
Q)
12 ~
o
G>
...0
10
Z
II
Cl
- 6
W Mean height of burst plus 10 ft
4
Shielding Equivalent to 10 deg Foxhole
Damage Type Casualties
2
Expected. Casualties . 50% by Number
of Enemy Personnel.
PREPARED BY ORDNANCE DEPT
I
*See/Rule A, Introduction.
o
o 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 7,000 8,000 9,000 10,000 11,000 12,000
Range-Yd
W.=Width ~ f fringe <;lround target area requiring the burst density D.
-
-
FIGURE 50
e.."
I
I
-
-
"..
I-
I rl 1"1 I I I I II I I I I I I I I I I II I I I I I I I
26
24
22
PREPARED BY ORDNANCE DEPT
6
Shielding Equivalent to 10 deg' Foxhole
Damage Type Casualties
4
W Mean height of burst plus 10 ft Expected Casualties. 50% by Number .
of Enemy Personnel.
. "
TIIIII III
2 *See Rule A, Introduction.
Range Yd
o
o
2,000 4,000 6,000 8,000 10,000 12,000 14,000 16,000 18,000 20,000
W=Width of fringe around target area requiring the burst density D.
FIGURE 51
- -
Pall 115
I III I I
I I I I I I .I L I I
Ch 2
SHELL DENSITY DREQUIRED IN AREA FIRE Ch 1 +-H++-I-+-f
18
AIR BURSTS-AT OPTIMUM*MEANHEIGHT '
Ch 3
11111111111111111111111 11111
... .'
16
Howitzer, 75 mm, Ml,' M1Al,M2 or M3 '
Shell, HE, 75 mm, M48
_u.

0 '
Fuze, TSO , M54
'14 : 0
,: ><
:.1:
:0 :
12,
Q)
...
'0
::)
e
10 ...
li)
Q)
t- a.
'"'0

Q)
.:;
...
8t- e
t:
l
I
Q)
..t:
lI)
6 1- .....
Shielding Equivalent to 10 deg Foxhole
0
,I- ...
I- Q)
Damage Type 'Casualties
1-..0
E
Expected Casualties 50% by Number
I- ,::)
4
of Enemy Personnel. I- II

I-
I
*See Rule A, Introduc,tion..
2
. '. H'
PREPARED BY ORDNANCE DEPT
J , -
W :Mean height of burst plus 10 ft
h 1II111TII"I'IIIIIIII1111111111111111
Range Yd
'0
I
I I
o 1.000 tODD 3,000 4,000
W=Widthof fringe around target area the burst density D.
5,000 6,000 7,000
FIGURE 52
Page 116
18
SHELL DENSITY DREQUIRED IN AREA FIRE
AIR BURSTS AT OPTIMUM*MEAN HEIGHT
16
o
o
Howitler,105 mm, M2, M2A1
Shell, HE, 105 mm, Ml
.-rT'". ,
or M4
14 ><
+
LL.
Fuze, TSO , M54
o
o
12
10
8
, ~ '
C
:::>
0
III
....
<V
a.
""C
~
5
0
<V
....
Ch 2
Ch
Ch
3
4
Ch 5
Ch6
Ch 7
<V
.L:.
III
Ch 1
6
4
'0
Qj
..0
E
:::>
Z
II
Q
.
Shielding Equivalent to 0 deg Foxhole
Damage Type Casualties
Expected Casualties 50% by Number
of Enemy Personnel.
I 1 I , , I I I I I .,L.L..LLLL..LJ__1 .. Ll__ l 1 loot u ~
Prone Man
2
*See Rule A, Introduction.
W Mean height of burst plus 10 ft PREPARED BY ORDNANCE DEPT
; Range Yd,

o
1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 7,000 8,000
W=Width of fringe around target area requiringthe burst density D.
FIGURE 53
Page 117
-, , T
20
. - PREPARED BY ORDNANCE DEPT
SHELL DENSITY DREQUIRED IN AREA FIRE
,
18
AIR- BURSTS AT OPTIMUM* MEAN HEIGHT
16
Howitzer, 105 min, M2, M2A1 or M4
Shell, HE, 105 mm, Ml
I 111111
u..
-
Fuze, 1SO , M54
14
0
0
....
Ch3
><
u..
12
0
-
Q
CI)
...
c Ch 2
::)
CII
C"
Ch 7
10
Ch 4 Ch 6
Q)
Co
Ch 5
-c
CI) Ch 1
...
5
8
C"

CI)
6 -5i
...
CI)
.0
4 5
z Shielding Equivalent tO,10 deg Foxhole
II
. Damage Type Casualties
Cl
r T
W -- I Mean height of burst plus 10 ft. Expected Casualties 50% _by Number
L _
2
- of Enemy Personnel.
*See Rule A, Introduction:
o
o 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 7,000 8,000
--_
W=Width of fringe around target area requiring the burst density D.
FIGURE 54
'age 118
18
,Ch 2
PREPARED BY ORDNANCE DEPT
16
01
u..
Ch 4
Ch 5
Ch 6
14
0
0
....
><
01
u..
Ch .1
0
0
41
{;
~
C'"
ell
Q;
0
'"'0
41
...
'5
C'"
41
...
2
'41
..c
ell
'0
Q;
..0
E
~
Z
II
0
SHELL DENSITYD REQUIRED I'N AREA FIRE
AIR BURSTS AT OPTIMUM*MEAN HEIGHT
Howitzer, 105 mm, M2, M2Al or M4
Shell,H E, 105-mm, Ml
Fuze, TSO ,M54
Shielding Equivalent to 30 deg Foxhole
Damage Type .Casualties
Expected Casualties 50% by Number
of Enemy Personnel.
*See Rule A, Introduction.
, W I Mean height of burst plus 10ft.
W=Width of fringe around target area requiring the burst density D.
o
o 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000
Range-Yd
5,000 6,000 7,000 8,000
FIGURE 55

SHELL DENSITY D REQUIRED IN AREA FIRE
AIR BURSTS AT OPTIMUM*MEAN HEIGHT
26 Howitzer, 155 mm, M1 orM1A1
ttj Shell, HE, 155 mm, M107
Fuze, MT, M67 or Modifications
22
20

u..
Ch 6
0
0
r
><
18 u..

