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*

*

Shams-ul-Ulama Dastur

Dr. Peshotanji

Behramji Sanjana,

M.

A.,

Ph. D.

The

late

Parsee High Priest of Bombay.

AVESTA,
AND

PAHLAVI,

ANCIENT
IN

PERSIAN
HONOUR OF THE LATE

STUDIES

SHAMS-UL-ULAMA DASTUR PESHOTANJI BEHRAMJI SANJANA, M.A., Ph.D.

FIRST

SERIES.

STRASSBURG
LEIPZIG

:

190-i
I

All Righta reterved.

]

PRINTED AT THE

BOMBAY EDUCATION

SOCIETY'S

PRESS,

BYCULLA.

TO THE SACKED MEMORY OF

SHAMS-UL-ULAMA DASTUR PESHOTANJI BEHRAMJI SAN J ANA, M.A., Ph.D.,
Head
Priest of the Parsees,

Bombay, 1857—1898,

Principal of the Sir Jainshsdji Jeejeehhai Zarthoshti Madressa,

1862^1898,
Fellow of the

Bombay
the

University,

1866

—1898,

Editor and Tramlator of
Author, Pahlavi

Pahlavi Dinkart, Vols, I
aiid Translator,

— IX,

Grammarian
This volume

is

respectfully dedicated

by the European coutributors.

INTRODUCTION.
This Memorial Volume has been compiled
iii

appreciatiou

and commemoration of the persevering, judicious, and successful

labours of the

late

Shams-ul-Ulama Dastur Peshotanji
in

Behramji Sanjana, M.A., Ph.D.,
field

the

wide and perplexing

of Iranian research.

Belonging to the Sanjana family,
of the Parsi

he was probably a descendant of one

priests

who

accompanied the
settled at Sanjan.

first

fugitive

immigrants from Persia and

At an

early age he

was adopted

into the
onlj'-

family

of the
;

well-known Dastur

Edalji

Sanj ana's

brother

and, after the death of that predecessor, in 1857, he
high-priest

was appointed
Bombay,
wliich

of

the

Shahanshahi
till

Parsis

in

dignity he worthily held

the day of his

death (26th December 1898) at the age of 70 years.

His succession to the high-priesthood occurred at a time

when
Parsis

the steady advance of European
in

education,

among

the

Bombay, was making them

dissatisfied

with the

limited

knowledge of the

priests supplied to

them by the Dasturs

of Navsari,

by whom
till

all

such appointments were then made,
that'

and

it

was not

1883

Dastur Peshotanji was able

to overcome the

opposition of the Navsari priesthood, and

to establish his right to initiate priests, and give
for practising as priests in

them orders

Bombay.

He

published several

pamphlets (such as his

Tafsir-i

Gah-i GasanT, Tafs!r-i Galuinwith the view of eliminating
still

bar, Nirang-i Javlt-dinan, etc)

certain irregular

practices

and customs (some of which

continue) and of preserving the truth and punty

of his religion.

His success, in such controversial efforts, appears to have been
chiefly

due to his conciliatory firmness and his readiness to

accept judicious compromise.

2

The

late

Professor

Martin

Haug

of

Muencben, who,
often

during his stay in

India (in 1860-66),

met Dastur

Peshotanji, had always a high opinion of his learning and his
willingness to impart
India, I also
it

to others.

In 1874-76, when

last in

met him on

several occasions,
assisted

and formed the same
in obtaining copies

opinion, having been

much

by him

many of the scattered folios of the Dinkard, and of another ancient MS. of miscellaneous texts, in his own library.
of

His works connected with Pahlavi literature were both

numerous and important,

all

indicating as competent a

know-

ledge of that complicated language as any contemporary scholar
possessed.

In most cases he has been the most advanced

pioneer in his translations, well in advance of grammars
glossaries
;

and

and, though future translators
it is

may improve upon

his Avork hereafter,

doubtful whether any one could have

done better

at the

same period.
is

His Vijirkard-i-Demk (1848)
various
religious

a Pahlavi treatise

on

matters, resembling a Rivayat, said to have

been transcribed in 1754, from an Iranian MS. written in 1240

which the transcriber found in ihe Modi library
containing
several

at

Surat, and

Avesta quotations, whicli are not easy to
This book
is

trace to their original source.

remarkable as being

an early specimen of printing from Pahlavi and Avesta type.
His Gujarati translation of the Pahlavi Karnamak of
Ardashir Babagan (1853) was criticised by prejudiced Parsis
as

misrepresenting some of the actions of so virtuous a prince

as Ardashir, forgetting that a successful Shahanshah has always

considered himself as above the law.

His Pahlavi Grammar (1871)
arranged work,
displaying a wide

is

a voluminous and well with
the

acquaintance

Pahlavi language and literature.
Professor
tions

It

was much admired by
its

Haug,

especially

on account of

nmnerous quotalittle

from Pahlavi MSS. which were then but
his

known.

But

most important work was

his Dinkard,

givmg

the

Pahlavi text, with a transliteration in Avesta characters and
translations into Gujarati

and English

;

of which nine volumes

have been published between 1874 and 1900.

The

first

two
;

books of this valuable Pahlavi text have not been discovered
but his nine volumes contain the whole of the
third,

fourth,

and

fifth

books

;

leaving four more b(joks to be edited by his

able successor, Dastur Darabji.

He

also

published the Ganj-i Shayagan and three other
with

short Pahlavi treatises, that occur in old MSS., in 1886,
translations.

He was
of his time,
as

universally respected as the most learned Dastur
selected

and the government of Lord Reay
of the
title

him

the

first recipient

of Shams-ul-Ulama in the
liis

Parsi community, as an

ofiicial

appreciation of

learning.

He was
ressa,

Principal of the Sir Jamshedji JijibhaT Zartoshti j\Iadits

from

foundation in

18G3

till

his death.

He was
for

Fellow of the

Bombay

University

from

186 G, and was a

member

of the Committee appointed

by that University

establishing a course of studies in Avesta and Pahlavi for the

higher examinations in Arts.
also elected

The German Oriental Society

him

as

Member

in 1875.

And all
E.

Pahlavi scholars

would, no doubt, agree that these honours were well deserved.

W. WEST.

CONTENTS.
/
/
I.

PAGE
Avesta Literature^ from' the
F.
Geldner,

German of
.

Prof.

Karl

Ph.D.

(Berlin)

By

the

Rev.

D.
of
1

Mackichan, M.A., D.D., LL.D,,
the University of

V ice-Chancellor

Bombay
Prof.

n.

Die

Parther

.

By

Eugen Wilhehn, Ph.D.,
83
.

University of Jena
III.

The Pahlavi Jamasp-N&mak
Translator of

By
in

Dr.
the

E.

W. West,
of
the

Pahlavi

Texts

series

Sacred Books of the East, edited by the
MUller
IV.

late Prof.

Max
97
Prof.

The

Life and

Legend

of

Zarathushtra

.

By
,

Ferdinand
/

Justi,

Ph.D.,

Avesta

Grammarian and
...

Lexicographer, University of Marburg

117

\y

V.

Khshathra Vairya, one of the Zoroastrian Archangels

By

Prof.

A. V.

Williams- Jackson,

University

of

Columbia,
VI.

New York
.

159

Mediaeval Greek References to the Avestan Calendar

By Prof.

Louis H. Gray, University of Columbia

...

167

v/^VII.

The

Literal

Wording of the

Gathas

.

By

Prof.

Lawrence H.

Mills, Ph.D., Translator of the

Avestan
176

Gathas, University of Oxford

VIII.

Avestan Zevishtydug Aurvato Ys.

50—7

.

By

Prof.

A.V.Williams-Jackson

178
of tho Pahlavi Version of

4

IX.

Transliteration

and Translation
the
Fifth

Yasna
Qdtha

.

XXXII, By Dr,
.

Chapter

of

the

First

E.

W, West
Prof.

182

V / X.

Avesta

Ktlrema

By

Karl F. Qoldner, Ph.D.,
,..

University of Berlin

199

/

PAGK
XI.
Vendidad, Fargard XVIII
to.U*
.••
«••
.

By

Prof. Karl F. Geldner,
•••
«,,

•••

.«,

.«,

201

XII.

Das Volk der Kamboja

bei

Yaska

.

By

Prof. Ernst

Kuhn, Ph.D., Editor

of the Qrundriss der Irdnischen

Philologie, University of Miinich

•.,213
Chapter IX, 3
.

XIII.

A

Fragment of the Dinkart, Book

III.,

By the
XIV.
The

Right Rev. L. C. Casartelli, Ph.D., Principal,

St.

Bede's College, Manchester

215
called

Indian
.

Hindukush Dialects

Munjani

and

Yudgha
Erlangen

By

Prof.

Wilhelm Geiger, Ph.D., Editor of
221

the Grundriss der Irdnischen Philologie^ University of

XV.
XVI.
-J

Some

Inscriptions of Sassanian

Gems

.

By

Prof. Paul

Horn, Ph.D., University of Strassburg

224

The Old Persian Inscriptions

at Behistan, transliterated
.

with philological annotations
Ph.L).
...

By

Prof. Paul Horn,
...
..•

...

...

...

•«.

^ol

APPENDIX
The
Old
Persian

I,

Text of the
.

Inscriptions

at

Behistan,
i

Columns I-V

By an Admirer

APPENDIX
First Series of the Pahlavi

II.

Text of the Selections of ZadDr. E.

spariim

.

Edited and transliterated by

W.
xliii

West

A VESTA LITERATURE,
FROH THE GERMAN OF

KARL

F.

GELDNER.

INTRODUCTION.
General Literature.
les Id^es Theologiques,

— Zend-Avesta, ouvragede Zoroastre, contcnant
et

Physiques

Morales de ce Legislateur,

les

Ceremonies

du Calte Religieax
par

qa'il a ^tabli, et plnsieurs traits
:

importants relatifs k

Tancienne Histoire des Perses
premiere
partie contains

Ti-aduit

en Franyois sur I'Origiual Zend,

M. Anquetil du Perron, 8 Vols,
:

in 4°, Paris 1771.

[Tome premier,

la relation du voyage du traducteur aux Indes Orientales, suivie du plan de I'ouvrage. Seconde partie le Vendidad sade (rizeschnd, le Vispered et leVendidad),
:

Tintroduction an

Zend-Avesta,

la vie

de Zoroastre.
;

Tome

second contains
;

:

leschts sades, le Si rouze, la

Boundehesch
dee Parses, et

deux vocabulaires
le

I'exposition des usages civils et religieux

syst^me ceremonial et moral des livres Zends et Pehlvis,

table des matieres.]
Joii.

Fr. Kleuker, Zend Avesta, Zoroaster's lebendiges Wort, Riga
4°.

1776-1777, 3 Vols, in

By

the same author

:

Kiga 1781-83,

2 Biinde in 5

Theilen. — Zend-Avesta

Anhang zum Zend-Avesta,
im Kleinen*
d.
i.,

Ormuzd's Lichtgesetz oder Wort des Lobons an Zoroaster dargcstollt in einem wesentlichen Auszugo aus den Zend-biichcrn . von J. F. Klbuker, 3 Theile, Riga 1789. Wort an lebendes oder ZendZoroaster, Ormuzd's aTesta im Auszugo von F. S. Eck\rd, Greifswald 1789.
.

.

M. Hauo, Essays on the Sacred Language, Writings, and Religion of the Bombay 1862. Especially in the Second Edition which West has edited, London 1H78. Third Edition 1884. K. W. West in the Introductions to the Pahlavi texts, SBE., Vols. V, XVIII, XXIV, XXXVII.
Parsees,

du

texte, Liege, 1875-77, 3 vols.

C. DB Harlez, Avesta, Livre sacr^ des sectatenra de Zoroastre traduit Second entirely re-edited edition Avesta,
:

livro sacr^

du Zoroastrisme, traduit du texte Zend, Paris 1881

:

Bibliothcque

Orientale Vol.

V

(with a careful introduction).
le

A. HovKLACQUE, L' Avesta, Zoroastre et

Maidcismo, Paris 18«0.

J. Darmehteter, Introduction to the English Translation of the Vendidad, Oxford 1880, Vol. IV of the SBE.— Uarmestotcr, Etudes Iraniennes, Paris 1883, 2 Vols.— Le Zend-Avesta, traduction uouvcUo avcc comiiicu-

1

2

D.

MACKICHAN, GELDNER*S AWKSTa LITEBATUUE,
James Darmesteter, Paris 1892-93, 3

taire historique et pbilologique, par

Vols, in

published in the Annates du Musee Gaimet, tome 21, 22, 24, [wherever Darmesteter simply is quoted, the reference is always to tliis
4°,

main work],
Fr. Spiegel,
especially the third

Eranische Alterthumskunde,

Leipzig 1871-78, 3

Vols,

Volume.
Geschichte des Alterthums,
Vierter Band, 4
Aufl.,

M. Duncker,
Leipzig 1877.

Ed. Mbyer, Geschichte des Alterthums, Erster Band, Geschichte des
Orients bis zur Begriindung des Perserreichs, Stuttgart 1884. [Das Awesta,
pp. 501-510].

Vol.

K. Geldner, Article "Zend- Awesta" in the Encyclopa3dia Britannica, XXIV, p. 775. Prolegomena zur Avesta-Ausgabe (§ 11).

"^W.

Jackson,

Introduction to Avesta

Grammar,

Stuttgart 1892.

AWESTA.
§ 1. The Iranian nation, so far as it reverenced Ah lira Mazda as its Zarathushtra as His prophet, was once possessed of an extensive and God sacred literature similar to the Veda of the Indians the Awesta (masc. or neut.). There has never been unanimity in Germany as to the gender of the name.^ The word comes to us from the Middle Persian which has no genders. The Pahlavi form is avistdkf^ the F^dzQndi avastd. Neriosangh reproduces it in Sanskrit by avistd as in avistdvdh or avistdvdniy '* Awesta-speech." The word can hardly be

traced further back than the Sasanian era,

Oppert is, however, of opinion

that the

word

is

already to be found in an inscription of the time of

Darius in the form
is at least

doubtful.

ahaMdm Beh. IV, 64^ ), but the identification The word has been variously derived. The con(

jecture

of

Professor Andreas^ orally communicated, has most pro-

bability on its side, namely, that Avistdk or Avastdk is to be traced back
1 Kleuker, Haug, and Weber use Awesta and Zendawesta in the masculine. neuter form, however, predominates.

The

«
-

This reading
1,

is

followed by

West, while Darmesteter, on the other hand, has

ApastAk,

XXXIX,

note.

3 Oppert, JA. 1872, XIX, 293 Be Harlcz, JA. ; altpersisohen Keihnsohriften, 2nd cd., p. 103.

1876,

VIll, 487; Spiegel,

Die

AWESTA

:

ITS

MEANING AND USES, §

1.

3

to the old form upasid, and thus signifies " foundation/' " foundationtext'* (like the Skr. miila).
Tills

explanation also accords with the facts, inasmuch as avis(dk
or expresses
a contrast,'

generally involves

namely, the contrast

between it and the added Pahlavi translation or explanation ( Zatid ), which probably once was co-extensivo with the whole Awesta literature, and which, in the form in which we possess it, does not go further back than the 6th Century A.D., and was thus probably edited
under the later Sasanids or soon after their era. The foundation -text and the corresponding Pahlavi exposition were comprehended under the composite designation Avistdh va Zand (Neriosangh, avistdvdnl vydkhydiiam ca ** Awesta language and exposition" ). The Parsi scholars of the present time also understand in this combination Awesta as the original text and Zand as the F^ahlavi commentary.The combination Avistak va Zand occurs, however, not unfrequently in the Pahlavi In this case Zand signifies the translation of the Awesta itself. traditional exposition of the Awesta texts' handed down by the Schools, which served as the foundation of the Pahlavi translation reduced to writing. Through a misunderstanding Anquetil, and, before
understanding which the sacred writing, the Awesta, was composed, an error which has asserted itself with great obstinacy
him, also Hyde,'^ has

turned this into Zcndawesta,
in

by Zend

the language

since Anquetil's time.'

The Awesta
old

literature

was composed

in

a nameless dialect, in the

language of Iran, which it is now customary to call " Awestic." Nothing which was not written in this language can
sacred

claim to be reckoned as part of the sacred
other hand,

writings of Iran.

On

the

there does not exist in this language any

other kind of

documents, any inscription, or any profane literature.
scholars of to-day, as
for

For the Parsi

the

older

Pahlavi authors, the language
;

and the scripture are completely
»

identical ideas
69
2,
:

they call the language

Cf, Dfnkanl, VIII. 6, 1

;

12,

1

;

20,

IX, 32, 20.

«
*

West, RMays*, 119

;

w also MMadi
is

126.

Thorc the exposition

called omi'/i/i,

with which

t

i

v

lav

wmI umd
tVri
, .

is

oonnecied.

varioas forms of the nmne, hco p. 332 of the
>

Hyde, Higtorla lUliKionis VoU'rum Porsamm, 1700, same work.

p. 8»7.

With p

c to

the

An(|aetll,II, p. 424.

4
itself in

D.

MACKICHAN, GBLDNER'S AWESTA LITERATDRE,

jectures as to the

which these scriptures were written, Awesta. Since all conhome of this language are in the highest degree uncertain, it will be well to introduce into Europe also this usage which has the advantage of being ancient, and to call the language of
the scriptures of the Parsis simply Aicesfa.

in

West has already given an exhaustive definition of the expression his Glossary to the Arda Viraf under the word Avistdk,^ when he
it

explains
their

thus:

*'

Scripture, the

sacred writings of the
to

Parsis in

original

language and hence applied

the language itself,

which is commonly but erroneously called Zend; any quotation or text from the same scriptures."'"'

The Awesta

literature has suffered

in ancient times after the

period of

an unfortunate fate. Already Alexander near its decay, it wais
Sasanids.

once more revived and rejuvenated under the

9th or 10th Century of our era the number of the was continually dwindling, and the extent of their sacred scriptures The former, the so-called Parsis, number at steadily diminished. The portion of their sacred present only a little over 80,000 souls. literature, which has been preserved to our time, is a mere fragment of that ancient literature, and, when reduced to book-form, attains the compass only of a single good-sized volume. This is the Awesta in
the narrower sense.

From the believers in Mazda

IDEA, CONTENTS,
§ 2.

AND ANALYSIS OF THE AWESTA.
in the

The Awesta,
Parsis as Bible

more

restricted sense, is

still

in

use

amongst
is

and

Prayer-book at the present day.
*'

It contains

the liturgies for the general sacrificial celebrations and the

Law "

that

recited on such occasions, and, in addition, the solemn invocations

addressed to individual saints and the forms of prayer prescribed
for the various occasions in

common

life.

It bears thus in its essential

character a liturgical stamp.
or
indirect

consequence of their direct relation to liturgy that these scriptures have been so
It is only in

long preserved.
ip.13.
3

Those portions of the Avesta literature which were

Darmesteter, in the passage referred

to, calls

attention to
is

words in the Bundahish.
ascription of praise,"

Aviatdk = avezak *^ai/i*n,

accordingly said to

an etymological play of mean "a pure

IDEA. CONTENTS

AND

.VNALYSIS OF

THE AWESTA, §§

2-3.

5

outside the liturgy were no longer copied as
priestly purposes,

being unnecessary for most part been lost. It is, however, probable that not everything which is found in the Avesta was intended absolutely only to serve such ends.

and have thus

for the

Although, as already indicated, the Avesta
there
is

is ot

moderate extent,
is suffi-

no

cient to

MS. which contains the whole Avesta. make clear the character of the book.
a

This alone
It is

not a whole in
It divides

the sense of a unity, but a complex collection
itself into

of writings.

number of

individual books, each complete

in itself,

of loosely connected rubrics.

The books and

rubrical forms
:

and which are
Visjpered,

extant

may

be classified under five main divisions

Yasna,

Vendulddf Yashts and Khorda-Awestd,
§ 3. Yasna ( =Skr. ydjna), Phlv. yazisn, the modern Izeshne the Sanskrit of Neriosjingh ijlsni the chief liturgical book which

in
is

recited in honour of all
for the

the divinities collectively.

It

was composed

puriK)ses of the high office of the Izeshne which, apart from a

number of subordinate performances, consists chiefly in the ceremonial prei)anition and ofiering of the Parahom (Aw. parahaoma ), i.e., the
juice extracted from the

Huoma

milk and aromatic ingredients.

from beginning to end is 18 preceded by a preparatory ceremonial entitled Paragra.

mixed with consecrated water, At this ceremony the whole Yasna The high service of the Izeshne recited.
plant,

The

text has only

in part a real
it

and original connection with the

ceremonial act

which

accompanies.

The

Ycuitia

is

a

variegated

mixture of monotonous drawling formulae and of interesting and in pa»-t very ancient texts. These heterogeneous elements have, however, been skilfully knit together into one whole.

The

larger sections

have appropriate introductions prefixed to them and close with longer
or shorter resnmh.

The Yasna

is

divided
is

into

72 chapters, JuliUf

named
of the

later I/d,

This subdivision

traditional, although the

MSS.

Yasna do not number the chapters consecutively, nor do they always clearly mark the close of each chapter. The sacred cord of the Parsis, which marks them out as belonging to a particular religious community, is woven with 72 threa<l8, which are intended to represent This number is reached by an artificial the 72 chapters of the Yasna.* method, several chapters being simply repetitions of some of the others.
»

A. FUhr«r in tho EacjclopsudU Brit»aiUo», XVIII, 326.

6
Thus

D.

MACKICHAN, GELDNEr's AWESTA LITERATORE,
is

an introduction ; 18 the same as 47 with manner Has taken from 51, 7. In like 63, 64, 66, 67 and 72 are simply made up of fragments ol: preceding texts. The Parsis divide the Yasna iuto two main sections/ namely, 1-27, and 28 to the end. Also in the ritual of the Yasna ofifering there is a division of the ceremony at chapter 27. The whole book may, however, be better
5 the same as 37

Ha

divided into three longer sections
§

:

— 1-27; 28-55

;

56-72.

4.

The content of the
service
is

Yasna,.

the Yasna high

as follows:

—The

in other words, the course of

introduction
all
(

consists of

formal invitations to the offering addressed to genii in a definite order according to their rank
of

the divinities and
;

1-2)

the

offering

the

similar

ends at
to

main oblation (mijazda) and other offerings preceded by formul83 of invocation and consecration (3-7). This section Then follows a prayer 8, 5-8. 8, 9 is an introduction 8, 4.

the interesting

glorified as a plant

Hom-Yasht (Chaps. 9-11). In this the Haoma is and as a divine being quite in the style which
(cf. §§

characterises the other Yashfcs

8,21), Afc the close the priest (Zot)

drinks the juice of the

Haoma which

has

been prepared in the

Paragra ceremony.
the end of 13.

Ha

11, 16 again introduces a

new

section, the con-

fession of faith of the

Mazdayasnians which extends from 11, 17 to
is,

This confession

properly speaking, made up of several

which are
11,

named

16; frastuije

from their 11, 17—12, 8

;

openiug words na,me\y, fravardne and dstuye^ 12, 9 to the end of 13.
quite

The most

interesting of these pieces is the

ancient

specialized
8, is also

confession of faith in

Chap. 12, which, according to Y. 13,

named

the fraordti (confession).

At Chapter

14 begin the Staota Yesnya which extend,
(cf.

with
of the

interruptions, probably as far as Chap. 58

§ 23).

They

are inter-

rupted by the invocation of the genii of the day (Chap.
times of the day and the seasons of the year, and
of fire (17), as

16),

the various forms

the

by the homilies on the three most sacred prayers, .known Bakdn YasJit (19-21), Chaps. 22-27 contain an additional

litany called

Hdmdst

Yasht, which accompanies the second preparation

of the Haoma-juice which

now

begins.

Chap. 27 at the same time

forms the transition to the central part of the Staota Yesnya and to
1

Auquetil
€f,

I.

2,73.

Gathas " in Shayast-lA-ShAyast, translated by West, Sacred Books of the East, Vol. V, pp. 352 seq.
2

the short "Description of the

;

IDEA, 00NTBMT8 ANi> ANALYSIS OF
the Odthds which are the centre

THE AWRSTA, §§

4-5.

7

{vuk

and culmination of the whole Yasna, These extend, with a few interraptions, from 28 to 54. Chap. 55 gives a short poetical re.Hume of them. Chap. 56, named " the
§

22).

sraull

Srosh Yasht/'
is

is

preparatory to the large and comprehensive
in 57.

Srosh Yasht which
uttered

contained

Chap, 58 contains the so*caUed
This
concludes
the

FauHoindthra, a glorification of prayer in general and the prayer to be

before

the

last

judgment.

Staota

Yesnya. Chap. 59 refers both to what precedes and to what follows and
introduces the two next sections with renewed invocations. the pious.''

The

first

of these gives in Chap. 60 the so-called tfuhma dfnii, "the hlessing of
It is
it is

a blessing pronounced on the Mazdayasnian house a form of exorcism (61) and the propitiation of
fire

joined with
(62).

Then

follows the Ab-zor, " offering to the waters

"

(con^^isting of

consecrated water)
praise

an introduction (63-64), the (65), the consecration and otl'ering of the sacred water (66-68). Then follow renewed invociitions and the conclusion of the whole ceremony (6^-72).'
63-68,
the

contiiining
Jof

of Andhita

goddess

water

VisPBRKD (from Aw. visfe ralavo " all the chiefs,'' ef, Yasht 10, 122) is not an independent connected book but a collection of supplements to the Yasna, The official reciUition of the Vispered cannot be thought of without supposing that the Yasna was at the same time included. The Vispered high ceremony is the Y'asna ceremony
§ 5.

enlarged by the addition of the Vispered portions.
(specially at the seasonal feasts, the Gahanbdrs^^

It

is

celebrated

The

separate por''sections,''

tions or chapters of the Visjiered are called Kardeti (properly

from an Av. word kdrM).
fixing
tively.

their

number

in so

Here likewise the MSS. give us no help in far as they do not uumljer them consecu-

Anquetil divides the book into 27 cliapters, so also Spiegel in
;

his edition

Gujerati edition which

Westergaard, on the other hand, reckons 23, and the Bombay have followed 24 Kardca. 8o far as its contents
1

ireconcemed, the Vispered presents only a little that T formal invocation ing. The most of it nown in after Yasna Yasna. Kardes 1 ami
<
^

is

new and
the

interest-

in
1,

style of the
2, 8, in

8 and

the

ThU flcscription in ito flMentlftW It bMed upon that givm hj DarmMteior 1, LXXXI—LXXXVIII. AoexhaatUvodtMripliooof Um PftrttgnKMromonjr b flvtBl(j
>

Wcct
>

in hiH

oMtay^ pp^ S94 ivf . and • ilmiUr dttcriptlon of the

ImhMotrHDooy, pp.106

IWmcttotor

1,

LXVII.

-

8
place of

D.

MAOKIOHAN, GELDNEr's AWESTA LITERATURE.
1,

Yasna

9 and

2, 9.

Here we

see olearly that these

two Kardes

out of the Gahaubar formulas of the Kardes 3 and 4 fit into the ritual ]K)rtions of Yasna 11. Karde 5 does duty for Yasna 14 of which it is only a variation; Karde 12 for Yasna 27, 7, The second half of the Vispered, Kardes 13-24, stands in very close relation to the Gathas or the Staota Yesnya cj» the
are only a lengthy spinning

Yasna.

(

synopsis in § 12
§

).

-

.

^

^

,

6.

Vendidad

(Av. vldaevo c?«^9m/" the law against demons,
)

'*

Phlv. jnt'div-ddt or jnt-sedd-ddt
is

is

originally an unliturgical
ecclesiastical

work

;

it

the Leviticus of the Parsis, their

law-book which pre-

It

and ecclesiastical penances. formed originally the 19th Nask of the Sasanid Avesta. In its present form it contains 22 Chapters (Fargards) which the MSS. carefully
scribes the priestly purifications, atonements

number. The 12th Fargard
the Pahlavi translation, and
Sdd,e,

is
is

wanting in the older
to,

MSS. which

contain

found only in the so-called Vendiddd
reckon,

The MSS. above
Pahlavi archetype.

referred

however, the following
looks like a

Fargard as the 13th.
in the

This omission cannot be explained by a mere gap

The whole Fargard

fabrication
list

that

more modern than the rest of the Vendidad. of contents of the Vendidad which the Dinkard
is

The summary
;

(8, 44) gives (vide

below), deals minutely with
is

all
1

the Fargards except four

Fargard 12

not referred to

;

Fargards

and

1

1

are at least touched in a couple

of words.'

The Fargard

in question

was thus either not before the

Pahlavi translator or not yet fully recognised."

The way
the

individual

that each

Fargards are partly connected together in this supplies the answer to a question propounded in

Fargard which precedes it. This is the form of presentation, which is called in Sanskrit iirasahtdnwprasahiam. Fargard 10 is a more detailed working out of 9,46; 14 of 13,51. The begin1 Cf. West, Sacred Books of the East, XXXVII p. 161. The words • in smiting the fiend" (Dinkard 8,44,51) are to be connected with Fargard 10 and answer to the mottoof the chapter, namely, the words ^;a/ti p.n;fne, "in healing," with Fargard 11.
,

These correspond to the standing yaozhdathune formula.
' Darmesteter (II, 165), endeavours, on the other hand, to make the existence of an old Pahlavi translation probable by referring to the words Kainiww wvato j)uthr.?vi in 12,7. These, he suggests, are a gloss which has remained over from the former. The words are

also found in the Persian

MSS.

{of.

§ 13).

Awesta

glosses occur, however, in other places
I

without any direct relation to the Pahlavi translation. gloss askdmo in Yd. 20, 1.

would point

to the interesting

;

IDEA,

CONTENTS AND ANALYSIS oF THE AWESTA, §§ 6-7.

9

ing uud end of tho Vendidud arc mythological in their contents,
the kernel of 3-21 contains the priests* law proper.

Contexts of the Vendidad. B'argard relates the creation known countries and their plagues at the hands of Fargard 2 gives the history Ormazd and Ahrinian, respectively of Yiraa, his first and second call, the flood and Yima's paradise Fargard 3 the joys and sufferings of the earth, the hahitation, mode of life and end of the corpse-bearers, the praise of agricoltare, the pollution of the earth by dead bodies Fargarvl 4 contracts, their breach and relative expiations, bodily iujnries and their exFargards 6-9 the manifold piations, education, perjury and ordeal uncleannesses of men and things through pollution liy dead bodies and their relative expiations. Specially to be mentioned are the
§
7.
1

of the

best

;

;

;

following:

— The
of

parification

the water

treatment of dead bodies in winter (10-14), the of the whole world in the ocean Pfiitiha
doctrine of
in
ti.

(10-20),

praise

of Zarathushtra's

purity
5.

(21-25),

the

woman
tion

with the still-born child (45-62)

Chap.

On

the dakhmds
qualifica-

or Towers of the

Bead
7.

(44-51), in Chap.

Certificates of

and

fees
in

for physicians (36-44),

consideration of the

dnhhmas

(45-59)

Chap.

Disj>osal

of the

dead

and

sagdid (driving

oat of the corpse-female-deinon
Fire (81-96) in Chap. 8.

by the dog) 1-22, and the Bahirara
the nine nights,
i.

The Barnshnuvi of
in

e.,

the

Fargard 10 contains the Gatha verses to be repeated twice, thrice and four times for expelling demons; 11, the employment of Gatha verses for tho purpose of purification 12, mourning for the dead 13, the dogi its kinds, its
Chap.
9.
;
;

great purificatory ceremony

fnnctioDs, the nourishment, diseases

and praise of the dog, the otters
five

;

14, expiation for the killing of an otter; 15,

mortal sins,
;

new

born children and dogs
of

;

16,
;

woman during the catamenia

1

7,

cutting

and hair 18 is the most interesting and the fullest chapter in the whole book. Amongst other things it treats of the true and tho false pri<'st, of the domestic cock that wake> men to prayer in the morning, and of the Jahi (the dissolute woman), and narrates a conversation between Sraosha and tho Druj with regard to the
the nails

propagation of tho latter.
tra
souls after death.

Farg. 19 relates the temptation of Znrathushfate of last

by Ahriman, the expiation of tho desecrated Vohn Mano, the

Tbe

three chapters are devotetl to priestly

medicine.

Chapter 20, tho revelation of the art of healing by Mazda

a
;

10

D.

MACKICHAN, GELDNER*S AWESTA LITERATURE,
diseases; 21, the healing
in childbirth
;

and an enumeration of
exorcism of a

power of water, and the

woman

22, narrative of the contagion

and heahng of Mazda.
§ 8.