0
0
(I)
16
'-
:>
c
C"
III
'
(I)
Q.
"'U
14
(I) Ch 5
'3
'
C"
(I)
'-
Ch 4
12 (I)
...c
III
'0
'
(I)
Ch 2 Ch 3
10
..0
E Ch 1
:>
Z
II
Cl
8
6
4
Shielding Equivalent to 10 deg, Foxhole
Damage Type Casualties
2 ttbuttrsjjtoomw Expected Casualties 50% by Number
of Enemy Personnel.
PREPARED BY ORDNANCE DEPT
*See Rule A,
2,000 4,000 6,000 8,000 10,000 12,000 1.4,000 16,000 18,000
Range-Yd
W=Width of frin'ge around target area requiring the burst density 0,
FIGURE 56
Page 120
Volume III' Part 9
ARTILLERY FIRE AGAINST ARTILLERY MATERIEL
1. GENERAL.
For several gun-ammunition combinations, -ranges, and types of fire,
the following tables give the number of rounds to be fired to obtain a certain
degree of destruction of enemy artillery.
There is an advantage in total weight of projectiles in using the smallest
shell which will reach the target, and frequeIl,tly, in time fire, among shell
of the same caliber in using that with the highest muzzle velocity.
I. THE TARGET.
T h ~ target considered is the German 88mm AA gun Flak 18/ or Flak 41.
In general the degree of destruction considered is that necessary to prevent
temporarily the use of the piece as .an anti-aircraft weapon. The most
vulnerable "part of a piece is the countp,r recoil mechanism. Perforation of
the counter recoil gas cylinder ii considered as a main cause of damage but
. not the only cause, and this prevents the. use of the piece temporarily.
Somewhat more damage is required to prevent the use of the piece. against
ground targets (for instance, anti-tank use) than for anti-aircraft use, and
for the former c a ~ e the figures of the tables should be increased about
20 percent. . .
The numbers are approximately correct for other arttllery targets. They
should be increased by not more than 50 percent for more highly resistant
targets, or for the requirement of more serious damage. If the target piece
is of different size than the Flak 18 or Flak 41, the numbers should be
altered. For targets of smaller gun area the numbers. should be increased,
about by the same factor as the area is smaller, except for fire at very
short ranges.
Effect of the fire against personnel has been neglected. The most common
effect of counter battery fire is to prevent manning the guns. For the effect
against personnel see Part 8 of this volume. In general the best condition
for fire against personnel is. also nearly the best for fire against artillery,
so that tables 71 and 72 indicate the added effect against materiel if anti
personnel fire is conducted. .
Table 70 gives the percent of guns damaged when the number of rounds
differs bya given fraction from that listed in tables 71 and 72.
I. AIMED FIRE.
If the enemy piece is accurately located, the fire should be directed at
the piece itself. In Table 72 are given the number of rounds required for
90 percent probability of damaging the target in aimed fire. The figures
for time fire are based on the assumption that the fuze time is set so that
the center of burst is at the target. The significance of the numbers listed
"under Impact,. Time, Time and Impact is explained in paragraphs 5 and 6.
Firing table probable errors have been assumed, and consequently the
numbers refer to observed fire, well adjusted.
4. AREA FIRE.
If only the general location of the enemy pieces is known, the fire must
be directed over a general area. The number of rounds required for given
probability of damaging one piece known to be in the area is then pro
portional to the area over which the fire is distributed. The probability of
hitting another piece in the area is, of course, the same, so the number of
rounds required to put out of action half the enemy pieces in the area is
independent of the number of enemy guns in the area.
The number of rounds per 10,000 square yards of the area over which the
fire is directed, required to damage half the enemy pieces located in the
area, is listed in Table 71. The fact that the number of rounds is listed for
an area of 10,000 square yards (100 yard by 100 yard square) is not to be
interpreted as meaning that area fire over such a small area is possible
without wasting ammunition outside the area. The numbers listed must
be multiplied by the total area in square yards under fire divided by 10,000.
Even so, there is a band of area at the edge of the target in which the
probability of hitting a target with fragments is lower than 50 percent,
being in fact 25 percent at edges away from corners. This could be over..
come by increasing the'number of rounds near the edge. Frequently,how..
ever, in area fire the concentration of targets is suspected to be gre"ater at
the center of the area, and consequently the effect of a rou:p.d ofa:qlmunition
is greater here. "
The significance of the numbers listed under impact, time, time and
impact is explained in paragraphs 5 and 6. In the case of time fire the
height'of center of burst is taken as onemil for ranges not exceeding 10,000
yards, and 30 feet for longer ranges. This is a simple workable rule giving
very close to maximum effect of fire against the materiel for the problem
in hand. When the probable error is large a mean height of burst equal. to
two probable errors in the height of burst, as given in the firing table, is
preferable for maximum effect against personnel. The tabulated numbers
are applicable to this case.
, I. IMPACT FIRE.
The numbers tabulated opposite Impact in the tables are those caused
by direct hits only. No damage due to blast or fragments from 'near
has, been considered, since this depends on the degree of shielding and the
,way the weapon is emplaced.
These figures are consequently cpnservative, since if no shielding or
mentsare present there will be considerable damage due to fragments.
6. TIME FIRE.
The numbers of rounds required for air burst fire are entered opposite
Time and Impact in the tables.
The values tabulated opposite Time give the number of rounds required
.when the damage is caused only by fragments arising from air bursts.
This is separately listed for purpose of general interest.
In Table 72, Aimed Fire, the fuze setting is assumed to be such that the
center of burst occurs at the target. In Table 71, Area Fire, the height of
center of burst is assumed to be one mil for ranges up to 10,000 yards, and
30 feet for greater ranges. '
Due to the dispersion in fuze -functioning, half the shell will burst below
the center of burst and half above it. In the case of aimed fire, with center
of burst at the target and not above it, the half with delayed functioning
will strike the ground before bursting. In the case of area fire, with higher
center of burst" there will- still be a considerable number' of shell striking
the ground before bursting. These shell may strike the target and destroy
it by direct hits. The effect of these hits has been ignored in the line marked
Time. It has been included in the line marked Time and Impact.
The entries under Time and Impact therefore give the combined effect of
air burst and direct hits. However, as in the case of the entry on the line
marked Impact, the effect of fragment damage from near miss ground
bursts, which occur with the shell fuzed combination time and superquick,
is neglected, since' this damage depends greatly on the shielding and type
of revetment. In the case of minimum' shielding the entries are therefore
conservative when the combination time and superquick fuze is used.
7. COMPARISON OF GROUND BURST AND AIR BURST.
No general statement of the relative effectiveness of ground burst and
air burst fire is possible since this depends entirely on the emplacements.
With no shielding at all by revetments, ground bursts are generally more
effective against materiel and personnel iIi the open but personnel in fox
hoZes or trenches are to be attacked by air burst fire. Since counter battery
Page 121
,.fire ,is largely directed against personnel, and when air bursts are employed,
,the numbers listed opposite Time and Impact should indicate the damage
done to materiel.
In the case of aimed fire (Table 72) except at the longer ranges with the
heavier weapons, the Impact entries ,are lower than those of Time and
Impact, which means that direct 'hits are more effective than air bursts,
and PD fuzes, set superquick, are superior to time fuzes if the effect against
materiel alone is desired. '
The added effect of fragment damage from near miss ground bursts,
w:Q.ich is neglected in all the numbers listed and depends on the revetments
present, will be greatest for the PD fuze set superquick, next for the com
bination time and superquick setting, and absent for time fuzes with no
combination superquick feature.
The ratios of the required numbers of rounds .listed under Impact to
those under Time and Impact therefore:
a. Somewhat greater than the ratios of required rounds for actual fire
with PD fuze (set SQ) as against time fuzes with-both T and SQ.
b. Considerably greater than the ratios of required rounds for actual
fire with PD fuze (set SQ) and time fuzes with no' superquick feature.
c. More nearly correct the greater the shielding due to revetments.
.'COMPARISON OF AIMED 'AND, AREA FIRE.
The numbers listed in Tables 71 and 72 for the same gun ammunition
combination and range are not directly comparable, since they. refer to
entirely different quantities, those in 72 being number of rounds per enemy
piece attacked, and those in 71 number of rounds per 10,000 square yards
area fired upon.
In general, aimed fire, if the enemy pieces are accurately located, is at'
least as' good as area fire and, is almost always, better when the same height
of center of burst is used. At great ranges, where dispersion is large, and
with very many enemy pieces in a small, area, area fire may be
as good, since the rounds fired at neighboring enemy pieces may, overlap
due to dispersion. In this case, rounds aimed at one piece may damage its
neighbor. If this situation, of extremely ,high area concentration of enemy'
pieces, holds, then the numbers given ip Table 72 for aimed fire may be
high (since any given weapon may be" damaged by rounds aimed. at its
neighbor) and the numbers in Table 71 pertaining to area fire may represent
the true damage figures, even if aimed fire is used. In general, it is 1I10st
profitable to fire same number of rounds at each enemy piece, all other
factors, being equal.
Page 122
TABLE 71
NUMBER OF ROUNDS REQUIRED AGAINST ENEMY ARTILLERY
FOR 50% EFFECT FOR 10,000 SQ YD IN AREA FIRE
Gun and
Muzzle
Velocity
Type of Fire
F/s 2,000 5,000
Range (yd)
10,000 15,000 20,000 25,000
Howitzer, 'M1( M1 A 1, M2, M3
Shell, HE, M48
.
Fuze, TSQ, M54
Fuze, PO, M48A2
Impact
1,250 Time
Time and impact
210
230
170
680
700
500
Howitzer, 155mm, M1
Shell, HE, M107
Fuze, MT, M67A1
Fuze, PO,M51 A3
Impact
1,850 Time
Time and impact
70
43
38
260
67
59
790 1,400
,,160 300
150 280
Gun, 155mm, M1, M1A1, M2
.Shell, HE, M101
Fuze, MT, M67A1
Fuze, PO, M51 A3
Impact
2,800 Time
Time and impact
. 27
26
26
92
53
48
330 810
92 180
83 160
1,300
320
290/
1,700
Howitzer, 240mm, M1
Shell, HE, M114
Fuze, MT, M67A1
Fuze, PO, M51 A3
Impact
2,300 Time
Time and impact
1,100
120
110
1,400
160
150
Page123
TABLE 72
NUMBER OF ROUNDS REQUIRED AGAINST ENEMY ARTILLERY FOR 90% PROBABILITY
OF AT LEAST ONE EFFECTIVE HIT IN AIMED FIRE
Gun and Ammunition
Howitzer, 75mm, M1, M1 A 1, M2, M3
Shell, HE,M48
Fuze, TSQ, M54
Fuze, PO, M48 and Mod
MY
f/s
1,250
Type of fire
Impact
Time
Time and Impact
2,000
24
340
43
5,000
460
1,400
560
10,000
Range (yd)
15,000 20,000
I
25,000 30,000
Gun, 75mm, M1897, M1897A1, M1897.A2,
M1897A3, M1897A4
Shell, HE, M48
Fuze, TSQ, M54
Fuze, PO, M48 and Mod
1,950
Impact
-
Time
Time and Impact
7
340
15
120
790
180
Gun, 76mm, M1A1,M1AC, M1A2
_Shell, HE, M42A1
Fuze, MT, M43A5
Fuze, PO, M48 and Mod
2,700
Impact
Time
Time and Impact
6
270
13
55
430
87
)
Gun, 90mm, M1, M1 A1,M2, M3
Shell, HE, M71
FuzeiMT, M43A5
Fuze, PO, M48 a n ~ Mod
2,700
Impact
Time
Time and Impact
3
260
7
42
360
68
770
1,400
730
Howitzer, 105mm, M2, M2A1,M4
_Shell, HE,M1
Fuze, TSQ, M54
Fuze, PO, M48 and Mod
1,020
Impact
Time
Time and Impact
24
250
41
460
820
430
. ~
Howitzer, 105mm, M2, M2A1, M4
Shell, HE, M1
- Fuze, TSQ, M54
Fuze, PO, M48 and Mod
1,550
Impact
Time
Time and Impact
6
270
13
91
450
130
Gun, 4.5 inch, M1
Shell, HE, M65
Fuze, MT, M67A1
Fuze, PO, M51 and Mod
Gun, 4.5 inch, M1
Shell, HE, M65
FlIZe, MT, M67A1
Fuze, PO, M51 and Mod
1,820
--
2,275
Impact
Time
Time and Impact
Impact
Time
Time and Impact
3
410
7
16
500
31
19
430
36
39
560
69
380
960
420
460
1,200
520
2,600
3,400
2,000
2,300
4,000
-2,100
7,700
9,000
5,900
. Howitzer, 155mm, M1917, M1917A1, M1918
Shell, HE, M102
Fuze, TSQ, M55A1
Fuze, PO, M51 and Mod
1,082
Impact
Time
Time and Impact
10
170
19
190
380
190
Howitzer, 155mm, M1917, M1917A1, M1918
Shell, HE, M102
Fuze, TSQ, M55A1
Fuze, PO, M51 and Mod
1,476
Impact
Time
Time and Impact
7
210
14
130
320
140
Howitzer, 15Smm, M1
Shell, HE, M107
Fuzel MT, M67A1
F u ~ e , PO, M51 and Mod
1,220
Impact
Time
Time and Impact
7
240
14
69
320
96
Howitzer, 155mm, M1
Shell, HE, M107
Fuze, MT, M67A1
Fuze, PO, M51 and Mod
I
1,850
Impact
Time
Time and Impact
3
340
7
23
320
41
250
590
270
2,300
1,900
1,400
Page 124
TABLE 72 (Continued)
Gun and Ammunition
MV
f/s
Type of fire
2,000 5,000 10,000
Range (yd)
15,000 20,000 25,000 30,000
Gun
f
155mm,M1917,M1917A1, M1918
Shel, HE, M101
Fuze, MT, M67A1
Fuze, PO, M51 and Mod
1,955
Impact
Time
Time and impact
5
370
11
42
340
68
570
770
460
2,900
2,300
1,700
Gun{ 155mm, M1917, M1917A1, M1918
Shel, HE, M101
Fuze, MT, M67A1
2,410
Impact
Time
Time and Impact
4
450
9
23
410
42
250
480
240
1,600
1,500
1,000
5,900
3,700
2,800
Fuze, PO, M51 and Mod
. Gun
f
155mrn, M1, M1A1, M2
Shel, HE, M101
Fuze, MT, M67A1
Fuze, PO, M51 and Mod
!",1.00
Impact
Time
Time and Impact
81
330
110
570
700
430
2,300
1,800
1,300
Gun
f
155mm, M1,M1 A1, M2
Shel, HE, M101
Fuze, MT, M67A1
2,800
Impact
Time
Time and Impact
9
520
18
48
460
80
330
590
31'0
2,300
960
790
4,500
2,500
1,800
11,000
4,500
4,000
Fuze, PO, M51 and Mod
Howitzer, 8 inch, M1
Shell,HE, M106
Fu.Ie,'MT, M67A1
1,380
Impact
Time
Time and Impact
3
210
7
28
220
45
380
390
~ 5 0
Fuze, PO) M51 andMod
Howitzer, 8 inch, M1
Shell, HE, M106 '
Fuze,.MT, M67A1
Fuze; PO, M51 and Mod
1,950
Impact
Time
Time and Impact
3
290
7
54
280
78
330
430
260
I
Gun, 8 inch, M1
Shell, HE, M103
Fuze, MT, M67A1
2,600
Impact
Time
Time and Impact
130
410
160
770
1,100
640
2,300
3,100
1,900
Fuze, PO, M51A2.Mod 3 and Mod
Gun, 8 inch, M1
She,ll, HE, M103
F ~ z e , MT, M67A1
-
2,85,0
Impact
Time
Time and Impact
1,100
1,400
850
2,300
3,400
1,900
25,000
7,000
6,200
FuZe, PO, M51 A2 Mod 3 and Mod
Howitzer, 240mm, M1
Shell, HE, M114
Fuze, MT, M67A1
1,500
Impact
Time
Time and Impact
330
320
220
2,300
1,200
950
Fuze, PO, M51 and Mod
Howitzer, 240mm, M1
Shell, HE, M114
Fuze, MT, M67A1
1,740
Impact
Time
Time and Impact
1,100
1,600
930
Fuze, ~ D , M51 and Mod
Howitzer, 240mm, M1
Shell, HE, M114
Fuze, MT; M67A1
2,300
Impact
Time
Time and Impact
2,300
1,000
820
7,700
2,400
2,100
Fuze, PD,M51 and Mod /
Page 125
Volume III Part 10
RICOCHET TRAJECTORY
._ .
. t
Ie RANGE
1. GENERAL.
The figure titled Ricochet Trajectory shows the position of the burst
with respet to the impact after ricochet from level ground when a point
detonating delay fuze is used. The quantities angle of fall, angle of recovery,
distance from impact to burst, height of burst, and probable error in height
of burst are tabulated against range for several combinations of gun and
ammunition. The tables apply not only to the gun and ammunition listed
but to any gun and charge firing the ammunition with the tabulated muzzle
velocity and any fuze of the same standard contour with the tabulated
delay time. Ricochets are not ordinarily expected at longer ranges (larger
BURST P. E.IN HEIGHT OF BURST
F. t .} 50% OF BURSTS
0
HEIGHT OF BURST
ANGLE
OF RECOVERY
--------_I,I+___ IMPACT TO BURST
angles of fall) than those tabulated. The angle and velocity of recovery
and consequent position of burst depend on the slope of the soil, the soil
density and other factors. These tables are based on data gathered on level
soil which is a sand clay mixture, well integrated and believed to be ageneral
average of soil hardness. The probable error in height of burst will depend
on the uniformity of the surface in the impact area.
Note: The following tables contain data for the fuze listed and certain
listed fuze delay times only. These same f\lzes have other delay times than
that listed. However, the delay time is indicated on each fuze as part of
the fuze nomenclature.
Page 126
TABLE 73 TABLE 74
Howitzer, 75mm, Ml, M1Al, M2, M3 Gun, 75mm, M1897 Series
Shell, HE, M48 Shell, HE, M48
Range
Angle of
Fall
Angle of
Recovery
Impact
to Burst
Height
of Burst
PEin
Height
of BUIst
yd mils mils yd ft ft
'
I
Charge 1
MV 700 f/s 1,000 109 155 26 12 2
Fuze, PO, M48A1, 2,000 242 265 17 14 3
M48A2 and M51 A4
(0.15 sec delay)
3,000 415 315 7 7 2
Charge 2
MV810 f/s 1,000 82 120 32 12 2
Fuze, PO, M48A1, 2,000 178 220 24 16 3
M48A2 and M51 A4
(0.15 sec delay)
3,000 295 295 15 14 3
Charge 3
MV 950 f/s 1,000 58 90 40 11 2
Fuze, PO, M48A1, 2,000 127 175 33 21 4
M48A2 and M51 A4 3,000 208 245 25 18 4
(0.15 sec delay) 4,000 305 295 17 15 4
5,000 425 315 8 8 3
Charge-4
MV 1,250 f/s 1;000 38 60 51 11 2
Fuze, PO, M48A1, 2,000 86 125 42 16 3
M48A2 and M51 A4 3,000 142 190 35 20 4
(0.15 sec delay) 4,000 206 245 28 21 4
5,000 279 285 21 18 4
6,000 363 310 14 14 4
Range
Angle of
fall
Angle of
Recovery
Impact
to Burst
Height
of Burst
PEin
Height
of Burst
yd mils mils yd ft ft
Reduced Charge
MV 950 f/s 1,000 59 90 40 11 2
Fuze, PO, M48A1, 2,000 126 170 33 17 3
M48A2 and M51A4 3,000 206 245 25 18 4
( 0 ~ 1 5 sec delay) 4,000 301 295 17 16 4
Normal Charge
MV 1,500 f/s 1,000 26 45 62 8 2
Fuze, PO, M48A1, 2,000 65 100 50 15 3
M48A2 and M51 A4 3,000 115 160 41 19 4
(0.15 sec delay) 4,000 174 220 33 22 5
5,000 240 265 26 21 5
6,000 313 300 19 17 4
7,000 394 315 13 12 4
Super Charge
MV 1,950 f/s 1,000 13 25 28 2 0
fuze, PO, M48, 2,000 36 60 23 4 1
M48A2 and M51 A4 3,000 70 105 19 6 1
(0.05 sec delay) 4,000
5,000
116
171
160
215
14
12
7
8
1
2
6,000 234 260 9 7 2
7,000
8,000
303
378
.295
315
7
5
6
4
2
. 1
Note: Data also applies to the Gun, 75mm, M3 and M6.
Page 127
TABLE 75
. TABLE 77
Gun, 76 mm, M1Al, M1A1C, M1A2 Hllwitzer, 105 mm, M2, M2Al,' M4
Shell, HE, M42Al
Shell, HE, Ml'
Range
Angle of
Fall
Angle of
Recovery
Impact
to Burst
Height
of Burst
PEin
Height
of Burst
yd mils mils yd ft ft
-
0
1
1
1
1
2
2
1
1
MV 2,700 fls
Fuze, PO, M48,
M48A2 and M51 A4
(0.05 sec delay)
1,000
2,000
3,000
4,000
5,000
6,000
7,0,00
8,000
9,000
8
20
38
65
106
163
233
315
407
20
35
60
100
150
210
260
300
315
40
33
26
21
16
12
9
6
4
3
4
5
6
7
7
7
6
4
Note: The data on distance from impact to burst, height of burst and PE in height
of burst are approximately true for any 3 inch gun firing this projectile with MV from
2,600 to 2,800 f/s.
TABLE 76
Gun, 90 mm, Ml,M1Al, M2, M3
Shell, HE, M71
-
PEin
Angle of Angle of Impact Height Height
Range Fall Recovery to Burst of Burst of Burst
yd' mils mils yd Ft ft
MV 2,700 E/s 1,000 7 20 41 2 0
Fuze, PO, M48, 2,000 17 30 36 3 1
M48A2 and M51 A4 3,000 30 50 32 5 1
(0.05 sec delay) 4,000 47 75 '28 6 1
5,000 69 105 23 7 1
6,000 98 140 19, 8 2
7,000 136 180 15 8 2
8,000 187 '230 12 8 2
9,000 249 270 9 8 2
10,000 314 300 7 6 2
PEin
Angle of Angle of Impact Height Height
Range fall Recovery to Burst of Burst of Burst
yd mils mils yd ft ft
Charge 1
,MV 650 fls 1,000 1.26 170 24 12 2
Fuze, PO, M48A1, 2,000 272 285 15 13 3
M48A2 and M51 A4
(0.15 sec delay)
Charge 2
MV 710 fls 1,000 104 145 27 12 2
Fuze, PO, M48A1, 2,000 226 260 19 15 3
M48A2 and M51 A4 3,000 370 315 10 10 3
(0.15 sec delay)
Charge 3,
.. '
MV 780 fls
Fuze, PO, M48A1,
1,000
2,000
87
188
125
230
31
23
12
16
2
3
M48A2 and M51 A4 3,000 304 295 15 14 3
(0.15 sec delayl-
Charge 4
MV 875 fls
Fuze, PO, M48A1,
M48A2 and M51 A4
(0. ~ 5 sec delay)
1,000
2,000
3,000
4,000
69
147
237
343
105
195
265
305
36
29
21
14
11
17
17
13
2
3
4
3
Charge 5
MV 1,020 fls
Fuze, PO, M48A1,
M48A2 and M51 A4
(0.15 sec delay)
1,000
2 ~ 0 0 0
3,000
4,000
5,000
6,000
51
109
174
247
331
430
80
155
220
270
305
315
44
37
30
23.
17
10
10
17
20
19
15
9
2
3
'4
4
'4
3
Charge 6
MV 1,235 fls
Fuze, PO, M48A1,
M48A2 and M51 A4
(0.15 sec delay)
1,000
2,OOQ
3,000
4,000
5,000
6,000
7,000
39
86
138
198
265
339
422
65
125
185
235
280
305
31'5
51
43
36
30
24
17
10
10
17
20
21
20
16
10
2
3
4
4
4
4
4
Charge 7
MV 1,500 fls
Fuze, PO,M48A1,
M48A2 and M51 A4
(0.15 sec delay)
1,000
2,000
3,000
4,000
5,000
25
60
104
156
214
45
95
145
200
250
65
54
44
37
29
8
15
19
22
22
2
3
..
4
5
6,000 278 285 23 20 5
7,000 348 310 17 16 4
8,000' 42g 315 10 10 4
Note: Data for Charges 1-5 applies also to Howitzer, 105 mm, M3. '
I
Page 128'
'TABLE 78 TABLE 79
Gun, 4.5 inch, Ml Howitzer, 155 mm, M1917,MI917Al, M1918
Shell, HE, M65
Shell, HE, Ml02
PEin
Angle of
' Height Height Impact Angle of
Fall . of Burst of Burst to Burst Recovery
yd ft ft yd mils mils
-
Normal Charge
1 7 83 30 16 1,000 MV f/s
Fu,z8, PO, M51 A3 ,
2
18
13 74 60 36 2,000
3 65 95 60 3,000 and M51A4
4 22
5,000
56 130 89 a,OOO (0.15 sec delay)
24 5
6,000
48 170 125
5
7,000'
25 39 215 168
5
8,000
24 32 250, 219
5
9,000
22 26 285 274
5
'10,000
18 ' 19 305 334
4 13 14 315 395
-
Super Charge
1,000
1 7 105 20 10 MV 2275 f/s
2 11 40 '96 22 2,000 Fuze, PO, M51 A3
3 15
4
87 60 37 3,000 and,M51A4
20
5,000
78 85 54 4,000 (0.15 sec delay)
4
6,000
23 70 110 75
5
7,000'
26 61 140 100
5
8,000
27 52 175 130
6
9,000
28 44 215 167
6
10,000
27 36 250 211
5
11,000
24 29 280 261
5
12,000
20 22 300 317
5
13,000, '
16 17 315 376
4 11 11 315 438
PEin
Angle of Angle of Impact Heigfrt Height
Range Fall Recovery , to Burst of Burst of Burst
yd mils mils yd ft ft
Charge 1
MV 679 f/s 1,000 112 155 26 12 2
Fuze, PO, M51 A3 2,000 241 265 18 14 3
and M51A4 3,000 397 315 9 8 3
(0.15 sec delay)
"
Charge 2
MV741 f/s 1,000 95 135 30 12 2
Fuze, PO, M51 A3 2,000 200 240 22 16 3
and M51A4 3,000 322 300 14 13 3
(0.15 sec delay)
Charge 3
MV 831 f/s 1,000 75 110 35
12, ,
2
M51A3 2,000 ' 158 205 27 17 4
and 51A4 3,000 251 275 20 17 4
(0.15 sec delay) 4,000 361 310 13 12 3
Charge 4
MV 938 f/s 1,000 58 90 40 11 2
Fuze, PO, M51 A3 2,000 124 170 34 17 3
and M51A4 3,000 196 235 27 19 4
(0.15 sec delay) , 4,000 277 285 21 18 4
5,000 371 310 14 13 4
Charge 5
MV1,082 f/s 1,000 46 75 47 10 2
Fuze, PO, M51 A3 2,000 97 140 41 16 3
and M51A4
(0.15 sec delay)
3,000
4,000
153
216
200
250
34
27 '
20
21
4
4
5,000 286 290 21 19 4
6,000 366 310 15 14 4
Charge 6
MV 1,357 f/s 1,000 32 55 58 10 2
Fuze, PO, M51 A3 2,000 72 110 49 15 3
and M51A4 3,000 118 165 41 20 4
(0.15 sec delay) 4,000 171 215 34 22 4
5,000,
6,000
229
292
260
290
28
22 '
22
19
5
4
7,000 359 310 16 15 4
8,000 ,432 315 10 10 4
Charge 7 "
MV 1,476 f/s 1,000 25 45 64 8 2
Fuze, PO, M51 A3 2,000 60 95 54' '15 3
and M51A4 3,000 102 145 45 19 4
(0.15 sec delay) 4,000 ' 151 . 195 38 22 4
5,000 206 245 31 23 5
6,000
7,000
265
328
280
305
25
19
22
18 I
5
4
8,000 395 315 14 13 4
Page 129
TABLE 80 TABLE 81
Howitzer, 155mm, Ml Shell, HE,Ml07 Gun, 155mm, M1917,M1917Al,M1918
Shell, HE, M10l
"
Range
Angle of
Fall
Angle of
Reco.very
Impact
to Burst,
Height
of Burst
PE in
Height
of Burst
yd mils mils yd ft ft
Charge 1
MY 680 f/s 1,000 112 155 26 12 2
Fuze, PO, M51 A3 2,000 240 265 18 14 3
and M51A4
(0.15 sec delay)
3,000 397 315 9 8 3
Charge 2
MY 770 f/s 1,000 87 125 31 12 2
Fuze, PO, M51 A3 2,000 185 225 24 16 3
and M51A4
(0.15 sec delay)
3,000.
4,000
297
436
295
315
16 .
- 7
14
7
3
3
Charge 3
MY 880 f/s
Fuze, PO, M51 A3
and M51A4
(0.15 sec delay)
1,000
2,000
3,000
4,000
5,000
68
141
223
318
433
105
185
255
300
315
.37
30
23
16
8
12
17
18
15
. 8
2
3
4
4
3
Charge 4
'MY 1,020 f/s 1,000 50 80 45 10 2
Fuze, PO, M51 A3 2,000 106 150 38 17 3
and M51A4 3,000 168 215 31 20 4
(0.1 5 sec delay) 4,000 237 265 24 20 4
5,000 315 300 18 16 4
, 6,000 406 315 11 11 4
Chdrge 5
MY 1,220 f/s
Fuze, PO, M51 A3
andM51A4
(0.15 sec delay)
1,000
2,000
3,000
4,000
5,000
6,000
7,000
38
82
133
188
249
315
389
60
120
180
230
270
300
315
51
45
38
32
26
20
13
9
16
20
22
21
18
12
2
3
4
5
5
4
4
-
Charge 6
MY 1,520 f/s 1,000 24 40 66 7 2
Fuze, PO, M51 A3 2,000 ' 54 85 56 14
.
3
andM51A4 3,000 92 130 48 19 4
(0.15 sec delay) 4,000 138 185 40 22 4
5,000 190 230 34 23 5
6,000 247 270 27 22 5
7,000 307 300 21 19 5
8,000 371 310 16 15 4
9,000 439 315 10 10 4.
Charge 7
MY 1,850 f/s 1,000 1S 30 83 7 1
Fuze,cPO, M51A3 2,000 35 60 74 13 2
and M51A4 3,000 60 95 64 18 4'
(0.15 sec delay) 4,000 92 130 55 21 4
5,000 130 175 46 24 5
6,000 176 220 38 25 5
7,000 228 260 30 24 5
8,000 286 290 24 21 5
9,000 348 310 18 17 4
10,000 411 .315 13 13 4
Range
Angle of
Fall
'Angie of
Recovery
Impact
to Burst
Height
of Burst
PEin
H e i g h ~
'of Burst
yd mils, mils 'yd ft ft
Normal Charge -
MY 1,955 fls 1,000 14 30 89 8 2
Fuze, PO, M51 A3 2;000 32 55 81 13 3
and M51A4 3,000 53 85 71 18 4
(0.15 sec delay) 4,000 79 115 61 21 4
5,000 111 155' 52 24 5
6,000 151 195 44 26 5
. 7,000 198 235 36 25 5
8,000 253 275 28 23 5
9,000 314 300 21 20 5
10,000 380 315 15 15 4
11,000 448
-
315 10 9 4
Super Charge
MY 2,410 f/s 1,000 .9 to 111 7 1
Fuze, PO, M51 A3 2,000 20 35 102 11 2
,andM51A4 3,000 33 55 92 15 3
(0.15 sec delay) 4,000 49 80 83 19 4
5,000 68 105 74 23 4
6,000 91 130 65 25 5
7,000 120 165 56 28 6
8,000 154 200 47 28 6
. 9,000 195 235 39 28 6
10,000 245 270 31 25 6
11,000. 302 295 24 22 5
12,000 365 310 18 17 5
13,000 432 .315 11 11 4
-
Page 130
TABLE 82
Gun, 155mm, Ml, M1Al, M2
Shell, HE, MlOl
Rqnge
Angle of
Fall
Angle of
Recovery
Impact
to Burst
Height
of Burst
PEin
Height
of Burst
yd mils mils yd ft ft
Normal Charge
MY 2,100 f/s 1,000 12 25 .96 7 1
Fuze, PO, M51 A3. 2,000 28 50 86. 13 2
and M51A4 3,000 47 75 77 17 3
(0.15 sec delay) 4,000 70 105 67 21 4
.5,000 98 140 58 24 5
6,000 132 180 49 26 5
7,000 173 215 40 26 5
8,000 221 255 33 25 5
9,000 276 285 26 22 5
10,000 336 305 20 18 5
11,000 399 315 14 14 4
Super Charge
-
MY 2,800 f/s 1,000 7 20 130 7 1
Fuze, PO, M51 A3 2,000 14 30 121 10 2
and M51A4 3,000 22 40 112 13 3
(0.15 sec delay) 4,000 33 55 102 17 3
5,000 46 75 93 21 4
6,000 62 95 84 24 4
7,000 82 120 74 26 5
8,000 107 150 65 29 6
9,000 135 180 56 30 6
10,000 169 215 47 30 6
11,000 207 245 39 29 6
12,000 252 275 31 26 6
13,000 302 295 24 22 5
14,000 358 310 19 18 5
15,000 419 315 14 14 5
Page 131
HOWITZER, 8 in. MI, SHELL HE, Ml06
TABLE 83 TABLE 83 (Continued)
Range
Angle of
Fall
Angle of
Recovery
Impact
to Burst
Height
of Burst
PEin
Height
of Burst
yd mils mils
y ~ ft ft
Charge 1
MY 820. f/s 1,000 76 . 110 34 11 2
Fuze, PO, M51 A3 2,000 158 205 27 17 4
and M51A4 3,000 251 275 20 17 4
(0.15 sec delay) 4,000 358 310 13 12 3
Charge 2
MY 900 f/s
Fuze, PO, M51A3
and M51A4
(0.15 sec delay)
1,000
2,000
3,009
4,000
5,000
63
132
206
291
387
95
180
245
290
315
39
32
26
19
12
11
17
19
17
11
2
3
4
4
3
-
Charge 3
MY 1,000 f/s 1,000 50 80 44 10 2
Fuze,PO,M51 A3 2,000 106 150 38 17 3
and M51A4. 3,000 167 215 31 20 4
(0.15 sec delay) 4,000 235 265 25 20 4
5,000 309 300 19 17 4
6,000 393 315 13 12 4
-
Charge 4
MY1,150f/s 1,000 41 65 50 10 2
Fuze, PO, M51 A3 2,000 86 125 44 16 3
and M5:tA4 3,000 137 185 38 21 4
(0.15 s'ec delay) 4,000 192 235 32 22 5
5,000 252 275 26 21 5
6,000 317 300 19 18 4
7,000 388 315 14 13 4
Range
Angle of
Fall
Angle of
Recovery
Impact
to Burst
Height
of Burst
P E i ~
Height
of Burst
yd mils mils yd ft ft
Charge 5
MY 1,380 f/s 1,000 28 50 60 9 2
Fuze, PO,M51A3 2,000 64 100 52 15 3
and M51A4 3,000 107 ,150 45 20 4
(0.15 sec delay) 4,000 154 200 38 23 5
5,000 206 245 32 23 5
6,000 262 280 26 22 5
7,000 321 300 20 19 5
8,000 384 315 15 14 4
Charge 6
MY 1,640 f/s 1,000 20 35 73 8 2
Fuze, PO,M51 A3 2,000 45 70 65 14 3
and M51A4 3,000 75 . 110 56 19 4
(0.15 sec delay) 4,000 111 155 48 22 4
5,000 154 200 41 24 5
6;000 203 240 34 24 5
7,000 256 275 28 23 5
8,000 313 300 22 20 5
9,000 372 310 17 16 5
10,000 434 315 11 11 4
Charge 7
MY 1,950 f/s 1,000 16 30 92 8 2
Fuze, PO, M51 A3 2,000 33 55 80 13 3
and M51A4 3,000 53 85 71 18 4
(0.15 sec delay) 4,000 76 110 63 21 4
5,000 105 150 55 24 5
6,000 . 139 185 47 26 5
7,000 180 225 40 27 6
8,000 227 260 33 26 6
9,000 279 285 26 23 5
10,000 335 305 21 19 5
11,000 393 315 15 14 4
Page 132
GUN, 8 in. MI, SHELL, HE, MI03
Angle of
Recovery
mils
20
40
65
85
110
140
170
195
225
255
280
295
310
315
285
300
310
315
315
285
300
305
315
315
PEin
Angle of Angle of Impact Height Height
Range Fall Recovery to,Burst of Burst of Burst
yd mils mils yd ft ft
Reduced Charge
MY 2,100 fls 1,000 11 20 97 6 1
Fuzj PO, M51A4' 2,000 ' 24 40 89 10 2
Mo 3 3,000 39 6S 81 15 3
(0.15 sec delay) . 4,000 56 85 74 18 3
5,000 75 110 66 22 4
6,000 97 140 59 24 ' 5
7,000 122 170 52 26 5
8,000 150 195 46 26 5
9,000 183 225 40 27 6
10,000 220 255 35 27 6
-11,000 261 280 30 26 6
12,000 306 295 27 24 6
13,000 357 310 24 23 6
14,000 , 412 315 23 22 7
Normal Charge
MY 2,600 fls 15,000 272 285 32 27 6
Fuzj PO, M51A4
Mo 3
(0.15 sec delay)
16,000
17,000
18,000
310
. 351
395
300
310
315
29
27
25
26
25
24
6
7
7
19,000 442 315 24 23 9
Super Charge
MY 2,850 fls 17,000 275 285 33 29 6
Fuzj PO, M51A4
Mo 3
(0.15 sec: delay)
18,000
19,000
20,000
309
347
387
300
305
315
30
28
26
27
26
25
6
7
8
21,000 430 315 26 24 9
Reduced Charge
MY 2100 fls
Fuzj PD,M51 A 1
Mo 1 and
M51A2Mod 3
(0.05 sec delay)
Normal Charge
MY 2600 fls
Fuzj PO, M51A1
Mo 1 and
M51A2 Mod 3
(0.05 sec delay)
Super Charge
MY 2850 fls
Fuzj PO, M51A1
Mo 1 and
M51A2 Mod 3
(0.05 sec delay)
TABLE 84
Angle of
Range Fall
yd mils
1,000
2,000
3;000
4,000
5,000
6,000
7,000
8,000
9,000
10,000
11,000
12,000
13,000
14,000
11
24
39
56
75
97
122
150
183
220
261
306
357
412
-
15,000 272
16,000 310
17,000 351
18,000 395
19,000
1
442
17,000 275
18,000 309
19,000 347
20,000 387
21,000 430
Impact
to Burst
yd
33
31
28
26
24
22
19
17
1-5
13
11
9
7
5
11
9
7
6
4
12
10
8
6
5
PEin
Height Height
of Burst of Burst
It ft
2 0
4 1
5 1
7 1
8 2
9 2
10
I
2
10 2
10 2
10 2
9 2
8 2
6 2
5 2
10 2
8 2
7 2
6 2
4 2
10 2
9 2
7 2
6 2
4 2
TABLE 85
1'118133
TABLE 86
Howitzer, 240 mm,Ml
Shell, H ~ , Ml14
PEin
Range
Angle of
Fall
Angle. of
Recovery
Impact
to Burst
Height
of Burst
Height
of Burst
yd mils mils yd ft ft
Charge 1
MV 1,500 fls
Fuze, PO, M51 A3
and M51A4
(0.15 sec delay)'
9,000
10,000
371
428
I
310
315
17
11
16
11
5
4
.
Charge 2
MV 1,740 fls
Fuze, PO, M51 A3
. and M51A4
(0.15 sec delay)
11,000 405 315 15 14 4
Charge 3
MV 2,020 fls
Fuze, PO, M51 A3
andM51A4
(0.15 sec delay)
13,000 407 315 15 14 4
Note: Few ricochets expected with Charge 4 at minimum elevation with l e v ~
cC;lrriage. . ..
Page 134
VoIUR1e III Part 11
ARMOR PENETRATION
(THIS PART SUPERSEDES VOLUME II PART 1, PAGES
1. GENERAL.
This section provides information pertaining to the performance of armor
piercing projectiles against homogeneous and face-hardened armor plate.
The various theories and analyses of the mechanics' of penetration
will not be dealt with in discussion, although such knowledge is neces
sary for better evaluation of results obtained from test firings of projectiles
against armor plate. It also allows these find.ings to be interpreted
easily and accurately. It is from the test firmgs that data are obtamed
and compiled as a basis for determining penetrations.
2. ARMOR PENETRATION AND .STRIKING
VELOCITY
Armor penetration data are graphically presented for standard and
limited procurement projectiles when fired against armor plate at various
angles of impact and plate obliquities. These data are shown for both
rolled homogeneous armor and face-hardened plates. From the charts,
the thickness of armor plate which can be penetrated, at a given range
or striking velocity, can be determined. It will be noted that certain portions
of the penetration curve 'are shown as broken lines. This represents an
. estimated performance for which actual firing data have not been obtained.
The penetration curves are cOIllpiled for intact or shattered projec
tile, with the greater portion of the fragIllents, com.pIeteIy penetrat
ing the plate.
3. CHARTS.
The chart shown in Figure 57 is for use in conjunction with the examples
given below to illustrate the use of the striking velocity apd armor penetra
tion curves.
4. ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES.
The following examples and the chart shown in Figure 57 illustrate the
use of the striking velocity and armor penetration curves. The range scale
in yards and the penetration scale in inches are shown. along the bottom
of the chart, the striking velocity in feet per second is shown along the left
hand border. The striking velocity curve is designated by showing the
muzzle velocity upon which it is based. The penetration curves are des
ignated to indicate the obliquity upon which they are based.
1 TO 29. PAGES 31 TO 52 ARE NOT SUPERSEDED.)
(1) Example 1.
Given-3-inch plate thickness.
Required-The striking velocity and maximum range at which penetration
at 20-degree obliquity can be achieved.
Solution-(l) Enter the penetration scale at point "A" which represents
3-inch plate thickness. (2) Proceed upward along the vertical line
until the intersection with the 20-degree obliquity penetration curve
is reached at "B". (3) From "B" proceed left along a line until the
intersection with the striking velocity curve at "C" is reached. (4)
From "C" continue left along the horizontal line to "E" where the
striking velocity of 2,160 feet per second can be read; then proceed
downward from "C" along the vertical line to "D" where the range
of 1,430 yards is found. Thus, a striking velocity of 2,160 feet per
second is needed to penetrate 3 inches of plate, and the maximum
range at which the projectile will penetrate the plate is 1,430
(2) Example 2.
Given-1,430-yard range.
maximum thickness of armor plate which canbe penetrated
at 20-degree obliquity and the corresponding striking velocity required.
Solution-(1) Enter the range scale at 1,430 yards on "D" and proceed
upward on a vertical line to point "C" where the striking velocity
curve is intersected. (2) Proceed right from "C" along a horizontal
line to "B" where the penetration curve for 20-degree obliquity is
intersected. (3) Then proceed downward along a' vertical line to "A"
where a thickness of 3 inches is read. (4) From point "C" proceed left
along horizontal line to "E" where a striking velocity of 2,160 feet
per second is
(3) Example 3. .
Given-2,160 feet per second striking velocity.
The range and thickness of 20-degree obliquity armor plate
which can be penetrated.
Solution-(l) Enter the striking velocity scale at point "E" which repre
sents 2,160 feet per second. (2) Proceed right to point "C" and then
downward along the vertical line to "D" where the range of 1,430
yards can be read. (3) From point "C" proceed right to "B" on the
20-degree obliquity curve and then downward along the vertical line
to "A" where the thickness of 3 inches can be read.
Page 135
'.
Penetration Curves
2,500
~
2,300
C
E ~
2,100
I
I
I
I
I
en
1,900 ~ 1
1.6
....
I
I
>
'u
o I
Q)
>
I
1,700
C>
I
I
I
c:
I ....
32
-CI'
I..
....
I
(f)
I
1,500
I
T