The Yashts and the Khobda Awesta,-— Anquetil
is

includes
title

all

besides the above that

extant of real Awesta texts under the
to

two groups, the Tashts with their appendices and what is included under the comprehensive name Khorda Awesta, i.e.j the Small or Minor Awesta. The dividing line is, however, not a very definite one in the MSS. inasmuch as certain Yashts are necessary elements of a Khorda Awesta. Both classes of MSS., the Yasht MSS. as well as the Khorda Awesta MSS., are introduced by similar formula3, and the Yasht and Khorda Awesta texts are Especially it is frequently combined in the MSS. to form one whole. to be remembered that the Khorda Awesta is not a book of uniform content and fixed arrangement in the style of the Vendidad the Khorda
YasJd Sdde.^

But

it is

better

divide

this

into

;

Awesta MSS. are casual

collections of varying extent,
like the

Yasht {Aw.
originally

yesti),

word Yasna of
has,

allied

root, signifies

ivorshipy

offering.

It

however, become a technical

While the Yasna designates the general worship which expression. embraces the whole Masdayasnian Pantheon, the Yashts are devoted
to the

worship of individual divinities and indeed almost exclusively to

divine beings or Izeds (Aw. yazata), after
are named.

whom
22'-

the days of the

month
follow-

Our
:

collection
1
,

numbers 21 or

Yashts
;

in

the

ing fixed order

Yasht of Ahura Mazda (Hormazd) 2, Yasht of the Amssa Spenta (Haft Ameshaspends) o, Yashfc of the Asa Vahista ( Ardabahisht) ; 4, of the Haurvatdt (Khordad); 6, of the Ardvi St2r Andhita (Ardui siir bano) ; 6, of the Evarexsaeta (Khurshed); 7, of the
;

Mdongha (Mah) 8, of the Ti'strya (Tishtar, also called Tir); <J, of the Drvdspa (Drvasp, also called Gos/i Yasht); 10, of the Mi7/im (Mihir) 11,
; ;

of the Sraosa (Srosh Yasht, from the liladhokht")
12, the

Yasht of the Rasnu (Rashn)

;

Srosh Yasht Fravasi (FravardTn) oi 13, 14,
;

11, a

;

of Vorathrayhna (Bahiram); 15, of Vayti (generally called
16, of Razista Cista (generally called

Ram

Yasht);

Din Yasht);

17, of

Asi Vanguhi

(Ard Yasht);
1

18,
1,

of Airyandm xvardnd
;

(generally

called

Ashtad
According
its

Anquetil

I,

cccclxxxvi

II. 1.

That

is,

the same

number

as that of

the chapter

in

the

Venrlidad.

to the opinion of the

Parsis each of the

Ameshaspauds and Izeds once had

own

special V^asht,
3 Cf.

c/.

Anquetil U, 143.
]7.

below §

9.'

*i '

IDEA, CONTENTS AND ANALYSIS OF
•-

'

\,

'

^"

THE AWB8TA, §§
called
;

8-9.

11
in

')^

Yasht); 19, Yashtbf
older

Kavaem xvarand
;

(generally

Zamyad
21, of

;

MSS.

also KayanTYasht)
-.^

20,

oi'Haoma (Hum)

Vanani

(Vanand).

^^
is

based upon the order of the days of the month Eight of the genii of the days of the month have no Yasht to represent them ; conversely there is no day of the month corresponding to the last two Yashts. In the Calendar the day of Vohu Maud occupies the second place in the Yasht collection, however, the second place is occupied by that of the seven Amesha

This arrangement

in the Parsi Calendar.^

;

Spenta.
the

In the case of Yashts 18 and 19 the connection with a
is

corresponding day of the month
first

a forced one.

In Yaaht 19 only

8 sections are concerned with the genius of tho earth (Zamyad).
is

In the 18th Yasht there

absolutely

no mention of the Ashtad.
list

Several of the double names in the above
fact that the proper hero of the

are explained by

the
the

Yasht

is

not one from

whom

name, bat a genius invoked along ¥dth him. Thus the loth Yasht is named after the Rdma mvdstra, which in Siroze 1, 21 2,21 is invoked in the first place; it is, however, We find the dedicated to Vayu, who there takes the second place.
corresponding day derives
its
;

same

in

Yashts 9 and

10.

Externally the Yashts are recognizable by their introductions and
conclusions which run on the same

In respect of extent, age lines. and contents they are, however, very unlike each other. The last two (20 and 21) consist for the most part only of Yasht formulas adorned with some quotations. The first four Yashts are for the most part
a modern,

ungrammatical manufacture.
to the

On

the other

hand, the

middle and large Yashts (Nos.

and 19) belong

10, 13 5, 8, 14, 17 and, above all, most prominent documents of this literatoro. 4 that several Yashts have been It has already been remarked in embodied in the Yasna which, like tho Hom Yasht, in their full extent do not belong to the Yasht collection in the strict sense.
|i

§ 9.

Tho Khorda Awbbta, " the Minor Awetta»

**

is,

so to speak,

a short extract of tho entire Awesta, intended for tho uH) of tho laity, a collection of tho forms of prayer most required by tho layman at the
various seasons and in the various rircu instances of his
t

life.

Tbeea are
t.mi.

For

thL^

e/.

cupeoUllj Roth,

8troxe (vidr § 9) ooouliM » oomplet* imt ui

Morg. Oe.. gtnu of Um dAjrt wiu.
<L

Tw
Mid

»«*t..

..iHUttlti

(oUowers.

^

12

D.

MACKICHAN, GELDNEU'S AWESTA LITEKATURE,
to

by no means composed exclusively in the Awesta language, but
great extent in Pazend,

a

(Hormazd) and the eleventh (Srosh), are included in almost all Khorda Awesta MSS. The editing of the Khorda Awesta has been ascribed to Adarpad Mahraspand under Shapur IT. (310-379 A.D.). Besides a series of separate prayers and verses, the MSS. contain the following smaller
especially the first
collections of recitations
:

Of the Yashts,

The Nyaishes, five in number. These are brief prayers to the 1. Sun (Khurshed), Mithra, the Moon (Mah), to the genii of the Water (Arduisur band) and the Fire (Atash i Bahiram).^ The Yashts of the
corresponding Izeds, or portions of them, are partly inserted in the Nyaishes, e. g,, the entire Khurshed Yasht in Nyaish 1, 10-17, the

Mah
da}*

Yasht in Nyaish
2.

3, 2-9.

The Gahs, addressed

to the genii of the respective times of the

and recited at these times*
3.

Their number

is

accordingly

five.

Siroze (the thirty days), of which there are two,

named

the

These are two Prayer Calendars extending each to 30 paragraphs in which the genii of the day are invoked in sucIn their entirety these are recited cession together with their retinue.
principally on the 30th day after the death of a man.4.

Minor and the Larger.

The Afringans, words of
:

blessing, which are accompanied

by

the gift

of an offering and serve various ends.

Generally four are

quoted


Afrlngan
i

(a)

Dahman,

recited to

honour departed pious people,

a kind of mass for the dead.
{!))

Afringan

i

Gatha, recited on the last five days of the year, the
to

Gatha days, on which the souls of the departed descend the earth, thus as it were a kind of mass for souls.
so-called
(c)

Afringan

i

Gahanbar, recited

at the

celebration

of the six

seasonal feasts, the so-called Gahanbar.

This piece, however, contains
the
participation
of

not so

much

benedictions as precepts regarding

the faithful in the six feasts.
1

With reference

to their special

use, vide

Anqnetil

II.

565

;

Darmesteter in the

introductions to the different Nyaishes, II, 691 seq.
2
3

Anquetil 11,315,573. Anquetil II, 575; West, Essays 225.

,

IDEA,

(

ONTENTS AND ANALYSIS OP THE AWESTA, §§ 9-10.
i

13

Afrlngan ((2) end of summer.
§ 10.

Rapitliwiu,

celebrated at the beginning and

Fragments. These five books or collections of text« pretty well exhaust the canon of the Parsis of the present day, but they are by no means the whole of the extant Awcsta literature. A treasure store,
still

partly unexplored,

is

tations

from

lost texts.

hidden in Pahlavi books in the fonn of quoLarger fragments have been preserved together
in

with the Pahlavi commentary or have been incorporated
Pahlavi writings.
First

more modern

among

an extensive

ritual

work

these stands the Nirangistdn (cf, § 17), in three Fargards based upon an old collection

of Alcesia Njrangs,

i. e., ritual precepts in the Awesta language. This collection has been worked up iu a large Pahlavi tract and commented on. The commentary quotes besides a great number of other These A'irawj^* are very fruitAivesta Nirangs from a different source.

ful sources for a

of our

knowledge of the ritual as well as for the enrichment Awesta vocabulary unfortunately the text which has been handed down is very bad and the quantity of material in manosoripts
;

very scanty.^

The Afrin I Dahmdn named Aogdmadaicd from the first word of the first Awesta quotation is a Pahlavi tract interspersed with Awesta quotations the majority of which can no longer be traced in
our Awesta.
-

Larger connected fragments we have especially in the three Fargards from the HddnkU Na-^U. The last two are esehatological in
their

contents

;

thoy narrate the

lot of aouls after deatli.'

A

smnll

thi.< text a* fragment which Westergaard prints aft<T Yasht 22, 39-42 does not stand in immediate connection with iho 3rd Fargard of the Iladokht. Here we should add the Afrin i

Furgartl

;J

of

Paighambar ZartuaJUf a benediction

for kings

and the

so-called

Vitk-

» Publishcil and trHnsiaiocl by Darmcateior III. 78 ««4.— PlioU>ffr»phie oopj pablUb. Darab Poshotnn Sanjana. Bombay. 1894. Pantur by ed Aoi^emadaicfi a I*an«i tract in Par.cnd, Old-^iJttciAO and Saoikrit, edited, ItaiwW«»t, Kw^yt latcd and expUun-^d with Olowary by W. Qcigcr, Brlangcn, IWa. QA •!»
•i

1>.

99.
»

pu))li>*he«l

Erroneously rcckonwl a« Yachts 21 an«l 22 by Wi^trnraarl. Th«* piaOM -nd separately together with thoir PahUiri tr»n«latloi, by H«nt^
to the

W^

wrrr
a*

«

supplement

Arda Vir (^ {liomhmj, lion.lon 1872).

p.

269m«.

14

D.

MACKICHAN, GELDNER's AVBSTA LITKBATURE,
au obscure
text,

tdsp Yashtt^

piled from manifold sources without any inner connection,

grammatically quite corrupt and comwhich has

nothing to do with the ordinary Yashts.

The Pahlavi commentaries on the Vendidad and the Yasna,'and other Pahlavi works such as Vijirkard i Dlnlh and Shdyast IdShdyast are rich in Awesta citations. Numerous shorter Awesta quotations

are contained in the so called Pursislin'ihd, a kind of catechism

in Pahlavi.

There are in

all

124 Awesta quotations distributed over

Many fragmentary texts, prayers and uirangs have into individual MSS. of the Khorda Awesta. way found their The best known are the Vispa Humata and the Airyama Isyd.^ We
58
sections.^

must not omit to mention the so-called Farhang i Oim Khadfik, an Awesta- Pahlavi glossary which has preserved not merely many Awesta words but also certain phrases and quotations from Awesta books that have been lost.^ Darmej^teter has published a text-piece which, according to the subscription, must have come from the lost Nask
Nikddfim,^

Many
well-known
Yashtf"^
I

of the liturgies are merely or almost entirely compilations of
texts

and current formulae,

e.g..

the

Barun Bdj, Barfin

Maya

Yasht^ (also named the

Maya

Zdhr^)y the Oldah-avistdk

gdsdn^^ (a compilation of Gatha-stanzas), the numerous Afringans
In Westergaard's edition,
Collected by

1

pp. 300 and 302
III.

;

translated in Darmesteter

II.

660

and 663.
"

Darmesteter

29

seq.

A

large

portion

also

in

West 6BE.,

XXXVII,
3

pp. 471, 472, 474, 475, 484-487-

Published and translated by Darmesteter, III, 53.

See the collection of fragments in Westergaard, pp. 331 seq. The contain many hitherto unknown incantations cj. K.Z. 27, 587.
*
;

MSS E2

and M21

^ An old Zand-Pahlavi Glossary edited by Dastur Hoshangji Jaraaspji, revised by Martin Haug, Bombay-Bfeuttgart 1867. Herausgeg. von H. Reichelt, Wien 1900. • Darmesteter, Une page Zende inddite in 3 A. 1886, VIII, p. 182. The fragment refers to mixed marriages with women who were not Parsis. According to the subscription it professes to belong to the Nask Nikddum, Fargard VaelMt In Haug's collection a

fragment of the Vaetha in No.
published.

35,

which

is

not identical with the portion of the text
of the
6,

7 The Darun Yasht is composed of an introductory formula and portions Yasna with partially altered liturgical forms, namely Yasna 3, 5-18; Yasna 23. 4. 5.

1-6;

11-15. 17. Y. 26,7.8. 1-8.
**

te

8uma
e

So in the Persian (or sima') ndvUta

MS called
ar,^dvi

Mf;,.

The Maya Yasht begins with the words nomaa
10 See

sura andhita xinaotlira ahurahe mazdao,
1.

So in Wilson's

MS entitled No,

West, Essay,

p. 98,


:

IDEA, CONTENTS

AND ANALYSIS OF TBB AWESTA,
calendar of
the months and many others.

§§ 10-11. 15

and

Khshnumans,' a

found in Persian

IMSS.'^

in imitation of the Siroze

§ 11.

Editions of thb Awesta.

(a) J.

In Europe.

Olshausen, Vendidad, Zendavestae Pars XX, adhuc saperstes, Fargard I-V continons, Hamburg 1829. Vendidad Sad^Tun des livres de Zoroastre lithographic' d'apresle Manuscnt Zend de la Bibliotheque Rojale ct public par M. E. Burnouf Paris 1829-1843, gr. fol.->^ Vendidad Sade, die heiligen Schriften Zoroaster's Ya^na, Vispered und Vendidad. Nach den lithographirten Ausgaben von Paris und Bombay mit Index und Glossar heniusgeg. v. H. Brockhads, Leipzig 1850.
P.
I.

Zendavestae capita priora V, ed. emend. Chr. Lassen. Bonn 18 52.

Zonda vesta or the
hagen 1852-54.

religious books^of the Zoroastrians, ed. transl, by
i.

N. h,

Westeijgaard, Vol.

The Zend
is

texts (only so

much

appeared), Kopen-

This

up

to date the

completest edition.

^Avet^ts

zum ersten Mai im Grundtexte sammt (ler Huzvaresch Uebersetzungberausgeg. von Fu. Spiigbl, I. Band: der Vendidad, Wien 1853 II. Band: Vispered and Yasna 1868.^A vesdie heiligen Schriften der Parsen
;

ta,

die heiligen Bilcher der Parsen,

VVissenschaffeen in
Stuttnjarb

Wien

1886

;

II Teil:

im Auftrag der. K. Akademie der v. K. F. Geldnkr, I. Teil: Yasna, Vispered and Khorde Awesta, 1889; III Teil
herausgeg.
:

Vendidad und Prolegomena, 1895. (AUo in £)nglish under the title Awesta, the Sacred Books of the Parsis, published under the patronage
of the Secretary of State for India in Council.
(6)

Stuttgart 1886-1895.)

In India.

Kitab i Jud Divdad, edited by Dastar Idaui Darabji Sahjaka, Bombay, A.Y. 1200, large folio (c/. Brockhaus in the Preface VI).-— The Yarna of the Parsis in the Zand Languige, but Gujariitl character, with a Gujariiti IVanslation, PaniphnMO and Comment, according to the traditional interpretation of the ZortNUtrians, l)y the lato Framji A.siandiarji and other Dastnrs, Vol. 1.2. Lithograph, for the Bombay Branch of tht' K. A. Society, by Appa Rama, 1843. The Vandidad Sade of the Parnis, Ac., 1-2, 1842. The Vispered of the Parsis in the Zand Language, but Gnjariti obaracter, with a Gujariiti 'iVanslation, Paraphrase and Comment; acoording
to the traditional interpretation of the Zoroastrians,
*

by the

late

F kamji

»A,

picoiat wttli

the Htandin|{ fonnuLi mifiimai

> Z.B. ia tho CopenbJigeo

Ma

No. 38.

"

16

D.

MACKICHAN, GELDNER'S AWESTA LITERATURE,
Lithogr.
1

AsPANPiARJi and other Dastiirs.

843.

—A

vesta, the

Sacred

Books of the Parsis, Part I, Yasna ba Nirang, from Westergaard*s Edition of the Zend A vesta publ. (in Zend) by Tehmuras Dinshaw Anklesaria, Bombay 1888.
Cbrestomathies

Weimar 1869.

— Schleicher, Indogermanische Chrestomathies, —C. De Harlez, Manuel de langue de PAvesta Gram:

la

;

maire, Anthologie,

Lexique, Paris 1878, 2e Ed. Paris

1882.

— Hand:

buch der Awestasprache, Graramatik, Chrestomathie, Worterbuch von W. Geigeu, Erlangen 1879. A. V. Williams Jackson, Avesta Reader First Series. Easier Texts, Notes and Vocabulary, Stuttgart 1893.

THE MANUSCRIPTS OF THE AWESTA.
§ 12.

handed down

Yasna, Vispered, and Vendidad. These three texts were in writing in different ways according as they were intend-

ed to be studied and understood or to be simply mechanically learned

by heart and recited. In the former case the Awesta is accompanied by a translation in Pahlavi, Sanskrit or Gujarati (see below); in the latter only the Awesta text, often interspersed with ritual directions, is given. If these ritual directions are composed in Pahlavi the technical expression is Nirang if they are given in Sanskrit or the Bhasha they
;

are called Kriiid, Kirid.

which had

their origin in Persia.

The Nirangs are found specially in the MSS. The pure text as opposed to that

which

is

intermingled with a translation has received the additional
*'

name

scide

pure.
of the

Awesta Sade give the text in its greatest fulness with all the appendices and formulae as they are actually employed in liturgical service. The MSS., on the other hand, which are accompanied by a translation, aim at greater brevity by omitting all superfluous subsidiary additions and in the case of the numerous repetitions make use of abbreviations and occasionally also of contractious which are not at first sight and without the help of the Aivosta Sddo intelligible. The difference between these two modes of committing to
writing
is

The MSS.

most striking in the case of the Vispered.*
is

The Yasna Sade the Yasna is recited.

employed for the Yasna celebration in which only If the Yasna is celebrated with the sapplemenis

tary portions of the Vispered, the celebration
service) after the portions of the Vispered
^

called Vispered

(high

which are added. For
is tluit

this the
in the

A

characteristic
trauslatioL.

example

of abbreviation

of

N'cudidiui 8, 82-96

MSS. with

^

THE MANUSCRIPTS OF THE AWBSTA, §
Vispered Sade (also called Vispered Gahanbar)
*

12.

17
In the
;

is

intended.

MSS.

of the Vispered Sade only the Vispered
for the

is

given in exieiuo

the

most part indicated. These MSS. are only supplementary MSS. to the Yasna Siides. In some MSS., as for example, Hj, Kii", the Yasna Sade is given first and as supplement thereto the Vispered with an abbreviated Yasna. Only rarely is the Yasna also in this case written out in full, e, g., in the Iranian MSS. Fl„ Kh..

Yasna chapters are only

All the three tests are recited in the great and most solemn high
office.

This celebration
it is

is

the Vendidad high office, and the book of

texts appointed for

the

Yasna,

Vispered and
is

of arrangement

which the chapters of Vendidad are intermingled."' Tho order quite fixed, and is set forth and made clear by the

the Vendidad Sade in

following synopsis:
Yasna.
^


Vendidad.

Vispered.
1

1,1—8
1,

Yasna. 18
19

Vis,

L

V«idid«d.

10 to end

a,

1—8
.

20 31
3

9

2,

lO to end

32
10

3 4 6 6
7

11
(28)
26 (36) 27
13

8

9
10
11,
11,

1—8
:\

1—

r.

9-15
3,

6 to end

V
38 29
30
13

4

U, 17
12

to

end

13
(14) (15) 16 17
5

81
81

II

6

7 8
»

38 33 34
B»»ove §

14

CJ. W(»tcrgaard,
specially

celebrated,

VUpcml high Preface, p. 13, ami intbe Gahanbar holiday*. r>«mic»tcl«r I, LXtii. With rcferonco to the dcdgnation of tho MSa. nf. the ProtafOBCM to CMdB.-Tho
nlllor i«

ner'a

Kdition.
'

Of,

also DiirmcHtctor

I.

UXVit.

The chapUn placed within braokMa

•«

wanting in the Veua.u«i

8

18
Yasna.

D.

MACKICHAN, GELDNER*S AWESTA LITERATURE,
Vispered.

Vendidad.

Yasna.
51

Vispered.

Veudidad.

15

35
to 31

10

VII

42
^^ 18 10
^
I

VIII ^^^^

IV

62 53

43
to

23
19 18 51
13
J
1

46

IX

47
to

24
21 22
I

50
19
13 14
)

X

j

VI

551 to

f

71

The Vendidad
sacred

is

accordingly distributed into 10 sections (one con)

and grouped around the most Only chapters of the Vispered are incorporated with the first part of the Yasna, and these are either From interpolated in the Yasna chapters or are added at the end. chapter 27, that is, from the beginning of the Gathas, the Vendidad is also joined on to the Vispered. These interpolations entirely cease at the 55th Yasna, and only the Yasna is recited on to the end.
sisting of 4, the remainder of 2 fargards

part of the Yasna, the Gathas.

A variety
in
place of

of the Vendidad Sade

is

the Vishtasp Sade in which

the 10 sections of the Vendidad the 8 fargards of the
(cf. §§ 10, 17, 18)

Vishtasp Yasht

are interpolated.

The places occu-

pied by the 8th and 10th Vendidad sections remain here blank.'^
§ 13.

The
62,1

Manuscripts-^ of the Avesta

Indian and the Persian.
1

fall into two classes, the Although the former ultimately entirely rest

Yasna

— 6 comes in the

Vd. Sade immediately after Y. 59.
:

Dastur Jamaspji writes with reference to it *'It is written exactly like the Vendidatl Bade, the lirst part of the Yagna and Vispared is given first, then the eight fargards of Vishtasp Yasht with the GAthas and then the latter portion of Ya^na and Vispared. It is called the Vemlidad of Ojairin g^h, because it is said that the Vishtasp Yasht was recited in this part of the day as the Vendidad is recited even now, in the Ushahin g&h but it is no longer recited now."— Letter of 5th June 188:^.
2

and most complete collection of Avesta MSS. in Europe is that of Rask enriched by a second collection of Westergaard in the University Library at Coponliagen. Next to this comes the collection of De Guise in the India Otlice. The MSB. which Anquetil brought to Paris are mostly of inferior value. In India, the reverend Dastur Jamagpji Minocheherji and the Mula Firuz Library in Bombay possess the largest collecthe latter, the M. F. Library, especially numerous Iranian MSS. tion
3

The

best

;

THE MANUSCRIPTS OF THE AWESTA,

§ 13.

19

on Persian originals, a marked contrast between the two traditions has been developed in the course of the century. The oldest Indian MSS. date from the 13th and the beginning of the 14th centary, the Persian MSS. do not go further back than the 17th. The Persian

MSS. surpass considerably
two Parsi communities

their Indian

contemporaries in point of

In Kirman and Yazd, the must have existed as lato as last century a distinguished school of dasiurs^ which even the learned Parsis
correctness and carefulness of execution.
in Persia, there

of India regarded as their mother-school.

The Persian

dasturs often

helped

their

Indian brethren with their learning and

with

MSS.

Sometimes Indian Parsis studied in Persia, Persian dasturs journeyed to visit their brethren in the faith beyond the Indus in order to settle dieputes and inspected at the same time their MSS. The journey, for example, of Dastur Jamasp (Vilayati) from Kirman to India is well known. He found there great ignorance, and the MSS. in a wretched condition, and estiiblished a small circle of disciples who worked in The first disciple of Jamasp was Darab in Surat, Nosari and Broach.
Surat, the subsequent teacher of Anquetil.'

From

the school of Jamasp

has sprung a great number of copies of the Awesta.
Persian

Externally the

MSS.

are recognisable through their

Iranian style of writing,

th rough a

very vigorous cursive and oblique handwriting, while the
is

Indian manner of writing

The Iranian when the copyist had a Persian original before him. The better MSS, have, some of them, very full and unctuous colophons in which the writer names
rather straight and pointed.
style has, however, sometimes been imitated in India

himself, gives his family tree, the original before him,

and the date of

the completion of the copy.

Frequently the colophons of the original

are copied word for word along with the original

MS.

itself.

The MSS. of the three texts
great classes
translation,

in question fall in the first place into

two

independent of each other
(c/. § 12).

— the MSS.

accompanied by a

and the Side MSS.

dation for

all

European

editions; the

The fonner sapply the founMSS. belonging to thk dass being

distinguished by their greater correctness and in part also bjtbeir higher
antiquity.

The MSS.
distinct families.

of the

One

is

Yasna with Pahlavi tranBlarion tonn represented by the Copenhagen V
Aaqaeia

.

.

^

0/.

I., 1,

OOOXZVl,

20

D.

MACKIOHAN, GELDNER's AWESTA LITERATUBE,

(K5) and by the MS., which, originally in the possession of Dastur Dr. Jamaspji Minocheherji Jamasp Asana of Bombay, has now been presented by him to Oxford.' Both these MSS., which are in almost per-

apan

sprang from the same copyist, namely, Herbad MitroKal-Khusrovd 1 Mitro-apan 1 Spend-diid I Mitro-apan I Marzapan i 7th November 1323 A.D. I Bahriim. K^ was finished at Cambay on the and was, according to the subscription, copied from the MS. of Rustam 1 Mitro-apan,'- the great-great uncle of Mitro-apan. Jj was finished on the 26th January 1323, The copyist here remains silent regarding
fect preservation,
1

his original.

From

their

agreement, however, in
is

many

characteristic

mistakes,

omissions,

(fee, it

clear

that J2

also

must have been

copied

from the MS. of Rustara or its original. A comparison of as well as of Kj and L^ (see below), shews, however, that Mitro-apan did not bestow the care in detail that might have been

K3 and J 2

desired in faithfully reproducing his original.

In respect of correctness, the second family of MSS. stands in many
cases above the
first,

although the members of
later time.

this
is

family which are

extant belong to a

much

This family

represented chiefly

by Pt^ and Mf^, both without date. Pt^, the more correct and probably somewhat older MS. of the two, was, according to the family traditions Peshotanji of its former possessor, Shams-ul-Ulama Dastur Dr. Behramji Sanjana of Bombay, copied about 1780 A.D. from an old Iranian Yasna of Hoshang, son of Siyiivakhsh. Pt^ reproduces in the introduction the introduction of its original, by means of which we can trace the genealogy of the MS. several steps backwards. The
genealogical tree
is

as follows

:

MS.

„ „

of

Farnbag

1

Srosh-aiyyar (about 1110
1

?).


,,

Mahpanah

Azad-mard.
1

Mitro-apan

Spend-dad (about 1280).

Hoshang

1

Siyawakhsh (about 1478.)
I

The

introduction records further that Farnbag composed his copy
originals,

from two separate
1

the Awesta text from the
of this

MS. ofMah1)4,

The photographic reproduction

MS. is

not accessible to me.
note,

2

He

copied the Arda Viraf in Iran in 1269.

C/. West, Essays, p.

THE MANUSCIUPTS OF THE AWBSTA, §
aiyyar and the Pahlavi text from the
raahan.

13.

21

MS. of Miih-vindad, son of NareThe latter copied the Dlnkard in A. D. 1020. Tho same Mah-vindad is several times cited as cominentjitor in the Pahlavi Yasna. The final redaction of our Pahlavi tnmslation of the Yasna may accordingly be due to Farnbag.'

«

second independent copy of the old Yasna of Hushang is Mf^ and finally Mf^, an Iranian MS. of Rustam Gushtasp Ardashlr A.D.

A

l\ Mf^ Mf^ Yasna tradition. In which member the two families meet when traced back cannot be
1741. This last gives, however, only the Awesta text.
represent,

— —

notwithstanding their later age, tho
definiteness.'
tyj)e

best

asserted with

MSS. are the M8S. with the Sanskrit translations of Neriosangh (see below § 48), represented by the two old MSS. S^ and J,. Of tliese only S, is a true represpnt:itive
subordinate of this class of
of the Neriosangh text, Jj being a later
value. Jj has been often copied.
it.

A

revision of

The

Paris and

Sj and of less Copenhagen Sanskrit

Y^asnas are copied from

Of the Pahlavi-Vendidad only one family of MSS. has been the London and Copenhagen Vendidad L4 and Kj which stand to each other in a relation precisely similar to that of K5 and J,. Unfortunately, neither of them has been completely preserved. In L4 tho l)eginning down to the oi^cning of the 9th
preserved, represented by

Fargard
very

is

wanting.

Only a few
;

leaves,

which extend from Vd.
is

JJ,

14

to 4, 29 are preserved

the portion which has l)een preserved

in places

much

destroyed.

has been

lost,

The beginning of K, down to the 5th Fargard and tho middle portion from tho 9th to the 1 8th Fargard MS. has
a

com])letely destroyed.

On
which

the other hand, tho C^oiKjnhugen

nnmorooi

proj:-

'

dati^H

from the time when
t;iken

oldest copy

Teheran Parsi

it was still pertoctly preserfed. i la K| was formerly in the potteasioii of a named Manekji Limji Flataria (Ml,). It was written in

direct

from
is

Broach

in

A. D.

1591-

and

a

most tareful copy.
the

From Ml, have

sprung, directly or indirectly,

Bombay, l^iris, Munich and later Copenhagen Pahlavi Vendidads. L|hasonlja small number of dafk^MiI.
»

*
'

WcBt, SHE. XXXVII., Intro!., p. 81. Addition made by tho Aothor to thif Bnglhh VomlAO [Truu.] With rcforenco to thin the Prolognm«oa, which wcrt not oomplaltd wtiin this

»rt{olo

WM prepared,

maj now bo ooofvlled.

22
ants.

D.

MAOKICHAN, GELDNEB'S AWESTA LITERATURE.

The most important amongst these is the MS. Pt, written in A. D. 1787. It seems, however, not to have been taken direct from L^. Kj and L^ come from the same Mitro-apan i Kai-Khusrovo, who twice copied the Pahlavi Yasna, In K^ he adds to his own signature the two colophons of his predecessors, so that the family can also bo traced tolerably far back. The foundation MS. is that of Homast of Seifetan, which Aerdashir i Vohiiman copied in A. D. 1205. Mahyar brought AcrdaThere it was copied by the well-known Rustam i shir's MS. to India. Mitro-apan I Marzapan. K^ is a copy of the MS. of Rustam completed L^ has lost the last leaf with the signain Cambay, 17th May 1324.
ture.

But

in Ptj

tlie

subscription of the copyist of L4, namely, Mitrois

apan, together with those of his two predecessors,
last agree exactly

re-copied.

These

with those in K^. L4 must, therefore, have been copied

It was from the MS. of Ruatam, and, indeed, some months before Kj. finished, according to the colophon in Ptj, on the 28th August 1323, in Nosari. The genealogical tree of the whole family is then as follows
:

MS.

of

H6mast
I

„ Aerdashir (1205)

}>

Rustam

Ki(1324)
MI3
I

L4I323
Pt^

The

late

Pahlavi-Vendidads.

The extant Vispereds with Pahlavi translation rest entirely on an Codex K,. This MS. contains in its first part the oldest and best Vispered Sade (with Nlrang), with a subscription of the copyist Rustam 1 Mitro-apan 1 Marzapan* and as date A. D. 1278. With this is connected the Pahlavi Vispered, manifestly by the same
old Copenhagen
copyist.

This

is,

therefore, the oldest

Awesta

MS. which

has yet been

The Vishasp Sade is represented by codex K4 copied in Kirman by Veh-mard, son
discovered.
,

the excellent Iranian
of Frediin,

from a
is

» That is of the writer of the draft of Ki, &c. copy of the Rustam MS. See Prolegomena XXXIX,

But, perhaps, this

MB,

an old

THE MANUSCBIPTS OF THE AWE8TA, §
MS.
of
of

13.

23

MS.

Vahrom, son of the Marzapan, who, in hie turn, had copied the KbQsro-malka, son of AuoshagrQbauo (aboat 1585). K* is

dated 26th July 1723.

back

The Vendidad Sades are widely distributed in India ; they all go in the last resort to one archetype. Only a few are older than the

preceding century.

They

represent the vulgate-text of the three booksy

which has degenerated through frequent copying, and has, further, been strongly influenced by an inexact oral tradition. Amongst theee Indian Vendidad Sades two groups are to be distinguished, a superior one represented by the Copenhagen and a London V«ndidad Sade, K>o and Lj, and an inferior one to which the bulk of the MSS. belongs.