Stri king Velocity Curve
I
~
1,300
I
I
--.
I
I
1,100
"T
I

I
I A Penetration In.
900
3. 0 'r-H-HH-+-H-++++++ 4.0 -+-I--I-l-+-I-I4-II--l--I--l--+--l-l- 50
6. 0 ++++-++-1-++++++-++ 7. 0 - + + - I - I
1tI:tti:ttt1:ttit 1. 0 + + + ~ + - + + + - H - + 2.0
I I I 1 I I I ++Hf++Il-f++++++-+
I
Range yd
PREPARED BY ORDNANCE DEPT
o
o 500 1,000 1,500 2,000 2,5003,000 3,300 ' 4,000 4,500 5,000 5,500 6,000 6,500 7,000 7,500
FIGURE 57
TABLE 87
ARMORPIERCING .AMMUNITION CHARACTERISTICS.
(These characteristics were used in the computation of the
armor penetration and striking
Proiectile Model and Caliber
I
Proi Wt
Ib
Gun
Muzzle
Vel
f/s
Based on
**
Figure
No.
.30 cal AP, M2 166 grains 24-in. barrel MG 2,775 C6=0.250* 58,59
.50 cal AP, M2 708 grains 36-in.barrel MG 2,835 C6=0.458 60,61
45-in. barrel MG 2,935 C6=0.458
"
20mm, AP-T, M75 2,548 grains M2 2,555 C6=0.344* 62,63
20mm, AP-T, M95 2,000 grains M2 2,800 C6=0.403 64,65
37mm,APC-T, M5181 and M51 B2 1.92 M3,M6 2,900 66,67
37mm, APC-T, M59
1.91 .
1.66
1.96
6.28
7.27
AN-M9
M1A2
2,800
2,050
C1=0.492
C1=0.610*
68,69
37mm, AP-T,M80

AN-M9
M4
3,050
1,825
C1=0.78
,
C1=0.78
70, 71
40mm, AP-T, M81 or M81 A 1 M1 2,870 C6=0.615* 72, 73
57mm, AP-T, M70 M1 2,950 C1=0.974 74, 75
57mm, APe-T, M86 M1 2,700 C6=1.31 76, 77
75mm, APC-T, M61 or M61A1 14.96 M4, AN-M5A1 2,030 FT75-AY-1 78, 79
MfO, M3
-
3 in. & 76mm, APC-T, M62 or M62A1 15.44 3 in.M'5, M7 2,600 FT3-W-1 80,81
76mm, M1A1, FT76-C-1
M1A1C, M1A2
3 in. & 76mm HVAP-T, M93 (T4E20), 9.36 3 in. M5, M7 3,400 C7=0.885 82
T4E17 76mm, M1A1,
M1A1C, M1A2
90mm, APC"I, M82 24.11 M1, M2, M3 2,800
2,670
FT90-F-1 83,84
90mm, AP-T, T33
I
24.06 M1, M2, M3 2,800 C7=1.86 85
90mm, HVAP-T, T30E16
I
16.80 M1,M2,M3 3,350 C7=1.11 86
*Variable ballistic coefficient.
**Striking velocity curves are based on calculation made by Siacci's Method, using the indicated ballistic coefficients
unless a .Firing Table number is indicated.
NAVY CRITERION * Page 137 .
STRIKING VELOCITY Y5. ARMOR PENETRATION and RANGE
ROLLED HOMOGENEOUS ARMOR PLATE BULLET, AP, .30 'CAL , .M2
2,750
2,500
2,250
.:::
II)
I
2,000 >
'u
0
Q)
>
m
1,750 c:
~ .
'i:
en
1,500
1,250
MV-2,775 f/s
1,000
Penetration
I
I-
S0.5E
I
I
I-III
0.4
I
1.111 _ IIII
f-.
I 0.3:
-
0.2
I
0.1
o 200 400 600 800 '1,000
in.
I
::
I-
0 6

_LLll
1,200
I
::; 1.0=
~ 1 . 1 _ 1.2 ~ 1.3 _ ~ 104 _ 1.5
f-.
...
Range yd ++++-I'H-H-+-I-H-+-+-+-l--I--l--+-I--U
PREPARED BY ORDNANCE DEPT
I .. " , ,., 1-'. r' ... .......
2,000 2,200 2,400 2,600 2,800 3,000
*See definition, page 134
FIGURE 58
750
Page 138
STRIKING VELOCITY Ys. ARMOR "PENETRATION and RANGE 'NAVY CRITERION * ,
FACE HARDENED ARMOR PLATE
BULLET, AP, .30 CAL, M2
3,000
2,750
2,500
2,250
2,000
1,750
1,500
1,250
1,000
. '
..
~
I
:L,
....
'u
0
Q)
>
0>
c:
32
'C
....
(f)
r;
MV-2,77S f/s
If.
~
Penetration in.
0.3=
~
0.5:= 0.6
0.7
0.8
r- O.g>
1.1 ~ 1.2
-
1.3 1.4 - 0.1 ~ 0.2 0.4: 1.0
-
l. -
"1111 II r III T III II 11 , II I I I I I I II I I , .
III :11111 1.1111 I! I I
~
Range yd
PREPARED BY ORDNANCE DEPT
I 1 r 'I ,"
"
o 200 400 600 800 1,000 1,200 1,400 1,600 1,800' 2,000 2,200 2,400.. 2,600 2,800 3,000.
*See definition, page 134
FIGURE 59
5
750
STRIKING VELOCITY Y5. ARMOR PENETRATION and RANGE NAVY CRITERION * Page 139
ROLLED HOMOGENEOUS ARMOR PLATE
3,000
2,750
, .
2,500
2,250

- .....
2,000 I
>
- -
'u
-
0
Q)'
-
>
1,750
C>
c:
:5t
'
-
.
tf)
1,500
1,250
1,000
750
0.1 0.2 003 0.4 0.5 0.6
II
,
11I1 1I11 "'1111
,
, , ,
, ,
,
I I
Penetration in.
.
0.7
:m 0:8 "1'1
Illrr-rlll'II,1
Range' yd
BULLET, AP, .50 CAL, M2
!
MY-2,935 f/s, (45 in. barrel)
MY-2,835,_f/s (36 in.
l
' D.9
1.0
r,' "'I
I-
r 1.
1;3 1.4 5 1.1 t 1.2
'j-,
," h IIII "'I 1"", I I"l I
PREPARED BY ORDNANCE,
o 200' 400 600 800 1,000 1,200 1,400 1,600 1,800 2,000 2,200 2,400 2,600 2,800 3,000
*See definition, page 134
FIGURE 60
Page 140 STRIKING VELOCITY Y5. ARMOR PENETRATION and RANGE
NAVY CRITERION-*
FACE HARDENED ARMOR PLATE BULLET, .AP, .50 CAL, M2
3,000
2,750
-2,500
2,250
!
I
-
I/)
2,000
.:::
I
>
- 'u
0
Q)
,
1,750
>
C>
c:
~
. ~
-
(f)
1,500
~
1,250
I
1,000
750
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 ;
MY-2,935 f/s (45 in. barrel)
MY-2,835 f/s (36 in. barrel)
f-
1.1 1.2
-, I
.
I
.
PREPARED BY
IIII 11111
t
. ' 1.3 ~ 1.4
'1.
5 0.9 , 1.0
1-, , .... . 1'""',
-
ORDNANCE DEPT
J .-.1 I
Penetration in.
&,0.7 mO.8
I
I
I I
Range yd

..
o 200 400 600 800 1,000 1,200 1,400 1,600 1,800 2,000 2,200 2,400 2,600 2,800 3,000
*See definition, page 134 .
FIGURE 61
I
Page 141
STRIKING VELOCITY Y5. ARMOR PENETRATION and RANGE
NAVY CRITERION*
,ROLLED HOMOGENEOUS ARMOR PLATE
0 SHOT, ApT, 20 mm, M75
2,400
2,200
2,000
1,800
.:::
II)
I
2 , 6 0 0 ~ o o : 50
0
............-T',.......,.40 r 30
>.
....
u
0
Q)

1,600 >
0)
c:
32
....
"
tf)
1,400
1,200
1,000i
Penetration in.
I I I
, 800
0-.+++t-H 0.2 ~ 0.4 r- 0.6 _"
MV-2,SSS f/s
PREPARED BY ORDNANCE DEPT_
-"] 11"'"11 f I TT1,-
o 200 400 600 8,00 1,000 1,200 1,400 1,600 1,800 2,000 2,200 2,400 2,600 2,800 3,000
*See definition, page 134
FIGURE 62
Page142
NAVY CRITERION*
SHOT, AP-Y, 20 mm, M75
2,400
2,200
2,000

I 1,800,

'u
o
Q)
>
1-0)
C
1,600'
.:;:
.;::
V)
-
1,400
1,200
NJV-2,SSS f/s
1,000
"
o - '0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 +ti++.. 1.0 1.2 1. 4 16 1.8
I ,- I , I " I ,-!-=tFt=ff1 I I I .m=tt.g..111-+- I

I

I
I I
,WWI:t++:J:++tI::t:I:l+q::mQ::t::l:tTTf II 1m.Ird.jjtttittttttttt:ttttiii"1H:1
III
o 200 . 400 600 800 1,000 1,200 1,400 1,600 1,800 2,000 2,200 2,600 2,800 3,000
*See definition, page 134
FIGURE 63
800
Page 143
3,000 STRIKING VELOCITY vs. ARMOR PENETRATION and RANGE NAVY CRITERION*
ROLLED HOMOGENEOUS ARMOR
--.H-+-l-I--H--IH-+-H.-++-H--I--I-+-+++++++++++++t-+++ 70 -I-I--t--t-c1-H 60 50.. 40 30 +-H++-t++ 20 0 ++++-t+l-H-++++++++-H-I-H++++++++I
2,500
2,25'0
2,000

I
-
I
I
>
- 'u
1,750
0
Q)
>
0>
c:
:s2
1,500
'i:
- en


1,000
Penetrati 0 n in. ++++++++++++-H+-H-++-H-I-H-+++++-++++++++t-+++-R""f'IItooI"""-:I:::-H-++++++++++++-I
f
0.6 t 0.5
,c ,.,i
I
I
I
750
== OJ
0.3 .
0.1,.
:..
I h I .
I I ,I
I
I
0 200 400 600 800 1,000 1,200 1,400 1,600 1,800 2,bOO 2,200 2,400 2,600 2,800 3,0.00
*See definition, page 134
FIGURE 64
- - -
Page 144
STRIKING VELOCITY Ys. ARMOR PENETRATION and RANGE NAVY CRITERION*
FACE HARDENED ARMOR PLATE SHOT, AP-T, 20 mm, M95(T9E5)
3,000
1 I 11_ .1 I I 1_ .U.J I ,1111
50 ~ 40 ~ 30 20- 0
l
-
2,>150
.
2,500
2,250
2,000
'TI I I I I
t
illO.
7
OO
0.6
r.
Range yd
I I I I I I I I I I
1
I/)
;:;:
l-
I I-
I- >
I-
- I
'u
I-
0
I-
I- Q)
I-
>
l-
I-
I-
0>
c:
I-
:52 I-
I-
" I-
I- v;
l-
..
I.
Penetration
l
0.1 F 0.2 := 0.3 '" 0.4
III .' I
,r 1 I 1
I
I
I
1,500
1,250
MV-2,800 lIs
1,000
,
in.
l- I I
0.5 0.8 ~ 0.9 ~ 1.0 ~ 1.1 ~ 1.2
l- I- r
PREPARED BY
.1
1.4 1. := 1.3
I
ORDNANCE' E P T ' ~
200 400 600 800 1,000 1,200 1,400 1,600 1,800 2,000 2,200 2,400 2,600' 2,800 3,000
*See definition, page 134
FIGURE 6S
750
5
Page 145
STRIKING VELOCITY V5. ARMOR PENETRATION and RANGE
ROLLED HOMOGENEOUS ARMOR PLATE
3,000
2,800
2,600
2,400
2,200
2,000
1,800
1,600
1,400
1,200
0
-
;65
0
60 5550
70
en
:

I

- u
0
Q)
>
m
c:

.t:
-
'tJ)
"
I
45:
830, 20 0
MV2,900 f/s
Penetration in.