The archetype

of the Vondidiid Sades, as also of the

Yasna and Vispered

Sades, was probably originally composed from the Pahlavi Awesta for liturgical use. And thus it becomes clear why numerous qnotations

from the Awesta, belonging to the Pahlavi Commentary, have found their way into the text of the Vendidad Sades. This arohetype^ we presume, must, however, after all be older than the oldest Pahlavi Awesta MSS. known to us. The Vendidad Sades have noi un frequently preserved the better reading in contrast to the FfthlaTi-

Awesta MSS.
The Persian Vendidad Sades, represented by Mf, and Jp,, are distinguished from the Indian copies. Jp^ was copied by Fredun Marzapau in A. D. 1638, and, indeed, from a MS, belongiug to Marzapan, whO} in his turui bad as his original a copy made by Shatroeyar Erdashlr (about 1510). Mf, was written in A. D. 1618 by Khusrob Anoshirvau Rustam. The copyist, however, does noi mention his original. lu view of the close relationship of the two codices, it cannot, however, be a matter of doubt that Mf, was copied from the MS. of Marzapiln or Shatroeyar. The Vendidild Siido ty|ie is unniist;ikablc in both their arrangement of the text is that of the Indian Vendidad Sades almost without a change. But in individual readings they deimrt almost in every line from these last, while they agree sometimes with the other clais of MSS., and sometimes offer readings entirely original which are not unfrequontly oonfirmed as gennioe bjr Ibe On the one band, thoy might be sapiioeed lo stand Pahlavi translation. considerably no^ircr the archety)K) of their class ; on the other band, a revision of the Vendidad Silde api>ears to have been made in Pmia in the 16th century, or earlier, with the aid of other Pahlavi- Aweela USS.
;

favourably

24

D.

MACKICHAN, GELDNEr's AWESTA LITEKATDEE,

(which since then have disappeared), iu which Persia has been richer than India.' The text which the Persian Vendidad Sados supply is free

from many disturbing glosses with which the text of the Indian MSS.
is

laden.

The MSS.
which stood near
that belonging to

of the
to the

Yasna Sade also presuppose an archetype Vendidad Sado. The best MS. of the group is Shams- ul-Ulania Dastur Dr. Hoshangji Jamaspji of

Poona

(Hi)-.

§ 14.

Regarding the MSS. of the Yashts and the Khorda-

AwESTA

there has,not been, since ancient times, so well-defined a system

as for those

we have

just described

(c/.

above,
:

§ 8).

We divide the MSS.
Khorda-Awesta
five

into three groups, according to contents

(a)
is

oldest

and most important representative

F^

Pure Yasht codices. The belonging to the year

1591.

The MS. begins quite

in the usual style of the

with an alphabet, some forms of prayer (Nlrangs and Baj's), and the
Nyaishes.

The

latter are inseparable in the

MSS.

from

the Yashts.

Then
part,

follow only the 22 Yashts in the usual order.

These MSS. have
(O3)

served as source for the majority of the later Yasht codices, at least in
(b)

The Khorda-Awesta
It

codices.

The Oxford codex

may

be adduced

as a specimen, as its

contents

may be taken
Yashts

as the average

of this class.

contains in

order
5

:

—the
all

Awesta Alphabet, the 5
1, 2, 3^ 4, 9,

Nyaishes, the 3 Afrlngans, the

Gahs, the

11,

12,14,
codices,

16, 18, 20,

21,

and
texts
is

numerous Niraugs.
including

Khorda-Awesta

The combined the Yashts. The chief
(c)

representative of this class
clearly that the

Pt„ dated A. D. 1625.
eclectically.

This

MS. shews

writer proceeded

He

took as his basis

one or several Khorda-Awestas and supplied the missing Yashts from
Fi-

Thus

it

closely, while in

happens that, for example, Pt^ in Yasht 19 follows Fi Yasht 16 it represents a different and much inferior

recension.

Persian
discovered.

MSS, On the

containing

all

the

Yashts have

not

yet

been

other hand, the Persian Khorda-Awestas similarly

occupy a unique position. The favourite Yasht of these MSS. is Yasht 13, the J'arvardin Yasht, which, on the other hand, is wanting
Westergaard was able to make

J

full

use of only a later copy of Mf2, iiamoly,

K9

of this claHB*
a

Compare the

introductions to Spicgerg, Westergaard's, and Geldner'e Editions.

THE MANUSCRIPrS OF THE AWE8TA,
in

§ 14;

THB PRBSBNT AWtSTA,
most

§ 15.

25

the

Persian

Indian Khorda Awostas'. Tho finest and Khorda Awesta is F, of A. D. 1726.

correol

The text which tho Awesta MSS. furnish is everywhere the same without variation so far as the order of tho word^?, sentences and chapters is concerned, oversights of the copyist in the matter of omit^ions and repetitions being, of course, left out of account ; only a very few fragments show traces of a double recension. On the other hand, the tradition and writing of individual words is oftrn very uncertain and varying, and offers serious obstacles to tho establishment of a correct
text.

\J

TUE PRESENT AWESTA AND THE AWESTA UNDER

J
§ 15.

THE SASANIDS.
Tub Nasks.
It is a

well-known Parsi tradition that tho

Awesta once consisted of 21 Nasks (Nosks).- Already we find An^in.-tll reporting, on the ground of this tradition, that tho extant "Zend books"
are only a fragment of that great Awesta. Ho knows that only one Nask has Ixjen completely preservo<l, viz,, the Vendidiid. He further gives expression to the conjecture that tho Yasna formed a part of the first

and second Nasks {Setondieschl or Setoudguer), that tho Vispcretl was drawn from tho fifteenth 'Ndsk (Baghanidsf) and the Afringan Guhanlmr
from
the

HadOkht Nask.*

Tho Parsi

tradition

of the

21

Na'^ks,
tlio

which
>

rests principally

on the Persian Rivayets (CoIlectioDs of

connected a well-known history which tho tobtoriptioB to Ki , (m For a thotisuid yctan after tboir migr»* tton t) InJia the Parsi^ hrwl no gcnuinu Ilaomn plant nor tho Farrardin Yaiht. (Thli rocanj) that in th«< Khorda Awcwtng thi«i Yosht had <ltsappoarod.) UMdar Jiaiiip Hakim,

With

this is

Iranian

MS, with

the Farvnitiin Vasht) relates.

thtYnforc,

made a copy
-xa

in TcrKia of the

Yaaht In qneoUon (K| «)
prictts there.
(Q/*.

aikl

brovght

It

penoaaUj

in 1722 to Sural
*

a present to the
in

I*arfvi

alto

ProlegonMoa Til.)

The

cxproiiioii

already found in the Awo^ta in the form nasho, Ytioa 0« It.

Attemptctl dcrlvatioiif in Wovt's Ri«ayii, p.
^

IM
;

note.

DannMtoler

III.

XOIX

ix)*r.

Aaqoaiaglvoi a fdl MOOWA of the coDtcntii of the Na^k* in tin* Journal doi B^avana, Join 1769, pago tn(ill tht ffiVjrt MctDrrirr fiin^ lcM)ucI on <-ta>>ltt (|uo 1«^ livroa Zend* . soot ki ptofMOi cum^mdo .
Aiiqnctil
I. 1,

p.

470

:

I.

S,

pp. 71,75

U. M.

.

Zor
trur-

>.•

pln«'c rito.1, )>p.
t»ir

330*372).
l.y

If.-

H

ot

lUt of

Na»kH kIvch

rightly oalll la qoortlon (iK ^.tS*) tiM Hytle oompaio Hydo, niHorla BalfglOMio
;

Vetcrum Pcruirum, Oxfonl

170*J, p. 339.

Aooordinf to Aiiq«elil
thr«>«'

1. 1.

^ 4Tt BOAt. KoaH
of tmrtn chaftlcfi

Loid already dividcil the Zcnd*AwoiU into (Qist. du la KoNg. dcN Tcnc*, p. I7«).
4

t.nnclpal

MdiooB

26

D.

MACKIOHAN, GELDNEr's AWESTA

Teachings of the old Dasturs on Religion) has in recent times received a
scientific

foundation through West's coraprehensivo treatment of the

literary sections of the Dlnkard.^

The DInkaud,
work
in the
in Pahlavi

the

most comprehensive and the most learned
dating from the 9th century,'is

literature,

occupied

8th and 9th books with a

minute treatment of the Naske.

At
of

this time almost tlio

been extant.
all

The 8th book

whole contents of the Sasanid Awcsta must have of the Dinkard gives a compressed survey
This latter

them expressed, however, in certain is very succinct and often conveys nothing so far as it deals with the Nasks 1-14 and 19-21 ; on the other hand, for the Nasks 15-18 it goes into great detail. The author in the 9th book returns again to the discussion of the first three Nasks and gives
the Nasks and an analysis of
places in general phrases.

a quite exhaustive statement of their contents.

According
;

to his state-

ment only the Awcsta text of the 5th Nask was extant of the 11th Nask neither the Awesta text nor the Pahlavi translation (Zand) had been preserved. In regard to both these Nasks he abstains from all remark regarding their content. It follows from this that he knew all the rest from personal inspection and that his account is based
simply on the Pahlavi commentary.
still

In his time, therefore, there were
19 of them.

20 Nasks extant and the commentary on

When

one compares his analysis of the Vendidad (D. 8, 44) with the book, it becomes clear that he was in a position, through the medium of the Pahlavi translation, to give us a correct representation of the contents of the Awcsta. This is, however, not equally true in regard to all
the Nasks.
§ IG.

Survey op the Nasks.

The

entire

Awesta canon as
parallel

re-

edited under the Sasanids,the great Awesta with its Pahlavi translation,
consisted of 21 books which are

made

to stand

with the

21

most sacred prayer. The following are the names (according to West's reading) in the order given in the

words of the Ahuno

Vairijo, the

1

SBE.

vol.

already to te found iu

XXXVII. Particular Haug "An old
:

details

taken from this Parsi tradition are Pahlavi-Pazand Glossary, " by Hoshaugji and
p. 12<>.

Haug, BomUiy 1870,
*

p. 165

;

West, Essays,

West, Introduction to the Dinkard, p. 33,

.

.

THE PRESENT

A.

AND THE

A.

UNDER THE SASANIDS, §§ 15-16. 27
stated

Diokard (the contents are given in brackets where they can be
in a few words)
1.
:

2.
3.

Sutkar. Viirstmansar.

Bako.

12. Citradat (History of human families, in especial of the Iranian royal families).
13.

4.

Damdat
tion) .

(History of Crea-

Spend (History
tra).

of Zarathush-

5.

Natar.

14. Bakiin Yast.
15.

0.
7.

Pajag (Coreinonial).
Rato-diit-aitag
office).

Nlkatum.
Ganaba-sar-nijat

(especially

IG.

dealing with the priest's
8.

Law, Law).
17.

Civil

and

(Criminal Military
of
the

Bar is.
Kasklsrobo.
Vistasp-sasto (Conversion and Instruction of King Vishtasp).

Husparam (Doctrine
Priests).

y.

10.

18. Sakiitum

(Law of Property and

11.

Vastag

(lost).

Family) 19. Veudldat. 20. HatGkht. 21. St6t Yast.
is

The account given
the less trustworthy
in the case of all the

in the

DIukard

supplemented,

it is

true,

by

accounts of the various Rivayets.

They give

Nasks not only the exact number of chapters,
7, 8, 9,
(JO,

but,

in

the

case of some, also the pre- and post- Alexandrine content.

Thus
that
12,

it is

said of the

Nasks

10 and 11, which, before the invasion
60, GO,

of Alexander,

contained 50,
'

and 22 chapters,

respectively,

when they were subsequently 15, 10 and 6 chapters.

collected they mustered only 13,

§17.

THE REMAINING BOOKS BESIDES THE VENDIDAD.

At first sight one is struck by the fact that amongst the titles of the Nasks the remaining books of our Awcsta have nothing answering to them as we find the Yasna has. The more recent researches of West and
Darmesteter*- have confirmed or corrected the conjecture of Anquotil.^
I

West

Kivos cxtmcta

from four Rivayots in SBE., pp. 418-438.
un

The

notices

given alxjvoarc taken fr)m the Rivayet of Kfimah Bahrab.
*

•L'l/.oschnt; n'ent pas

<lc8

S<?aTaiiv Juin 1769, p. 36l».
Pors'c ut

dc

do

I'liitlo,

Noak, maisune portion de Noak,'* Anqactil in Joarnal ilouc pas do diro (|Uo, scion tout Ic« Pawcs Zoroastro avuit conii>o3(' 21 Trait«'«*, dont 11 n'ost n'stc- d'cntier quo le
"Jo no craiiH
Zonds, indiques h
la
fiti

Vendidivl; ot <iuo lea aut.cs morcoaux

<lo

lalislo

du

ltava«'t
i''.

tin

Dostour
*

l)ur/.ou,

m* 8ont

<iac des p>rtious

do «iucltiueHUiis do cc« Traiies."'

p.

307.

With reference

to the Hat given in tho Rivayot,

eo 8BK. XXXVII, p.

437.

Darinestotcr III,

X tcy

28

D.

MACKICHAN, GELDNER^S AWESTA LITERATDRE,

The remaining texts wore extant in the Nasks in their elements partly under somewhat different names or scattered over different Nasks. The books of the Awesta include theso texts taken from the Nasks and
in the particular arrangement which the Liturgy prescribed.^

Several Nasks have portions of the Yasna.

These portions which

themNasks: (a) Stot Yast, (h) Bako, (c) Hatokht, (d) Bakan Yast. The Stot Yast has passed completely into the Yasna, and forms its proper kernel. The Stot Yast was the collection of the socalled Staota Yesmja (see below, § 23), which, however, with interrupidentified with tolerable

have been hitherto

certainty, distribute

selves over the following

extended from Yasna 14-58. The Bako Nask is represented hy Yasna 19-21, three homilies regarding the most sacred prayers, which, according to the account given in the Dinkard 9,47, formed the The three chapters are still named in first three Fargards of this Nask. the MSS. of the Yasna Bakan and are called in the original text haya ahunalw vairyehe (Y. 19, 21), haya asahc vaMstahe (20, 5), haya ycngho hdtam (21,5). Accordingly also the 55th Yasna, which according to the closing invocation, bears the title hoya staotanam yesnyanam "Homily of the Staota Y." might have belonged to the Bako Nask, and have The analysis given in the formed the conclusion of the 22nd Fargard. Dinkard (9, 68) contains, however, no allusion to this, and it is not clear from 9, 69 what the writer may have had in view. Still it is just as possible that Yasna 55 belonged to the Stot Yast and there formed a kind of colophon to the Gathas. The Hatokht Nask is represented by the fsnso mathro hadhaokhto (this is the name borne by the 58th chapter
tions,

of the Yasna,
finally the

cf.

Bakan Nask

Y. 59, 33, perhaps specially only the section 58, 4-7) is represented by Yasna 57 (Srosh Yasht).

;

is

The Yasna and Vispered liturgy iu the form which later became customary, Nask itself according to the analysis given in the Dinkard 9, 43, 7 (c/. West on this passage), further by Shayast la-Shayast (of the 7th century, West SBE., V, Pref. 65) 13, 5, where Vispered 13 is diBCusscd between Yasna 30 and 31, in the very same place which it comes to occupy in the Vcndidad compare also Datistan i Dinik 45, 6. The Yasna-ceremonial (yazim) is further mentioned in Diitistan i
^

attested by the Varshtmrinaar

;

Dinik 23,
Dat. 80,

1; 28, 1 (jyazun drono), 4-7.

Other passages with reference to the ritual arc
Darmcstctcr
(I,

1; 47, 1;

48, 1;

Bundahish

30, 25, 28.

LXXXVUI;

III,

XXXII)

coramuuicatea a passage from Masudi, aooording to which since tho time when Ardeshir

Bubak ascended the throne, the custom had oome Awesta which they called Isned (Ia.v?ifl).

in of reciting one of tho chapters of the

THE BBMAINING BOOKS BB8IUB8 THE VEHDmAD § 17.

29

Tho Diukard (8, 15) gives the following short deecription of the BakuQ Vast Nn.sk (i. t., tho Nask of the Yashts addressed to tho baym "The Bagun Yasht contaios particulars, first, about the or divinities) worship of Auharmazd, the highest of the Baghas and, seoondly, of the worship of the angels and other invisible and visible worldly beings^ out of whom arc likewise the names of tho days also about their
:

;

;

and marvellousocss. Besides, also, many angels who are invoked by name* at (the timo of) their worship and tho attention and obeisanco due to them/' Already West''
glory,

power, triumph

has drawn from this the evident conclusion that
the

in

this descriptioii

Awesta are intended, and that theso formed one part of the Bakan Yaslit, a coujecturo which Darmestctcr' has worked out in greater detail. West found a conhrmation of this
Yashts
of

the

view in a Persian Rivayet, according to which 16 specially named Yashts of our collection composed the Bakan Yast.^ And Darmesteter rightly lays great stress on the fact that the oldest Yasht MS. Fj has preserved a reminiscence of its having formerly belonged to this Nask in bcgiuning with every Yasht a new fargard from tho 14th

Yasht of our
Yasht,

collection (the

Bahirdm Yasht)
by
3.

to

tho 19th or

Zamydd

The number

of the fargards does not,

however, agree with
tho

onr reckoning, but
order

difiers continually

In the numbering given
;

by the Rivayet the Yashts 2-4 are wanting in the Yashts 1-19
is

there the usual one; only the Khurshcd Yasht stands at tho end.
it

When

is

put in

its

proper place, the result

is

a complete agfecnicnt

betwoon the numbering of the fargards in F^ and the namber of tho Yashts, and it becomes possible to reconstruct the arrangemeiit of tho old Bakan Yashts with exactness (the numbering of tho fargard Tho present arrangethat is wanting in F| being given in brackets). 17, 18, 19, The 15, 16, 13, 14, ment is: 1, 5, C, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11/ 12, Bakan Yasht arrangement in tho (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10), 11,
:

12,

13,14, 15,

16.

The Yashts
in parts, in a

2-i,

which are wanting

in the
;

Bakan Yasht,

arc written

very dcgenorato

language

not len so, however, the

>

C/.

AokhtdHtimitnm Vntns
p. 3» n.,

imhe
470
n.

SBB., XXXVII,
OMSottoter,
II,


«
^

XXVU.

W«t,

in the pMMiro rolorrad to la Pisl. XL?, a. Thi«istheiooODdd^«fcra«Ai,wWehitlteiliealwlUttellBT«HiS7.

30
extant

I).

MACKICHAN, GELDNEr'S AWESTA LITERATURE,
Yasbt.
it

first

The Hdm-Yasht (contained

in full in

an extract of
the

in Yiisht

20) could accordingly have

Yasna 9-11, had no place in

It is, however, to be remarked that the statements fargard-number vary. The Eivayets of Kamah Bahrah, Nareman Hoshang and Bavzu Qiyamu-d-din give it as 17'; so also the Pahlavi Rivayet Din-Vijirgard.-

Bakau

Yasht.

regarding

its

Further, from the Hiitokht Nask have been taken the small Srosh Yasht (Nr. 11), the supposed Yashts 21 and 22 as given by Westergaard and the Afringan Gahanbar (cf. § 9) from the Vlshtasp-Sasto, the Vishtasp Yasht, and the Afrin Paighambar Zartusht (Yt. 23 in Westergaard). The ritual work Nirangistan had its place in the
;

Husparam Nask, and, indeed, corresponds
this

to the first

two sections of

Nask, the Aerpatistan and the Nirangistan in the narrower sense.^ Darmesteter has besides assigned a series of Awcsta fragments, with
or less probability,
to this or that

more

Nask.'^

If,

however, a not

inconsiderable portion of our Awesta remains

over, which cannot
is

recognised in the

Analysis

given in the Dinkard, this

be due to the

vague and all too scant description which in some places is characteristic of the Dinkard. Indirectly much has passed from the Nasks into
the later Parsi literature.'

at about 345,700 words.^'
to us,
i,

West estimates the contents of all the 21 Nasks of the Great Awesta About 83,000 of these have been preserved
e.

about one-fourth.

There are many indications that the
to

oldest elements of the

Sasanid Awesta are those which have compara-

tively suffered least loss. In particular the Great Awesfea

possessed no

seems more of the Gathas proper than the Awesta of

have

to-day.^

ELEMENTS AND CHARACTER OF THE AWESTA.
§ 18.

The three
The

classes op Nasks.
their

The Dinkard (VIII.

1,

9-12)

divides

the Nasks

according to
first

character into 3 classes, each

consisting of 7,

class

is

called gdsdnik, with reference to the

1

2

West, in the place referred Ib„ p. 444.

to,

pp. 426, 431, 436.

3

West,

/J.,

p

02.
8,

*
*

Darmesteter, III, XVI, XVII, compare also p. 9, n. As specially valuable the collection entitled "extant
451-488,
is

fragments" in West, SBE.,
Wost. at the place cited,
p. 42.

XXXVII,
*

further to be mentioned.
Introduction, p. 45.
7

West, SBE.

XXXVII,

.

ELKMKxNTS
ydsan or Gathas

AND (HAUACTER OP THE AWESTA,

§ 18.

3J
and

;

the third hdiak-mansarik^ with

tho second ddttkf dealing with the ddl or Law reference to tho hadha-miilhra,

;

Tho
1.

first two classes arc called also simply gdsdn orddl (Dmk. VIII These classes divide tho 21 Nasks as follows:

T,),

Giisanik
1.

:

Hatak-mansarik
1.

:

Datik
1.

:

Str>t Yiist.

Damdiit.
Natar.

Nlkaturo.
Ganabu-8ar*Dijat.

2.

Sutkar.
Varstmansiir.

2.

2.

3.
4.
5.

3.
4.

Kjag.
Rato-dat-aitag.
Baris.

3.
4.

Husparam.
Sakatuii].

Bako.
Vastag.

5.
6.
7.

5.
6.
tf

Vendidat.
Citradut.

6.
7.

Hatokht.

KaskisnVoo.
Vistasp-sasto.

Spend.

Bakao Yast.

is meant to contiiin the higher knowledge and ethical code the (/a/, the law literature, the lower worldly knowledge and code of duty while tho lldtak-mdn" sarik is intended to include those teachings which lie midway between the first two ( Dink., VIII, 15 ). However, the Dinkard itself admits that this distinction cannot be rigidly carried out, inasmuch as each

Tho Gatha

literature, the

gdsdn,

spiritual

;

;

of the three chisses contains

elements that belong to the other two

from this standpoint is to some extent and springs from tho endeavour to establish an exact analogy between the Awesta as a whole and the Ahuna Vairya strophe rogmrdod iis tho quiniossenco and original of the whole Awesta revelation.' Each of the three lines of this strophe is held to correspond to a branch the first to the Gatha literature, the second to the of the literature Intermediate literature, auu tho third to tho Law ( DTnk. 8, 1, 7)^.
(8,
1,

13

).

The

classification

artificial,

'

These throe olements in the literature an* already
in tho Awesta.

fully

recognised

The expression jdthwya in tho Awesta (Vasna (>5,14 ; 10, 19) corre»{K)uds to the gdgdnik, and is applied in tho Utter ^mssage to a quotation which Ikls been borrowed only in (wirt from our known lJdlak-mdti$artk appears in tho Awesta as fuidha-fndthnut and Gathas. (LU is tho well-known ddUm. In the Vendidiid-ritual, iniitjnd of Yasna
*

Thb

fortnaln

nUml^

in

Va>tu 27.

H.

It ii

;.

\%y
'

m
I\

it

wm

jcart

a^n.

\V«Mt lra-i«Ui'>4

tlr« Palilikri int<T()r<*t )ft-«n

<•

6

n.

It ptajn

the «ine r(An Mttouf tht Pariia
«

m tho Gn
(<

lDtlMAwa«U

it««irtho3 hnoi

.Hot

witb
III.

lli«

ihrw faatUnoatalldoMi

of Zoroteutea otlMoi

Immtm, k4tM^ kttrmm, Y*iaA

18.

32
1,

D.

MACKICUAN, GELDNEU's AWESTA LITERATURE,

is invoked Data hadha-dsita,vldaeva ZamthiLshtri, The Vishtfispritual' substitutes, as has been shewn above, in place of the Veudidad the Vishtasp Yasht, which has been borrowed from the Vishtasp Sasto Nask, t. c, a Nask of the Hatak-mansarik class, and is therefore to be Here at the same place (Y. 1, 20) assigned to the Intermediate class.

20,

(fee,

" tho Law", to which the Veudidad Nask is devoted,

with the words:

the immediately following Vishtasp Yasht
:

is

introduced by the follow-

ing parenthetical note —hadha-mdthra zaini-parsta. Now, if Darmesteter is correct in his interpretation (T, 0) of ddtdm hadha-ddtom as " the

law and

its

appendix,^' hadha-mathra must bo taken as an appendix to

the mdthra proper, the sacred word, the real kernel of the revelation.

The Zdt-sparam^ further divides the literature of the Law into two subdivisions the law against Demons, represented by the VeudiIt dad, and the law of Zartusht, represented by the remaining Nasks. the Mauthra of the subdivides similarly the Hadhamanthra into two Appointor, represented by the Nasks Pdchio and RatO'ddto-aito, and the Manthra of the good signs, represented by the remaining Nasks. Beyond this, neither from the Zat-sparam nor from the statements in the Dlnkard which are of the scantiest just at this point, can we get any tangible information regarding the proper character and contents

:

of the Intermediate literature.

This entire group has on the whole

suffered the greatest amount of decay.

Our Awesta

of to-day appears to

have preserved only a very small amount of Hadhamanthra literature.

Those Nasks, which besides the Stot Yasht, have the largest representation in the extant Awesta texts, namely Hatokht, Bakan and II u sparam, are reckoned the
Datiks.
first

to the

Gasauik Nasks, the two

latter to the

Our Yashts, accordingly, belong only
Hadhamanthra
itself

to the literature of the

Law

or worldly literature.

West'" conjectures with

much

plausibility

that the

literature

was the semi-relig'cus portion and

occupied
is,

with

philosophy

and the
literature

sciences.

therefore, doubly regrettable, but also easily

The loss of it explicable. The Gatha
the

literature

was
It

the theological
is

in
it

proper

sense of

the term.*

so

called

not because

contains

exclusively

»

C/. above § 12.

^
-''

West, at the place cited, p. 402. At the place cited, p. 4.

* See Darmesteter III, x.

ELEMENTS ANH rilAK'ACTER OF THE AWEsjA, §§ 18-19,

33

Gatha texts, but because the Gatha tests in the Stot Yasbt stand at the head and also because the wliole literature is based essentially on these The Datik literature was the world!}' portion the oldest portions. knowledge of which was intended for the laity. It was so called

Law formed an important part of it. The Hadhamanthm was the scientific literature which rested on theology and supplemented it. This tripartite division may have l>een analogous, viutatls mutatuiin, to the Indian classification into Vcnla, Vedanga and Smriti. Another passage compares the three classes of the literature with
because the
literature

the three classes of men
§

— probably the priests, philosophers
It follows

ant! the laity.'

from what has been said that this threefold division is no longer applicable to our Awesta. All that remains after deducting the Gathas in the proj)cr sense and the law-book,
19.

Vbndidad.

the

Vendidad,

litjiny,

under two categories the forms of prayer or and the Yashts or religious poems of Iran. Of coarse, the entire
falls

a certain form "ilism and schematism

Awesta, with the solitary exception perhaps of the Gathas, saffers from the Yashts as well as the Vendidad.

This

Everywhere same tendency to follow certain ideas, wherever they occur, through the whole scale of their synonyms or the whole gradation of The mention of the house {nuulna) drags in their relatives in order.
lies
is

iu the

character of the Zoroastrian religion.

there

the

that of the clan

{vis,

consisting of 15 couples in the system), then that

of the district {zantti), and finally that of the country (da'tfighn).^

The
is

theory and

practice of the doctrine of the Vendidad on purification
classifying

often only a model casuistry

mechanically

according to

number, quantity and matcTial. 'MV here is the first pleasantest thing on this earth, where the second pleasantcst, and where the third and
the fourth in the order of pleasantness?

Where
*'

is

the

first 3.
)

unpleasantest
**

thing on this eirth, where the second, etc?

(Vend.

Whosoever
joint of his

3

throws on the earth the bone of a carcase
little

iis

large as the

last

fioger, as large as the last joint of his

middle finger, as largo as
long as a finger or a rib» aa

the last joint

of

his

largest finger,
ribs,

as

long as two fingers or two
receives 30, 50, 70, 90, 200,
1

as

long as

ao ann or

leg,

etc.,
d,

400

stripes assigned io order.*'

(VoDd.

West, nt the plaoo oiMd,
of tho three cI««im of

p. & note

ffivofi

NmIu

AoqotOl tb« d«AailkNi ; oumporo alw aooordUng to inrormsKoa dtfivvd ftom tk& Panto

mUA

:

1.

" Du promlor
4iU.

rij^ioe

dM Htm, <U THIHoirt da OtartkuMio,** Jcc—I.

'HorUMomlort
AnMU«til
I,
I, |i.

Ifetds RaUgioo."—3.**U ll^*elBtttrA«ltMMmi«.**
28; 57, II.

*;.f.
ft

YwimO.

34

D.

MACKTCnAN, GELDNEU's AWESTA LITERATURE,

In many cases, however, the detailed classification of offences 10-21). and punishments has a deeper significance, as for example when in prescribing purifications the distinction is con^^cientiously marked, whether the wood is hard or soft, whether the ground is solid or loose, the vessels are of gold, silver, iron, copper or stone, whether the water is stagnant, from a cistern, from a fountain, snow-water or river-water. But when (Vend. 15, 2o) the Creator is asked for detailed ialbrmation as to what is to be done with a bitch which litters in a camel's, or
horse's, or cow's or sheep's stall or on a wall, in a cellar, or

on a meaa

dow

and the law-giver each time gives the same answer,^ wo have

mania for spinning out the same thought in endless variations. Also the external form of the teachings of the Law "Zarathushtra asked Ahura Mazda lAhura Mazda, is stereotyped: holiest spirit, creator of all earthly beings, Holy one, when does the Thereupon Ahura Mazda said,*' &c. corpse-spirit spring on dead men.'The technical name for these instructive interviews between Ormuzd and Zoroaster is Ahniris frasno and Ahfiiris tkacso "the Ahurian quesThe same tioning and the Ahurian teaching" (Yasna 71, 12 67, 24). also in other books, usual is e.g., in Yasht expression form of outward points certain thought of as conver1, 1 ;14, 1, Even the Gathas are at
striking instance of the

;

sations bet »veen the two,

e. g,

50, 2.

Ormuzd

is

often introduced
1,
1

as
1;

speaking without any preceding interpellation^, as in Vend. Yasht 8, 1 j 10., ] 13, 1, and in many other places. In Yasna 71,
;

not

Zoroaster
Zoroaster
§ 20.
is

but Frashaoshtra

is

Introduced as the questi'Jner and

himself the teacher.
the

ascriptions
list

The foems of prayer in of praise without movement
tables of gods,
genii,

or content, sometimes a

Awesta are long-winded mere

and holy things, sometimes adorned with the usual adjectives. Their whole ai-t and function lies in a circumstantial exhaustive recounting of the names and properties of the divine beings, their companions and helpers, and ideas related to them, according to the order supplied by rank, time, ritual, and the whole cosmological system of Zoroastriani.-m. The constantly recurring
of

names and

formula

is

yazamaide,

''

We

worship the
all

,"

or a similar one.

**

here worship the souls of the dead, the Fravashis of the pious.

We We

reverence the Fravashis of
1

ancestors,

teachers
«

and
7, 1.

pupils,

pious

3

Vendidad 15, 23-43. Only the solemn address

Vendidad,

to Ma/.da

is

wanting Vd.
:

5, 1; 6, I; 8, 1; 13, 1

;

15,

1.

ELEMENTS AND CITAKACTER OF THE AWESTA, §§ 20-21.

35

men and
pupils.

pions
all

women who
pious teachers.

died in

Fravashis of

Wo

this house. We worship tho worship tbe Fravashis of all pious
all

We

worship the Fravashis of
all

Fravashis of

pious woman.'''

—"

pious

men

;

we worship

the

Wo

worship the holy Sraosba, we

worship the high Lord, namely Ahura Mazda, who is the highest (Lord) of Asha, who is the most richly helpful Lord of Asha, Wo
reverence
past and
all good works, both Mazda, the gloriously renowned; wo reverence the Amesha Spenta whose kingdom is good, tho benefactors. We reverence Vohu Mano, the Amesha Spenta; wo reverence peace and victory, which is superior to the other creatures; wo rcvorenco tho inherent ^lazda-croatod wisdom, we revcreuco the Mazda-created wisdom that has boon heard by tho ear."^ These forms of prayer fill up a considerable part of the whole Awesta, and have given it, not unjustly, the discredit of being a dull insipid book.*
all

Zoroastrian words, and

we reverence

future.""--"

We

reverence Ahura

The Yashts also are abundantly filled with such formuLo, § 21. The smaller Yashts, indeed, consist mainly of such forms. The larger Yashts, on the other hand, which alono have a real claim to the name^ bear a somewhat higher stiimp. They are artistically arranged, and in their inward e=jsence they are real poetry. The outward markof a correct Yusht is the division into fargards with a standing introduction and refrain. This is confined to the following Yashts 5, 8, 9, 10, 13, U, lo, IG, 17, ID and the greiit Srosh Yasht (Yasna 57).'* The second critt^rion is the preponderance of metro. Fop the most part they are composed in measured language, not
:

merely in a rhythmic p* se^, but in real metre, in tho current oightsyUabled measure with lines of twelve syllables thrown in. The only metrical principle hero followed seems to be tho retention of tho definite number of syllables. Wh<ni the metre doe;* not always conio out
quite correct, this
is

due

in part

to tho somewhiit later

form of tho
strict

language

in tho written

texts,

partly

also to

the

want of a

adherence to form on the part of tbe poets, but

still

luoro to tho fact

>

» SIfoM t, l-t. • Yi«» 70. 7. 26, 7-8. For a chnrnctGrixatioD of tbo book, oompArc aIho DrxcKKR, p. 74 1 Bd.