4.0 1.0 2.0 : 3.0
TI' 'r,'
Range yd
_ - NAVY, CRITERION*
SHOT, APe1,37mm, M51Bl or M51B2
5.0
r_ ....,.. ..,,-,_r
' BY ORDNANCE DEPT.
:
1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000
*See definition, page 134
FIGURE 66
Page 1.46
STRIKING VELOCITY Ys. ARMOR PENETRATION and. RANGE
NAVY CRITERION*
2,800
2,600
2,400
2,000
1,800
1,600
1,400
1,200
o
I
I.
I
1.0 2.0
SHOT, APe-T, 37 mm, M5181 or M5182
MV-2,900 f/s
Penetration in.
3.0 4.0
I I I I I I I I J LJ.
PREPARED BY ORDNANCE DEPT
. Range yd
.
o
1,000 2,000
3,000 4,000
5,000
*See definition, page 134
FIGURE 67
Page 147
STRIKING VELOCITY Y5. ARMOR PENETRATION and RANGE
NAVY CRITERION*
..
ROLLED HOMOGENEOUS ARMOR PLATE
-SHOT, APe-T, 3'7 mm, M59
3,500
3,000
2,500
MV-2,800f!s
2,000 ~ - . ;
P Til
~ II)
;:;::
I
>
1;500 'g
-
I
Q)
MV-2,800 f/s + 3'50 m ~ h ,airspeed
1,000
>
C>
c:
~
. ~
- en
MV-2,050 f/s
I Penetration in.
1,200 . 1,400 1,600 1,800 2,000 2,200 2,400 2,600 2,800 3,000
'rl r r 'Jrl" ,.",. I I '"[
I
I
-.
2. 0 r+-+-!++++++-+++-I-I-l 2. 5 3. 0 3. 5
'PREPARED BY . OR"DNANCE DEPT]
Range yd
.I LI U I I 1.1 I I 1.1 I.
0 '0 ..5 . 1.0
, ,,"
I
I
0 200 400 600 800 1,000
*See definition, page 134
FIGURE 68
500
Page 148
STRIKING VELOCITY Ys. ARMOR PENETRATION and RANGE NAVY CRITERION*
SHOT, APe-T, 37 mm, M59
3,500
3,000
2,500
2,000
1,500
MV-2,800 lIs + 350. mph airspeed
Penetration
II I I
I
I
Range yd
'" f II
I .1
800 1,000 1,200 1,400 1,600 1,800 2,000 2,200 2,400 2,600 2,800 3,000
*See definition, page 134
FIGURE 69
I
FACE HARDENED ARMOR PLATE
MV-2,800 lIs
MV-2,OSI lIs
-++-+-+++++++++-+++++++++++++++++-t+++-H-t-t-+++-t

o 200 400 600
, II1II i
1.0 1.5
in.
I I
Plge 149
STRIKING VELOCITY Ys. ARMOR PENETRATION and RANGE: NAVY CRITERION*
3,300'
2,800
1,800
800
i
o 200 400 600 800 1,000 1,200 1,400 1,600 1,800 2,000 2,200 2,400 2,600 2,800 3,000
*See definition, page 134
ROLLED HOMOGENEOUS ARMOR 37mm, M80
VI
.:::
I
>,.
- 'u
o
Q)
>.
tttEwmw 1. 0 2.0 +++++++-+-H-+--t-f-H 3.0 ++++:ttt:J=jftl:+j:+l=. 4.0 --t+++++-+-HH-H-t++ 5.0
1+ ", , I I .+1 ++-
MY-3,050 f/s + 350 mph airspeed r++-+-H-++-iH-++-ir+++l-H
MY-3,050 f/s
. I I " ',' - ".
. 350 mph airspeed
MY-l.,825 f/s
-
PREPARED BY ORDNANCE DEPT::
-Penetration in.
Range yd
FIGURE 70
Page 150
STRIKING VELOCITY Ys. ARMOR PENETRATION and RAN,GE
NAVY CRITERION*.
SHOT, ApT, 37 mm, MOO
FACE HARDENED ARMOR PLATE
~
I'
'l:
'u
o
Q)
>
Q')
c:
3,800 :it
2,800
2,,3,00
1,800
MV3,050 fls + 350 mph airspeed
MV3,050 f/s
MV.1,825 f/s + 350 mph airspeed t-+++-t-+++-t-t-t-+H-t-t-H-I
Penetration in. 'MV.1,825- f/s
800 ~ I I
-,III I II I I I I I I I I I II I I I ~
1. 0 H-++-l'+++-++-H-++-H 2.0 .-+++-H-+-HH-t-HH-t-H 3. 0+-+-++++++.f-++-I-H-+-I-':, 4.0 --.
5.0
PREPARED BY ORDNANCE DEPT ~
- Range yd
o
200 . 400 600 800 . 1,000 1,200 1,400 1,600 1,800 2,000 2,200 2,400 2,600 2,800 3,000
*See definition, page 134
FIGURE 71
STRIKING VELOCITY Y5. ARMOR PENETRATION and 'RANGE
, ,
ROLLED HOMOGENEOUS ARMOR PLATE
2,750
2,500
2,250
2,000
1,750
1,500 t-H-I-H-++-t-++-HH-H-I'-+-lfl-hff*H-+++++++++++++-H-+-H'-+-N-+ MV ,870 f/5
Penetration in.
V)
;:::
I
>
- u
0
(1)
>
C)
c:
Jt

-
tJ)
Page 151
NAVY CRITERION *'
..
40 mm,M8l or M81Al
o 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 7,000
*See .definition, page 134
FIGURE 72
Pili 152 .
STRIKING VELOCITY Y5. ARMOR PENETRATION and RANGE
NAVY CRITERION*
FACE HARDENED ARMOR PLATE
00
SHOT, ApT, 40 mm, M8l or M81Al
-,
3,2501 l l l l l l i i ~ '
3,00 0,..j.....j...W-J.-.+.W-J....I..-+..<!....I--l--W
60 45 ++++-If-++-I-I- 30 20 I-+--l--J.-.+-I--!- ..j.....j...W-J.-.+.W--i--/-l-.I-l-I-W
2,500
2,250
I

l:
u
2,000 o
>
G)
0>
c
0.8 1.0
IIII I
MV2,870 fI5 ++-HH-l--I-I-I-4-l-+-+-I-+--l--I-l-4-l-l-1--l-+-l-l-1
1,500
1,250
Penetration in.
1,000
-
1.2 0.2 OA ~ 0.6
,
I J J J I .- h IIII
I I
I I
I
I
0 200 400 600 800 1,000 1,200 1,400 1,600 1,800 2,000 2,200 ~ , 4 0 0 2,600. 2,800 3,000
*5 definition, page 134
FIGURE 73
Page 153
STRIKING VE_LOCITY vs. ARMOR PENETRATION and RANGE- NAVY CRITERION *
3,000
2,750
2,500
2,250
2,000
1,750
1,500
1,250
1,000
o
ROLLED HOMOGENEOUS ARMOR PLATE
SHOT, ApT, 57 mm, M70
60: 50 40 30 20 0
(
- .
11).
\
;:;::
I
l:
"u
0
a;
>
0>
I
c:
~
"C:
ci5
MV..2,9S0 f/s -
Penetration in.
,.
1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0
..6.0 7.0
1
PREPARED BY ORDNANCE DEPT
I
Range yd
. . .
I
I
200 400 600 800 - 1,000 1,200 1,400 1,600 1,800 2,000 2,200 2,400 2,600 2,800 3,000
.*See definition, page 134
FIGURE 74
Page 154
STRIKING ,VELOCITY Y5. ARMOR PENETRATION and RANGE NAVY CRITERION*
'2,750
2,500
2,250
2,000 1

~
'u
o
~
'" L-
v;
1,500
MV2,950 f/s
1,250
Penetration in.
"1111
:: 4.0 3.0
II
111111111111111
+
,.
Range-yd
1,800 2,000 2,200 2,400 2,600 2,800 3,000
FACE HARDENED ARMOR PLATE
800 1,000 1,200 1,400 1,6.00
FIGURE 75
SHOT, ApT, 57 mm, M70
2.0 ,
Page 155
STRIKING VELOCITY Y5. ARMOR PENETRATION and RANGE
NAVY CRITERION*
ROLLED HOMOGENEOUS ARMOR PLATE PROJECTILE, APC-T, 57 mm, MBG
, WITH FUZE, B0, M72
2,500
2,300
2,100
I/)
-.:;::
I,
1,900
>
....
u
0
Q)
>
1,100 C>
c:
~
....
'
(f)
1,500
1,300
1,100
Penetration in.
. 900
H-+-H-+-+-t++++HH-t-++ 1. 0 s=mElEm 2. 0 f=I::++1+1++m+++ 3. t=ttJ=jm+t=t:t:l+tt 4. H--t-t-1H-++-t-+++-t--H- 5. 0 +++++++-+-H-++i-+-t 6. 0 t-++-+'-lH-t-++-r-H-t--H- 7. 0 rt+++t-H
"I , I ~ , . . . 1 , ., , ,
I
I
Range yd PREI.RED BY ORDNANCE DEPT
++++-H-++++++-+-l-+-+-t+-H+-.-'TTTT II I I I I I I I 1 I II I I I I I I II I I
1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 1,000
*See definition, page 134
FIGURE 76
Page 156
STRIKING VELOCITY vs. ARMOR PENETRATION and RANGE NAVY CRITERION*
3,200
2,800
2,600
2,400
FACE HARDENED ARMOR PLATE
WITH FUZE, BD, M72
2,200
1,800
l,600
\I)
.:::
L
r C)
c .
32.
'i: .
....
en
MV2,700 fIs I--H-H--++++++++-I--H-H-+++++++-HH-+++-+++-t-+++-H
Penetration in.
1,400
1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 1.0
II I I rl 111-1 1II1 IIII III J J
I
Range yd PREPARED BY ORDNANCE DEPT I
,

,
I" - , . '111111111111111111 I 11I111 I
0 500 1,000 2,000 2,500 3,000 3,500
*See definition, page 134
FIGURE 77
STRIKING VELOCITY Y5. ARMOR PENETRATION and RANGE
ROLLED HOMOGENEOUS ARMOR PLATE
2,600 55 E 5 0 0 4 5 ~ ~ ~ " " " " " 3 0 20
2,200
2,000
l-
I- II)
t.:::
Page 157
NAVY CRITERION*
rPROJECTILE, APC-T, 75 mm, M61 or M61Al
WITH FUZE, B0, M66Al
1,800
I
1=
1,600
1,400
1,200
I
I
:=
I
t
~
t
I
I
::
I
?:'
0_
U
0
>
Q)
g>
32
01- .
..-
Cf)
MV-2,030f/s + 350 mph airspeed
1,000
MV2,030 fIs :tttttttttttt:ttj
Penetratio.n in.
800
.
PREPARED BY ORDNANCE DEPT I .- Range yd
I
I : I I II I I I
1,000
2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000' 6,000
7,000
*See definition, page 134
FIGURE 78
Page 158
STRIKING VELOCITY Y5. ARMOR PENETRATION and RANGE
NAVY CRITERION*
2,600 ' .
HARDENED ARMOR PLATE
2,200
2,000
1,800

-I
b 'g
-
>
Q) 1,600
f->
f- C)
f- c:
f-


1,400
en
1,200
1,000
1.0 .2.0 3.0
II II 111 I IIII
I
I
I
I
O 1,000 2,000 3,000
'l'See definition, page 134
PROJECTILE, APC-T,75' mm,
.
M61 or
-
M61Al WITH FUZE, B.D , M66Al
MV-2,030 f/s + 350 mph. airspeed
f/s
Penetration . in.
;
.,
I
4.0 5.0
I -rr-o-
Range yd ++-t---I-+++--l-t-H-l+-+-H+-+-H++' PRE PAR ED BY 0 RDNA NeE DEPT .
. I r I I r-Y- ,
4,000 5,000 6,000 7,00D
FIGURE 79
800
Page 159
STRIKING VELOCITY vs.ARMOR PENETRATION and RANGE
NAVY CRITERION *
2,800
2,600
2,400
2,200
2,000
1,800
, 1;600
1,400
1,200
1,000
. . I I
PROJECTILE, APC:t; 3INCH an'd 1761 mm
11
M
2
ROLLED HOMOGENEOUS ARMOR PLATE
, 6:
II
00 or M62Al WITH FUZE, BD, M66Al
60 55 50 45

30 20

.....
I

'u
0
Q)
>'
0>
c:


en
76 mm Guns M1A2
MV-2;600 f1s
I I I I I I - I I I I !
MV-2,600 fls I
76 mm Guns M1Al M1AIC and 3 in. Guns MS, M7
Penetration in.
1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0
',: 7.0
.
I III I II ( , I 'T I. I I .
I I
I
Range Yd.
PREPARED BY ORDNANCE DEPT ::
I
I III I ITTl 1 ITl '-'11 II 1 II 11
o 1.000 2,000 3,000 4,000 ' 5,000 6,000 7,000
*See page 134
--FIGURE 80
I
Page 160
STRIKING VELOCITY Ys. ARMOR PENETRATION and RANGE
2,800
I
HARDEN'ED' ARMOR PLATE
, I
-
2,600
2,400
..
45 30 . 20
: 0
-
M62 or M62Al WITH FUZE, B0, M66Al
-
\I)
'-:.:;:
: I
i- >- c.. _
- .-

- (1)
E>
C>
i- c:
- .-

.... -

f-
MY-2,600 f/s
76 mm Guns M1A2
MY-2,600. fls
111 f If' I I Ill'
76 mm' Guns M1Al, M1A1C and 3 in. Guns MS/ M7 .' I _
I
I I I I I II I I I I I I I I
Penetration in.
,-
I .
-
2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0
I f II .111111111111111 111111
f
Range yd PREPARED BY
I
I
I
. I I I I I I I I I I I I I
5,000 6,000 7,000
I
2,200
2,000
1,800
1,600
1,400
1,200
1,000
o 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000
*See definition, page 134
NAVY CRITERION*
PROJ.ECTllE, APC-T, 3INCH and 76 mm,
,
7.0
I
QRDNANCE
I."
DEPT
FIGURE 81
1.0
Page 161
STRIKING VELOCITY Y5. ARMOR 'PENETRATION and RANGE
NAVY CRITERION*
ROLLED HOMOGENEOUS ARMOR PLATE
SHOT, HVAP,3 INCH and 76 mm, T4E17.or M93 (T4E20)
3,200
3,000
2,800
en
.:::
I.
2,600 >
, ....
'u
o
CI)
>
0)
2,400
c:

'C
....
(J)
2,200
2,000
1,800
1,6001-I-I-+++-H-+++-t-+++-t-+++-t-+-H-t-H-H-1 0 _
2.0 3.0
MV-3,400 fI5 -++++-+-+++++++t+++-t-+++-t-t-t-t-t-t-H-++-H
d.
,;'1
,
,
!I'
I
Penetration in.
?o,t$ 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 E, 10.0 12.0
.11 I II IL.l I I I I I I I I PREPARED BY ORDNANCE DEPT .
Range: yd I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1 1'1 1 1
200 400
600 800 1,000 1,200, 1,400 1,600 1,800 2,000 2,200 2,400 2,600 2,800
*See definition, page 134
FIGURE 82
I
Page 162
STRIKING,VELOCITY V5. ARMOR PENETRATION and RANGE NAVY CRITERION*
, ROLLE'D HOMOGENEOUS ARMOR PLATE
I r
55 ~
-+-t'-+ +++-++++++++++' 2. 0f-+++-l-++++-++++++- 3. 0-t+++-+-+++-+++++-+-H 4. 0 + + + - I - - l - - l - + - I - - - I - I - l - l - ~ 5. 0 H-H-t-++-t+++-t-+-+-H'
I " 1
DEPT
Range yd
PR'OJECTltE;APC-T, 90 mm, M82
B0, M68
50'
2,600
2,400
III
2,'200
~
I
>
....
u
o
>
<I>
, 2,000
0)
c:
~
.i:
....
en
MV-2,800 f/s 1,800
MV-2,670 fls
1,600
1,400
Penetration in.
1,200 ,
1-H-++++++-f-J++++-+-I--l-4' 1. 0 6. 0 -++++++++-t-+-I-4-l-l-4; 7. 0 -+-!-l-I-I-l-I
" 1 TIlI I 1 ". H-H-tt+t++++++++-rr--r-t-rl++t+++-H-+H--H-+-t--t-t-t-t+++++H
PREPARED ORDNANCE
i IIII1I11
WITH FUZE
BY
o 1,000 2,000 3,00D 4,000 5,000 6,000 7,000
*See definition, page 134
FIGURE 83
Page 163
STRIKING VELOCITY Y5. ARMOR PENETRATION and RANGE
NAVY'CRITERION*'
P'ROJECTILE, APC-I, 90' i n m ~ MOl
FACE HARDENED ARMOR PLATE
2,600
2,000
2,400
I
II)
-.::::
- I
2,200 >-" ~
- -
- 'u
, = 0
Q)
>
0>
c:
.:52
~
- V):
1,800
MV-2,800 f/s
1,600
MV-2,670 f/s
1,400
1. 0 \-l....I-I-l--I-+-I--l-+++-l++ 2. ++-H-+++-HH-H-+-H 3. 0
1 IIII 1'1 I"
o 1,000
*See definition, page 134 '
2,000 3,000 '
Penetration in.
4. 0 I-+++-H--H-i-++-+-+-++ 5.I--I-+-I--H-+++-++++++ 6. 0
, r" , l--I-+-I--l-++-+-+-+-t-+-+-f-+" I , I I I
Range yd PREPARED, BY
" , IT' '" 1
4,000 5,000 6,000
' 7. 0 H-I-I-+-+-+-I
ORDNANCE DEPT,
7,000
FIGURE 84
Page 164
STRIKING VELOCITY Ys. ARMOR PENETRATION and RANGE NAVY CRITERION*
3,000
2,750
2,500
2,250
2,000
1,750
1,500
1,250
o 1,000 4,000 6,000 7,000
*See'definition, page 134
ROLLED HOMOGENEOUS ARMOR PLATE
..
SHOT, AP-T, 90 mm,
T33 :
20 55 30 .0
I/)
-
-I
>-
- 'u
0
Q)
>
Ie 0>
c:
~
'i:
-
V)'
1-.
MV-2,SOO f1s
Penetration
!
In.
3.0
_4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 '
8.0 9.0
- . .....
Range yd
PREPARED BY ORDNANCE DEPT _
I r .. ,. ,-
2,000 - 3,000
FIGURE 85
Page 165
STRIKING VELOCITY V5. ARMOR PENETRATION and RANGE
NAVY CRITERION *
SHOT, HYAP-T, 90-mm, T30E16
ROLLED HOMOGENEOUS ARMOR PLATE'
.- #-., ,. ,...
3,200
, ~
-,
I
~ . ~
3,-000 ~ 0
~ ~
,s::
. ~
2,800
~ : s 2
'ci)
2,600
2,400
2,200
2,000
Penetration in.
..,.,-,....
1,800 1-H-HH-H-l'3. 0
4:0 5.0 ~ 6.0 1. 0
r8.0 ~
9.0 11.0 12.0
Range . yd. TT'
I'" IT.. ..,,, ....,..-,
o 200 400 600 800 1,000 1,200 1,400 1,600 1,800 2,000 2,200 2,400 2,600 2,800 3,000
*See definition" page 134
Volume III Part 12
ATTACK OF ;JAPANESE LOG AND/OR EARTH FORTIFICATIONS
1. GENERAL.
Japanese log and/or earth fortifications of the type considered in this
discussion are built with vertical walls made of several layers of logs or of one
or 'more layers of earth-filled oil drums and with log roofs, the whole covered
with earth. They are usually constructed low so as to be almost in
visible. In. cases, however, where the water table is high, the fortifications
would of necessity lie mostly above ground and be more. easily seen.
structureS. are usually well compartmentalized into bays so that a shell
detonating in one bay will do a minimum of damage in a bay next to it.
I" 'BOMBING OF LOG AND/OR EARTH FORTIFICATIONS.
Bombs are not very effective against this type of target due to the small
percentage of -hits scored, the resilience of palm-log shoring, the dispersion
of personnel in bays, and the high recovery coefficient of these targets.
Direct hits are required since near-misses seem to do negligible damage.
See Volume III Part 3 for penetrations of bombs in earth.
3. ARTILLERY AND MORTAR ATTACK.
In artillery attack it is. required that the projectile perforate the earth
covering and log or oil drum walls and detonate inside the fortifications.
Since the materials of the bunkers are rather soft, ordinary HE
may be used without fear Of their deforming. A suitable delay fuze is required
to bring about the detonation inside. The ordinary PD fuzes with delay
setting attached to most HE artillery projectiles would be satisfactory at
ranges for which strikingvelocities are relatively low. The CP M78 (TI05)
Fuze, where it can be attached a projectile, may be used at all ranges.
Its use is required at the shorter ranges of certain weapons where the
striking velocity is high and an ordinary PD fuze would malfunction.
The treatment is limited to giving the .maximum ranges at which the
various weapon-ammunition combinations will perforate a given thickness
of earth and/or logs as the case may be.
In the case of earth filled drums it may be assumed that the steel walls
are equivalent to 6 inches of earth in stopping power. Thus the thickness
of earth in a vertical wall would be considered increased by as many times
6 inches as there are layers of' steel drums.
It appears that soft woods like palm should be as easily penetrable as
earth while hardwoods like oak, ebony, or mahogany be equivalent
in stopping power to two times thickness of earth.' Medium hard
woods like pine or spruce shQuld come in between.
The data are given in graphs representing the thickness of earth penetrated
or the thickness of logs in the walls versus range for the various weapons. There
is one set of graphs for the attack of vertical walls with low-angle fire and
a second set for the attack of roofs with high-angle fire.
It is dear that as high-angle fire is practiced, relatively light weapons
like the 75mm and 105mm howitzers, the 155mm mortar, and the 81mm
mortar are of borderline usefulness in attacking heavier type roofs of log
fortifications. It would seem from the graphs that a well-made bunker or
pillbox with three layers of logs and say 5 or 6 feet of earth would stand
up against any of the light weapons used in fire. Such targets
would he vulnerable to high-angle fire from the. 4.5 inch Gun Ml, the
155mm Gun Ml, the 155mm Howitzer Ml or the 8 inch Howitzer Ml.
of probable errors would, however,'come to the fore.
In fire against a vertical wall of similar construction to that of the
roof just mentioned, the 57mm, 75mm, 76mm, 3 inch and 90mm would be
effective. The 105mm Howitzer M2Al would also be effective but the 105mm
Howitzer M3 and the 75mm Howitzer would be at the limit of their effective
ness at point blank range. Heavier direct firing guns and howitzers will all
defeat such a wall.
4. ROCKET ATTACK.
It appears from experiments that the 2.36 rocket is ineffective
against log and earth fortifications. It can be effective. only if it enters
an embrasure since it does not have much penetrating power. This would
require attack from extremely small ranges of approximately 15 yards.
At a range of 150 feet the 4.5 inch Rocket, M9, can penetrate 4 feet of
earth and three layers of I-foot pine logs. Data for the newer spin stabilized
, 4.5 inch Rocket, T38, are given in one Of the figures.
When fired from a plane flying low and level at 350 miles per hour the
5 inch HVAR is estimated to penetrate 21 feet of earth at 1,000 yards
range and 19 .feet at 2,000 yards. The small arigle of fall of this rocket
limits its use to the attack of vertical walls. With the BD fuze at 0.02 second
delay there might be some danger of the rocket passing all the way through
a bunker and then detonating. .
Page 161
z
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PREPARED BY ORDNANCE DEPT.
a
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<{
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0 1000 2000 3000
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C.P. M78 FUZE
(0.025 SEC. DEL.),
I
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76 MM
4000 5000 6000 7000 8000

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FIGURE 87
90 mm-90 mm-Guns, MIAl, M2 or M3 with
Shell, HE, M71; MV 2,700 f/s.
3 in.-3in, Guns, M5. or M7 with Shell, HE,
M42Al; MV 2,800 f/s.
76mm-76 mm Guns, MIAl, MIAIG or
MIA2 with Shell, HE, J\f42Al; MV /2,700
75 mm-75 mmGun, M3 with Shell, HE,
M48; MV 1,980 f/s.
57 mm-57mm Guns, Ml or MIAI with
Projectile, APC-T, M86; MV 2700 f/s.
37 mm-,-37 mm Guns M3 orM3Alwith Shell,
HE, M63; MV 2600 f/s.
All the above shell with standard PD Fuze
with 0.05 sec. or greater delay, including Fuze,
CP, M78 (TI05) (0.025 sec. delay) may be
used at ranges greater than the rangesindi
catedby the dash line on the curves. The use
of the M78Fuze is mandatory at shorter ranges.
Example:
A Japanese bunker has vertical walls consisting
of 2 feet of hardwood logs with an
5 feet thick. At what maximum range will the
76 mm Gun, MIA2 firing Shell, HE, M42Al
perforate?
At the right of the diagram it is seen that
2 feet of hardwood logs (lower horizontal dashed
Iine) is equivalent to 4 feet of earth to which
must be added 5 feet, of earth (right vertical
dashed line). Following the remaining dashed
Iines shows that the maximum range of pene
tration is 4,350 yards.
TH.ICKNESS OF LOG WALL PERFO.RATED FEET
[
HARD WOOD (OAK, EBONY t MAHOGANY)
THICKNESS OF' LOG WALL PERFORATED FEET
l
MEDIUM HARD' WOOD (PINE, SPRUCE)
r
THICKNESS OF LOG WALL PERFORATED FEET
l
SOFT WOOD (PALM)
r
PENETRATION INTO EARTH (FEET)
Page 168
(f)
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20 0 FIGURE 88
a.. PREPARED BY ORDNANCE DEPT.
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.
<:(
I
105H-105 mm Howitzer, M2A1 with Shell,
W Z
18 HE, M1; MV J550 f/s.
W
105h-105 mm Howitzer, M3 with Shell,
10
3:
-0
HE, M1; MV 1020 f/s.
(f) Z C\J 75h-75 mm Howitzer, M1, MlA1, M2 or
16

M3 with Shell, HE,M48; MV 1250 f/s. :::>
CO
All the above shell using Fuze, PD, M48 or
0

Z

Mod. or "any other PD Fuze, including Fuze,
0::
w
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14 CP, M78 (T105) (0.025 sec. delay). The use
I-
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>-
I
12
CD w ANY FUZE
I-
A Japanese bunker has vertical walls J

of 2 feet of hardwood logs with. a horizontal
(f)
lLJ
'I- a:::
embankment 5 feet thick. At what maximum
CD :::> <.!> 10
range will the 105 mm Howitzer, M2A1 firing
0
0
Shell, HE, M1 perforate? .
:J: 0
- -j
w -.J
I I- lLJ At the right of the diagram it is seen that
a:::
2 feet of hardwood logs (lower horizontal dashed 8'
I
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line) is equivalent to 4 feet of earth to which
'I05h
W I a:::
en
must. be added 5 feet of earth (right vertical I en
! f--
...J 0 75 h' I
dashed line). Following the remaining dashed
(,!)
I-
61
Z 0:: lines shows that the maximum range of per
<:(
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Z I
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foration is 4,850 yards. I
, 0
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1
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...J ...J
...J 0
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2
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Z
-
0 w 0 o
...J


,- ""-HICKNESS OF LOG WALL PERFORATED FEET Z
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000
...J
Z
e
HARD WOOD (OAK, EBONY, MAHOGANY)
Z
0
co
RANGE (YARDS)
0 I-
w
THICKNESS OF LOG WALL FEET
a:::

'------4
MEDIUM HARD WOOD (PINE, SPRUCE) -

>
w
0::
THICKNESS OF LOG WALL PERFORATED FEET
I-
1-_----1
SOFT WOOD (PALM)
W
Z
W
L-------PENETRATION INTO EARTH (FEET)
a..
w
0:::
l1..'
w
...J
(!)
z

I
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...J
(f)
z
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ro
I

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0
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Z
0
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w
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Page 169
PREPARED BY ORDNANCE DEPT.
ANY FUZE
4.5
11
R
14
12
10
3
2
o
FIGURE 89
4.5 in. R--,--4.5 in. HE Rocket Shell,' T38 with
Fuze, PD, M48A2 or Fuze, CP, M78 (TI05)
I
(0.025 sec. delay). The use of the M78 Fuze
, is not mandatory.
Z

I{)
z (\J
W
-0
'Example:

A Japanese bunker has vertical walls
m
z
of 2 feet of hardwood logs with a horizontal


embankment 5 feet thick. At what maximum
w
:I:
range will the 4.5 in. HE Rocket Shell, T38
l-
I perforate?
I-
At the right of the diagram it is seen that
0:::
0:::
2 feet of hardwood logs (lower horizontal dashed lJJ

I-
line) is equivalent to 4 feet of earth to which W

must be added 5 feet of earth (right vertical
lJJ
I- 0:::
dashed line). Following the remaining dashed
::> C> lines shows that the maximum range of pene
0
tration is 1,300 yards.
:I: a
I- lJJ

3=
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en
0:::
en
0

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Z
I
0
3= I
<C
z
en
...J ...J
...J (.)
<C Z
3:
I
(!)
Z
0 W
...J
r.'lHICKNESS OF LOG WA. PERFO.RATED F

WOOD (OAK, EBONY, MAHOGANY)
Z
...J
RANGE (YARDS)

(.) m
THICKNESS OF LOG WALL PERFORATED FEET

-
'------I
I
J MEDIUM HARD WOOD (PINE SPRUCE)
W
0:::
W
L.- --1 THICKNESS OF LOG WALL PERFORATED FEET
SOFT WOOD (PALM)
>
I...-----------PENETRATION INTO EARTH (FEET)
Page 170
w
0:::
G:
W
....I
(!)
z

I
3:
9
(f)
z
0
a...

w
~
(f)
:::>
0
0::
~
>
co
(f)
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0
.-J
dS
I
l
0::

W
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0
W
~
~
Z
Z
0
t(
0::
l-
W
Z
W
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I
Z
W
~
~
Z

m
~
w
I
I
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-
W
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I
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3:
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0
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CJ)
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3:
(!)
0
....I
....I