YMna

Miym,

p. :k)7. »

The Roahn Ya^ht
D\iuiKiiTimLB.
I
.

(12)

wai fint dlttribulcU Into FargAnIi by the klcf M8H. F«
and X(*IX
n.

knows

nothiiifr of thisiitTition.

p

71)11.,

36

D.

MACKICHAN, GELDNEu's AWESTA LITERATURE,
come
to us
is

that these writings have

re-edited

und re-touched.'

Also

predominantly sober and monooccasionally a higher only does tonous, movement, the warm breath of
the reh'gious poetry of the Iranians

natural vivacity, sweep through their compositions.
A-nquetil

defines

the Yashts as "

hymns

of

praise
their

which

scb
to

forth

the principal characteristics of the

genii,

relation

Ormuzd and His
blessings which

creation, their characteristics as the distributors of the

Ormuzd has

spread over Nature, and as the declared

enemies of Ahriman and

his servants."-

This definition reproduces only

one side of the Yashts. The Yashts are compossd of description and narrative the former is for the most part copious and extended, the latter brief, lively and suggestive, like the history of the Aryan arrow;

shooter Erekhsha'^ in Yasht 8, 6, or the inroad of

Ahriman upon the

pure creation (Yasht 13,77-78); only rarely worked out at length like the story, spiced with a certain humour, of the contest between Azhi
the hvarvno, the Iranian king's splendour and the Frangrasyan afber it (Yasht 10, 46 -Gi). These mythical episodes and characteristic touches, interspersed here and They are taken from there, are the most precious pearls in the Yashts. the heroic Epos of the ancient Iranians, and, since they are pretty
fire for

Dahaka and

vain hunt

of the

abundant, they serve as a tolerable substitute for this lost epic. The entire hero-lore, which Firdusi celebrates at such length, is already
contained in germ

wards

in the Yashts, from Haoshyangha(Hoshang) downVishtaspa (Grushtasp), not seldom, indeed, set forth in richer form than in the Shahniime. On the other hand, many an obscure

to

reference in the Awesta to the old tradition has been
its

first

brought into

true light hy Firdusi.'^

1 With reference to tlie metrt), compare Westphal, Zur Vergleichcnden Mctrikdcr ludogermanischon Tolker, K.Z. 9,437, especially 44i seq.~ B,oth in Z.D.M.G.25,215.— TOERPEL, De metrices partibus Zcndavestae, Halle, 1871.— Geldner, Ueber die Metrik

(lea jiiugereii

Versmasscs, K.Z., 24. 556, especially,
of the metre of the later
2
;

Avesta. Tiibingeu, 1877.— F. Allen, Uber den Ursprung des homcrischen p. 559 $eq. The editors of the Awesta had no idea
II,

AxquETlL

143.

Awesta but Another

it

forces itself

definition contained

on the reader unsought. in the Dinkard was given

above, § 17.
3 Thc^rw/6of the Uter Persian myth. Compare Noldekc in Z.D.M.G. 35, 44 1; Dabmestetee. Et. Jr., II, p. 220. * DarmesteteR has worked in this direction especially with good result. Compare I, XLVI, and his translation of the Yashts. With reforcnoc to the agreement of the Awesta and the Hhahnamc. in regard to the mythical history of Iran, compara especially SriiiGEL Awcila und Bhfihuumc, Z.D.M.G. 15, 187.
:

ELEMENTS AND CUAKACTEU OF
The cbrouology of

IIIE

AWKSTA, §

1^1.

37
two

the bero-traditions, the succession iu the

mythical royal lines, the Pnradhatus or Pcshdails, and the Kavis or Kayauians, with the various interregnums, as it lies at the basis of the
portions of the Awesta, agrees in all essential points with the In the Yashts 5, 9, 15, 17, the old heroes and kings Shahname.' only as a foil. It is related how these reverenced the Kpos serve the of divinity in question and made sure of its help for paiticular ends. They are brought forward in the traditional succession, and numerous
epic

mythical features are interwoven in the narrative.
the most original of
all

On

the other hand

the Yashts, the 19th, contains the history of the

hvareno, we might say of the Iranian kingly crown, and sketches in broad outlines the entire liistory of old Iranian dynasties, their contiicts

and the vicissitudes of

their

fortune.
is

This

is

a real piece of

epic writing.

The

list

of the kings

here most comp'ete.
fari^'ards

This

Yasht, at least from para. 9, where also the division into

begins,

down
Yasht

to its close, bears

attested in the oldest
(cf.

it).

with nmch greater right the title Kay an Yasht MS. than that which is usually given, the Zamyad The conclusion (89 96) is an apocalypse depicting

the passing of the Iranian royal crown to Soshyos, the future Saviour,

and the resurrection, the triumph of Soshyos and the final besieging of Ahriraan. The epic of descriptive elements, and those which deal with
forms, by no

many

other

means exhaust the contents of the Yashts. 'J'hey contain kinds of teaching, which stand iu some connection or
cbnrms, amuleta,
tbo

other with the particular Yazad, on the subject of
oracles, sacritlcos,

atonements and heresy.

In this respect

14tb

Yasht

is

the most copious.
TIIl<:

GATUAS.
of the

§

22.

Within the Awesta a small group of texts occupy a unique
style

position

by reason of the
employed

language

in

which they aro

written. These aro the so-called Gathas (gdlhdo). Gatha, Phlv. gas, plur,

usage, and which thcGathn?, iu the narrower aud strict sense, form the centre. Acconliugly wo arc to include under the (latbasall those Awesta texts which are composed in tho Gatha dialect. In its narrower and proper sense tho term is restricted
g(t{fdn, is

in a wider

sense,

especially
§

in later

designates the entire (iatha literature (vvle

18) of

to the metrical portions of tho former,
I

. d.,

to their five separate

groups
379
;

NoLDicKK

:

Knjiinicr

iui

AwoBtn, in Z.n.BI.(!. 33, 670; Tbu

t^TJtor in K.Z. 35.

L)AIClli:Sli.TLK II, x.will.

38
{('f.

D.

MACKICHAN, GELDNEr'S AWESTA LITEKATURE,

narrower sense the Phlv. gds designates the separate Gatha strophe which are called in the Awesta afsmana^ The text of the Gathas had its place in the great Sasanid Awesta in the The next following throe first of the Gatha Nasks, in the Slot Yasht, Nasks were, to judge by the preceding tests or from the statement of their contents given in the Dinkard, more modern productions which were related directly or indirectly to the Gathas commentaries or homilies on them. They illustrated the Gathas theologically from The Sutkar was only loosely connected with various standpoints. Its aim was to draw useful doctrines from the Gathas, the Gathas. to illustrate them by the aid of legends, and to append to them fuller The Nask Varshtmansar prefixed discussions'- (Diukard 9, 2-23). a chapter on the birth and call of Zarathushtra, the following 22 chapters contained, according to the analysis given in the Dinkard,
§

2o). In a still

lines of a

a table of contents of the Gathas, besides discussions thereon and appendices thereto. The original text of this Nask must have contained the quintessence of the more ancient indigenous interpretation of those
pieces

that date from a

hoary antiquity^
is

character of the third Kask, the Baho,

(Dinkard 9, 24-4G). The most clearly seen in the three
represented in our Awesta
analytical commentary.''*
to the letter
is

chapters of Yasua 19-21,

by which
calls

it is

(Dinkard
Gathas.

9,

47-68).

West

it

''an

It appears to

have adhered with greater closeness
all

of the

In

the

three commentaries there

a chapter devoted

to one of the 17 metrical Gathas and the Airyama Ishyo (Y. 54), one devoted to the three sacred praj^ers which were prefixed to the Gathas, and one to the Yasna Haptanghaiti, The Sutkar and Bako counted

accordingly each 22 and the Varslitmausar 23 Fargards.
§

23.

The Stot Yasht was the

collection

of the texts

named

Stoldn Yasndtif from which it received its name. In the Awesta the Stotan Yasnan are called Staota Ycsni/a, and there designate this same
collection incorporated in the
8; 71 7. 18
J

Yasna
12,'

(cf.

Visp.

1,

3

;

3, 7

;

3

;

23, 1

;

Yasna 54, 2 Yasht 10,
Haug,
Kl.
in

;

55, 3. G. 7

;

58,

122).

They arc

1

West,
",

Glossary, under the

word

vechast,

p.

249.
Jiist.

"Die Ahuna-vairyaC>.

Forinel

Sitzungsberichte dcr philos. philol.

und

der K.

Akademie zu

MUnchen, 1872, p. D7. a Wkst, SBE. XXXVII, p. 173 n. ^ Fuller informatioa in DARMLSTRTEit
1

I,

CIV'.

Wkst.

at the passage cited,

i».

303

n.

THE
called "the laws for the

(lATirAs,

^^ 22-2:>.

39

first life''

(anallusion to Y. 33, 1). Theespres-

in the Gathas, somewhat same way in which in the Rig-veda rcah occurs, not as the name of a completed collection, but as a specifie terra for a jiarticular kind of style. The Staota Yesnya seem to be somewhat more comprehensive in the

sion occurs iu a technical sense in a passage

than the Gathas properly so-called.

On

the other hand, they do not
In the

include everything tliat was written in the Gatha-dialect.
in^j;

chapter 12 of the Yusna,
1,

is

not included in them.

The interestShdyad IdYe.<inya

Shdijast 13,

we have the

definite

testimony that the Staota

begin with the words visdiv9 amdsd sp^ntd, i.e., with Yai?na 14, 1. On the other hand they are named for the last time in the liturgical note added at the end of the chapter in 58,8. They must, therefore, thus According to the Rivafall between 14-58, but not continuously. This number cannot now yets the Stot Yasht numbered 33 chapters.' be made out with certainty. According to my view the Gatha-dialect The chapters lG-17, 19-2(3, r>2, is indispensable for the Stot Y^asht. Chapter 18 is only a liturgical eliminated. would have be 57 to and 55 assume that the three most sacrod If we repetition of 51, 7 and 47. prayers, to each of which the three Nask Commentaries devoted a sejiarate fargard, formed in the original Nask three separate pieces, and that, further, the Yasna Haptangliaili, although in the Commentaries it is gathered up into a unity (Dink. 9, 12, 35, 57), had retnincd its original division into chapters in the Stot Yasht from which it received its name, the number 33 would work out as follows
:

Y.

14

Y.
t

34

V.

45 40

15^
Yathd aha vairyo
As^mi voful

35

36 37 3S 39 40
41

YcnyhP huf dm Y. 28 29
3()

47 48 49
50
51

53

31

42

54 5G
68,

32 33
11
»

43 44
11

1-3

11

s88
V

Writp. HBK.

XXXVII,

p. 169 n.

Not qnitt

IdMtlcftl with

>

The condition LelongN

to another Ka^k.

7

40

D.

MArKICHAN, GELDNKR'S AWESTA UTETIATURE,

The Gabhas occupy tbe largest space in tli^so Staotu Yesnya. They are divided into five separate groups according to the five different metres or strophes employed. The individual groups are arranged in the descendinii; order of their length. They are named from their initial words; sitnihirly the individual chapters or llaitis of a group
have
titles

taken from

their

first

and,

in isolated cases,

from

their

second word.

The first group is called the Ahunavaiti Gatha (34, IG) from the second word of the single strophe placed at the liead of the group Yathd aliil vainjn (the Ahuna Vairya, Ilonover in Anqfetil).
It
is

made up

of the following seven Chapter*':

1.
2.

Ahyasa

Haiti,

11
11

Strophes,

Y.
Y.

28
29 30 31
32 33 34
including the
syllables.

3.
X.

5.
G.
7.

Xsmavya-gous-urva H. At-ta-vaxsya H. Ta-v9-urvata H. Xvaetumaithya H.
Yathaisitha H..
Yii-syaothana H.

11

jj

22
IG

a
i)
}f

14
15

})

Y. Y. Y. Y. Y.

The strophe (vecast) Ahuna Vairya, consists of 3
The second group
of 4 chapters:
1.

of the Ahunavaiti Gatha,
verses
(ya.*?)

of 7

+9

or 7

+8

A

caesura occurs regularly at the
is

end

of the 7th

syllable.''^

the Ustavaiti Gatha (Y. 46, 20).

It consists

Ustavaiti Haiti,

IG Strophes,

2.
3. 4.

Tat-thwa-parpsa H.

20 11 19

„ „ »

Y. Y.
Y.

43

44
45

At-fravaxsya H.

Kamnamaeza H.

Y.

46
of

syllables.

The strophe of the Ushtavaiti Gatha consists of 5 lines" The ciesura occurs at the end of the fourth syllable.
The names are partly modelled
after the later

4+

1

Awcsta.
Rcsultate

*

On

the metre of the Gathas, compare
vier

AUrel Mayr,

der Silbenzahlong

ans den

ersten Gathas,
d.

Wien

phil-hist. Kl.

der K. Akademle

W.

1871 (from the Juliheft der Sitzungsberiolite der zu Wien, 1871).— Ch. Bartholomae, Arischc For-

schungen. Zweltes Heft. Halle, 1886. pp. 1-32.
5

With the exception

of 40,

15 where there are only four
13, 51.

lines.

With

rcfcronoe to

th's

compare Shayast la-Shay ast

— 9

THE
The
thlnl

r.ATiiAS,

§§ 23-24.
Gatha (Y. 50.

41
12),

group

is

callea the Spentfi-mainju

To

it

belong the following four chapters:
1.

2.

Sponta-mainyu Haiti Yezidhall.

G strophes
12

„ „ „

3.
4.

At-mayava H.
Kat-moi-urva
fl.

12
11

Y. Y. Y, Y.
lines

47 48 49
50
each
of 4

The Spenta-mainyu-strophe
syllables,

consists of four

+

7

and thus corresponds

to the Indian Tristuhh.
-syllables,

In individual
in

cases the Ja.>ati measure, 5

+7

takes

its place, especially

Y. 48, 5 and

0.

The last two groups comprise each one chapter ; they are the Vohukhshathra Gatha with the Vohukhshathra Hfiiti 22 strophes, Y. 51, and the Yahishtoishti Gatha with the Vahishtoishti Haiti—

lines

The strophe of the former consists of thn»e The Vahishtoishti strophe is made up of two shorter and two longer lines, the former of 7 + 5 Byllables with
strophes, 53.

—Y.

each of 7

+7

syllables.

one

syllables with double caesura. without being reckoned, one of the Gathas proper, a single strophe the Airyama Ishyu, The metre is that

ca3sura,

the

latter

of

7+7+5

To

the last Gatha

is

attached,

of the Vahishtoishti Gatha, although the

traditional

division of

tho

lines does not entirely agree with this metre.

Of

the throe most sacred

prayers prefixed to the Gathas proper the Uonover has been

already of

mentioned.
three
lines

The Yenghe lldlam (complete
of
11
syllables
22.
oft

in

Y.

27, 15) consists

Gatha strophe 51, in Y. 27, 14, so
hand, prose.
reckoning
of

an imitation of the genuine Asom which stands coroplele Vuhtl prayer, The
each.
It
is

quotea in

its

opening words,

The
all

Shiiyast lii-Shayast (13,50) gives

is, on the other an exact numerical

the strophes,

lines,

words and

syllables

of

the

Gathas, and Zat-sparam'

the

symbolism of these numbers.

Eaoh

chapter of the Gathas

is

provided

with a separate not© at the end

in the style usual in liturgical forms.

The Gathas are composed in an ancient richly developed § 24. language, which diverges largely both in form and vocabulary from the ordinary Awcbta. The hnguistic differences between the " Gathadialect
''

1
I

and the "

later Awesto,'*

belong to the department of gram-

»

BBE. XXXVII.,
6

pp. 403 »eq.

I

;

42
mar.

D.

MACKicnAN, geldner's awesta literature,
cliaracteristic of the Gatlia- dialect
final
is

The external

the nniform
points of

lengthening of the
tinction

vowel.

In this

rcsi)ec't it

has

many

contact with the Old Persian

of the

Inscriptions.

Further a dis-

must be made between the genuine ancient Gatha-dialect and The latter is found, for example, the imitated or mixed form of it. in Y. 5G and largely in the confessions, also in the Yerighe Ildidm
prayer.

The

rest of the

Awesta confirms the conjecture suggested by
portions

the language of these texts, namel}'', that they are the oldest
of the whole

and original text for the According to the later Awesta, the sacred words 'par excellence. body of the holy formed out of the were they 3 la-Shayast Shayast 13,
book.

They

are

the source

man.

They are often invoked as sacred things,* quoted innumerable times as wonder-working charms (e.g. Vd. 8, 20; Farg. 10 and 11). They are the basis of manifold imitations and particular forms of speech. These imitations of the Gathas are often nothing more than a transference of the ancient dialect into tbe current modern Awesta language. Thus the line tat thicd Xiordsd dn's mot vaocd Ahurd 44, 1 is modernised in Vd. Idj 10 into tat thwd p^rosd ars me vaoca Ahura and 49, 1 yd voroz^ndi vanguhim ddt frasasilm is varied into yd me vurd7.dndi vanguhim ctdt frasastim Yasht 9, 20. Similarly in 71, 13 compared with 46, 6 and elsewhere.
Only the Gathas are held in the Awesta
in the style of a report. to

be the immediate utter-

ances of Zarathushtra, while the remaining books record his words more

They are called the Gathas of the holy ZaraLegend imagines Zarathushtra speaking in the Gathas on solemn occasions (Y. 9, 1). Zarathusthra has communicated in the Gathas all the moral laws which have been revealed in the whole contents of the Awesta and has given them their authority (Neriosangh before Yasna 28).
thushtra (Y. o7, 8).

Every Gatha chapter
loosely.

(Hfiiti)

forms a complete whole

in itself, the

separate strophes of which are connected together, although often only

introduced by the same question.
7-8,

In Yasna 44, every strophe, with the exception of the last, is Similarly, in Y. 43, strophes 5-0, 9-iO, 11-12, 13-14, 15-16 hang together; so also 45, 1-0. The
first

exordium and conclusion are most distinctly marked. The
1

strophe

For example, Vend.

19, 38.

THE GATIIAS, § 24.

48

sometimes states the subject, c. g., in 30, 1. The concludiug strophe is frequently an oratio vro doviooi the prophet considered as speaker, e.g.,
^:i, U; 43, 10; 45, 11; 41>, 12; 50, 11. Zarathushtra speaks of himself sometimes in the third person (28, 6; 33, 14; 43, 16; 46, 13 ;49, 12; 51

12

;

53, 1),

sometimes in the

first

person (28, 7
;

times in both together
himself (4G, 14).

(50, 6; 51, 15)

; 43, 8 46, 10), somesometimes he apostrophizes
;

In the present imperfect state of the interpretation of the Gathas every judgment regarding these interesting texts must be accepted with great caution.' A unique spirit, more profound than that whicli meets

Almost every is true that the Gathas always bring us back again to the fundamental ideas of the Mazda-roHgion but these ideas appear constantly in a new and distinctive garb. The stylo of expression is almost entirely free from the influence of pattern and uniformity, such as we find in most of the other texts nothing
all
tlie

us in

the rest of the Awesta, speaks in

Gathas.

strophe contains a pregnant thought.

It

;

;

is

commonplace or

trivial,

everything

is

measured and pithy.

In their

mystical obscurity and their compressed, often enigmatical, brevity they

remind us in many ways of the old Upanishads. They deal much more with
principles than details
;

but they arepreponderatingly eschatological

in

the meaning oPthis and temporal recorapense of all deeds, the future judgment and trial by fire, the cx|KK;tcd kingdom of Mazda, these are the leading themes which ever recur io
character.
conflict of the

The

two

spirits,

which

is

worM,

the final issue of this conflict, the

eternal

continual variation.

The

essential distinction

oetwecn the Gathas and

all

the other texts
it

lies entirely in the

personality of Zarathushtra.

In the Gathas

presents

itself in a

much

less

to

our humanity.

legendary form^ in a form brought much nearer Mention is made only of his being cailo<i and
INfazda, l)ut

t^iught

by Vohu

Mano and Ahura

not of his

bodily

temptations through the instrumentality of Ahriman.
to his patrons, especially to

His relation
"

forth

more

vividly
is

King Vishtaspa and his councillors, sUinds vc and The and more conspicuously.
alluhi

personalclement

pretlomiuant; the texts are rich in

nemios

and experiences and occurrences of which the

rest of tho

Avc^ta knows
Ahrlmwi, Tarif

»

1877, p. 311

C.mparc also Daumehtrtku I, XOVII ^i^i W"! Onniud Dc Uarlsz, Areata, CLXXXII. {

cl

44

D.

MACKICUAN, GELDNEb\s AWESTA LITEKATUKE,
In the second phice the spirit-world of
the Gathas
is

nothing.

preponderatingly abstract, by which we by no means imply that the thoughts also of the Gathas are pure abstraction or speculation. The

and

cult, the Fravashis, Mithra, and the entire concrete pantheon are unknown to the Gathas. In like manner also the ceremonial outward sacrificial worship gives place to the moral
its

Haoma

with

naturalistic

and

spiritual element.

From

this

silence

of the texts

it

would, of

course,

not be legitimate to

conclude that sensuous conceptions of

the Eupornatural

world and supernatural beings had

been entirely
as

banished from the older Mazda-religion,^ and that the Gathas represent the primitive, the later texts the degenerate Mazda-religion

adnpted

to the spirit of the people^.

The Gathas

reflect

rather only

one side of the same Mazda- religion, its esoteric doctrine. They The greatest are intended for the narrower circle of the initiated.

emphasis

is

laid

vacddmno).

on the '* knowing," and the ** initiated" one (vidiis, He has a preferential right before the multitude {pounls

47, 6) to the best of Mazda's Revelation.

Repeated allusion

is

made

to

the secret and higher doctrines (46, 3; 48, 3).^
§ 25.

The expression Gatha
or song.
is

is

not simply to be interpreted ctymo-

logically

as= hymn,

It is to

be remembered that in India
It designates

the expression gdtlid

often used in a technical sense.

amongst the Brahmans as well as the Buddhists the verses scattered over narrative prose which either form an integral part of the narrative, or were tacked on to the prose, and in this case its contents recapitulated in a brief and easily remembered summary.^ By reason of their form they were quite peculiarly adapted for oral tradition, and were perhaps
originally selected for this purpose. They have often become detached from the accompanying prose and have been preserved alone without the If we might assume a similar position for the Gathas of the latter. Awesta, these would also presuppose a lost prose substratum of which

the Gathas formed the introduction, resumes andaperrus.
liar

Their pecu-

composition, thoir generally uniform arrangement, the>;|»hread of
=

Cf. PisCHEL in G.G.A. 1894, No. 6, p. 4J7. 2 HiJBSCHMANX, Ein Zoroastrieclics Lied, Munchcn 1872, p. 2. * With reference to the secret doctrines and sayings, whicli, in the later book«, aro rccomuiondcd to sjfecial discretion, compare Yaslil, 4, 9 14, 46. * Compare El). Mllleu, Dor Dialekt dcs (Jathua tier Lalilavistara, Weimar 1874,
1
;

V-

p,3.

THE GATIIAS, §§ 24-25.
th'jugUt niaiiiug through
loosely

45

them even whea the individual strophes are
all

conuected,
point to

are

in favour

of this

supposition.'

Many

strophes

a lost context by a donionstrative which cannot be

explained by anything in the preceding text (e.^., Yas. 30, 3,)

may, therefore, well suppose that in the Gathas has been preserved for us the quintessence of the doctrinal teachings or sermons
which the oldest tradition put iato the mouth of the prophet and caused 1)0 preserved in the circle of the faithful, his school and privileged followers. But whether a certain authenticity m:iy be ascribed further to these Sravdo ZirathuHri **Zarathushtrian Utterances", is a question to
to

We

which, in view of the fluctuating opinions with regard to Zoroastcr'i* age and historical person, no definite answer can be given.

Each of the Gatha chapters seems

to

be

related

to a

definite

occurrence contained in the legends of the saint or to he conceived on the basis of some concrete situation, which indeed shines through in
allusions,

but in

its

entirety

remains veiled from our view.
it

Nearly
is,

every one of thesj 17 chapters, while
as
in
it

has

its

own

peculiar stamp,
is

were, tuned to a difFereut key.
it is

The background

most

distinct

Yasna 53;

a family scene, an addre-js to his relatives and the
related to

princes

who were

of the marriage of his daughter Pouruchista.

him by marriage, perhaps on the occasion Y. 47 might have been
to su'nmit himself.-

put in his month in view of the fire-ordeal, to which, according to tbo
later legend, Zoroaster
is

had

Unique

in

its

stylo

Y.

2'J;

they are the dialogue verses in the well-known myth of
in re;,'ard to the dualistiu
call

Y. 30 is specially instructive system of doctrine. Chapter 43 depicts his
(J'fuii

Uroan.

relations arc touched especially in

4(1

by Mazda. Personal and 51. Y. 32 may be considered

the most obscure Gatha."'
§
1.

26.

Sample of a tbanslvtion from tuk Gathas.
45, 1-11


now hear yo
'!<'-

Yasna

:— And

I

will speak,

now
all

liston,

who

seek

instruction from far
;

and near; now

yo |»orceivo lUni, for
roy tho
faith.

lie is manifest

the false-teacher shall not a second ii"»"

world, tho Satanic tonguo which confessed a falsj
1

Hoc PlsCHBL

aik!

GRMlNtlt* VoltMhc

Bttxlicii.

VoL

I.,

Htuttunit

1<S!^

i>.

?S7.

• *
iI;Allc,

For example, In the Zarta4)it Nimc, </. AnqurTiL I. 2. n. 33. The UAlhiiM kive bocii odilod i»urlicutarly Uy Cll. DiiiTlloi.«.., w.
187^, with n ruviovr uf the metre aail ao Irnicx uf woTiU.

.

46
2.

D.

MACKICflAX, GELDNEU'S AWESTA LirERATUltE.
will

-world, of

And I whom

speak of tho two

spirits

in tho beginning of the
*'
:

the holy one thus spake to tho evil one

Neither our

respective thoughts nor doctrines, nor knowledge, nor efforts, nor words,

nor deeds, nor religions, nor souls, can harmonize/'

And I will speak of the first (most important) thing in this 3. which Ahura Mazda tho Knowing One has proclaimed to me. To those among you who do not fulfil it the word as I intend and sjiy it, will the end of the world be sad.
life

4.

And

I will speak of the Best

One
it

have

I

learned,

Mazda
is

!

Who

created
is

of this >vo rid — from Asha — of the Father of the active

VohuMano.
all-seeing
5.

And
I will

His daughter

the good-working Armaiti.

The

Ahura

not to be deceived.

And
to

speak of that which the Holiest One has said to me,
is

tho word

hearken to which

the best for

man

^'
:

Those who will
Haiirvatat
(so spake)

always yield obedience to

Me,

this one'

shall

attain to

and Amcretatat through the working of the Vohu Mano," Ahura Mazda.
6.

Ho

And

I will speak of

Him Who

is

the greatest of

all,

praising

Him, O Asha! Who is tlie wisest of all. By His holy spirit shall Ahura Mazda hear it in Whose worship I was instructed by the Yoliu Mano. According to His wisdom shall He teach me that which is best.
7.

They

shall desire the

advantage of

this,

namely, those
rejoice in that

who

live,
is

who were and
to pass

shall be.

which brings reward, The soul of the pious

which

a torture in eternity for the

men

of Satan.

And

this

Mazda Ahura brings
8.

by His Kingdom.
to

I seek

how

to bring

Him

us with

hymns
!

of entreaty- since

now

I long to see

it

before

my

eyes (the kingdom) of good thinking,

good action, and good speaking, I, Ahura. And in paradise we will oflfer
0.

O

Asha

who know the Mazda

Him homage.

I seek

Him

that

He may be

graciously disposed to us, together

with the

Vohu Mano,
cattle

Who

can at His pleasure create for us comfort or

discomfort.

May Mazda, through His Kingdom,
to prosperity, in
!

and our

and people Asha of Vohu Mano,
1

bring us to efficiency, consequence of the wisdom

The Prophet.
Literally
'"

»

:

with entreaty."

THE GATHAS, §§ 20-27.
1

47

0.

Him will
is

I glorify with the prayers of piety
Ijecaiiso

ableness

called ^laztla Aliura

revealed that there shall
in

Who in nnchangeUis Asha aud Vobu Mauo be in His kingdom Haurvatatand Amcretatat,

His abode might and continuance.

11. To him therefore who in the future will contemn the Devs and the men who contemn him, and all others except the man who pays

reverence to him, the Saoshyant, as Master, as Lord, will the

li^ly rrii-

gion be a friend, brother, or father,

Mazda Ahura

!

Yasna 50, 4-6. And I will worship You praising Yon, Mazda Ahura together with Asha and Vahishtcm Mann and Khshathra and the wished for^ (fem.) revealer' of the well-disposed, ye who wait fur th(» faithful on the way to Paradise.
!

5.

Since are

fulfilled,

Mazda Ahura
prophet

!

Asha

!

as soon as

you

are kindly disposed to your

with visible manifest help, your

beckonings" v/hich transport us into Paradise.
(].

When

the Prophet Zarathushtra

lifts

his voice,

Mazda

!

as

friend,

Asha! praying,may the Creator of wisdom teach him through
the rules that they

V^ohu
§

Mano
27.

may be

a right path for ray tongue.
of the

Yasna Haptanghaiti. In the midst

Gathas

pro|K)P,

after the first group, according to the generally adopted

principle of

arrangement, a text of quite a unique character has been inserted, the
so-called
tion in v. 41, 8). In the

Seveu-Chapter-Yasna ( YasJia Hajdanghditiiii cf. the subscripSutkar this portion is named simply the Yasna
),

(Dluk.

9, 12, 1

and

is

treated

of in a single fargard
(9,
G.

;

so also in the

Varshtmansar
1-2)

(9,

35) aud

Bako Nask
3 to

57).

The

lleptanghaiti
(35,

proper extends from

/a/ a/ in 35,

41,

The introduction

concluding chapter (42) bear the impress of a later date. In the Shuyast la-Shiiyaet (13, IG), Y. 35, 2 also is reckoned as part of the Ila[)tanghriiti. The Seven- Chapter-Yasna is, with a few exception?*,

aud

the

prose;* although

tradition following the

analogy of the Yasntis proper
lines (yJK)-\

bus divided
1

it

into strophes {vvcasi)
'*

and metriad

lU

Literally

:

" of tho wiHh
hridjf*

«

iiiya in

the

diiitinct parol lol 48, 8.

a

which ovory oac oiuit The Chinrat Literally '« winh with tho hand."
:

pMU OYor.

Dlok. 9, 90, 8.

« T))c iiHQal eight
^

sylUblc nirtrc

ix

founil in chapter 4<V

Compara
3ri.

Sfaaynat la-Bhiyast 13, 16 ae^.,

nud

tlio

rrni.uk^

m

tiKLnKsn

h

rdtUon on

chapter

48

D.

MACKICnAN, GEriDXEu's AWESTA LTTRRATURE,

language is as ancient as that of the metrical Gathas, but the thoughts and expression are simpler. In parts the yammaide-i\)Tmu\ii wliicli later became customary, preponderates especially in chapters 37, 38, and
39.

Each chapter

is

Shayast lii-Shayast

in the place

devoted to a special theme with regard to which quoted may be compared. Chapter 30

In reality it speaks of which plays the chief part in the fire-test in the Chapter 37 is defined as a thanksgiving for the good last judgment. creations of Mazda. The definition of the remaining chapters is less appropriate. Chapter 38 treats of the earth and its genii as also of the waters; chapter 39 of animals, the souls of the pious and the Amesha Spentas 40 and 41 of rewards in this world and the next. There seems to be no close connection between the separate chapters.
to treat of the six fire-ordeals(i;a?').
fire,

was intended

especially of that

;

It is striking that the

name

of Zarathushtra does not

occur in itj

however, only an accident; for Y. 35, 9 and 10 contains an unmistakable allusion to him. One might be tempted to see in some
This
is,

chapters, especially the

first,

replies to

Zarathushtra's discourses from

within the circle of his congregations, so that they thus form in some

measure the complement
significance.
§

to the

metrical

Gathas.

Beyond

this

little

can be asserted positively regarding their proper purpose and literary

28.

Sample of

a translation

from the Yasna Haptanqhaiti,

Yasna
3.

35, 3-10

:—
this will
!

we choose for ourselves, Mazda Ahura we think, speak, and do them, namely those which are the best of all works for the world. 4. By reason of the rewards for these best works will we strive both learned and unlearned, rulers and
beautiful

"

And

Asha

!

that

servants, to give rest
far as in us lies,

and fodder to the cattle. keep possession of and impart

5.

Evermore

will we, so

to others the rule of the

and prepare it, namely, the rule of Mazda Ahura and Asha G. And as any one knows clearly be he man or woman so shall he do for himself according to his best knowledge that which is good, and further teach it to those who should do it as the case may be. 7. Since we reckon as the best the paying of worship and homage to
best ruler

Vahishta.

1

Compare the exhaustive monograph by Th. Baunack
.
.

:

Die drei wichtigsten

Gebcte

.

und das

siebcntcilige

Gcbet, in den

Studien,

von

Joir.

und

Tii.

Baunack, Leipzic

1888, p 451.

THE YASNA HAPTANOnAlTI, §§ 27-28.

40

Ahura Mazda and the feeding of the cattle. That will we do and it as far as we are able. 8. And in the rule of Asha and amongst the people of Asha there is for every man the best life as
further teach
9. And these (Thy) revelations, O Ahura Mazda will we further teach with the best thought of Asha and in thee' we possess the best receiver and teacher from the side of Asha and Vohu Mand and the good Khshathra and from Thyself, Ahura, in consecjuence of his' hymns upon hymns, from Thyself, in consequencoof

reward in both worlds.
!

his speeches

upon speeches, from Thyself,

in cousecjuence of his offering

upon

offering.'*

HISTORY AND ORIGIN OF THE AWESTA.
§

29.
is

The

existence of a sacred literature of Iran before the SasaIt suffices to cull a

nid era

abundantly attested by Western writers.

few notices

from their accounts.-

Herodotus notes only that the

Magians sang the Tbeogony on the occasion of their sacrifices.^ Hermippus of Smyrna (3rd century B. C.) is the earliest writer who knew of the writings of Zoroaster. Hermippus wrote a book on the doctrines of the Magians which, according to Pliny, contained a stiitement of tlie contents of the two million verses which Zoroaster had composed,* Nikolaus of Damascus^ and Dio Chrysostomus^ speak of the A.;yia of Zoroaster which the Persians revered as sacred. The latter adds Wo learn from that the Magians had learned them from ZoroaaU^r.
and Pausunias", who report as eye-witnesses, that the Magians performed religious services in their fire-temples that lasted for hours, and that they read them from a book in .a barbarous tongue. Philo of Byblus (about 80-130 A. D.) quotc»3a passage from a collection of the sacred writings of the Persians as the very words of Zoroaster, a philosophical poetical description of the Supremo God,
Strabo^
The Prophet Zarathushtra is raaint. Compare the colU'ctioriH in Klei'ker, Supplement II, part 1, pp. 5 Mf^—&APP, Die Religion and Slttc dor Pcrs.?r und iihrigen Iranier nach dea };ritr«hl»ohen und rtlBimheo Quellcn, Z.D.M.Q. 19, 1 »eg. Compure esiHci.illy |>. 35.— Ddnckkb, (icchiohtc, pp. lOapg.
*

*

Kd

Meyer, Gcachichte,
»
*
*

p. 504.

Herodotus

I.,

132.

PHniof. HUt. Nat. 30, 2; conipar.' uKo M>tr. I/mrt,, IV vlui phllo*.
2, CO.

proom VL

Klcukcr, p, 8, * Dio rhryg. M. Dlnd.
»
«

Strabo XV., 733.
Pauaan,
5, 27, 3.

50

D.

MACKICHAN, GELDNEr's AWERTA LITEKATURE,

He
the

adds that Ostanes says tlie same in his Oktateuch.* Eusebins iu first century of the Sasauid dynasty speaks of a collection of sacred
is

writings in which Zoroaster
later

represented as speakiag.'-'
is

Among

Arabian writers the notice given by Tabari

interesting, namely,

that Zoroaster's writings covered 12,000
§

cow

hides.^

30.

More valuable

are the notices that

the Awesta, those given in the Pahlavi literature.

come from the home of The Dlnkard has

preserved the quintessence of the Parsi tradition in the two -fold account,

which it contains.^ The one account in the last chapter of the third book^ asserts that the work before it, was based on the sacred revelation which Zoroaster imparted to his first disciple in answer to his questions. King Vishtasp, it says, had written down the originalteaching, had

MS. in the royal treasury, and a copy of it in the had put further copies into circulation. When the great calamity of Alexander's usurpation came upon the monarchy the one copy was burned, the other fell into the hands of the Greeks and was translated by them into Greek. When King Ardashir, the son of Papak, restored the monarchy in Iran, he caused the scattered copies to be collected. At his order, his high priest Tansar completed and published (or explained ?) this collection^', and thus gave '^ a faithful reproduction of
deposited the original
archives, and
1

Philonis Bybl. frag. 9 in Muller

III., 573, 9.

2 3

Euseb. praep. ev.

1, 10.

Hyde
cow

(1700)

p.

314,

(17G0) p. 318.

According to Masudi

also there

were

12,000

bides, Duncker, p. 40.

* Haug, Essay on Pahlavi (in the Pahlavi-Pazend Glossary, Bombay 1870) West, SBE. XXXVIl., pp. 145seg-; Haug, Zend-Pahlavi Glossary, Introd. p. xxxvi Pref. XXX., and p. 412 Darmesteter III., XXI, and SBE. IV., Introd xixii.
; ;

*

This account

is

published by

Haug

in Zand-Pahlavi Gl.

XXXI.

;

the second

l)y

Haug
6

in his Essay on Pahlavi, p. 149.
:

kings,

West translates this important passage thus who was sou of Papak, came for the restoration

'*

And

that Artakhshatar, king of

was brought from a scattered date to who was tlie priest of priests, appeared with an cxpofdtiim recoi-ard from, the Aveda, and was ordered to complete the scrijdnre from that exposition," &c. Darmesteter, on the other hand, paraphrases it thus **Quand Artakhshatr, Roi des Hois, fils do Papak, vint restaurer I'empire d'Iran, il reunit en un seul lieu toutes les ^critures dispera^es et le Herbed des Herbeds, le saint Tansar, le Poryotkesh, vint et incorpora une r6v^lation de I'A vesta et en donnantcette rdv^lation au complet, il donna une image exacte," etc. The question is just what we are to understand by the Pahlavi jJodtakih^ which Haug translates by "publication, " West by "exposition," and Darmesteter by

same

scripture

monarchy of Iran, and the one place. The righteous Tosar of
of the

the

i)riraitive faith,

:

;

;

"revelation."

HISTORY AND ORIGIN
the original light"

t)F

THE AWESTA, §§ 29-30.

51

Ardashir also caused one copy to be preserved in

the treasury and other copies to be distributed.
Still fuller is the

second account given

in the

fourth book of the

Dinkard.

King

Vishtasp, after his campaign against Arjasj), had the
Darii, the sou of Dfira/

scriptures of the Mazdayasna-religion collected,

gave orders that the whole of the Awesta, \9ith its explanation, should be preserved iu two copies, the one in the treasury, the other in the Archi ves. Valkhasb ( Vologeses), the son of Ashkan, organized the careful collection and transcription from original sources of the entire Awesta so far as it had descended pure to that time, all of it that had been
preserved in Iran, handed down in writing or by oral tradition, in a fragmentary state since the invasion of Alexander. Ardashir, the son of Papak, invited Tansar to his court and had the scattered original

documents of the religion collected by him. He imparted canonical validity to his collection by j)roscribing as contrary to the religion all doctrines which did not proceed in this way direct from Tansar.Ardashir's son

Shiibpuhr caused

all

the

non-religious writings

on

astronomy, medicine, mathematics, and philosophy which were scattered
in India,

Greece and elsewhera to be and a correct copy of both writings

collected

and added

to the
i

Awesta,

to be deposited in the

Under King JShabpuhr, sou
to investigate

of Afibarmazd, a tribunal was su

i

the religious controversios iu

the land.

Before this

tribunal

Adarpad submitted

to the fire-ordeal (probably

on behalf of the

Awesta as restored to its pure form by him), lie fixed the namberiog of the Nasks, and the king declared that from henceforth, now that the true religion stood visible before men's eyes, ho would no longer tolerate any false religion.
According to another passage in the Diukard, King Khosrao Panris caused a new interpretation of tho Awesta and Zeud to bo prepared by the most intelligent of the priests.^

that tho religion which Zoroaster

Another Pahlavi book, the Ardii Viraf, relates in the iDtroduction had founded flourished iu its purity for

1

According to Bun.lnhi^li 34,

R, the loft

DttiOA

If

meant

We8t
to

rpivl

formerly
letter

••

To^ar,"

DAUiiKsrBTKB

wnU

••

Taniwr." With rrf«»rwcc
:

an interesting
*

nf this HcrUi<l, cf.

OABMnTBTSS

III., xivit,

J.ItA.8. IMI,

pp. 200, 502.

Haco,

EN-^ay

on Pablnvi,

p. 117.

52

D.

MACKICHAN, GELDNEPw's AWESTA LITERATUKE,
Alexander burned the entire Awesta, which, written with

300 years

till

golden ink upon cow-skin (parchment), was preserved in the archives Thereafter anarchy in things secular and religious, at Persepolis.
sectarianism and ignorance of religion reigned in the land, and diverse books of the law were current up to the time, of the holy Adarpad, son of Mahraspand, who subjected himself to the ordeal of
unbelief,
fire J

The introduction

to the

Persian translation of the

Arda Viraf

supplements the account of King Ardashir by the statement that ho sunmioncd all the Dasturs and Mobeds, who assembled to the number
of 40,000.

He

caused this great multitude

to

be continually sifted in

At 40 remained, who had by heart the entire Awesta together with its interpretation. From among these he chose the seven who had moral character.^ the hiorhest o
last only
set aside all the embellishments which we find which to some extent have an unhistorical ring, in these narratives,

order to discover which of them remembered most of the Awesta.

§ 31.

When we

there remains, as the kernel of the

tradition,

the following

:

— the
after

existence of a religious book, an edited collection of sacred books before

the time of Alexander, the decay and scattering of
the

this collection

time of Alexander,

a

first

regathering of these writings under a

certain Vologeses, a

new edition of the Awesta under Ardashir Papakan by Tansar, a supplementary selection under Shahpuhr I. (240-271), a final revision by Adarpad, and a proclamation of the sacred canon under Shahpuhr II. ( 310-379 ), and a remodelling of the Pahlavi translation under Khosrau I. (531-579).
{A. D. 226-240)

Which

of the

five

Vologeses

is

intended

is

quite

uncertain.

Darmesteter conjectures that it was the most celebrated, Vologeses 1., the contemporary of Nero, because Western historians bear testimony to
the pronounced Zoroastrianism of his relations.^

But

in all probability

the later Vologeses were not less good Zoroastrians.
of the
first

From

the middle

century A. D. the Greek influence in Parthia was in decay

and nationalism in steady rise. From the time of Mithradates VI., the contemporary of Trajan, Pahlavi inscriptions preponderate on the It would thus be more natural to identify Valkhash with one coins.'*
1

Arda Viraf

I,

1-16.
p.

2
3

Haug,

Introductory Essay to AV.,
p.

xv.

Daemesteteu, SBE. IV.

xxxiv, and

Lc Zend-Avesta,
XVIII. GOl.

111., xxiii.

*

GUTSCUMiD

in Encyclopaedia Britannica,

HliSTOliY

AND ORIGIN OF THE AWESTA, §§ 31-32.
first

53

of the later Vologeses, and to place the

attempts directed towards

the collection and preservation of the sacred writings, as precursors of the proper national relii^ious revival under Ardashlr, in closer connection in point of time with the latter.
of,

VolojTeses III. miglitho thought whose long reign (148-191) was conspicuously peaceful in its

internal affairs.
§

32.
said,

Individual features in the domestic

traditions

may, as we

have

appear

uuhistori(ral

or
to

doubtful.

The

fanaticism of the

pi-iesthood ascribes immediately

Alexander the destruction of iho

sacred writings, whereas the neglect and partial loss of them was only

a consequence of that religious and national decline which began with Ah^Kander. The fact, however, remains that Alexander caused the
royal fort
5, 7.)

in

Persepolis to bo burnt

down

(Diodor. 17, 72

;

Curtias

But the kernel of tho Parsi tradition, regarding the history of the Awesta, seems thoroughly trustworthy. Its accounts disguise nothing, spare nothing. They confess, without reserve, that tho Awesta of tho Sasanids is no longer tlie ancient book. Another passage in the Dlnkard says that all that could be discovered of the Awesta was. not more than a single priest could conveniently carry iu his head.' And, in the second place, tho account given agrees
admirably with the
structure
of

our Awesta, tho disproportioued,

character^ of the book. In point of language three classes of texts can be distinguished.

unequal, and, in certain places, fragmentary

In many portions tho grammar

is still

handled with great certainty

and

and uncertainly,* and again other portions are in language and grammar quite barbarous.-^ Such barbarism cannot bo explained as corruptions resulting from careless
correctness,* in others loosely
tnidition, because all the three classes of passages occur in tho

book and the tradition
old

is

of the

sumo same kind throughout and, where ilia

MSS. are ext;int, it is on the whole very faithful. In a case in which we have to deal with the internal chronology of writings whioh aro composed in a dead language, the language itself is a criterion which is not to be altogether rejected.
'

I'mkinl
It

8, 1,

31.

J

is suiri

icnt U^

point to Vewlidml
9, 1-16.

I, ItcglDiiing

and

end, to

V«idM«d tt

where the
•^
»

conclti^ion li quite olcarlj lost.

For example, Yasiia

>

For example, Vend. 1. 3. 1—6 ; Ywi, W, For example Yaaht 16, 4JJ, 67 10, ilO ;
;

II.
2,
J 1
:

Va. iJ

:l

•.

J»S.

14.

5i

D.

MACKICHAN, GELDNEIl's AWESTA LITERATURE,

We cannot, therefore, do better than adapt, as far as possible, our view of the Awcsta to this Parsi tradition, which is both trustworthy The Awesta with the in itself and in good agreement with the facts.
21 nasks, of

which we now possess only a fragment,

is

a

work

of the

Sasanian epoch, the result of the labours of the collectors and editors
(diaskcuasts) under King Ardashir with Tansar at their head. The way had been prepared by a more ancient collection of sacred texts The text received its which took place under a certain Vologeses. linal form probably through the revision of Adarpad Mahraspand. The editing of the Khorda Awesta is specially ascribed to this Adarpad,

This Sasanid' origin of the Awesta is, however, to be understood
in this sense that the cUasheuasts or

editors
still

out of remains and fragments which were

composed a new canon extant. They construct-

ed a new building with old materials. It is impossible to determine, in regard to the whole or individual parts, what they found extant, or what new additions they made, how far they reproduced literally what
they found or remodelled it. We may credit the diaskeuasis with havin"- fabricated not only the outward framework of many chapters

and various connecting passages and supplements which the transformation of a number of fragments into one book rendered necessary, but also the formula) and typical portions according to extant patterns The completing of the Awesta, of which the as they found necessary. speaks, consisted of work of this nature. Dinkard in the given account
These formal portions belong in respect of language chiefly to the second or third class of texts above distinguished. The parts of the Aw^esta which contain the real substance of the work, especially the Gathas and the

by the
I

central portion of the great and middle Yashts, might have been found first collectors in the form in which they have reproduced th em,

have a less unfavourable opinion than West of the amount of learning possessed by the diashouasts and of their knowledge of the sacred language, but I agree with him in essentials when he expresses the
following view
:

— **How

far they

(the learned

men

of the Sasanids)

may have been able to write ordinary Awesta text is more uncertain, but any such writing was probably confined to a few phrases for uniting the fragments of old Awesta which they discovered, or for *^That the Awesta texts interpolating opinions of their own."

Ed.

Meyeu

in his GuschichLc, p.

50iJ,

has expressed this most clearly.

HISTORY AND ORIGIN

O'F

THE AWESTA,

§

32.

55

themselves were not written, to any great extent, in the Sasanian times, is shown by the quantity of Pahlavi commentary necessary to

adapt them to the altered circumstances of those times/''

would I claim the metrical portions in their entirety more ancient and trnly creative period as against the later period of imitation and restoration, of course, without excluding later imitations of these. Except in the case of the Gathas the learned men of the Sasanids had already lost all consciousness of having to do with metrical composition. Especially iu the Vendidad the smaller metrical pieces stand out conspicuously from their surroundings and accordingly look as if they had been found as fragments by some later compiler and had been stuck by him at suitable points into his- own monotonous composition and compilation. I refer especially to the interesting third fargardof the Vendidad. The fargard begins in the dry pedantic doctrinal style which is peculiar to the Vendidad. But from para. 24 onwards this is interrupted by a vivid spirited description of agriculture. The fruitful earth waiting cultivation is compared to a young Often, however, even bride, and almost the entire piece is metrical. in ancient contexts metre and prose may have been intermingled.
p]specially
for the

From what has been
for itself an

said

it

is clear

thr.t

criticism

would

set

up

impossible goal

if it

aimed

at paring

down

the extant

Awesta
Awesta.

until

it arrived at so-called original Awesta, a pn»-Sa<anid Old and new have been fused together in the book into an

indissoluble unity.

Critical efforts in

this direction are

as uncertain

as in the Vedic field
§ 3-3.

and

lead only to the purest subjectivity.'it

In like manner,

follows from

what has been

said that the

question as to a definite age of the Awesta texts has been entirely

»

West, SBE.
oiu;

XXXVn, Prcf.
hand of the
:

XLII.

'Any

who

posscsseH Q special taste for
iiiterpolator in

wiHlly detect the

many

pasHa^^^en, for

suoh textual criticlim will itUl oxamplc, when the totl

in YaB. 67, 14 thus runs

durdt haca ahmSf nmaiuif
durdt_ 1ut(fa ainghdl vhiat

dtirdt
diirdt

^41^ akmdi :a%taot
heXa aimghdt doinghaot
'i

lO rerrthrajdo, §(e.

56
wrongly
itself

n.

MAOKICHAN, GELDNER

S

AWESTA LITERATURE,

The few chronological data wliich the Awesta have only a relative evidential value. Thus Kdrosdni in Yas. 9, 24 is represented in the Pahlavi translation by Kilisydli. Darraesteter refers this to Alexander.^ Assuming the correctness of Darraestoter's identification, no one could accept this passage
stated.^
offers

post-Alexandrian origin of the entire Awesta.*' It would only prove that also after the time of Alexander writings were composed in Awesta, that Alexander is not to be associated with
as a

proof of the

any interruption in literary production, that he does not mark the beginning of an interval destitute of literature. The latter supposition is in itself quite improbable according to Western accounts.
wards
of

The period of the composition of the Awesta texts extends downto King Shahpuhr II., backwards probably to the earliest times The earliest gems of the whole literature the Zoroastrian Church.
Sayings and speeches (sermons) which tradition
circles.

are to be conceived of after the analogy of Buddhistic and Christian

sacred literature.

propagated in the priestly

first formulated and most ancient tradition only In order to reach an approximate the Gathas have been preserved. upper limit of time, it would be, above all, necessary to attain certainty and agreement as to the age of Zoroaster himself by whose historical

put into the mouth of the great prophet were

Of

this

personality I

am

disposed to stand fast.
of

As

against the extravagant

Here from the ocourrencc
spun out the
first

originally in the former part only

verse after the

nmunaya in the latter part it might be conjectured that nmdna was mentioned and that a later hand had well-known model (ivs, zantu, daingliv'). But appearances

I give up my own earlier attempts in this direction as failures. Compare with reference to this (luestion as to age, especially de HAEiiEZ, IntroDdnCker, Ueber duction 192 Das Alter und die Heimat des Avesta in BB. 12, 109 die Zeit der Abfassung des Avesta, in the Monatsberichten der Kgl. Pr. Akademie cler Wiss., zu Berlin 1877, pp. 517-27 (Duncker places the Awesta between 800 and 600 B.C. ;) Spiegel, Ueber das Vaterland and Zeitalter des Awesta, Z.D.M.G. 35, 629 41, 280 Geiger, Vaterland und Zeitalter des Awesta und seiner Kultur, in the Sitzungsberichten, dor philos. philol. Klasse der b. Akademie, zu MUnchen 1884, pp. 315 seq., English Translation by Dastur Darab Peshotan Sanjana, Vol.11, pp. 85-164, London

may

also deceive.

1

:

;

;

;

1886.
2

DaeMEStetee

I,

80

;

III,

XXX VIII.

also A.
in

Weber

in the Ind. Str. 2, 429.

With Weber tries

reference

to this passage

compare

to see another allusion to Alexander

Yasht 19, 43, cf. A. Weber, Die Griechen in Indien (Sitzungsberichte der K. Pr. Akademie der Wiss., zu Berlin 1890, p. 7 of the separately printed report.) 3 Not of course for the post -Alexandrian origin of the entire Hom-Yasht since this does not present any such unity as the other Yashts. Cf, West in J.R,A.S., 1893,
p. 6G0.

HI8T0BY AND ORIGIN OF THE AWESTA, §§ 33-34.
chronology into which the Greeks
confine themselves within
fell/ the

57

indigenous notes of time
Floigl,
for

much more moderate bounds.

example, rightly endeavours to vindicate the Parsi tradition also in this
point as the more trustworthy. According to the Arda Vlraf (t/.
§

30)

300 years before the time of Alexander, according to the Bundahish (34, 8) 25S years before tho collapse of tho Achiimonian dynasty. Zoroaster would accordingly be a contemporary of Cyrus and Vishtaspa of the Awesta identical with the "What the later Awesta relates of Vishtaspa historical Hystaspes.'"'
Zoroaster taught about
is

East

Iranian legend which from a kind of teleological conception

of history connected Vishtaspa immediately with the

Kay a nian dynasty.

Accordingly 560 B.C. and 379 A.D. would be the extreme limits
of the period within which the

history of the development of the

Awesta

falls."

The Achilmcuian, Arsacid and Sasanid epochs have

probably an equal claim to the book.

But no sure criterion has yet been discovered by which we can distinguish these periods within the
itself.

Awesta

According

to tradition the unity of the

canon was

lost

during the Arsacid period down to a certain Vologeses. This does not exclude the possibility of many of our texts having been remodelled
according to extant patterns during this epoch, while during tho same
period
§

much

of the old passed into oblivion.'*

3L

Just as

little

are

we

entitled to speak of a distinct

home of
it.^

the Awesta or of a separate Awcsta-pcoplo within

Iran and a well-

marked-off
»

homogeneous period of
Z.D.M.O.
19, 25.

civilization

represented by

C/. lihvv in

«

ViCTott Floiol, Cyrus uiul Kcrodot, nach den neugcfumlonen

Kcilinschriftcn^

Leipzig 1881, p. 13. rhilcwophic, I, p. 376.
'^

Compare

also E.

lluTii,

Ocsobtchto unsorcr abuuilli&ucliKhon

lieu

dc croire que
*

This estimate ngrcei BubstnntiaUy with tbo viow of dk Hari<.ss : la majeure particdo TAvosta a 6U oompotdc pendant

Oo a
l«f

done tout

cinq dornicn

do lire ancicnno, Intr. CXCIV. also Hrbal, 8ur la Gompo<«itioD dcH livrc^ Zcndx, in his MdlangM do Mythologic et de LinguiHtique, Paris 1877t pp. 207—215.
slcclcs

Compare

' The idea<4 and circumitaiicos of the Iranian civilisation a^ thcM? appear In the Awesta, together with the googmphy of tho Awesta, have licen collootcd in a himmarf by W. GeI(2er, Oxtiriinischo Kultur iro Altorthtim, Erlangen 1R8S Englii^h Trttwlation
;

SanJa?(A, ''Civilimtlon of thcRantcm Iranians in Ancient Times'*, London 18S5. Compnrc .^Im) W. (Skicku, Lo pays dn |>rnplc de IWvrsta dans »rs

by

BaraR IUrtur Prmhotan
Lc

condilion>« pbyHit|iiL« in

Miisi^on, 18^3, p. 81.

V.GuT>tiiMiD, Uei.
8

^iichs.

Gcs. 1602;

On thocalmdar of tho A^ U^zi^milki. lu, G Nn 1^7^
)

»rc

U,

5S

D.

MACKICHAN,

GEI.DNEli's

AWESTA LlTEUATUKE,
is

The geography^ of

the Awesta which in part
it

legendary, points to

the East as well as to the North-West,

gravitates, however, towards

West and Amjanovi Arrau between Kur and Aras'-) to the extreme NorthWest, to North Media and Hyrcania Ragha, Demavend (^Arozilra), Alborz (Hara-lorozaii'i), On the other hand, the Iranian legend of the kings has for the most part its scenes laid in the East the homethe East. The sea of Uriimia (Caccada) pointsto the
Vai'jd (the later
;

land of the Kayanians

is

placed in Seistan.^ The mountains in Seistan

fjairi,

{Us Idarona), thcVar a-piim&os (Upair isacna) and Hindukush (Ilindava Yasht 8, 32) are well-known. Yasht 1 9, Q^ gives a poetical deli-

neation of Seistan, a vivid description of the

Helmeud

river {llaetumant)

The Knsava Lake, situated in Seistan, plays a In a s^imilarly metrical passage and legend. (Yasht 10, 13) the homeland of the Aryans is described and there the regions named are almost entirely those of East Iran. In respect of
and
its

tributaries.*

great role in

story

climate the purifying beneficent effect of the

south-wind

is

to

be

noted (Vend. 3,42; Afring.-Rap.
§

6).

of either a narrower

Nor can the language be adduced as an evidence in favour home or a definite period for the origin of the Awesta, even if we possessed stronger evidence than mere conjectures The with regard to the original home of the Iranian dialect.^
35.

language in whicli the oldest religious records of the Zoroastrian faith are composed, or a somewhat more modern development of it, remained the standard for all succeeding time as the sacred language of the

Z.D.M.G.

avestique et le pays originairc de

Spiegel, Z.D.M.G. 35, 642 38, 433; De HarleZ, Le calcndrier Darmesteter I, 33 seq. 1' Awesta, Louvain 1883 1 The well-known list of countries in the first fargard of the Veudidad gave rise to repeated discussions on this see Lassen, I. A.2 I, 635 n.; Haug in BuNSEN Egyptens Htellc in der Weltgeschichte V, II. p. 104; Kiepert Ueber die geographische Anordnung dcr Nameu ari^chor Landschaftcn im ersten Fargard des Vendidad, Monatsber.dcr K. Pr. AK. d. W. 185G, p. 621 Spiegel Das erste Kapitcl dcs Vendidad, Miinchen G. Anz. 1859, No. 43-46 Beeal, De la Geographic do I'Avcsta, in Melanges de Mythologie, etc., pp. 187-199; Ed. Meyer Gescbichte p. 527. Compare also Rapp in Z.D.M.G. 19, 3, ' See Spiegel, Commentar zuin Awesta I, p. 10 Floigl, at the place quoted,
34,

698

;

;

;

:

:

:

;

:

;

;

p.

16

;

Darmesteter
Yasht
19,

II, 5 n.

3

65 seq.
;

* Cf,
5

A. Stein
is

''Afghunistfin in Avcstic

Geography"
it is

Its origin

usually placed in Bactiiaand
forraerlyjrej^fardcd it as

in the Academy, 16 May, 1885. called " Bactrian " or ** Old
Ir. 1,10,

Bactrian. "
\

DarmesTetek

Median, Et.

but

now

hcsi-

tates

between Media aud Arachosia HI, XC.

ULSTORY AND ORIGIN OF THE AWESTA, §§ 34-30.
priests

59

and became internatioDal within tbe boundaries of Iran, In men could teach, write and compose wherever an abode of priestly learning existed, and it was once understood as far as the Mazdaworship extended. It was thus to a certain degree raised above the limits of space and time. Taught and learned as a sacred language it would continue to lead an artificial life long after it had died out of the mouths of the people.' It is to be placed side by side with the other
this lan<ruage
artificially

preserved
the
is

the

Hebrew of

dead'* languages, the Latin of the middle ages, Rabbinical schools and the Sanskrit of the Bralialso natural that the

*'

manical schools. It

knowledge of these Church

languages shoxdd have gradually diminished, dried up and ultimately died out. expressed our belief above that only from this latter

We

point of

view are we

justified in

taking the language of theAwesta
of the different

as a criterion for the
texts.§

relative

chronology

kinds of

36.
is

Daumesteter's Theory.

mesteter
§ 33.
if

much more
to

radical

The latest hypothesis' of Darthan the view advanced above in
lost after

According

him the entire body of the sacred writings,
Alex-

indeed the Achiimeniau period possessed such, was
I

ander's invasion of Persia and under Greek rule.*

The reformation
Darmesteter

which began under King Vologeses
entirely

(§31)

produced in reality an

new book.

As regards

the

subject-matter

and a modern post-Alexandrian stratum ; but not a single page of the old Awesta has been literally reproduced in the new.* The Gatbas are a type of the second class, the law sections of the Vendidad proper are a type of the first.'' The Gathas were written in the middle of the first century of our era, uml, indeed, under the influence of Gnosticism." The
distinguishes two strata, an ancient pre- Alexandrian
idea of

Vohu Mano, which

plays the chief

rcMe

in

the

Gathas,

is

probably borrowed from the School of Philo Judasus or employed in
imitation of that School.^
t

*
^

Conipare the excellent remarks of Eo. Mktrk. (leaehiehte, p. 604. This of oourso a-Hsuincs a most intimntc acquaintnnco with the t«xU.

Dabmbstkter DAEME8TBTKR
/ft/v/ni.xci.
Ibid

III, LII.M./.,
III,

LXXXV

-

-r

u -

i

w as,

hm

n

fi&l.

XCVII.

»

"
'
"

LXXXV I.
LVI. LXXXVIII.

Ibid LVI.
Ihid

60
This

D.

MACKICHAN, GELDNET^'s AWESTA LITERATURE,
not tho place to subject to a thorougli criticism this revoof Darmosteter. Further investigation as to
necessary.

is

lutionary liypothesis

whether any other points of contact can be found between the Gathas

and Gnosticism
toto coelo distinct

is

To mo the two appear

to be otherwise

from each other.
>^oyos ^elos
)

A

certain

the Vohu

mano and the

of Philo

resemblance between must be admitted. The

fact that Strabo ( p.

512

bears witness to the worship of the Persian
to having himself seen

divinity

^Qfiavoi, (i.e.

Vohu-Mano)' and

solemn

processions of the image- of Oraanos
the theory that Vohu

(p.

733)

is

sufficient to

disprove

Mano was borrowed from Philo. In tlie time of Strabo the original abstraction of Vohu Mano had already been completely anthropomorphized. Strabo travelled over Western Asia before 29 B. C. ; Philo was not born before 20 B. C. If now Darmesteter
(p.
Ixxxviii.)

says

t'hs.t

XsathrDm Vairlm only came into existence

through the Gathas, the same must hold also of the Mazdayasnian Vohu Mano. The Gathas must thus have arisen distinctly before the time of Strabo. If an analogy between the ^oyos duos and the Vohii Mano
really exists, so striking that the
if it

borrowing on one side

is

probable, even
is

be

only of individual features, then Philo,

whose doctrine

a

loose tissue full of contradictions,
1

must have been the borrower.-^
from wliich all and Ed. Meyer, p. 532. such an image of Vohu Mano.
identification,

excluded, was
2
••'

This As Ahnraraazda =s 'flpo/xa^?;?. made by Haug-West, Essays,

doubt

is

p. 10,

Vend.

19, 20-25,

seems also to allude to

A.GFRoRERjPbilo. unddic alexandrinische Theosophie, Stuttgart, 1831,
it

II., p. 1.
ib. 3.

*'

Philo did not create his system, but reared

out of the materials of his time,"
:

Kleuker

gives a passing judgment with regard to this Gnosticism

"Oriental cosmo-

gonies and the doctrine of spirits was their favourite subject and the basis of their entire

Gnosis.'* Anhang zum Z. A. II.,1, p. 12. At any rate, the completed system of the Amesha Spenta with Vohu Mano and A^hm, the old rtam, does not look like a stranger Daemesteter ( III., LXV. ) is perfectly right in holding that in the Mazda-religion. Plutarch in the famous passage with regard to the Ameshapands in de Is. et Os. 47, haa The only question is as to the other writer, except not made use of Theopompus. Theopompus, who was his authority. As a proof of the Arsacid origin of the Awesta Daemesteter (III., XL.) adduces the well-known territorial distribution, which

points out, the
;

beginning with nmdna, ends with dainghu the province or country. There is wanting, he kingdom with the Shahinshah at its head ( III., XL.). But in Yasht 10, 87
;
/'.