0
I
0:::
W
>
-0
to
C\I
z

I
l
0:::
w
I

w
0:::
<.!)
a
W
~
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CJ)
CJ)

z
0
i=

z
:.J
0
~
I
Z
W
~
~
Z

m
~
W
N
PREPARED BY ORDNANCE DEPT.
FUZE, C.P., M78 (0.025 SEC. DELAY)
ANY FUZE
S
15
10
5 ~
01
2
o 0
FIGURE 90
155 mm Gun, Mi918Ml; Shell, HE, MIOl.
The letters in the graph refer to the propellent
charge, N for Normal Charge and S for Super
charge. See figures 87, 88 and 89 for examples
on how to use the chart.
With all the above shell either Fuze, PD, M51
and Mod. (0.05 sec. delay or longer) or F u ~ e ,
CP, M78 (TI05) (0.025 sec. Delay) may be
used at all ranges given by curves or portions of
curves laying below the horizontal dashed
lines. Use of the Fuze, CP,M78 is mandatory
at all ranges on the portions of curves lying
above the horizontal dashed lines.
. ~ ,
II . i.T. HICKNESS OF LO.G WAL. L PERFO.. RATEO FEET
HARD WOOD (OAK, EBONY, MAHOGANY)
TH ICKNESS OF LOG WALL PERFORATED FEET
MEDIUM HARD WOOD (PINE, SPRUCE)
TH ICKNESS OF LOG WALL PERFORATED FEET
SOFT WOOD (PALM)
PENETRATION INTO EARTH (FEEl)
Page 171
(/)
z
0
0..
<{
I
W
Z
W
-
~ 0
~ 1.0
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0
cr:
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CD
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m
~
w
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I
0::

W
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I

w
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(!)
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3=
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l
cr:

W
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0
W
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l
3=
en
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3=
en
en

z
e
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z
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w
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Z
Z
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0
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m
0 I
0::
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cr:
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W
Z
W
a...
00,
II iTHICKNESS OF LOG WALL PERFORATED FEET
HARD WOOD (OAK, EBONY, MAHOGANY)
THICKNESS OF LOG WALL PERFORATED FEET
MEDIUM HARD WOOD (PINE, SPRUCE)
THICKNESS OF LOG WALL PERFORATED FEET
SOFT WOOD (PALM)
FIGURE 91
155 mm Gun, Ml; Shell, H.E, MI01.
4.5 in. Gun, Ml; Shell, HE, M65
The letters in the graph refer to the propellent
charge. N for Normal Charge and S for Super
charge. See figures 87, 88 and 89 for examples
on how to use the chart.
With all the above shell either Fuze, PD, M51
and Mod. (0.05 sec delay or longer) or Fuze,
CP, M78 (TI05) (0.025 sec Delay) may be used
at all ranges given by curves or portions of
curves laying below the horizontal dashed
lines. Use of the Fuze, CP, M78 is mandatory
at all ranges on the portions of curves lying
above the horizontal dashed lines.
2
:3
4
2
20
15
10 5
155 MM S
PREPARED BY ORDNANCE DEPT.
FUZE, C.P., M78 (0.025 SEC. DELAY),
ANY FUZE
155MM N'
4.5"N
0
PENETRATION INTO EARTH (FEET)
FIGURE 92
(f)
z
155 mm Howitzer,Ml; HE, MI07.
0 PREPARED BY. ORDNANCE DEPT. ttttlij ......---f
The ,fjgure..s iri the graph refer, to the zone
a..
numbers of the propellent charge. See figures . ....,

25 87, 88 and 89 for examples on how to u'se the w z
-0
I.LJ
chart. . / / .
.:e
:liC 10
-With all the above shell either Fuze, PD, M51
(.f) Z (\J
iuid (0:05 sec Delay or longer). or. Fuze, ::::>.
r- "
CP, .M78, (TI05) (0.025 sec Delay) may be z
0
:e
m'

20
used at all ranges given'by curves or portions
I.LJ
0:: !C.
.....,
,of curves laying below the horizontal dashed
:I:
lines.Use. of the Fuze, CP,M78 is mandatory
I
0:
0:
.at all ranges On' the portions of curves lying
r I.LJ
-
....,
above ,the horizontal dashed lines.
CD I.LJ

- /. I.LJ
(f)
I- 0:
1- 15,
(9 :::> C)
0
0
:I: a
w .....J 1 I- l1J
0:
:e
I LL ciS
::>
(J)
6 I
I.LJ I 0: (J)'
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-10
(!)
t-
5
z 0::
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I-
z
0 4
'1
I
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;::: 3
3=
1
9

en
z

1
::::>
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....,

(!)
z
0
W

,. 0
0 w
..J
:e F

Z
Z
.....J
[11111111111 Ullllm 111111111 un rlnllllll"IIIIII"1 UII I 11111111.11 11111111 1/1111.111 Ii 0


'0 0 2000 40ob' 6000 8000 10,opO 12,000 14pOO 16,000 18,000 2QOOl"
Z. 0
:e
0 I
I.LJ RANGE (YARDS)
0:
I.LJ

>
0::
t-
W
Z
,W
a..
O'
THICKNESS OF LOG' WALL PERFORATED FEET
HARD WOOD (OAK,
TH ICKNESS >OF LOG WALL PERFORATED FEET
MEDIUM HARD WOOD (PINE, SPRUCE)
TH ICKNESS OF LOG WALL PERFORATED FEET
. SOFT WOOD (PALM)
PENETRATION INTO EARTH (FEET)
Page 173
PREPARED- BY ORDNANCE DEPT. '
Cf)
z
0
a..
I-
w Z
W
0
1.0
Cf) Z (\J
FUZE, C.P., M78 (0.025 S-EC. DELAY)
:::>
m
z ANY FUZE
0
20
w
0:: I
l-
I

I
0:::
0:::
>-
I-
w
CD W

w
15 Cf)
I- 0:::
(9 ::> (!)
e
0
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w .....J
a
I- W
0::: 6
5 7
i:L dS
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en
I 0::: 3
w en 10
-J e
(.!)
l-

z

0::
l-
:r:
e
z
I
W
i=
3:

9 en

z
-J :J
:::>
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0

W 3:
I 5J
(.!)
Z
e w
.,j

Z
Z " 111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 II 1111 1111 1111 111111111 1111 II 1111 11111 III II 1111 II 11111130 0
-J

o 2000 4000 6000 8000 10,000 12,000 14,000 16,000 18,oOQ 2qOO
(,) m
Z
RANGE (YARDS)
0 I-
W
0:::

>
W
0::
I
W
Z
W
a..
FIGURE. 93
8 in. Howitzer, Ml;- Shell, HE., Ml06.
The figures in the graph refer to the zone
numbers of the propellent See figures
87, 88 and 89 for examples on how to use the
chart.
With all the above shell either Fuze, PD, M5l
and Mod. (0.05 sec Delay or longer) or Fuze,
CP, M78 (Tl05) (0.025 sec Delay) may be used
at all ranges given by curves or portions of
curves laying below the horizontal dashed lines.
Use of theFuze, CP, M78is mandatory at all
ranges on the portions of curves laying above
the dashed lines.
I'
THICKNESS OF LOG WALL PERFORATED FEET
HARD WOOD (OAK, EBONY, MAHOGANY)
TH ICKNESS OF LOG WALL PERFORATED FEET
MEDIUM HARD WOOD (PINE, SPRUCE)
THICKNESS OF LOG WALL PERFORATED FEET
SOFT WOOD (PALM)
PENETRATION INTO EARTH (FEET)
4
2
FUZE, C. P M 78
. 0.025 SEC. DELAY 25
my FUZE
20
3
2
.. 1 15
10
8
6
LOW-ANGLE FIRE
FIGURE 94
30
8 inch Gun, Ml or M2; Shell, HE,
M103; Fuze, PD, M51 or Mod. or
Fuze; CP, M78 (T105) (0.025 sec
Delay) .
With all the above shell either Fuze,
PD, M51 and Mod. (0.05 sec Delay
or longer) or Fuze, CP, M78 (T105)
\0
(0.025 sec Delay) may be use,d at all
9 ranges given by curves or portions of
8
curves laying below the horizontal
dashed lines. Use of the Fuze, CP,M78
7 is mandatory at all ranges on the por
tions of curves lying above the hori
6
. zontal dashed lines.
5
The numbers in the graph refer to the
4 zone numbers of the propellent charge.
3
See Figures 87,.88 and 89 for examples
on how to use the chart.
2
I
00
I. I. ~ . THICKNESS OF LOG. WALL P.ERFORATED (FE.ET)
. . HARD WOOD (OAK, EBONY, MAHOGANY)
THICKNESS OF LOG WALL PERFORATED (FE;ET)
MEDIUM HARD WOOD (PINE, SPRUCE)
'-------'----I THICKNESS OF LOG WALL PERFORATED (FEET)
SOFT WOOD. (PALM)
'------- PENETRATION INTO EARTH (FEET)
(f)
z
0
0

w
S
BY ORDNANCE DEPT
:
(f)
r-
z
1-=
=:)
w ---
01.[)
0 35
0::
(\j
:
5
z


z :

<[
CD
-30
I
:

>- W
r- :::
. FUZE, C. P., M78 (0.025 SEC. DELAY)
eo
0:::
I ANY FUZE - . .
(f)
r-
W
1,-:
:
25
0:::
tr (!) <[
1
9
w
W
= 0::::

tr
-=
-
2
8
6
10
_
3
<..9 1-:: 20
r
4.
:
d5
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0
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I
W
:
r-

15
I

5
(J) :

(J)
1-:
0::
0:::
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:

0
5
w I Z
:
4
-
r-
1
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5
5
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2
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I 0
-l
W
0
=0 o a z
I
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I I I I I I I I I I I II
I

I I
a 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000
<..9 r-
z
.. RANGE (YARDS)
9 w
.


Page 175
LOW-ANGLE FIRE
FIGURE 95
10
9
8
7
6
240mm Howitzer, MI; Shell, HE,
M114; Fuze, PD, M51 or Mod. or
Fuze, CP, M78 (TI05) (0.025 sec
Delay).
With all the above shell either Fuze,
PD, M5I and _Mod. (0.05 Sec delay
or longer) or Fuze, CP, M78 (TI05)
(0.025 sec Delay) may be used at all
ranges given by curves or portions of
curveS laying below the horizontal
dashed lines. Use of the Fllze, CP,
M78 is mandatory at all ranges on
the portions of curves lying above the
horizontal dashed lines.
The figures in the graph refer to the
zone numbers of the propellent charge.
See figures 87, 88 and 89 for examples
on how to use the chart.
[THICKNESS OF LOG WALL PERPORATED (PEEr)
HAR 0 WOOD (OAK, EBONY, MAHOGANY)
.[. THICKNESS OF LOG WALL PERFORATED (FEET)
MEDIUM HARD WOOD (PINE, SPRUCE)
Z
Z
-l
<[
0
f-"
0:::

Z

m



THICKNESS OF LOG WALL PERJ=ORATt:D (FEET)
SOFT WOOD (PALM)
PENETRATION INto EARTH (FEET)
0
tr
w
>
w
--
.0::
f-
W
Z
W
0
- -
- -
- -
Page 176
-7
FIGURE 96
PREPARED BY/ORDNANCE DEPT.

-
-
-
75 mm Howitzer, Ml, MIAI, M2 or M3; -
-
Shell, HE, M48; Fuze, PD, M48 or Mod. or <J)
z
-,
Fuze, CP, ,M78 (TI05) (0.025 sec Delay).
-
-6 -4 -3
0
(Use of the M78 Fuze is not mandatory.)
a..
-
The figures in the graph refer to the zone -
-
w numbers of the propellent charge. See, figures
-
-
CJ) 87, 88 and 89 for examples on how to use the
- -
z

2
chart. .
CJ) - 5
-==
5
a
'0:
-
1LI
-
>
-
0 - - -3
0::
(.)
-
~
-
-
>
:I:
-
4 -4 -2 t
-
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>- 0:
-
0: CD
-
1LI
Li:
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,
1LI (!)
t , -'
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::::>
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0
- z -.J
:I:
3 -2
d5
t
3
I
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:I: 3:
-
C> J: '
:f
.-
0:
- 0
0::
-
- -
-
--,
2

:I:
w
t -I 2
-
3:
~
-
- :::>
-I
- 0 0
-
w 0
-

0:
~
-I -I -
C>
-
.-
0 0
-
....J
-' -
-
Z ....J
j:!
Z z
0
0
N
a: I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1,1 I I I I I I I I II I I I I I I I I LJTHICKN,ESS OF LOG WALL PERFORATED FEET
~ 0
o .1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 I HARD WOOD (OAK, EBONY, MAHOGANY)
0:: :I:
I
RANGE (YARDS) ITHICKNESS OF LOG WALL PERFORATED FEET
W
Z I MEDIUM HARD WOOD (PINE, SPRUCE) ,
W
a..
'--__---11 THICKNESS OF LOG WALL PERFORATED FEET
I SOFT WOOD (PALM)
'-------PENETRATION INTO EARTH (FEET)
PREPARED BY ORDNANCE DEPT. l= 7
.J FIGURE 97
105 mm M2Al or M3; Shell, HE,
(f)
z
Ml;Fuze, PD, M48 or Mod. or Fuze, CP, M78
(Tl05) (0.025 sec Delay).
0 "3 . (Use of the M78 Fuze is not mandatory.)


w
3
The figures in the graph refer to the zone
numbers of the propellent charge. See figures

(/)
-
87, 88 and 89 for examples on how to use the
(f)
(!)
z
2
5 -5
]
chart.
::J
0
0::
a:::
w
>
0
c..:>
- -3

W
a:::
G:
>
(1).
(f)
::c
I-
a:::

w
4 -4
-
-2
w
.....J
(,!)
z
.
I
::c
(,!)
:E
(9
0
.-J
d5
I
I
0::
I
:::>
0
::c
l
3:
a:::,
0
3-3-2
-
-

W
::c
I 2 -2
-
-I
3:

::J
0

0
-
.
-I
W

0
a::: .
0
I
(!)
0
..J
I -I
-
-
Z .....J -
Z
0

0::

I
Z
0
N

.0
::c
0 1000 2000 3000 4000
0-0-0-0
LITHICKNESS OF LOG WALL PERFORATED" FEET
I HARD WOOD (OAK. EBONY. MAHOGANY)
5,,00
I
W
Z
RANGE (YARDS) THICKNESS OF LOG WALL PERFORATED, FEET
I MEDIUM HARD WOOD (PINE. SPRUCE)
W

L..-__----.,1 THICKNESS OF LOG WALL PERFORATED FEET
I SOFT WOOD (PALM)
L.-------PENETRATION INTO EARTH (FEET)
Page 178
itJ,J
a:
i:i:
LW
-I
<.!)
z

I
::J:
<.!)
:E
(f)
-z
0
0

W

(f)
::::>
0
0::

>
co
(j)
(9
0
.....J
CO
:c

0::

W

:::>
0
W

0
r-
z
5

0:::
I
W
Z

(I)
"
z
0::
LW
>
0
(.)
::I:
....