Yasna 02, 5 68, 5 over the dahyn stands the dainghusasti, e., the kingdom, the imperium, and thus Darmesteter explains also in I., 388, note 20.-^DarmesteteR's conjecture that the chronological principle of arrangement in the Yashts is borrowed from the Bible can Zoroaster, scarcely be considered probable (III., XCII.)—According to Paulus Casbel
:

Name nnd seine Zeit, Jewish ^ son of the stars.
sein

Berlin 1886, also the

name

Zoroaster

is

to be

explained as

lUSTORt AND dRTGlN OF THE AWESTA, §§ 30-37.

fel

THE HISTORY OF AWESTA RESEARCH.
The fame of having been always the first in Awesta research The three names, AnquetiljBurnouf, Darmesteter, mark each a new epoch. Long before the time of Anqaetil individual travellers and English officers had drawn attention to the
§ 37.

belongs to France.

sacred

books of their faith which

the

Parsis

kept

Zondawesta
din.^

secret— the

as, for

example, Henry Lord,^

Gabr. de Chinon/^ Cbar-t

But none of those succeeded in turning the attention of learned Europe to them and awakening an abiding interest in them. The first to attempt to explore the doctrine of the Magi by means ofthe Oriental, i.e., Arabic andlater Persian, sources accessible to him was the celebrated Oxford scholar, Thomas Hyde.* The Awesta itself, of which at that time already anumber of MSS. were in England, remained to him a closed book, in spite of all his efforts to decipher it. The French Orientalist, Anquetil-Duperron, found himself dissatisfied and at the same time powerfully attracted by Hyde's researches. The repeated and fruitless attempts of Englishmen to penetrate the secret of these books, especially those of George Bourchier and Fraacr who brought new MSS. to England, stirred the knightly Frenchman, who was as ambitious as he was eager for knowledge, to try to find
himself the key to these books.
resolve to

An

accident brought

to

a

head his

make

a journey to India in order to learn the language of

these books on the spot from the Parsi priests. In the year 17o4 he had chanced to see in Paris some passages of the Oxford Vendidad Sade, then still chained up"' and hid from knowledge. " In that moment,"

he writes, **I resolved to enrich
I

my

fatherland with this rare treasure.
it,

dared to contemplate a translation of
1

and resolved to
Hknry

this

end to
pastor

Henry Lord, The
in

Rcli^^ion of the Pakvig, 1630, p. 81.

Ix>ro

wm

of the En^'Iish Church

Pcrsarum principatu libri have known nothing of tho Zendawoata, nince behioiaclf waa nerar ia Th4> best infornuition regarding th« early history of Aweala r aawf e h ia to he iho Ka«t. found in Klkckkk, Anhiing II, 1, pp. :)5 <r//.: further In HovKLAOQOt, L'Atesta,
nntitioiiy, (y>ald

Surat.—BRIK^ON', wboec learnod wurk on Fcrria (De regfo trcH. Paris, 1B90) in baaed upon the Wc«t©rn hittorian* of

pp. 3 i«7.

;

Dahmkstktkk

I..

IX

;

Wf>t, E^rays, pp.
ct

Ifi

$9q»

Kr,R»:KKH, in the place qiiotfvl, p. 38.

* Tbid.

p.4\
Rellglo,

Hydb, Veterum Pcntanini
title
:

Patthoram
Poninrnm,
.\.\VI.

el

Modonim

Hlstoria RcliKionis Teienim

etc.,
*

Oxonii, 1700. Cf. etipocially

Chap

eonunqoe Magoivnk \ip. 987-841

Xofoasirit

aln awler Ult TiU

ANQUiSTiL

I., 1,

p. 4r»8.

62

I).

MACKIOHAN, GELDNEK's AWESTA LTTERATUBE,
Kirman.'*'

learn the ancient Persian language in Guzarat or

With-

out means as he was, but too impatient to await the expected support of the Academy, he entered straightway the service of the Indian Comat Pondicherry

pany as a private soldier. He sailed on the 7th February 1755, landed on the 10th August, and in 1758 after many adventures arrived in Surat, where he remained till 17G1. The result of his sojourn in India, of which his narrative reads almost like a novel/ is preserved in his chief work: Zend-Avesta^ Ouvrage de Zoroastre.'^
Although variously criticised* at the time of its appearance, the work made a great stir in the whole learned world, Anquetil's translation of the Awesta rests on the foundation of the inadequate knowledge of Pahlavi and the still more inadequate knowledge of Awesta possessed by his teacher, Dastur Diirab in Surat, whom he may often enough have failed to understand correctly. He was able, however, by
the aid of his
cies.

own
not

lively imaginative faculty to get

over these deficien-

knowledge of the original language. It would be an easy task at this time of day to pull to pieces his translation in detail and to prove its uselessness. But, on the whole, he reproduces the spirit and the ideas of the book correctly. And his learned supplementary contributions and notes, his description of the Parsi ritual, all based upon conscientious personal observation, oral Parsi tradition, and personal study, are full of instruction to-day and in
his far into the

He did

make

way

their completeness unequalled.
§

not so

The succeeding period was occupied in the first instance 38. much with the question as to the trustworthiness and correctness of

Anquetil's translation as with that of the genuineness of the Awesta and
the "Zend language." The discussion turned upon the question whether the book was in fact the ancient religious book of Zoroaster, and its language a language of the ancient Persian kingdom, or whether it was a dialect of Sanskrit, and the whole thing a modern fabrication. This controversy lasted for more than 60 years, and did not advance
1

Anquetil
1,

1. 1, 6.

OCCCXXXVIII, also separately traaslated into German : Anquetils du Perron Keisen naoh Ostindien nebst einer Besohreibung der biirgerlichcn und Rellgionsgebrauche der Parsen, alseine Eiuleitungzum Zend -Awesta in das Deutsche
2 Ibid. 1.

XXI—

libersetzt
3

Title

von Joh. GeOrg Pukmann, Frankfurt a. M. 1776. and contents given under " General Literature" at the beginning.
Darmesteter
I.,

* Of.

XIIT.

THE HISTORY OF AWKtJTA UESEAUCU, §§ 37-38.
the
the

63
time

knowledge of the original a siDgle
only
authority.

step.

Durinfr

all this

Auquetil's work remained the source and, for those

who were
*

convinced,

The Englishmen, Jones

and

Richardson,'-'

and the German Meiner.s, ' were the chief opponents of the gcnuinenctis of the book the champions of the theory that " Zend" is to be derived from Sanskrit were Jones ^ in one of his later writings, and especially John Ley den/' Erskine,^ P. von Bohlen.' The defendhand, other were his Anquetil, on the German of ers translator and editor Klcuker," further Tychsen,^ Panlinus a Santo BarBut no one prepared the way for the tholomaeo,'^^ and Rhode." succeeding period more than the celebrated Danish philologist Rask. The fruit of the journey which he undertook by land to Persia and India, 1810-1822, was two-fold: the collection of the oldest and best Awcsta MSS. which are preserved in the University Library at Copen" Ora Zendsprogets oj^ hagen, and the pioneer-like brochure Zendavestas jelde og a)f;thed,"'- in which **Zend" receives its proper
;
:

place in the circle of the Persian languages,
deiined,
finally

its

relation

to

Sanskrit

is

and at the same time

its

genuincnes.'^

and that of the book

demonstrated.
da Terron, daus Iiviuelle est comprm I'e^iMOcn «Ic m Zoroaster, Lend res k. a. (reprinted in the Works of
Literature,

I

Lettre a M. Anquetil

tradjiction dc8

livres attribut'a a

Sir William Jones, Vol. X. p. 403» liOudou, 1807.)
"

A

Dissertation

on the I«inguagu8,

and Manners of Kastcm

N'slioott,

IntrtHliiction to
*

"A

Dictionary, Tersian, Arabic aid Knglirh,'' Oiford, 1777.
'*

Dc

Zcr.astris vita, luBtitutiuct Librisin

Novi Commcntarii Hucidntia rcgiw,"

(Jot tingen, 1777-79.
*
*

Asiatic k Researches II. p. 43. Calcutta 171K).

Aniatie Rcseurches X., 282.

«

On

th(>

Sacred

liooks

and Religion
1819.

of

the VathIh in the Transoclioiui of ih«

Literary Society of
'

Bomhiy,

Coninicntatio dc Originc

linguae zondicao o banscriU

h;pcicndae Konigubcryi

1H3I.
"
f

Cf. the " General Literature " at the licginniug.
('on)niont;itio prior OUervatiouoHlIiftorioo-criticad

do Zurrtahtic

eju»()iiv

loriplii

IMucitiH

cxl\lbcn»in

:

••

(^omroentationes S»»c Reg.'' p. 112, (•ckiinK'cn 17»aL
afllnitatc

roa&tiquitato
i»"iiio

ot

llogunc

xcndiaic,

MUiKcredaiiloao ol gcrmanioM,

1798.

II Die heilii^c 8a)^? imd dat gctammte RcligionMijst«in dcr altcn Dftkirvr, Mcdor und Pcfior oder dc« yx'ndvolks, Frankfurt 1820. " Koponhagcn, 1H26. Trnn-latod into Orman hy W, H. r. d. HAOK)r, ntMirr ilw title: " Tol^r dan Alter un*
'

Berlin IS^G.

C/. alto the

• '

•'

.

.

64

p.

MJiCKlCIIAN,

GELDNEU'S AWESTA LITERATURE,

§ 39. The ^reat Frenchman Eugene Burnouf established the systematic decipherment of the Awesta itself. If from the time of Auquetil
scholars

had only busied themselves with general ideas and had fought

with great watchwords, Burnouf began the laborious, gradual investigar tion of the book in detail. He went back to the sources, to the MSS. lying

unused

in Paris since the time of Anquetil,

and

to the

genuine domestic
in

interpretation of the book.
to establish a reliable text,

He

sought, by a comparison of the MSS.,
his

and based

interpretation,

the

first

instance, on Neriosangh's Sanskrit translation of the

ancient form of traditional

Awesta as the most Awesta iuterpretation available, at the same

time bringing to light a Sanskrit translation hitherto known only by name. He follows it, however, by no means slavishly, but weighs it

word by word and
sifting of the

justifies

or

rejects

it.

Hand

in

hand with

this

proceeds the systematic examination of the texts, the collecting and

grammatical and lexical material of the language. Many On the other hand, his of his points have remained incontrovertible.
labours in this field lack definiteness of conclusion.
to

He

was content
last years,

be the pioneer of the

scientific

method, and in his

before his premature death, he scarcely
investigation.

ever returned to this field of

Burnouf s researches
Yasna.^
It sufiers

are preserved in his great

Commentary on the

from its own peculiar cumbrousness. In the extensive quarto volume of the 72 chapters of the Yasna, only the first is explained. Of course side-lights are thrown in numerous excursus

on many other passages and the general laws of the language are laid down. His later exposition of Yasna 9 is written under much stricter limitations.'Burnouf bestowed little attention on the Gathas, and with fine tact he has kept clear of those general questions which gather around the Awesta.

1

tenant

Commcutairc sur ]e Ya9na, I'un dcs Livres Religieux des Parses. Ouvrage conle tcxte Zend expliqud pour la premiere fois, les vatiantes des quatre manuscrits
I,

dc

]a

Bibliotheque royalc et la version Hauscrite inedite de Neriosangh, Vol.

Pai'is

1833-3.5
2

—previously announced in Nouv. J. A., Vol.
:

III., p. 321.

Appeared in various essays in

the J.A. 1844-46.

Tliese,

together with other

"Etmles sur la languc et sur les textes eends," Vol. 1., Paris 1840-50. Burnouf's revised text nnd translation of Yasna arc published by BuocKiiAUS in his edition of the Vcndidad Bade, pp. 407 tf(vy.
essays also published separately under the title

THE IIISTOUYOF AWESTA UESEAUCn, §§

{J9-40.

65

About the same time as Burnouf, but with mach scantier apparatus and from a different standpoint, Fr. Bopp began to occupy himself with tlic Awosta. The first part of the first edition of Bopp's Comparative

Grammar appeared almost contemporaneously

with Burnouf s

Com-

mentary. In the later parts and in the second edition Bopp rests largely on Burnouf. While for Burnouf the explanation of the religious book

was an end in itself, Bopp aims at making it subserve the purposes of his Comparative Grammar. He regards the iutorpretalion of the book
essentially as an exercise in Sanskrit Philology.'

The comparison with
little

Sanskrit decides matters esseutial for him.
in the translation of Neriosangh.'^
is

He

has very

confidence

Between Burnouf and Bopp there

already latent the opposition which led to the later separation of the

schools.
kSoon afar t\\v death of Burnouf (1852) two critical editions 10. Awesta l)i';i;an to appear, Westergaard's complete edition of the text, and the edition of the Vendidad, Vispered and Yasna with PahUvi Translation by Spiegel,"^ the latter being also provided with a Germau translation of the entire Awesta. Now it was possible to go back to the oldest form of the vernacular interpretation of the Awesta. The apple of discord which long continued, was at the same time thrown into the science *' The Tradition," the value or worthlessness of the old Sasanid translation, the question as to whether there was really a genuine
§

of the

:

tradition,

I.

e.,a continuity of interpretation reaching

back

to the time of

the composition of the
artificial

Awesta, or whether this tradition was only an
Parsi

reconstructiou and subjective opinion of the ancient

scholars,
tional

and not objective

schools

tagonism.

truth. The traditional and the anti-tradifrom this time forward developed a pronounced anSpiegel* followed by Justi-^ was the chief advocate of

Preface to the

first

oditioa (p.

X ia

the reprtnt in the

Sod EJIUon).
,

• Ibid,

X,

n.

» r/. the lltornf uro givpn nt $ 11.

P. Rvtr.r.yr.,

<^'"tiim.ntar lUjur
n.i
.

diw Avosta,

I

Band, Dor

VcndWmi
sa:

T>Hp»<p l<*«4

II.

Band, Vi
dc-*

und Khonin Avcsta,

ISfiS.

By

tho

prctatioo

I,

Ixjipzi^

1853.^

Kiidoitun;; in die trtki'
li
Itil,

Parpen,
ttonelk:

I

Toil,

Orammatik dor
clcr

IIuziArcsrh-Spraclie. Leiptig 1856;
altliakiri>iclH>

lUo tra^u-

Ititerntur

rar«cn, IHCO.— Burnouf '*«

VcrlittUni>*s r.ur TrailUion in Kuhn'H Bcilr. 7, 2^7.— Arischi' Erkiarang do Awesta. Z.D M.G. 23, 2l»7 ; Stt, 097 27. 049. Z.D.M.O. :W?, :.86. Obor d. 19 Farg. d« Vend., AbbandL dcr
;

KorK:hangon nnrl ihr Studicn, UMptig 1S7I.—Zor Zur Tcxtkritlk doi Anrtfa,
balr.

Akad^

Btl.

VI— VII.

^

llaudbuch dcr Zoudvprocbu, Leipzig 1SC1«
9

66

D.

MACKICHAN, GELDNEIt's AWESTA LITERATURE,
According to them, Also Harlez* and Geiger^

the genuineness and trustworthiness of tradition.
the

was to be found gave their adherence to this view although with much more moderation. Benfey' and especially Roth*" accuse the tradition of manifold incoherence and inadequacy, and think that they are able to substitute
cluG
in tradition.

for it a better

and surer method of interpretation.
this to

Ilaug was in the

beginning an enthusiastic follower of

hitter view,

but returned

from India in patt converted

the

opposite

views.^

Windischmann

took up an intermediate position between the two sets of views.^

1

C.

DE Harlez
du Gatha
:

:

De rex^gusc

et dc la correction des textes avestiquos, Lcip/.ig sa transcription,

1883.

— Etudes eraniennes,
II[
ih.,

Paris 1880 (de I'alphabet avestiquc et de

Metriquc
37, 256.

Vahistoistis,

etc)

— Etudes avestiquos
36,

1.

J.A. 1876, VIII,

487:

II.

1877, IX, 97 B.B.

289.

Z.D.M.G.
et

627.— Zur ErklJirung des Awesta, Z.D.M.G.
persane
ih.

— L'Avestique
245
;

Mada
16,

la tradition

38,

133.

— Avestica,

etc.,

in

338.— Uii fragment d'un commcntaire sur Ic Vendidad, J.A. 1881, XVIII, 517.--Un f rag. du Com. de M. Darraestcter as supplement to J.A. 1881, XVIII (also Louvain 1881). Les observations de M. James Larmesteter fcur le Vendidad,
13. 15.

317

;

Lou vain
«

1883.

leitung
3

W. GeiCxER, Das dritte Kapitel zum Aogemadaeca, p. 3.

des Vendidad, Z.D.M.G. 34, 415

.seq.\

cf. also

Eiu-

Einige Boitriige zur Erkliirung des Zend, Gottingen 1850.

Weiterc Beitiago zur

Erklarung des Zend, Gottingen 1852-53 (both from the G.G.A.) * R. KOTH, Debergelehrte Tradition ira Alterthume,besondcrs in Phdicn, Z.D.M.G., 21,1 (especially p. 8).— Beitriige zur Erklarung des Awesta I and II., Z.D.M.G. 25, 1; III, lb. 215.— Uebcr Yagna 31; Tubingen 1876.— Der Ahuna Vairya, Z.D.M.G. 38, 437.
erste Kapitel des Vendidad iibers. und erlailtert, bei Bunsen, Gathas oder Sammlungeu von Ltedern und Spriichcn Zarathustra's, seiner JUnger und Nachfolger. Herausgcgeben, uobersetzt und erliiutert von M.Haug. Die erste Sanimlung (Gatha Ahuuavaiti), Leipzig 1858. 2 Abteilung Die 1. Abteilung vier Ubrigen Sammlungan, Leipzig i860. (In den Abhandlungcn fiir die Kunde des Morgenlandes). By the same author, Ueber die Unzverliissigkeit der Pahlaviiibersetzung des Zendawesta in Z.D.M.G. 19. 578 seq, Uebcr den gegCQwartigcn Stand der Zend Das achtzehnte Kapitel des Wendidad iibersctzt und erklart, philologie, Stuttgart 1868.
5

M. HaUG, Das

ride §

34.— Die
:

fiinf

:

in den Sitzungsberichtcn der K. bay, Akadcmie der Wiss. zu MUnchen, Jahrgang 1868, Die Ahuna- vairya-Formel, das heiligstc Bd. II. (seperate reprint: Miinchen 1869) Gebet der Zoroastier, mit dcm alten Zend -Comment ar (Yasna 19) in den Sitzungsberichtcn der K. bayr. Akademie der Wissenschaftcn zu Miinchen, 1872, p. 89. 6 Die persische Anahita oder Anaitis. Ein Baitrag, zur Mythengeschichte des Orients

ven Fr.
Fr.

Bd., 1, Abt.,

Windischmann. Abhandlungcn der K. bayr. Akademie. d. W. I. MUnchen 1856. — Mithra. Ein Beitriig zur Mythengescbichte des
Leipzig 1857.

Kl.

VIII,

Orients,

von

Windischmann,

In the Al)handlungen zur Mythologie und Sagenge-

schichte des alten Iran, von F.
Berlin 1863.

W

,

published after the author's death by F. Spiegel.
CJ. Die llooensioucn

Weber is

near the standpoint of Wiudischmann.
2, 421-493, especially p. 435.

in

dcu ludibchcn Strcifuu, Band

THE niSTORY OF AWESTA RFSEARCR, §§ 40-41.
§

G7
after

41.

Roth was followed in

essentials

by those linguists who,

death of Schleicher, returning to the example set by Bopp addressed themselves independently to the exegesis of the Awesta.
the

A

great deal of jtrinter's ink was wasted over the question of transcription.

The enduring contribution, however, of linguistic science is a solid grammar of the Awesta language which no one can now ignore with impunity. The labours, especially of lliibschmaun,' Bartholomae- and Joh. Schmidt,' contributed to this resalt It
scientific

must, however, be distinctly noted that in relation to the tradition-question

Hiibschmann represented an independent and,

I

may

add, the only

correct standpoint.

Roth's position was that, in the

first

instance, the

Awestii should
]>ara]lel

be explained from and by

itself,

by searching out and comparing
related
ideas,

passages, siuiilar grouping of words and

and

in

this

respect he has gone deeper than those
tradition.
It

who depended

absolutely on the

does not touch

the kernel

of the question

when

his

method
all

is

simply called the method of ctymolog}'.*

In the long run

much.

have worked with etymology, some more, some less, but all too Hoth availed himself of Sanskrit, the Sanskrit of the Vedai as

the chief aid, the

key

to the solution of the

problem.

The dogma

of

the complete identity of Sanskrit and Awe3t;i, in which the sohool
of

Roth was supposed

to believe, existed only in the imagination of the

traditionalists.'

The controversy with respect
materials.

to the

Pahlavi translation was con-

ducted on both sides in too theoretical a manner and with insufficient

In particular points both sides hafe not by auj means
to their leading
all

remained true
tionalists

principle.

In practice
;

the anti-tradi-

have not denied

rights to tradition

indeed

many

a

time

they have been able to securo justice for some misundorstooil traditional
interpretation.''
>

As

regards the Pahlavi

translation
iti

for a
'^

long time

Iraiiischc Htu'licn, in K.Z. 84. 323

and elsowheni pan/im
Plarftl

H

>
^

Hamiburb

•Icriillirani^chen Dinlektc. Leipzig 1883.

JoH. 8ciiMii>T jMtJiim in K. ZL^Dio

bildangen
l^^oole

tier

ln(io>gcnn«olaob«i
t^dimaltb''

Keotra.,
*

Weimer
ifl

ls89.
I,

I)AUMF»TKTEB
It

XWII

;

in iinothcr pinoe

:

^nologtqno ca

>

Uorii

who nlwajm

teckn to

dodacc tbo vpeciac meaning of tbe
;

AweMa wMd,
3&, lft7,

often, however, with ioAatVicicnt mciina.
<*

/;.

17.,

th<)

llainrsUikan nouUi in Y. 33.1

BaRTROLOMAB

in

Z.D.M.O.
;

mod Roth
9.

ih.

87,

^2X
in

(Oonti>«tod

by
./".

Do HASLts Z.D.M.Q.,
K.Z. 30. 532.

38, 681

</.alM B.B,

29»>.

Kvrti ^o

f./<i,,.

Y.n.

t^.

7

;

08
it

D.

MACKICnAN,

CIELDNEIf'S

AWESTA

LITERATLTHE,
Its

was

:i

question of simple faith or simple unbelief.
its

opponents wore

not able to refute nor

followers to convince, because Pablavi research

was
and

itself still in

its

infancy.

The
all

too exclusive trust in the help of Sanstranslation,

krit, the

depreciation of the Pahlavi

proved

fatal

to

Roth

his school.

On this

rock

our labours finally come to shipwreck.

The
tradition,

last

the field of the Awesta

decade has brought about a complete revolution, both in and the Veda, in tbe views taken of the indigenous

and has made converts or adherents of those who in the Although unanimity has not yet been beo^inning were opponents.
reached, the practical result of the whole controversy
to this: the defenders of the native tradition side in theory
principle,
;

may be reduced
their

had more right on

in

method and

in the practical carrying out of his

Roth was superior
is

to his adversaries.

This revolution
of Pahlavi.

the fruit essentially of the ever-growing study
real pioneer is E.

Hang's
fruitful.

later labours

and proved

The

were already devoted to Pahlavi, W. West. His unequalled

learning and accuracy have raised Pahlavi research from the lowest

West has become indirectAwesta research. It is Darmesteter who has, with equal sagacity and learning, made the right application of this knowledge
stage to that of a science, and to this extent
ly a reformer of

to the advantage of the study of the Awesta.

From

the beginning

a

warm

defender of the Sasanid translation, and possessed of a thorou'gh
this

knowledge of Pahlavi, he did not base his interpretation on
translation alone,

but recognised that, in the midst of the controversy

with regard to the best method, nothing but a comprehensive widening of our horizon would lead out of this fumbling and guessing to clearness and truth.
utilized in detail

His direct aids are the native traditions carefully

and thoroughly studied as a whole the entire body His indirect aids are the entire of learning accumulated in them. entire day, the tradition from the Sasanid time to the present Pahlavi and Pazend literature accessible to him, the Shahname, the Arabian chroniclers, and the historical notices of ancient writers, the personal instruction received from living Parsis, their customs, views, the present ritual, which likewise is a piece of genuine tradition,
and, on the side of language, the entire Iranian linguistic treasures
in all stages of its

development and

dialectical

ramifications,

and

also

Sanskrit, especiallj^ Vedic Sanskrit\
1

The

start

and beginning had

Dabmestetek

I

,

Xlilll.

THE HISTORY OF AWESTA KESEARCn, § 41.

^^

been made in each department before his time, although imperfectly and with insufficient aids; Darmcsteter has gathered them together and developed them further to a certain defiuite result. The ripest fruit of these efforts is his latest monuiuent^il work Le Zend Awesta'. Durmesteter has given a new youth to the traditional school, and is the proper creator of what he calls the historical method of Awesta
:

research.

Durmesteter has accumulated an
for the
in this,

enormous

quantity
far

of
hjis

material

interpretation of

the Awesta.

How

he

succeeded
sequel
svill

how

far

ho has shot beyond the mark
Literature.

in detail, the

shew.

(a)

Translations:

Avestji,

die heiligen

Schriften

der Parsen,

aus

dem Grundtext
Fii.

iibersetzt mit steter Riicks'cht auf die Tradition,

von

Spiegel, 3

Biinde,

Leipzig 18-32-63, translated into

lish by A. Bleeck, Hertford, 1864. Awesti, Livre sacre des sectateurs de Zoroastre, traduit du texte, par C. de Haulez, li volumes. Liege, 1875-77. Second Edition, Paris, 1881 (cf, " Genenil Literature" above). The Zend-Awestji, Part L The Vendidad, translateil by James Dakmesteter, Oxford, 1880, SBE. Vol. IV; Part II. The SlKVzahs, Yashts, and Nyayish, translated by James Darmestkirii, Oxford


:

Eng-

:

1883, S

B E

Vol.

XXIII

Gabs
1877,

aiid Miscellaneous

The Yasna, Vispanid. Afiinagan, ; IWt III.: Fragments, translated by L. H. Mills, Oxford
translation

SBE.
**

Vol.

XXXI. — The French

by Darmestetor, see

under

General Literature."
Particular contributions:

(6)

Paul dk Laoardr,

Beitriige znr bak-

trischen Lexikographie, Leipzig 1868.

gen, 1877.

—Per^scheStudien, Giittingen, 1884.
:

— Armenische
— Gatha

Sludien, Gottin-

C. Kossowicz

Decern

Sendavestae excerpta latine
18G7.

vertit, Paris

18G5.

— Gatha

ahunavaiti Sarathiistrica carmina sH»ptem lat, vertit et
Petrop.
ust^ivaiti, ib.

explicavit C. Kossowicz,

1809

Sarathfistricae

gathae posteriorcs ires latino vortit

ct explicavit C«

Kopsowicz, Petrop. 187).
'

Tho
(iret

tit

In is

given iixm* exactly uixirr

**

OcQcral Literal tin*

''

Kt

the

bofiBnlag.

volume eoiitninii the tmndatlim aitd rxplaiution of tb« Yiuoi and Vlfpeml, together with an iiitrcKluctlon U«od on tho hintorical mcthmi the meond, ibe VaiMlldad. the VoMhtH, anil the Khorda Awe»U the thirtl, the fragmrnU, tiiftethrr »Uh a Ulrrarx and religiuuii historical introduction. Of., with refercnc* to thU work. W»t In the J. R. A. S. 1H<)3, p. O.H; Br€aL, l/e-Zcnd-Avento, in ttie Journal dca Havonte, D(<c. I^9t. Jan. vt Mara 1894.

The

;

;

70

1).

MACKICIIAN, GELDNER's AWESTA LlTEKATUfiE,

E. Sachau: Zur Erklarung von

Vendidad

I,

in

Z.D.M.G. 27,

147;

tiS,

448.
:

H. HuBscHMANN
mit
1872.
Kiicksicht

Ein Zoroastrisches Lied (Kapitel 30 des Yasna)
ubersetzt

auf die Tradition

und
1

erkliirt,

Miinclien

—Avestii
Yas.

Studien in the Sitzungsberichten der philos. philol.
Miinclien,

Kl, der K. b. Akad. d. VVissensch. zu

872, Bd. II

(deals

with

57 on pp. G43 s<?(7. ). By the same author: Beitriige zur Erklurung des Awesta I, Z.D.M.G. 26, 453; II, Z.D.M.G. 28, 77 Iranica K.Z., 26, 603, 27, 103; Z.D.M.G. 38, 423.
:

;

A.

Bezzbnberger: Einige avestische Worter und Formen
p. 251.

in

G.N. 1878,
C.

I Heft, Halle 1882 amongst other portions Yasht 1 and 19) II Heft, 1886 III Heft, 1887 (Yasna 29).— (amongst others Yasna 30, 28, 44) By the same author: Beitr'age zur Kenntniss des Avesta: I, Z.D.M.G. 35, 153; II., Z.D.M.G. 36, 560.— Studien zu den Gathas: I., Z.D.M.g! II., 38, 117.— Beitriige zur Kenntniss der Gathas: I in K.Z. 28, 1 K.Z. 29, 293.-Arisches, Z.D.M.G. 43, 664; II., Z.D.M.G. 46, 291 Arisches B.B. 15,1 seq,, 185 seq, Arica K.Z. 29, 271, and in his gram(treats
;

H. Bartholomae: Arische Forschungen,
;

;

;

matical essays in K.Z, B.B. passim.

K. Geldner: Studien zum Avesta,

I

Heft,

Strassburg 1882.

— Drei
;

Yasht aus dem Zendavesta, Stuttgart 1884. The same author in K.Z. 24, 128; 27, 225, 577; 28, 185, 256; 30, 316, 514; 31, 319 B.B. 12, 93; 14, 1; 15, 248. Translations from the Avesta in K.Z. 24, 542; 25, 179, 378, 465 (in addition HiJBscH3iANN in K. Z. 27, 92).

W.

Geiger: Le Mythe de Tishtrya
p. 204.
:

et

ses

Louvain 1882,
R. PiscHEL

Of. also the literature

given at

compagnons, Museon, § 34 and § 40.
:

Z.D.M.G. 36, 135 (especially p. 136 Bemerkungen zum zweiten Fargard des Vendidad) and in B.B. 6, 272
Miscellanea,
seq„ especially 280-282.
I.

Pizzi: Tishtar- Yasht, L'inno a Tistrya nell' Avesta, Torino 1882.

E.
p. 574.
p. 108.

WiLHELM

:

De

la Critique

du texte de

I'A vesta,
1*

Mnseon, 1884,

— Contribution

a I'interpretation de

Avesta, Museon, 1885,

Beitr'age zur Lexikographie des Avesta,

Z.D.M.G. 42, 81
17, 155.

;

B

B. 12, 101. -Zum

XII Fargard des Vend., B.B.

TIJE

HISTORY OF AWESTA liESEABCH
:

:

UTEFATURK.
le

71

J.
in

Darm EST ITER Fragment
Suite
:

d'un Cotnmentairc sur
1883,
I,

Vendidad,
dc Nemrod

J.A. 1881, XVII, 435.

101.

La

fleche

en Parse et en Chine, J.A. 1885, V., 220.

part 1888.

A. V. Williams Jackson A Hymn of Zoroaster, Yasna 31. Stott^ Ancient Persian armour from Iranian Sources (Macmillan,
:

Also in the Proceedings and in the JonrnnI of tho 181)4). American Orient. Soc. from 1885 onwards, namely Avesta Superstitions (1885), Similes in the Avesta (188t»\ Afringan 3 translated (1887), Yasna 55 (1887), Avestan Notes (18SS-89), and Avesta (Jontri:

New York

hutions (1891-94).

Th. Baunack: Die drei wichtigsten Gebete der Parson mit Commeiitaren und das siebenteiligc Gebet { Yasna llapfnng' Stndieu aiit* dem Gebiete des Gricchischcn und der Ariscbeo liniti) in Sprache von Joh. und Th. Baunack. Erster Band, zweiter Tlieil,
ihren
:

pp. 303

scq,
:

W. Caland
ol, 25G; 32, 589.

Beitriige zur Kenutniss des Awcsta, in

—Zur
: ;

K.Z. 30, 534; Syntax der Prouomina im Avesta, Amsterdam

1891.

Fu. MiJLLKU
3, 103,

Beitriige
6,

z.

Erkl. d.

Vendidad

iu

AV.Z.K.M.

>,

.#

;

305;

4,

262

180.— Zurathushtra's Vorsuchung (Vendidad

XIX,

1-35), ib. 3, 20.
:

Fn. BuKG

Avestisch hisMiat. K.Z. 29, 358.
-

M. A. Baiithklkmv: Une Lrgende Iranienne:
Yochtl-Fryan, in Kcvue de
Liuguisti(iuc
et

lx?geudo de
Coin|>iiree,

de

Philol.

tome XXI,

p.

3

1

4.
:

E. Vekuiru Jja medecine dans TAvcsta ou traite de mcdecine mazdeenne, trad, du Pahlavi iu Jouru. do Medec, Paris, XIII., p. 141.

W. Bang
p.

:

Contribution a Pexegese de TAveiita,
iu
in

"'
\^

i,

1889,

G93.— Iranica

B.B. 17, 267.

— Ein

Beitrag zur

^;

ing der

Ptthlavi-Qathas,

Z.D.M.G. 44, 3C3.— ProlcgonuDes au Fargmrd

III, J.A. 1891, XVII., 134.

AIDS TO AWESTA KESEAUCH AND ITS METUOH.
§

42.

The Pahlavi Thanplation.— At

tho lime of tho

Dinkard
all

ihcTo exiblcd a trauslutiuu ur ruthori coniuicutary iu Pahlavi to

Uiu

72

D.

MACKKHAN, GELDKER^f; AWESTA LlTEBATUKE,
the exception of the Katar and the Vashtag I^afik.
or editors of the texts, without,

Nasks, with
diasheuaxis

Pro-

bably, the laboursof the scholiasts went hand in hand with tlioseof the

however, reaching

definite

Awesta nnder ^^darpad Mahraspand. The Pahlavi translation must have been again and again extended and supplemented after the time of Adarpad.^ The commentary to the Vendidad cannot have received its present form before 528 A. D., since it mentions, under Vend. 4, 41), the false teaching of Mazdak, the son of Bamdad, who, in the year named, was condemned to death by King Khusrol Andsharavan.
Only the Pahlavi translation of Yasna, Vispered and Vendidad, of Hatokht Nask including the Srdsh Yasht, of Vlsh-

completion contemporaneously with the revision of the

the fragments of the
tasp

Yasht, of Bahram Yasht, and some smaller Yashts, namely Ormuzd, Haftan, Khurshed, and Mah Yasht, of Khurshcd, Atash and Aban Nyaish, of the two Sirdze and the Afrlngan Dahman, Gatha, The Pahlavi reproduction of the Gahanbar, has been preserved'-. Nlrangistan (cf. § 10) is something intermediate between a commentary and an independent work. The Pahlavi translation is inseparable in the MSS. from the Awesta text. The Awesta text is distributed into longer or shorter passages, and the Pahlavi translation directly

attached to each.
§

43.

The character
It

of the

Pahlavi translation
generally
of the

is

that

of

an

interlinear version.
text,

consists

rendering of the

by means of a Pahlavi equivalent in the exact order In this lies at once the strength and the weakness of the original. The full sense of the whole passage often of this scholiast work. cannot be brought out in this way. This was felt by the translator or translators themselves, and they have tried to keep out the interpretation by means of numerous interpolated and appended glosses.

word

for word,

In these the translation given

is

re-written"^

according to the sense,

supplemented or modified, and then attempts are made to render the sense and context of the whole clear, frequently the varying opinions of other teachers whose names are given are cited, and the interpretation established by quotations and all kinds of explanatory additions.

1

West, SBE., XXVII,

p.

XXXLII.
dnt, Hi hhdvah.

2

West,

Essays, p. 98.
ity arthahf ity

5

Like the Sanskrit

AIDS TO AWESTA RESEARCH AND ITS METHOD, §§ 42-45.

73

Often the glosses extend to long learned disquisitions. Sometimes the translator excuses himself by saying that of some particular passage uo interpretation has been handed down, and leaves the passage unexplained, for example, in Yas. 10, 11. This is of great importance for an estimate of the value of his work.

Sample of Paiilavi Translation.— From Vendidad 1, 1 44. words of the translation proper are in italics) 1, 1. There spake AuharTnazd to Sinidmdn ZaratQshi : I created, Spiidmdn ZarallUht, the place for a joy-creation, where no pleasantness is soitght. This means: that man considers the place where he is born, where he is brought up, to bo beautiful, i.e., the best and most pleasant tliat I have
§

(the

:

created. Since if I

hai not

created,

Spitdman ZaratQsht,
is
to

the place for
the whole

a

joy-creation,

where no pleasantness
have wandered away

sought, then woull

They would have failed in this attempt, since it would not have been possible for them to migrate, for it is not possible to go from one part of the earth to
corporeal world
Vej.

Airdn

another without the help of the angels. Some say that
with the help of the devils.

it is

also possible

Yasna
AuharTnazd,

50, 1-2.
i.

Attention must here be given
to
it,

to

ike

offering

of

e.,

may come

Who

desires good deeds,

He

the holy

Aiiharmazd
tating on
its close.

]\lio desires

our happiness.

As

at

the first I

was mediperform

this liturgy, so also at the last, so meditating will I

ITcrc shall

it

he

so.^

2.

Attention ^nust here be giwen to th§

offering oj the good waters

and

the holy Fcrcer

who

desire the happiness
its close.'

of our souls.

As

at the first so at the last shall

we perform

The attending
45.

happiness at the offering of the good waters desire the Jiappiness of our souls. Ferver who holy arul the
here is
§

Sometimes, however, the translation

is

freer; several

words

of the original text are gathered together and reproduced by a single word. Thus in Yas. 10, 13 the words ustidm and vaidhya are combined

"contentment,*' which is qoit« correolf " of the desires." In other caaea the fulGlment since they signify by xQrsand is reproduced pleasure) simple usan (neutr.= desire, para-didhi upa Vend. 7 In 22, (Y. U, 10) or xa rsamllh (45, U).^

and represented by

xflrija?uii/i

:

:

»

Tbc

conolu-ioii of

r.fi.l, in

• »

Th«w

wonlii h»vo in the

MBS. foond

not trmnnlMeii. u» Uiiig a rapetitioo. Into tbo Mlowing their

^j

ekoM.

We have a convene cx*c in Ym. 66, 8, whoro 9rjiuifmUiei to rtprodMed bj l^fM* kdsih kaftdr, in 62, 9 howetcr Oayi .frmswsmU by (armkMk t4dim9nd (Dttsv&raib tor
kartantt).

10

74

D.

MACKICITAN, OELDNEE's AWESTA LITER ATUBE,

vazanguha avi nmdn^m etc. only the first verb is translated by a verb, what follows being freely reproduced thus: hard sdtUn min laiammun madam val tamman yln man "go away from here thither to
your house."
is worked out with great care and consistency. The original word of the text obtains same in the Pahlavi translation the same equivalent. The rule is, however, not without exception. Anman is translated by astilbih^ astilho *'non-exhaustion, " in Y, 30,7 and 44, 20 but in Y. 45, 10, hj semih (more accurately with another name) edit in Y. 12, 5, is paraphrased by cigun gaff, but in 60, 11 it is ignored. The etymological connection of allied words is often rightly felt by the
;
:

The whole

;

translator,

e, g»

ddng
is

45,11: dastobar
not

-,

dastvdm (46,7): dastobarih.

The Awesta word

infrequently represented with instinctive

correctness by the identical middle Persian
§ 46.

word

:

x^'dihra

x^'drili,

The

translations of the individual books can scarcely have
;

lation of the

The transtheir value is very various. minor Yashts, Afringans etc., seems to be less trustworthy and to be of later origin. The most solid and most important is the Pahlavi translation of the Vendidad, although it is far from attaining to the monumental greatness of the Indian commentaries of a Samkara or Malliniitha or the Kasika. In learning, method and accuracy the

proceeded from the same hand

Indian scholiasts are superior to the Persian.

The strength of the Pahlavi translation lies in its vocabulary and in its cursory glosses. In the latter as well as in the interpretation proper there has been preserved a store of ancient genuine school
tradition.

The
to

glosses,

although often

awkwardly expressed,

still

contribute essentially to the true understanding of the meaning.

I

would point

Yasna

10, 20.

gave

nemo

gave

n9md

gave iixdhdm

gave vdrdtlirom

gave x'^arolhdm gave vastr9m.

The Pahlavi commentator paraphrases this " He who (gives) the cattle its request, water and fodder, to him (comes) from the cattle milk and calves. And to him from the cattle speech, to him from the cattle victory. And to him from the cattle nourishment and to him
:

AIDS

TO AWESTA UESEARCII AND ITS METHOD, § 46.

75

from

the cattle clothing.

As

is

said in the Gatbas

:

'

He who

gives the
;

from the cattle his request*, so say I here *ho who praises the Horn becomes more victorious'." (This refers to para. This explanation makes first clear the purpose of the 19.) (inotation in its context and the antithesis in the quotation itself. The subject under consideration is the well-known relation of mutual obligation which in this case exists between man and beast. On tho
cattle its request, obtains

basis of the
translate
:

Pahlavi translation and following Darmesteter, we may " Tho cow has a request and we have a request to the cow.

The cow asks for friendly address and protection ; the cow' is asked to give nourishment and clothing. " Ndmu is here, as in Vendidad 4, 1,
a request in the sense of demand, a
the relation between
the

demand
its

for

what
;

i<

due.

Similar

is

Haoma and

praiser

the former bestows

upon him victory as the thanks due for the compare Y. ^b, 9.

praise.

For tho thought

The Pahlavi
dition, the

translation

is

also

decisive

in

matters of textual

criticism in cases where,

by reason of a variation
doubtful, as
^^

in the manuscript train

meaning
ib.,

is left

magahyu — maiiahyd
7i

Y. 48,
9.

10; kamdradhajaf karwrddhacca in Vv
resldtcm

49; angufiarostdtdm, hangha*
(dwelling) in

saj/andm

(shadow),

Uayu,

Vd.

1,

The majority of the varying readings are, of course, connected with points of grammar or orthography {inazddj viazddOj mazddi; ahafigho,
abango).

In such cases

the

Pahlavi

translation

is

of no account.

Nor
come

is it

always decisive in points of higher textual criticism.

Es-

pecially in the

Vendidad, where the MSS. with their translation, have
few clauses together with their
of the translation had been handtnl
t<>xt

to us only in one family, not a

translation

are wanting. If the
itself,

down

as a book by

been an absolutely reliable witness.
natural to suspect that through the

independent of the original text, it would have In most oases, however, it is
carolossoess of tho copyist

tho

AwesUi sentence
examines
it

has

been

left

out,

and
tho

that

this

oversight baa

involved also a similar

omission in

translation.

more narrowly, there
in

a;'e

omittod

When ouo sometimes clauxet
a neigh-

which cither
3,

their
cf.
\' 1
1

'

'

lin^
i,

or

end coincide with

bouring clause;

.

27 (two sentences begin with bddha)^

34 (almost identical with tho following para). In other passages the Awcsta text, together with tho translation of tho prooodiog olanse, haa boeu left out, c, </. 13, r i' '^. Again, in oUmt passages, ooly ilie
.

76

D.

MACKICHAN, GELDNEB*S AWESTA LITERATUllE,
omitteil
in the

Awesta clause has been
32; 13,48.

Pahlavi- Veodidad,

c.

g.
is

3,

In both such cases the presence of the translation

a

sure evidence of the genuineness of the words.

For the

rest,

we must

look to the future for the

full

use

of the

translatiou for

the

text on the basis of
to

and an investigation of the which the Pahlavi editor worked, and its relation
criticism of the text

the traditional text,

when

the

requirement indicated

in

§

49

Meanwhile the two texts are sometimes The translator leaves out, without any visible reason, irreconcilable. an Awesta word, which all the MSS. unanimously preserve, or he seems to have had an entirely different word before him.
shall have

been

fnlfilled.

§

47.

The weaknesses

of the Pahlavi interpreter are due to his

want of grammatical training and the grammatical consciousness. In this respect the interpreter of the Yasna is inferior to that of the Vendidad. This alone is sufficient to shew the improbability of the translator having been a single person. It seems many a time as if the translator of the Yasna had no longer any idea of the declensions and conjugations of the language he was translating. In this respect he attempts things which no one can seriously defend. We could more easily excuse the etymological artifices and subtleties. But when, e, gr., the words in Yasna 45, 11 ; yastd daevdng apard masydscd taromdstd come and behind them the are made to mean, " the devs have despising of men'*, or the words in 30,1, at td vaxsyd isontu yd mazddthd^ are translated "so are both these speeches desirable which are Mazda's at vd staoid aojdi mazdd anghdcd is translated gifts'*, or Y. 50, M
:

<*

for

me

your praise
It

is

power,"
false,

all philological principles

are set

at

defiance^

would be

in order to

save the credit of

the

Pahlavi translator, to ascribe this indifference to grammar, which often

degenerates into absolute lawlessness, to the Awesta text.
this

It

is

just

great

gulf that separates the original parts of the

Awesta from
Darmesteter

the grammatical

barbarisms of the translator, which proves that the

distance in time between

them cannot be
must be

so small as,

e. </.,

assumes.

On
or

the other hand,

it

said to the credit

of ^the translator

translators

that

many

of the defects which belong to their

work

1

Darmestetek

:

Ariibrc Ics

Uaovas et

Ics

hommcs

!

Buruouf's grammatical con-

science

would certainly have been roused against such

cxi)lanation8.

AIDS TO AWESTA RESEAUCll AND ITS METHOD, §§ 47-48. 77
have their root in the nature of the Pahlavi language itself. Fahlavi is the most unsuitable language for a scholiast. As compared with Awcstu, its vocabulary is defective and it wants logical and grammatical It thoroughly suppresses the grammatical precision and dcfiuiteness.
consciousness.
of explanation.'
§

Instead of explaining,

it

stands itself often in

need

48.

In Persia Pahlavi remained until the

last

century the

learned language of the Parsi theologians, at leasts of course, in a greatly

In India, on the other hand, this science fell much Of the remains of the Pahlavi translation which was translated into other languages. The most part were preserved, a important of these translations is that of the Commentiiry on the Yasna
degenerated form.
sooner into decay.
into
this

Sanskrit by Ncriosangh, son of Dhaval.

Anquetil remarks that
time.'*

Ncriosangh

lived

300 years before his own

According

to

the Parsi Sorabji Shapurji Bengalee (1852), Ncriosangh must have Hved

about 500 years before.^ West* and Darmesteter^ place Ncriosangh about the year 1200 A. D., reckoning according to the genealogical tiibles.

Yasna we possess a Sanskrit translation of the Khorda Awesta, which is likewise attributed to Neriosangh. According
13esides the Sanskrit

and Ya^sna has been edited ** shewn at § II. Thai of translatioi by Uaug and Wvtl of Nask English Fargards the with Hat'>kht an the three as a Supplement to the Arda Viraf (Bombay 1872), pp. 2fi9 seq. That i»f some parts of iho
1

The Pahlavi

iiitcrpictatiou of tho VcDilidatl, Visiwro I
Ayia^tti text.

by RriE(iBL, together with the

Cf.

*'

Literature

Khonlii Awc-«ta, namely Khurshod Nyaish, including Khurshcd Yjisht,

Mah
first

Va^ht, f^runh

Yasht
I'ahlavi

lIat_okht
:

Hai.kxann

Yasht by Ueber cine Pargonbandschrift, Bt. Petersburg 1879, p. 30. Portions of tho Translation have been tran'<late<l or paraphraso*! by IIau(2-Wk8t, BMsajii,

by

Daumestetbo,

ti.

ir.

II.,

275

*c/y.

That of tho

C

(namely Pahlavi Yasna 28. 29. 30. 31. 32, 1 Vontli.lad 1. 18. 19. 20). Vcndidad 0, 1-3G translated by We8T in the treatise The Barcshnum Ceremony, 8BK. XVIIl. pp. 431 $rq. Ysana 19 21 translatol by Wi58T, 8BK. XXXVII, pp, 453 seq. The Pahlavi version of Yanna 30 and 57 hat been translated by II.
pp. 338-3'j3.
:

;

:

HDbscumank
cnausdem
Vondidad
with
:

;

see the "Literature"

shewn above,
;

§

41.— Further, Okiokb

:

Die

Pehlevi Version dcs er«ten Capltels dos Vendldad, Erlangeo 1877.— Jlouf, UcbcraoUuiig*

Pahlavi-Vondidad. in Z.D.M.G. 43, 31

Beitrii^'o xur

ErkliiranK dot PabUvi/.:irathu!«htri«a

L.B.B. 17,2ri7.— L.

If.

MlLL8,

A Rtudy

of tho

five

Uatbaa

tho Pahlavi translation, Parts I.— IV. Oxford IS.12-9l.-MUlf, Tawui 43, I-IO with the Pahlavi text dooiphoriHl and tnmslatoil. Z.D.M.tt. 12, i:\9.

....

Akquktil

I, 2,

V.
N*LMi...«:iiiirli
i.

• •

BriEGBL, KinleJtung xur Ausgnbc don Communicated by lot tor.
i>,,,n...p...r I,

1.

CXIU.

78

D.

MACKlCilAN, QELDNEtt's AVESTA LITERATURE,

to Anquetil, a Sanskrit

Commentary

of the

first six

fargards of the

Vendidad is said to have existed.^ liut no trace of it can any longer be found. Neriosangh was a thorough master of I'ahlavi his Sanskrit lays no claim to being classical. His rendering of the Pahlavi Commentary is free in various places the author has added much from his own knowledge. For the understanding of the Pahlavi translation Neriosangh is of great value,
;

;

in his rendering.

Neriosangh himself appears only to have got as far as Yasna chap. 48 From that point a second translator, whose knowhe breaks
off at

ledge of Pahlavi aud Sanskrit was equally deep, has taken up the thread.

This translator also did not reach the end

;

Yasna

57.

From

54, however, his translation is only fragmentary,
is

and the entire
render-

remainder

of no value.
is

According

to Anquetil, the Sanskrit

ing of the Yasna

ascribed to two Parsis, Neriosangh and Ormazdyar,

son of Ramyar- and cousin of Neriosangh. According to Darmesteter,*
this

Ormazdyar

is to

of Neriosangh.

But

this is impossible, for the

be regarded as an incapable coutinuer of the work continuer cannot have
1323,
since

written before the year
for

he makes use of the MS.

K^

his continuation,'*

At
into

a

still

later

period

the

older

commentaries were trau slated

the generally known modern languages, Gujarati and modern

Persian.^

correct method of Awcsta interpretation must aim at § 49, uniting the two tendencies represented by Koth and Darmesteter The traditional res]>ectively and at reconciling their contradictions. because of the lump the condemned in be to not is interpretation
defects from

A

simple trust.
1

which it suffers, nor are its mistakes to bo accepted on The Awcsta must be explained as an Iranian religious
I, 2,

Anquetil

262.

2 3

Ibid, I. 2, 74.

Darmesteter

1.,

CXII.
:

Neriosangh 's SanskritNcriosangh's Yasna has been edited by Fr. RpiEaEL Ucbcrsetzang dcs Ya^na, Leipzig 1861. Spiegel used as his MSS. a Taris and a ('openhagen MS., both of which are copies of the ancient MS. belonging to Dastur Jamaspji of
*

Bombay. Darmesteter has edited some Sanskrit and also modern Persian translations of Khorda Awesta in the tit. ir. II., 256 seq. See also § 13 and Prolegomena XXXIII. 5 The Gujarati translation by Mobcd Framji Aspandiarji is specially known. Cf, " Literature " shown at § 11. Pahlavi- Awcsta MSS. aud Awcsta-Sade MSS, have often an interlinear translation in modern Persian.
the

;

AIDS TO

AWESTA KESEAROH AND

ITS METFTOD, §§

4849.

79

book, and not from the vague standpoint of Indo-German linguistics. A thorough study of Pahlavi is indispensable. Pahlavi literature is a
true aid to the

knowledge

of the Awosta.

On

this side Darmesteter's

labours must remain as our example.

For detailed research, according

Witli the mere to Darmesteter, a great field of activity remains. knowledge of the Pahlavi translation the knowledge of the original is not achieved, but it often, very often, proves a finger-post. At any It is with the Pahlavi rate, it deserves everywhere to be listened to.
translation very

much as with Sayana's Commentary to the Rig Voda, Sayana was consulted only occasionally for this or that as long So rather than satisfied many. repelled The result was that passage, he
the

in

became a

one case as in the other the prejudice against the scholiast If we accustom ourselves to the sysfiishion in learning.

tematic use of him, and to derive from this the practical sum- total of

growing appreciation. must be worked upon and digested as a whole, and, as a necessary preliminary, made more accessible and more intelligible to science before the last word can be said regarding it. In essentials, however, the judgment, which Hubsrhmann in 1872 passed
his aid, the original prejudice soon gives place to a

So

also the Pahlavi translation

course, be various

various ways, should remain '*The gain will, of abundant for the Vcndidad, satisfactory for the later Yasna, but scanty for the Gathas."' In the difficult ancient parts of the Awesta the Parsi interpreter was often no longer able to grasp So far the result the meaning and the construction of the sentences. must be called scant. But for the fixing of the meaning of individual words and conceptions even his interpretation of tho Gathas is very Above all, we must endeavour to distinguish tho fruitful of result.

upon

its value, in

:

:

which the

which a firm tradition was still in existence from those in scholiast, by combination or etymological analysis, endeavours to regain the lost or only dimly-guessed meaning of the words. To the latter class belong cases such as acivdo Y. 3\f2=agQfndntIclh, Ner.
cases
in

asasayatuena
fnayiarot"^ 48,

;

muniye

32, IG
li

= frdxQ

hdSih

=

prt^tdacaUaityena

10

= aro

gahrtl

10
zak

=
i
>

sipdh

;

yastd 31, 7

=

"to my roan"; sjuiyathrahyd oO, malaH = frdpfoca; yastom 40, 4 = pavan

mat

= prdpte,
Ptu«licn,

Yon H. Ht'BBTMMANN, in tho Rltnunj^tbcrichtm «lor philot. phiiol. Wisn.. zu Mlinchon 1873. l^and II. I Zur neurihoilung dcr tnulitionellcii Ucbcrectrong dcs Avo-ita, pp. 639 5(17.— Et). MRYRt, OoMhicbtc, p. 602, giTcs a purely objective and accurate criticietm of these mcth^Ig.

AvcsU

Kl. dcr K. b.

Akademic der

80

B.

MACKICRAN, GELDNEU's AWESTA LITERATURE,

Such interpretations a la Ydska are, however, by no means the rule. The distinction between the Indian niruhti- and rudi- interpretation, which is not always sufficiently estimated, has its analogy in Iran.
Here
as there the r/7c?^i-interpretation is the better as resting

upon genuine
Neriosangh
31,

tradition.

Such striking and immediately convincing

7'Zi(Zt-interpreta(i;i

tions are, e.g.,

vydmY.

48, 7

=

nav'id "joyful tidings"

uianojnam
19; 47,

is to

read as an emendation for
*'

manonyam)) vanghu

Ner. vyahii ; d-moyastrd 30, 5 hanjamanlkih " assembly " (the assembly of the satvastardn, of which
decision,''

=

vizdrisn

=

Bund. 30, 10 speaks,
ddrdn
•=.

is

meant)

;

rariadual (31,

3.

9,

&c.)

= jyaUcdr-

prativddin ;fs9ratu (33, 12)

= sarddrih=z 'pralhutva.
;

n
^
Ji

'

.,.
.

— ^
^
-

^}

v» ^
'

^~

^ '^

The Sasanian interpreter often fails with the means at his dismake the meaning perfectly clear he comes near to the truth without grasping it. Here the philological method of interpretation must come in to supplement his labours. Akdo ( Y. 48, 8 ;.50, 4) is explained as dsMrak '^ clear," "manifest,'* Ner. prakata, tn reality it is a substantive, and means the revGlation, manifestatio, the clear distinguishing of the good and evil in the judgment. Vidisa (this is
posal to

^N

J ^

the best attested reading) 58, 4,
**

is literally

explained by hard daMsnili}

-^ ^^

bestowal.''

The

distribution of reward
;

and punishment

is

meant,

^X^-v^cf. vidditi and vyada in 38, 5 said to bo 'pavan fumman

=

^
*^
--=»
.

.

means '' original meaning is often only a dim recollection, is shewn in Y. 51, 12, where mratoMcd \& explained by sar^ "cold," while in reality this must be the meaning of the following word aod9roscd,^ Caratascd
elsewhere,
is to

x^aidhyacd (33, 7 ), 9 in 29, G is *' with the mouth," while it really, as personally," " self."That the recollection of the
60,
2.

V

be determined according

to

Vend. 13, 49.
will

The gain
the
is

to

be obtained from the Pahlavi translation
special

come in

first

instance to the vocabulary of Awesta.
till

A scientific

dictionary

not possible

indices have

been prepared to the whole
latter,

Pahlavi translation with corresponding Awesta equivalents, and to the

Awesta texts with the corresponding Pahlavi equivalents. For the
drawback to the Pahlavi translation that verbal compounds are meaning is often lost.
sing, of the root rt= I,

1

It is a

rendered
46, 18.
cf.

in a stereotyped fashion, and thus their specific
2
i?

is

nom.

thou, or self;

to

it

also belongs nticU
(e.g.

Similarly.<;iufl- signifies not only "tuus," but also

"thou thyself"
*'

Y. 35, 10,

§

28), just as the Sanskrit sva
3

signifies "

suus" and

self."

Cf. K.Z. 30, 524.

V

'
/

AIDS TO AWESTA RESEARCH AND ITS METHOD, §§ 49-50

81

the aid of the actual
since Spiegel's time,
§

however, a new edition of the whole of the Pahlavi commentaries, with materials which ha^e considerably increased
is

an indispensable condition.
the living knowledge especially of the

50.

Sanskrit,

Veda

literature, will

be certain, next to the Iranian languages, always to exert
alone that

an important influence on Awesta research, for this reason
for

more than a fourth part of tho Awesta texts no indigenous intercome down to us, and because Sanskrit involuntarily compels a strict observation and following of grammatical rules, while those who depend unconditionally on the tradition still proceed rather loosely in this respect. No one will deny that Awesta and Sanskrit have preserved between them in common more linguistic store than any other two languages of different tribes of people. Their close relationship is not limited only to individual words, but entire combinations, even sentences are almost identical in the two. Gdrmclni mlutdni " tanned
pretation has

skins"

(R.V.

8, 55,

8)

appears in the Awesta as mrdtom car9ma

(Yasht 17, 12);^ fUijed vu vi vd mritijet (Qat. Br. 9, 5, 2, 14) as frithyeltica puycitica (Vend. 6, 28). Side by side with Gatha sentence Ke mo nd thrdld vMl anyd aiidt thwatcd {Y, .50 1) maybe placed: iia nas frdtd vidyafevai tvad anyah (Mbh. 1, 232,9.) In Sanskrit at a first
:

\^
"

VJ

^

^\f

meeting

the question
c/v

is

ko'si

kas^ydsi
7).

(e.

g,

Mbh. 1,131,
took

34),

in

Awesta

ahi kahyd aid (Yas. 43,

In order to shew, however, that the Iranian often

its

own

separate path in the evolution of meanings of words, and that quite the

opposite of the Sanskrit, and that

all

etymology or comparison with
field

Sanskrit must give
field, I
quot<.*d

way before

clear facts or testimonies in tho Iranian

do not require to bring anew into the
of dcnighu'dasyu, dat'va-deva.

tho examples often

The Awesta mairya has been

"destructive," "fatal" attempted to bo etymological ly explained* as Skr. mdrya *' a young man." OP "worthy of death." Formally it is

=

=

Its corresponding Pahlavi

in

which mar

signifies

"rogue/* ''black-

guard*' (Nerios. nrHasa) decides the point.

The

different

development of idea
Skr.

in
is

the two langnafret can be

made

clear a

posteriori,

mdrya

sense with a touch

of the erotic
is

"a young man*' in the good "tho fellow or lover;" Aw. tmitrya^

on tho other hand,
1

" tho young kid," in the bad sonso " tbo kuAve.*'

B.B. 17, p. 349.
Cf.

*

JusTi, llandbacb,

s.

v.

;

Hauo, das 18 Kap. det

YtLt |kS.

82

D.

MACKICHAN, GELDNER's AWESTA LITERATURE.

Awesta research must always take accouat of sucli Iranian peculiari\Yhere Sanskrit and the later Iranian languages coino in collities. sion with each other the Iranian must decide, as in the case of Skr. arum, Aw. aurusaj where the Pahlavi arils, Paz. alos (Ner. svcta) shew that auruiia means "white," not " reddish," as the Skr. arusa
signifies.

o^**^
perhaps be

''

^^

'

^ ^^'^Z
any single interpreter
to satisfy all

It will

difficult for

the conditions above specified.

Pahlavi assumes a complete acquaint-

ance with modern Persian and a knowledge of the Semitic tongues. Awesta philology sits as it were between two stools. The coming
Soshyos,
himself

who

will really explain the

whole Awesta to us, must unite in

all

these requirements.

If Anquetil's

prophecv holds true, we

must, however, wait a long time for him.^

D.

MACKICHAN.

1

Anquetil

I.,l, Pref.

XVII.

X
DIE PARTHER.
1.

NAMEN.

Eine vollkommcn sichero Erwahnung der Farther findcn wir,
wic OLsnAUSEN'
findet sich

richtig

sagt, in

den

Inscliriftcn dcs Darius.

Dort

Parthaca
heisst

am

h'aufigsten als

Bozeichnung dcs Landcs; der
ist

Bcwohner

cbenso nnd hiichst wahrsclieinlicli

Bh,

II,

92 das

Wort

in der

Bedeutung der Parther, der Bewohuer der Landschhaft
Deutlicber
tritt diesc

Partbien za fassen.

Doppelheit der Bedeutang
dieser

hervor in der anarischen Uebersetzung,

NR. 17

Uebersetzung

wird Parthava (nach Oppert's Lesiing) durch Parcuva wiedergegeben,

dagcgen Bh.
ist,

II, 3

durch Parcuuapj wo p das Zeichen des Phirals
78

Bh.

II, 69, 71, 75,

darch Par^ivas zumeist mit Vorsotzung

des Zeichens, welches vor goographischo Bezeichnungen gesetzt wird
einnial II, 68

auch Par^vaspc, wo pe wider den Plural ausdriickt.
nicht gcnau

Wic man
sondern

sieht, cntspricht Par^iivas

der

Form

parlhaca,

eher

einem parthwa oder perdhiva im

Avesta.

In dor

assyrisch-babylonischen Uebersetzung steht (nach von Bezold) meist
Pa-ar'tU'Uf einmal
sich ziemlich
93,

NR. 12 auch

Par-tU'ii,

Die Griechen schliossen

gonau

an die persische

Form

an, doch bat Ilerodot III,

117 und VII, GO die kiirzcre Form mp^ot, wio auch die Roiner

Parihi sagcn.

Wic

Ktesias den

Namen

gosobricben haben mag, geht

aus den una crhaltenen Fragmcnten nicht

mehr mit

Sicherheit horvor.
(

In C.
II,

Mlillcr's

Ausgabo dieser Fragmcnte
napCi^aliav

findet sich p. 14
(

=

Diod.

2)

die

Form

dagcgen

p.

42

=

Diod.

II,

34)

nti/itfcrvr,

cndlich p. 47 in den Ausziigcn dcs
thiftevnToi

Photius UapOlvy Strabo schreibt

doch auch

(XI,

524)

ilo/i^ot

Ptolonmous UapOai Alio dioso

Abanderungen der Form

in aaswUrtigon Schriften

brauchon uns nicht

1

Cf.

OlsiiausknV Abhaiilluiig
1S77: lartluiva

iu

•Icii

Siuungtlwrioblan der Berltaor

i tadOTito

<lor WlitttCDbcbiiltcu

oud Inhlav,

MUm vad Mik

84
waiter zu

EUGEN
kuinmem, wir konnen

WILIIELM,
sie

nur

als

Umgostaltungen der

Eranischen Form Parthava ansehen, an die wir una zu halten haben.

Ueber
I.

die

Etymologic des Wortes parthava hat

wolil

zuerst

Oppeet gesprochen (Inscr. des Ach6nenides,

p. 20 des Sonderdrucks).

Er leitet das Wort auf das avestische perethuj dem ein altpers. parthu entsprechen musste.
gicbt er die Bedeutuug
^'

gricch.

nXarvs zuriick,

Dem

"Worte parthava
niclit

fort,

hcros, prince/'

Ich kann

sehen,

wie

man zu

dieser

Bedeutung gelangen kann.

Das indische pdrihiva,

Krieger, Fiirst, Kiinig geht auf sanskr. prithivl, die breite, die Erde
zuriick, ein

Wort und
ist.

eine Bedeutung, die fur das Eraniscbe nicht
die

nacbweisbar

Olshausen denkt an

Wurzel

pareth, kampfen, aus

der ein paroth-u, Kampfer abzuleiten

wtire.

Spiegel (Eran.

Alter-

thumsk.

Ill,

746

ff.)

meint,

dass

Parthava die Auswanderer, die

UehergGsiGclelten bedeute.
sei,

Dass dies die wahre Bedeutung des Wortes

bezweifle ich auch jetzt noch, vgl. Zeitschr. d, Deutscb.

Morgenl,

Gesellschaft

Bd. 42,

S.

96,

wo

ich

iiber

perethwa gehandelt habe.
p. 57,

Ausserdem

ist

noch Lagaede, Lexikographie

Ges, Abh.

p.

221 zu

vergleichen.

Mir scheint Parthava

seiner

Form nach nur

ein Patronyfiir

micum
auch

eines

Wortes
halte

Parthu

sein

zu konnen, das ich

einen

Eigennamen
bei

und mit

sanskr. prithu vergleichen mochte,

wenn

den Indern Parthava RV. 468, 8 vorkommt.