LW
""" ::>
0
::I:
\-r

@5
::I:


4

0
0
a:::
<.!)
9
-I

z
0
N
iE
0
::I:
o 1000
2
2000 3000 4000 5000
RANGE (YARDS)
FIGUJl,E 98
81 mm Mortar, M1; Shell, HE, M56; Fuze,
PD,. M53E2.
Numbers in graph refer to number of incre
6 -4 -c
ments of propellent charge. See figures 87, 88
and 89 for example on how to use the chart.
-
5,- 5
"
- -3
4- 4 -2
-
3

- 3 -2
-
2 - 2
-
-I
- -I
1 -I
.
-
..,
....
0-0-0-0
'-- THICKNESS OF l.OG WALL PERFORATED FEET
HARD WOOD (OAK, EBONY, MAHOGANY)
'--"':"-"_ THICKNESS OF LOG WALL PERFORATED FEET
MEDIUM HARD WOOD (PINE, SPRUCE)
'--- THICKNESS' OF LOG WALL PERFORATED FEET
SOFT WOOD (PALM)
INTO EARTH (FEET)
Page 179
FIGURE 99
105 mm Mortar, "T13; Shell, HE, T17; Fuze,
en.
" PD, M4Al.
z
Numbers in graph refer to number of incre 0
6 -4 - ~
a.. ments of propellent charge. See Figures 87, 88
<{
and 89 for example on how to use the chart.
w
~ en
(.!) -
z
en
5 - 5
0::
::J
.
Q
UJ
>
0::
(.)
0
. -3
~
::t:
j--,
4 -4 -2
UJ
>-:-
0::
c::(
0:: OJ
[i: UJ
(f)
W (!) j--,
-
..J :::>
(!) 0
0
z .....J
::I:
c::(
d5
j--, 3 -:: 3 -2
I
::I: ~
(!)
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:E
l-
0::
-
0 4
0::
<t'
::I:
w I
~ 3
~
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~
- -I
0 0
2
w 0
0::
~
(!)
I -I -
0 0
l-
..J
-
Z ..J
c::( -
j--,
Z z
0
0
N
0-0-0 -0
OC
LJ THICKNESS OF LOG WALL PERFORATED FEET
0
o 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000
0::: ::I: ~ HARD WOOD (OAK, EBONY J MAHOGANY)
l-
W RANGE (YARDS) "'-'---1
1
THICKNESS OF LOG WALL PERFORATED FEET
Z
IMEDIUM HARD WOOD (PINE I SPRUCE)
W
a..
I THiCKNESS OF LOG WALL PERFORATED FEET
' - - - ~ - - - I I SOFt WOOD ( PAL.M )
'----,-----PENETRATION INTO EARTH (FEET)
--
Page 180
7
FIGURE .100
PREPARED BY ORDNANCE DEPT. f-
(f)
4.2 in. Chemical Mortar; Shell, HE, M3; Fuze, z
PD, M4Al. . 0
a..
Numbers in graph refer to number of incre
6 -4 -3
ments of propellent charge. See Figures 87, 88
w
and 89 for example on how to. use the. chart.
3= C/)
C,!)
z
- (f)

a::
:J
5 - 5
0
1.LJ
>
0
0::
<..:>
-3
~
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t-
1.LJ
>- a::
4 -4 -2
C: en
1.LJ
G:
(f)
1.LJ (!)
t
.....I
(!) 0
:::>
0
z ..J
:c

3- 3 -2
17 I ciS
t
:r: i
15
(!)
I
:f
f-
a:: I ~ -
0
0::
II 18
16 -
W
J:
t 14
-I 2 - 2
9
~ 12
~
7
:::> 10
- -I
r:c
0 0
6
W 0
5,+1-1'\
8
a:: 4 6t
~ - I -I
(!) 5f
0 0
4t
.....I
f
3t
-
Z .....I
~
Z z
o
0
N
0
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000
tt
0:
0
0::: :c
RANGE (YARDS)
f-
W
Z
W
a..
-
0- o -0
Y
THICKNESS OF LOG. WALL PERFORATED FEET
HARD WOOD (OAK, EBONY, MAHOGANY)
THICKNESS OF LOG WALL PERFORATED FEET
I
I MEDIUM HARD WOOD (PINE, SPRUCE)
I THICKNESS QF LOG WALL PERFORATED FEET
I SOFT WOOD ( PALM)
PENETRATION INTO EARTH (FEET)
Page 181
PREPARED BY ORDNANCE DEPT. FIGURE 101
155 mm Mortar, T25; Shell, HE, T26E1; Fuze,
PD, M4Al.
~
Numbers in graph refer to number of incre
0
a..

-4 -2
ments of propellent charge. See Figures 87, 88
and 89 for example on how to use the chart.
w
~ en
- (.!)
(f)
:::>
0
cr:
z
a=
IJJ
>
0
()
5 - 5
- -3
-
~
:c
3
IJJ
a=
[i:
>
CO
(f)
....
a=

IJJ
4 -4
-
-2
IJJ
-I
(,!)
z

I
:c
(,!)
:E
(9
0
.-J
dS
I
I
0:::
....
::::>
0
:c
....
3:
a=
0
2 -

W
:c
....
2 -2
-
-I
~
~
:::>
0
~
0
- -I
W
~
0
a=
0
I
(!)
0
-I
I -I -
~
-I
-
~
Z
0
~
0:::
I-
z
0
N
a:
0
:c
o 1000 2000 3000 4000
0-0-0-0
~ THICKNESS OF LOG WALL PERFORATED
I HARD WOOD (OAK, EBONY. MAHOGANY)
5000
FEET
W
Z
W
RANGE (YARDS) ""---_-"II THICKNESS OF LOG WALL PERFORATED
I MEDIUM HARD WOOD (PINE, SPRUCE)
FEET
a..
'--__~ I THiCKNESS QF LOG WALL PERFORATED FEET
I SOFT WOOD (PALM)
L-'-------PENETRATION INTO EARTH (FEET)
rage 182
(/)
z
0
4.5"N.
PREPARED BY ORDNANCE DEPT.
.I55MM N
2
000
I 1-
FIGURE 102
0..

w 155 mm Ml; MI0l; 4.5 in.

(f) Ml; M65; M51 or
C,!)
Mod. or M78 (TI05) (0.025 sec
z
(/)
Delay).
0::
::::>
(The use of the M78 Fuze is not mandatory.)
0
W
>
The letters in the graph refer to the propellent 0
0::
N for Normal Charge and S for Super-

0
charge. See Figures 87 88 and 89 for example
:c
on how to use the chart.
W
>-

0:: CD
0::

u::
w
(/)
w <9
...J
:::>
(!) 0
0
z --I
:c


dS
:c
I
3:
(!)
I
:f
I-
0::
0
0::

:c
W
3:

::::>

0 0
W 0
0::

0
(!)
0 THICKNESS OF LOG WALL PERFORATEO FEET
...J 0
I
HARD WOOD (OAK,EBONY, MAHOGANY)
Z ...J
j5
Z z
0
0
N
ti
0:
0
0:: :c
I
W
Z
W
0..
THICKNESS OF LOG WALL PERFORATED FEET
MEDIUM HARD WOOD (PINE, SPRUCE)
THICKNESS OF LOG WALL PERFORATED FEET
L------'-----1 SOFT WOOD (PALM)
L- PER,F0RATION INTO EARTH (FEET)
Page 183
w
a::
i:i:
l.LJ
....J
(!)
z
<t
I
J:
(!)
:E
(f)
z
0
0..

w
3=
if)
::::>
0
0::
~
>
CD
if)
(!)
0
-l
dS
I
I
0::

W
~
::J
0
W
~
0
I
Z
Z
0
~
a:::
I
W
Z
W
0..
en
(.!)
z
a::
LtJ
>
0
(,)
J:
....
a::
<t
w
....
:::J
0
J:
....
i
a::
0
J:
I-
i
~
0
0
a::
(!)
0
....J
....J
~
Z
0
N
0::
0
J:
0
2
3
5
6
. PREPARED BY ORDNANCE DEPT.
ANY FUZE
7
2
o 0
I"
L
FIGURE 103 !
. 155 mm Howitzer, M1; Shell, HE, M107; Fuze,
PD, M51 or Mod. or Fuze, CP,M78 (T.l05)
(0.025 sec Delay).' .
(The, use of the ,M78 Fuze is not mandatory.)
The numbers in the graph refer to the zone
numbers in the propellent charge. See Figures
87, 88 and 89 for examples on how to use the
chart.
o
r, '[ THICKNESS OF LOG WALL P,E, RFORAT.ED FEET
HARD WOOD (OAK,EBONY, MAHOGANY)
THICKNESS OF LOG WALL PERFORATED FEET
MEDIUM HARD WOOD (PINE, SPRUCE)
THICKNESS OF LOG WALL PERFORATED FEET
SOFT WOOD (PALM)
'------- PERFORATION INTO EARTH (FEET)
Page 184
lJJ
0::
i:i:
w
....J
(.!)
z

I
:c
(.!)
I
(j)
z
0
a..

w
~
(f)
::::J
0
0:::
~
>
CD
(f)
<.9
0
..J
dS
J:
I
0:::

W
:E
::::J
0
W
~
0
I
Z
~
~
0:::
I
W
Z
W
a..
Cf)
(!)
z
0::
IJJ
>
0
(,)
:c
I
0::

IJJ
I
::::>
0
~
~
0::
0
:c
I
3:
fQ
0
0
0::
(.!)
0
....J
....J
~
z
0
N
CE
0
:c
,. PREPARED B'y ORDNANCE DEPT.
8
4
2
6
o
10
7
6
5
4
2 3
o 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 25,000
RANGE (YARDS)
L-
FIGURE 104
8 in. Howitzer, Ml; Shell, HE, MI06;Fuze,
PD, M51 or Mod. or Fuze, CP, M78 (TI05)
(0.025 sec Delay).
(The use of the M78 Fuze is not mandatory.) /
The numbers in the graph refer to the zone
numbers in the propellent charges. S ~ e Figures
87, 88 and 89, for .examples on how to use
the chart.
5
2
o 0
I 1-. ['THICKNESS OF L. O. G .WALL PERFORATED
~ HARD WOOD (OAK, EBONY, MAHOGANY)
THICKNESS OF LOG WALL PERFORATED
MEDIUM HARD WOOD (PINE, SPRUCE)
THICKNESS OF LOG WALL PERFORATED
SOFT WOOD (PALM)
PERFORATION INTO EARTH (FEET)
FEET
FEET
FEET
Page 185
Volume III Part 13.
ROCKET, DEMOLITION, 7.2 inch T37
1. NuMBER OF EFFECTIVE ROUNDS REQUIRED FOR REASON
ABLE ASSURANCE OF BREACHING VARIOUS TYPES OF
OBSTACLES TO PERMIT PASSAGE OF MEDIUM TANK.
Figures in the listing which follows are based on tests, or on multiples
of figures obtained from tests, using the T-37 rocket fired from the M17
rocket launcher. The test results pertain to effective rounds; hence the
figures presented herein do not allow for duds or for rounds going beyond
or falling short of the target.
On the average, each effective round displaces approximately %-cubic
yard of concrete. However, the amount displaced by any given round is
observed to vary considerably, the first rounds of anyone series causing
surface damage and cracking but little actual displacement.
Page 18&
BREACHING OF TANK
OBSTACLES .




l'l2.:l
, 'S AT S'INTERVAL
2 'POST .'
FIGURE 105
JAP LOG WALLS
. ht-5 ft.
Helg d -5 less
No. ofI Roun 5
Page 187
BREACHING Of-TANK
OBSTACLES
FIGURE-l06
JAP STUMP WAllS
Height-Approx. 4 ft.
No. of Round.-5 or less
~ ~
~
~ ~
~
. ~
"
SrUMP FACING-TREE ROOTS EXPOSED
Page 188
BREACHING OF TAN
OBSTACLES K
, FIGURE 107
J ~ P C O R A L WALL
Helght-5 ft.
No. of Rounds-5 or l.s5
Page 189
BLOCK STRUCTURES
FIGURE 108
UNMORTARED
BELGIUM BLOCK WALLS
Height-5 ft. '
No. of Rounds-5 or less
Page 190
BLOCK STRUCTURES
FIGURE 109
UNMORTARED
BELGIUM BLOCK WALLS
Height-5 ft.
No. of Rounds-5 or less
Page 191
BLOCK STRUCTURES
FIGURE 110.
MORTARED GRANITE
B L ~ C K BEACH WALLS
Helght-U'
N . . .P to 10 ft
o. of Round -c "
5-10 to

15
Page 192
CONCRETE STRUCTURE
GATES.
ELEMENT C
Range-Approx. 100 ft.
No. of Rounds-l 0 to 15
STEEL RAIL
1 1 1 1 ~ g l 1 ~ ~ ~ : -
~
Page 193
CONCRETE STRUCTURES
FIGURE 112
UNREINFORCED
CONCRETE
SEAWALLS
Range-Approx. 100 ft.
Height-Up to 6 ft.
Thickness-3%. ft. (average)
No. of R o u n d s ~ 5 to 10

I 'I,
,... )-& "
,
I
I
I
t
I
I
O.C.STAGG ERED
Page 194
CONCRETE STRUaURES
Y2."~ 6" o.c.
FIGURE 113
CONCRETE WALLS
liGHTLY REINFORCED
Range-Approx. 100ft.
Height-Up to 8 ft.
Thickness-Up to 6 ft.
No. of Rounds-1 0 to 15
Page 195
CONCRlTl SlRUClURS
FIGURE 114
. KiAVilY RUl
AllS
ORBAC.. . .. _
100 ft.
A prox.
Range-P to 6 ft.
Height-Up U to 6 ft.
Thickness- ,P-15 to 20
No. Of Rounds
. t-6 to 8 ft.
Heigh6t08ft.
Thickness- . -20 to 40
f Rounds
No. 0
8 to 9 ft.
Height- 8 to 9 ft.
Thickness- -40 to 60
f Rounds
No. 0
I


STEEL
Page 196
~ -
FIGURE 115
DRAGON/S TEETH
.AND OTHER BANDS
OF SMALL
REINFORCED CONCRETE
TANK BELLYING
OBSTACLES
No. of Rounds-l 0 to 15
Page 191
TABLE 88
JAP LOG OR DRUM TYPE PILLBOXES
Earth and Log Structures
No. of Rounds-5 to 10
TABLE 89
MINE FIELDS AND WIRE
ENTANGLEMENTS
Depth-Not over 40 ft.
No. of Rounds-5 to 10
Depth-Not over 80 ft.
No. of Rounds-1 5 to 20
Depth-Not over 160 ft.
No. of Rounds-20 to 40
Depth-Not over 240 ft.
No. of Rounds-40 to 60
Page.198
I .. ACCURACY.
The projectile may veer off course when acceleration continues heyond
the guide rails of the launcher. For this reason, the dispersion of shots from
a given rail may depend quite markedly on the burning time and hence
on the temperature. The following table illustrates the effect of tempera
ture on dispersion:
Amount of
burning while . Mean lateral
Temperature on rails deviation
10F 33% 20 mils
Normal 40% 10 mils
120F 60% 7 mils
Under field conditions, ~ lateral standard deviation of at least 9 mils and
an equ'al vertical deviation may be expected. That is; at a range of 100 feet,
. not more than 13 rounds of a launcher-load of 20 rounds may be expected
to fall within a wall target area 10 feet longbs 3 feet wide. Ata range of
200 feet, only 6 out Of 20 rounds may be expected to hit such a target area.
Figure 116 shows the relation of range to the number of rounds, out of a
launcher-load of 20 fired, which may be expected to hit selected wall target
areas.
The effect of wind on these projectiles may be neglected for practical
purposes.
If two projectiles are fired nearly simultaneously, one may be caught
in the blast from the other and suffer a considerable deviation. For this
reason, projectiles should be fired at least 7. second apart. At close range
no round should be fired until the previous one has detonated, since -the
blast from the detonation of one round may deflect the next round from
its target, or cause"its detonation preIll,aturely.
Page r199
ROCKET, OEM OLITION, ?2 ", T 37
FIRED FROM THE LAUNCHER, ROCKET, MULTIPLE, 7.2", M 17
NUMBER OF ROUNDS, 'OUT OF THE 20 FIRED FROM THE LAUNCHER,
EXPECTED TO HIT A VERTICAL TARGET 12, FT WIDE BY 4 FT HIGH,
AND ONE 10 FT WIDE BY 3 FT HIGH.
20
en
0
15
z
:::>
0
a:
LL
10
0
a:
w
CD
~ '
~ :E
5
':::>
z
~ .
I'
12 'FTx 4FT
,
"
TARGET
"
~ "
I'
"
\.
\.,
" f!lI
,
,,\
I\. Ill.
I': I"lli
IOFTx3FT
~
I"'lii
""'"
TARGET
1"'1
i""l I'll
1""''''
""',
""''''
"'"
1"'1-.,
"""'100.
I'll
..... iii.
~ 1"'1 ...
1"'0
....
. 0 100 200 300 400 500
RANGE IN FE E T
FIGURE 116
NOTES