Die anarische Form Par^uvaslQgiQ^ nahe, an verschiedene andero

Worter zu denken,
hauptsiichlich

die

der

Form Parthava nahe

stehen und sich
th einsetzen.

dadurch unterscheiden, dass
liber

sie p statt

Olshausen hat schon
die in

dieselben gesprochen. Er hat zuniichst an

assyrischen

Inschriften

vorkommenden Parsua

erinuert,

in

welchen

man

vielleicht die

Vorfahren der Parthava sehen konnte.

Indessen hat er die Bedenken nicht verschwiegen, welche einer solchen

Ansicht cntgegenstehen, denn die Parsua der assyrischen Inschriften
sind nicht in der

Gegond zu suchen,

in welcher die

Parthava wohnten,

sondern mehr nordlich von deuselben nach Atropatene, wie Schrader
gezeigt hat (Keilinschr.
u.

Geschichtsforschung, p. 168

fg.).

Mit

Rucksicht auf diese Wohnsitze der Parsua brauchen wir

auch die

DIE I'AUTUEU: §
Frago
nicbt
iiiiber

1

NAMEN
die

—§

2 LAND.
Leroits

85
anl-

zu eroriern,
bat,

aucb

Olshausbn

geworfcn und bcseitigt

ob niimlicb die Parsua identiscb seien mit

den Perseru, den Pdrsa der Keilinscbrit'tcn.
dies nicbt der Fall
ist.

Es

verstebt sicb,

dass

indiscben

'par(;u

Dagegen verdient das uabo Anklingeu dcs an Parthva^ Pdrsa und das anariscbe Par^uvas und

Name eines Mannes Ludwig bei deui Worte prithu-par^avas die gewobnlicbo Auffassung " breite Krummsiibel trageud, breitaxtig"
Parsua Beacbtung. aucb RV. 599,
1

RV.

626, 46 stebt par^u als

will

verlassen

und uebersetzeu,

die

*'Pabtuer und PEUSEK"(Vgl. Kommentar

zur Rigveda-Uebersctzung II. Teil, p. 547.)

Nacb Pan.

V., 3.

117

wird

als

Name
j^cf'^^'u.

eines

Kriegerstammes

angefiirt,

im Sing, pdrravah,

Dual 'pdr^avaUy Plural aber par^avah, letztere Form deutet auf einen
Singular
biiogen,

Iliermit muss aucb das
eines
Volke.s

Wort pdra^ava zusammcneines

der

Name

imSiidwesten von Madbyade9a und

aucb

Name

einer Miscblingskaste, der

Sobn

Sudrafrau.

Ueber ein

nupyli (bei Ptol. VI, 18,

Brabmanen mit einer 4 und 5) im Lande der
Ill,

ParopanisadoD bat Lassen (Ind.

Altertbumsk.

135) gesprocben

und
ist

dem beutigcn Persch wiedcrgoruudcn. Zu beacbten aucb rarsiana=Nadgil am AHngar (Lassen 1. 1. p. 136). Ilieraus
die Stadt in

ergiebt sicb soviel, dass an Pdrsa an^ilingeude

Namen

wie Pargavasy
hinaus

rdrarava, Uapeala aucb im Osten firans

und nocb

dariiber

vorkommen und
docb

ci ist
in

nicbt unwabrscheinlicb, dass Stjiramo odcr

Stammesabtcilungeu
last idcntiscbe

vorscbicdenun Tcilcn Erans
fiibrten.

diesulben

oder

Namen

2.

LAND.
in alter Zeit, naaient-

Eino genaue Angabc der Grouzcn Partbicos
licb

gegen Westen,
II,

licgt

uns nicbt vor.

Aus den

Koilinscbriften

Bh.

92

fg.,

wo

die

Partlicr

mit den Varkdna

odcr llyrkaniern

zusammen geuannt wcrden,
letzteren benacbbart sein

liisst

sicb scbliessen, dass sie wohl den

konntcn.

Ilorodot nennt sie an verschieViilkern
vereinigt, aber

denen Stellen seines Werkes mit audern

wegcn der Steucrverwoigcrung, wie IH, 93 odor wcgcn der Heerosabteilung, wie VII, 60.

Daraus

folgt

nicbt,

dass sic den

mit tbnen

86

EUGEN WILHELM,
benacbbarb
sein

zusammengefasstcu Volkern
tigsten
ist

mussten.

Am

wich-

die Beincrkung, dass Jer Fluss

Akes durch das Gebict der
wio Lassen gezeigt hat, so

Partlicr fliesse.

Da

dies der

Etrek

ist,

muss wenigstens
gelegen haben.

cin Teil ihres Gebietes ostlich

vom

kaspischeu Mcere

Arrian sagt Anab. Ill,
sei, als

20, 2,

dass Alexander nach
tS>v

Ragha gekommen

der fllichtige Darius in die nvXai

Kaanlav

gekommen
111, 20,

war, die eine Tagereise von
aiirbs

Ragha

entfernt waren.
-qye

Ebenda
tt/xos

4 heiSSt es:

Oe a>s enl

HapOvalovs

Kai

Krj fiev 7rp6)Tr)

raiy

Knaniais nvXais eVrparoTTfScuo-e,

wonach man wohl annehmen

darf, dass die

kaspischen Thoro schon zu Parthien gehorten
westliche Grenze bildeten.

und wahrscheinlich

die

Nach Arrian Parth. 3 waren

die Parther

unter Sesostris aus Skythien in ihre spateren Wohnsitze eingewandort.

•Wo Arrian

in der

Anabasis von den Parthern spricht, da moint er

augenscheinlich immer bios den

Stamm, den auch Darius
S telle redet

als

Parthava

bezeichnet, auch an der lefczteren

er wohl von diesem,

den

er also aus

Skythien hergezogen

befcrachtet.

Ob

dies

mit Recht

geschieht oder ob eine Verwechslung vorliegt, sind wir nicht

mehr im

Stande auszumachen, ebensowcnig ob Arrian dadurch, dass or den

Ursprung der Parther

in Skythien sucht, sie zu Turaniern

machen

will.

Wie demauch
dieser

sein

mag, sicher

ist,

dass von einigen Schriftstellern

Curtius, der diesen Partherstamm mit
net, sagt

Stamm Parthava von den Parthern selbst geschieden wird. dem Namen Parthieni bezeichIV. 12, 17: Parthienorum deiude gens incolentium terras,

quas nunc Parthi Scythia profecti tenent, claudebant agmen.
Isidor von

Nach

Charax

liegt

eine

Provinz Parthyene jenseits des kaspiviel kleineren

schen Meeres und schcint einen
alten

Bezirk zu bilden als die
bis an die

Parthava besassen

:

es

ist

das

Laud von Dehistun

Grenze Margianas zwischen Jajerm, Kabiican und Meshhed.

Nach

einer leider etwas verdorbenen Stelle des Isidor lag dort Parthaunisa,

wo

die koniglichen Grliber waren.
als
:

Dieser

bedeuten

Niederlassung der Parther.

Name kann nichts anderes Im Altpersischen wurde ein
Niederla^surLg

Pai'thava-nisdy a einem avest. Parthao-nisdya (cf, rao-ratha)entsprechen.

Nisa,

d.

i.

nisuya, das

neupers. ** bedeu'et bios

und

DIE PARTHEU

:

§ 2

LAND

—§

3 IIERKHNFT.

87
Es
ist in

kommt

desbiilb

auch

in

vorscbiedenen Teilen EruDs vor.

diosem Partbyaia, dass Strabo von Arsakea sagt XI, 515:
av^rjaiv tu>v jrfpl ^iu6otov dnoa-Tijaai ti)v Ilapdvalav,

fftevyotn^a Bt rrjm

daSS also dort

im Osten,

in

der Niibe Baktriens, das partbiscbe Reicb begann.
3.

HERKUNFT.
Herkanft der Partber etwas

Es

ist

ausserst scbwer, iiber die
saf];en,

Sicberes zu

nacb den Erbrterungen der letzten Jabro scbeintmir
Duoysen,' Alfred
v.

jedocb, namentlicb nacb dem, was

GuTOCnMin,'-

Lassen' und SriEGEL* iiber diese Sacbe gesagt haben, eine erneute

Bebandlung der Frago am Platze zu

sein.

Nacb der Angabe
die

des Arrian Partb, 3 sind, wie bereits bemorkt, des iigyptiscben

Partber

in

unvordenklicben Zeiten, zur Zeit

Kbnigs

Sesostris,

nacb Eran aus Skytbien eingewandert.

Demnacli

wiiren sie urspriinglicb

Skytben gewesen und keine Eruuier, und zwar
Gotha 1877.
368

^

Geschichtc

.los

Hellcnismus.

Ill*,

ff.

'

rJeschichte Trans

und

seiner NachbarlSnder von Alexander

dem Orosncn

bis

mm

I'ntcrgnng der Arsaciden.
3

Tlibiagen 1868.

Zur Geschichte der Giicchischcn nnd Indoekythischen Konigc. Bonn 1838 aud
II.,

Indische Alterthumskundo

277

ff.,

352

ff..

SU

ff.

(1. Au^g.).

ErAnische Altcrtbumskunde, 3 Bde.

Lcipzij^ 1871-78.
:

Die alteaten Werke ncucrer SchriftstcllGr Uber parthlscho Geschichte sInd
Vaillanf, Ars-icidarum

I.

Foy

imperinni (Paris 1738. 8"), L. I)U

Annales Ar«a<idarun).
Memoirtj<ur lo

(Strassburg 1732.

4o).

G.E.T.

FOCU Dk Dk LongderdR, GuiLHEM db Saintk-Cuoix,

gouvcrnenicnt des Partlics
gcscbichtlich die
v.

Dif Mlinzon orliiutci-n
Groo<ino III.
p.

(Mem. do TAcnd. des ^ucr. L, 48ff. 7f>5 ff. Werke Ton E. Q. VlPCOXTI, loonogrnphic

58ff .

;

(H£ni. de la soc.

d'ivrch<?<)l. II., p.

Bartholo.maki, Ileohorchrs snr lo numismati«|ue Arsocidc Iff.); A. de LONnpKRiKR, Mcinoircs «ur \i\ chronologic
Onomadtiqiic
13. p. 360.SS.

et I'iconographie des roin Parthos Arsocidos (Parl« 1853, I*); B. DrOUI.n,

Areactde, cssais d'cxplioatinn des
1895).

noms

den rols Parthcs (Ilovuc NuniisDu

Wichtig «!nd die MUuzkatalogc von: Lc C*^ Prokescii-Ostkw, Lea raoiiuaitii de G A RDN'nn. The Parthian Cofnnge (liondon 1H7T. 40). Vgl. I. LiNDBAV, i;ol>cr partlilHChe Numismatik. Auwcrdem aiad in ucoiivr
roii

Parthes (Paris 187175, 40), und Percy
Schriften
o<ler

J'.elt

Farther

iiber parthischc Ooschichto crichicnen von: Da" no,jpnr«Uoh«» IHch nntor den Arsacidea.
t

Sciink;
IfclllgcM.
II

t'

Rawi.inron,
Ix)ndon 1873,

T!
i

a)

Monarchy, or (K^<)gmphy,
Zeiton bio
(T.

intorVfCU:..
;

in

der **8u*rj of Nati.um,'" Ix)Mdoii 1693

n

JUSTI, Gesohiohtc iraiH von
•MJnindri^- d-r

dcti

tiltcctten

lum

Auftfraag der S,1>^nidcn

im

iraiiisclipii rbiI..]oirl,>"

IT,

i^

1S97.

88

EUGEN WILRELM,
als Partliava innerhalb
ersfceus,

schon jene Farther, die wir zur Zeit des Darius
der Grenzen seines Reiches vorfiuden.

Hier fragt es sich nun

ob damit gesagt sein
Herkunft waren
Vcilkerschaften

soil,

dass die Farther als Skythen

anderer

als die Eranier,

ob

sie urspriiuglich

zu den turanischen

gehoren, die wir jetzt im Norden Erans vorfinden.

Bekanntlich

ist

neuerdings diese Ansicht recht zweifelhaffc geworden,

dass sich schon

im Alterthum

diese turanischen

Volker im Norden

man nimmt vielmehr jetzt an, dass ursprlinglich auch die Nomadenstamme im Norden Erans zu den eranischcn Stammen gehorten und dass erst seit dem 2. Jahrh. vor Chr. Turanier
Erans
fest gesetzt batten,

den Jaxartes iiberschritten und die Steppen im Norden Erans in dauernden Besitz nahmen. Hiernach ware es moglich, dass die Farther,
trotz

ihrer

Einwanderung aus Skythien, von jeher zu den Eraniern
Es fragt
sich aber

gehort

htitten.

auch zweitens, ob auf diese Nachricht
viel zu

Arrians iiber die urspriingliche Einwanderung der Farther

geben

ist,

ob es sich nicht bios

um

eine unbegriindete Ueberlieferung

handelt, daraus entstanden, dass Arsakes mit den Farnern wirklich nach

Farthyaia einwanderte und dort seine Herrschaft begriindete.
Zeit, in welcher dieses geschah,

In der

konnten turanische Volker bereits den an den Grenzen Erans festgesetzt
Farner, welche dem
den

Jaxartes iiberschritten und sich

haben.

Darum ware

es nicht unmoglich, dass die

Arsakes zur Griindung seiner Herrschaft behilflich waren, zu
Turaniern gehorten.
vorhauden.

Ueber den Arsakes selbst sind zwei Ansichten.
als "»"7p Sxuy/iis bezeichnet,

Wahrend ihn Strabo geradezu
fiir

erwahnt er doch auch, dass Andere ihn

einen Baktrer hielten.

Aus

diesen unsichereh

Angaben
1)

lassensich verschiedene Combinationen

ableiten.

Entweder

:

Arsakes war ein Turanier, ebenso die Farner,

raitderen Hilfe er sich in Farthyaia feotsetzte, oder 2) Arsakes war z war
ein Eranier, bediente sich aber turanischer Hilfe.
3) Arsakes

war ein

Turanier, aber die Farner

waren ein Stamm nomadischer Eranier.

Endlich, 4) sowohl Arsakes als die Farner waren Eranier.

Von

diesen

vier Moglichkeiten scheint mir die erste die wahrscheinlichere.

Kein

Zweifel
in

ist iibrigens,

dass wenigstensdie konigliche Familie sehr bald
die

Sprache,

Sitten

und Gebr'auchen an

Eranier sich raoglichst

DIE PAETIIER

:

§ 3

HERKUNFT

§ 4 PAHLAV.

S9
ihrer

genau anschloss, die Parner aber werden sowobl zur BelohnuDg
Dienste, wie auch
als sichere

Verbiindete des Kiinigs in dcssen Nuhc

angesiedelt worden sein.

1st dies ricbtig,

dauu werden die Verbaltnisso
Kauakendynastie

dainals iihulicb gewesen sein wie gegenwiirtig bei der

und dem Stamm der Afshar.
4.

PAHLAV.
sein zu erfabren, wie lango dor

Es wurde uns sebr erwiinscbt
wurde.

Name

Partber in Eran und den benacbbarten Gegenden iiberbaupt gebraucbt

Ohne Zweifel war Parthava wiibrend der ganzen

Ilerrscbaft

der Acbiimeniden als

Name

eines

eraniscben

Stammes im Gebrauche

und wird
Quellen

dieselbe aucb

liberdauert

babeu

;

weun aber

griecbischo

aucb

in

den

folgenden

Jabrbunderten fortwiibrend von
als

Partbem sprecben,
einer

so folgen sie

wobl mebr alten Gewobnbeiten
Bei
bei

bestiramten

Ueberlieforung.

Oricntalen erscheint er von

nun an nicbt mebr, ausgenommen

den

Armeniern, die aber den

Namen von den

Griecben baben diirften.

Aucb

feblt es

uns durchaus

an einem Scbliissel zu der Verwirrung, die wir nun bei den abcndliindiscben Gescbicbtscbreibern finden.

Reicb als das Parthische bezeicbnet,
wie

man das neue craniscbo kann man ebensogut biliigen, als
Dass
das Mkdischb und Peksischb

man

die beiden

alteren

Reicbe

als

bezeicbnet.

Aber wir wisseu gar

nicbt,

ob

in

diesem neuen Keicbe
ist,

der

Stamm

der Partber in derselbcn Weise an die Spitze getreten

wie

friiber die

Meder und

Perser,

man

scbeint vielmebr unter Parthern

etwas Frerades zu verstebeu, cine auslandiscbe Regentenfamilie oder

gar einen ausliindischen Stamm, der sicb der Ilerrscbaft
bemiiclitigt

iiber Eriin

batte

und nur nacb und nacb mit den Bewobnern

dieses

Landes verwucbs. Leider geben unseinbeimiscbo Nacbricbton ubcr dicso
Dynastie ebenso wenig Aufscbluss wie
liber

den Namon des Volkes der
sie

Partber, das "NVenige, was sie bericbten, scbeinen

mir aus freraden

Quellen erbalten

zu bal>en.

Die Dynastie wird die der Asiikanikr
dcckt.

genannt, was sicb mit
ist

dem Namon der ArsAkioen

Der Name

vollkommen

bogroiflicb,
bicss.

dcrselben

Aiisakes

wenn man daran denki, dass der Stifter Wie man auch liber die Ucrkunft dicsor

90

ELULN WiLllKKM,
ist

Arsukiden deuken mag, das
nicht von der
alten
ist

wohl

sicber, dass ibr Stifter

Arsakcs

Konigsfamilie der Acbiimeniden in Wirklicbkeit
dass
spilter

ubstammte,
solcben

es

aber begreiflich,

die

Dynastie einen
der

Zusaramenliaug berzustellen
(I,

suclite.

Nach
mit

Angabe

des

Synkellos

539 ed. Bonn.) scheint

man

dazu den

Namon Arsakks
11.
(c.

benutzt zu haben,
ziistellen,

um

eine Verwandtscbiaft

Artaxerxes
Ktesias

hor-

der

vor

seiner

Thronbesteigung,

wie

57)

bebauptet, diessn Naraen

fiihrt?.

Spiitere Nachricliten der Orientalen

scbweigen von dieser Verwandtscliaft und

woUen

einen

Ankiip-

fungspunkb
finden,

fiir

die Familie der Arsakiden in den mythischen Perioden

indem

sie dieselben

zu

Nacbkommen
die

des Kai Arish, des
(oder

Kava

Arshan des Avesta,
Kai'^obad machen.

des

zweitgebornen Sohnes

Enkels) des

Nach ibnen endet

Linie des

erstgebornen

Sohnes mit Kai Khosrav, ihm folgt dann Loiirasp, der auffallender

Weise

als

Nachkomme
vvird,

des Kai Pishin, des dritten Sohnes des Kaiqo-

bad

hingestellt

offenbar

nra

den

Kai Arish

fiir

die spiitercn

Arsakiden aufziibewahren.

Eine nicht zu ubersehendo Wichtigkeit
bier
bescbiiftigt,

fiir die

Frage, welche uns

haben die armenischen

Geschichtschrciber.
sie

Zwar

sind sie

den Verhliitnissen

nicht gleichzeitig,
niiher
als

stehen ihncn aber

doch imraer

um

einen

Schritt

unsere anderen

Quellen,

denn

die wichtigsten derselben

lebten unter den Sasaniden, wiihrend
nicht
einraal unter diesen,

die neueren eranischen

Schriffcsteller

sonin

dern noch

spiitcr

lebten

und hiichstens Werke benutzten, welche

die Zeit der Sasaniden zuriickgohen. es nicht richtig
ist,

Zuerst miissen wirberaerken, dass
dass

wenn man annimmt,

Parthbr und Pahlav

identisch

seicu.

Moses von Khorni nennt Parthcr und Pahlav an
II,

verschiedenen Stellen neben einander, so
c.

71 und 72 und besonders
als

90,

wo

sie

bestimmt geschieden werden und zwar

ganz vor-

schiedene Ycilker odcr als verschiedene Stiirame desselben Gcschlechts.

Ueber die Pahlav spricht Moses

II, 28,

wo

er sagt,

dass der

Konig
eine

Arshavir

drei

Siihne

hatte

Artashes, Karejj und Sqren und

Tochter Gosum, die or an seinen

Aspahapd, oder

Oberl'eldherrn

DIE PAUTnEK
verheiratet
liatte.

:

^ 4 I'AIILAV.
ties

!>!

Nach

deui

Vorschlage

Abgur

sci

festgesetzt

worden, dass dor ulteste Artashes und seine
die beidea audern aber den Titcl 'Pa/i/./f'

Nachkommen

regieren,

fuhren und zur Nacbfolge
Linio ausgestorben
wiire.

berecbtigbt sein sollten,

wenn

die

iiltere

Ebenso die Nachkoramen dor Scbwester, deren Mann
'Aspahapet Pahlav
'

den

Titel

fiihren solle.

Aucb

c.

91 wird Parthien als Reicb

and

Pablav

als

District

bestimrat

gescbieden.
die

Ebenso

scbeidet

KoRiDN (pag. 95 der franzos. Uebersetz.)
Die
zur'iick,

Pablav und die Parther.

Partber

selbst

geben nacb Moses von Khorni auf Arshak
iind

der

von Abrabam

der

Qetiira
d.
i.

abstammt.

Arsbak

bcgrimdet ibr Reicli und regiert in Bahl
der Khushan.

in

Baktrion, im Liinde

Aucb Agatbangelos
Kbusban
ziiblt

(pag. 28) nennt die

Khushan
Hunnon,

als

Freunde und Verwandte der Partber, ebenso Faustus von Byzanz
(V., 37).

Dieso

Elisaeus (pag. 21) zu den

sie

warcn

also keine Arier.

Nacb Ansicbt der Armeuier (Mos. Kbor
Faniilie,

II,,

72) bleibt der
in

Hauptzweig der

der sicb Velisajan Pahlav ncnut,

Osteran zuruck und residiert in Balkh, der Hauptstadt des Bezirkes
Dieses alte Staniinland verspricht nacb Moses II. 74 Ardashir
in Persien

Pablav.

Bahegan den Arsakiden
Pablav, die

wiederzugeben

:

das Vat^rland

Residenz Babl und das ganzc Land

Kbusban.

Etwas

Andcrcs

will gewiss

aucb Zenubius mit Pvirrw

uldit >,iLnii.

Sebr vercbiedeu lauten nun die Nacluiciiu

n,

wckiic mis
in die

mubamZeit

medanisobe Scbriftsteller geben aus Quellcn, die nocb
Siisaniden zuriickreicben

dor

und

die

OLSHAUSKNScbon

grosseuteils gesani-

melt bat.

Wiibrend die Armenier auf das bostimm teste dio Provinx
als die

Pahlav nacb dcm OsTENsetzen und Balkh

Hauptetadt dcrselbcn

nennen, bebaupten dngegen die Mubanimedaner, dass dio Landscbaft

Fahla im Wbstkn Eruns
kundigcn
Fibrist

liege.

So dio auf den dioscr Dingo «o
zuriikgebendo Nacbricht des
die

Abdalbib
13),

ibn

al-Mucjaffa

(jiag.

der uuter

dem Namen Fahla

Gebiet© von

Ispiibun,

Hai,

Hamadi\n,
ist

Mub-Nebavand und

Adarboijiin veretebt.

Weniger zusngend

eine andcre Nacbricbt (bei

OuHAUSKN

pag. 20),
dilVir

wolcbe das (iebiet von Fabla nocb wcitor nach Westen auadebnf

92

EUGEN WILIIELM,
Vielleicht
gehiirt diese

aber Rai und Ispahan ausschliesst.

Begren-

zuug einer
wio

spliteren Periode des Parfcherreiclies an.

Es

fragt sich nun,

man

diese anscheinend so verschiedenen Nacbrichten erkliireu soil.

Sie haben meiner Ansicbt nach nicbts Unbegreiflicbes

an

sicb,

wenn
einen

man den

verscbiedenen Standpunkfc der einzelnen Bericbterstatter in

Betracbt ziebt.
einbeitlicben,

Wir
ganz

sind gewobnt

unter

dem

Partberreicbe

ebonso

unter

einzigen

Dynastie

stebenden

Staat

zu verstebeu,

welcbe der alteren Dynastie der Acbiimeniden

vollkommen ebeubiirtig war und zu der die verscbiedenen Stiimme
Eruns ganz in demselben Verbliltnisse standen wie zu dem frliberen
Kiiuig dor Konige, und so scbeinen aucb Griecben und

Homer

die

Sacbe angeseben zn baben.

Dies

isfc

jedocb nicbt die Ansicbt der
Isfuban und Andere entwi-

Orientalen, wie sie namentlicb
ckeln.

Hamza von

Sie gesteben den Arsakiden nur einen

gewissen Vorrang vor
die Zeit der Arsakiden

den
die

iibrigen

Stammeskonigen zu und nennen

Zeit der

Stammeskonige, im Gegensatze zu der
In der Tbat
lasst

gescblossenen

Sasanidendynastie.

sicb

aucb

fur die Ansicbt der

Orientalen ein nicbt unwicbtiger

Grund anfubren.

Die Miinzen der
allerdings, dass die
die

partbiscben Konige, die uns erbalten sind, zeigen

Arsakiden ebenso wie die Acbameniden den Ansprucb macben

Konige der Konige zu

sein,

wir finden

aber andrerseits aucb in

Baktrien Miinzen, deren Trager denselben Ansprucb erbeben.
vielen fremdartigen

Neben

Namen

auf denselben begegnen wir aucb rein
die

partbiscben wie

Ar bakes

und Vonones,

aber mit den Personen,

welcbe uns bisber unter diesen
sind.

Namen

bekanntwaren, nicbt identiscb

Eine andere Reibe von baktriscben Miinzen, die nacb dem

ErUischen der griecbiscben Konige zu setzen sind von AzEs an, zeigt

zwar fremde Namen, aber, wie Sallet ricbtig bemorkt, konnen es
ebenso gut Partber wie Skytben
sein.

Wir werden durcb
Zeit

diese

Denkmale zu der Ansicbt gedrangt, dass zur
Spitze des Staates zu steben.
steller,

der Arsakiden

zwei Reicbe bestanden, von welcben ein jedes beansprucbte an der

Griecben und Romer, sowie die Scbrift-

welcbe aus den Bericbten der Sasanidenperiode schcipfen,

sprecben

nur

von

dem Westltchen Zweige der

Arsakiden,

die

DIE PARTBER

:

§ 4 PAHLAV

—§

5

PAHLAVI.

93

Armenier dagegen von dem Ostlichen.
zu baljen, daher die so biiufigen

Dieser letztere Zweig scbeint

auch unter deu Sasaniden seine Anspriiclie auf Eran nicht aufgegcben

Kriege der Sasaniden gegen die

Khusban, die von Elisaeus, wio bereits bemerkt, entscbieden zu den

Hunnen gerecbnet werden.
Pahlav genannten Familien
teten

Aus diesem Allen
die

scbeint mir mit ziemli-

cber Sicberbeit bervorzugeben, dass
aus

Armenier die von ibnen

dem

Ostp:n Enlns, aus Balkh, berlei-

und dort den Ursitz ibrer Familie und zwar eine nicht eean-

I8CHE annebmen.

Abweicbend davon

ist die

Ansicbt der spiiteren

Mubammedaner, deren Nacbricbten aber
zeit

friibestens aus der Sasanidcn-

stammon.
5.

PAHLAVI.
den Armeniern in der Form

Dieser

Name

findet sicb zuerst bei

Pahlavik und

biingt

obne Frage zuniicbst mit dem Substantiv Pahlav
eine

oder Pahlau zasammen, welcbes
wie wir geseben baben
;

Gegend Osterans

bezeiebnet,

Pahlavik

sollte also'einen

Angeborigon dieser

Gegend bezeicbnen, wir finden
Sob rifts tell ern
in eiuor

aber, dass es

von den armeniscben
gefasst

eingcscbr'ankteron

Bedeutung

wird,

namlicb als Arsakide, Augeborigor der asarkidiscben Konigsfamilie.

So wird
ist

bei

Moses

II,

80 (Tiridates) ein Pablavik

genannt

;

III, 34

von einem Pablavik Alanaozan die Redo, der ein Verwandtor des

asarkidiscben Kiinigs von Armcnien, Arsbak war, ebenda III, 51 biiren
wir, dass der Katbolikus Isaak goebrt wurde, weil er

dem beriibmten
das ^Wort bei

Stamme
Pahlav

der Pablavik angebortc und auf das
zurlickgebt.

Gescblccht dos Suren

Ebenso gebraucbt

findet

man

Faustus IV, 32 und IV, 38.
In einem
gebraucbt,
neu.
viel weitcrn

Sinno werden dieee Worter

bei

Pirdaus!
kiin-

dem

iiltesten Scbriftstoller,

auf don wir zuriickgehen

Das von
das
*'

ibra

gebraucbte

Wort^y4J
:

miisscn wir ttuf>Uj zuriick-

fubren,
2 " field
«.

in

der Bedeutung

1

*'

KOnignhnrg^

Roiidenzsiadt ^

'*

nocb oft gonug vorkommt. In der ersten Bedeutung stoht es

B.: —

94
Shah.
(ed.

EUGEN WILITELM,
Turner Macan) 237,

U=

Vull. :125, 5

:

Ebenso ShAh. 298, 12
Diiss
*'

=

Vull. -ilO, 8

;

Sh. 402, 7

=

V. 558,

13.

an den

genannten Stellen

deoi

Wort

^^«J die

Bcdeutnng-,

Residenzstadt "

zukommt, hat Ruckert
Held
:

in der Zeitschrift der
ff.

Deut-

schen

Morgenllindischen Gesellschaft

Bd. X, 242
'

sehr richtig
hiiufig, z.

nachgewicsen.
B. Shah. 1C9, 1

Die Bedoutung

*

hat das Wort recht

=

Vullers 232, 4

lXj 0>i J J ^

i^^

IjjJ

j_5

^

^i

Vergl. auch Shah. 170, 8
9
;

=

Vull. 238, 18

;

Sh. 173, 2
809, 5.

=

V. 287,

Sh. 174, 10

=

V. 239, 3
:

;

Sh. 577, 15

=

Vull.

Demnach

wiirde^Wj bedeuten
dies

''

voii

Helden herhoinmend,
recht hiiufig
*

heldenmlissig.^' Aiich

Wort gebraucht Firdausi schiedene Dinge an. Vod der
708, 7

und wendet

es

fiir

ver-

Gegeiid

'

gebraucht finden wir es Shah.

=

Vullers 994, 7

:

Oft hegegnet uns der Ausdruck <^^^; ^-^^

'^

Heldonhleid,^'

z.

B.

Sh. 217, 6

=

V. 297, G

;

Sh. 478, 15

=

V. 668, 6

;

Sh. 772,

16

=

V.

1093, 13; in derselben Bedeutungauch
11.

^sjh^.y. Z. B. Sh.
heisst Sh. 1142, 3

o43, I.,v.

= Vullers

759,10.

Das " Eeldenross'

=
u.

V.,1G06,

19t^^j^J (^^-^ Einige

Male wird das Wort auch von der Religion der
z.

alten Helden gebraucht,

B. lesen wir Sh. 1070,

II,

v.

Vull.

1503, 16 cr-^^

^jhi und

1248, 1

=

Vull.

1756, 3

^sM

uic^

Meistens

wird aber der Ausdruck (jjU^ von der Sprache oder von der Schrift
gebraucht, so in der Redensart ^s^^-^j •'^
zu gleicher Zeit gemeint
552,
1
ist,

wo

Schrift

und Sprache
28, 9
;

vergl.

Shah

22, 10
;

=

Vull.

Sh.

=

V. 772,

1

;

Sh. 636, 5

=
;

V. 891, 13
allein

Sh. 910, 6

= V.

1283,

10; Sh. ed. Turn. Mac. 1386, 13

von der Schrift Sh. ed. Turn,

Mac. 1397, 12
Pehlevibriefen

;

1661, 7

;

ebenso an den verschiedenen Stellen,

wo von

(^-«IJ <^^^«J) die

Rede

ist.

Gar nicht verschieden von

DIE

PAKTHER

:

^ 5 TAllVALf.

Vo

(SJ^i
Sh.

ist

ji

icli

i/i'^-^J

So stebn beide VVorter Glhichbededtend

17:)0, 11. 13.

Vgl. t5Jl^l«J^I von dor

Sprache 2041, 6
is^^^^^.j^^
;

v. u. (Zeit

Khosrav 11), ferner
u,

^:fi^ Lf^^j^^ 1760, 5 v. u.

1766, 4 v.

und

oljj c^'^Wj

Sh.

:j9,

11

432, 9

=

V. e02, 5;

c/.

921, 6

= VuU. 51, 9 = V. 1233, 10;

o'J,

;J

v.

u

=

V. 52, 5

;

Sh. 2134, 13.

Nach

FIrdadsIs Ausdrucksweise wird dieses Pehlevi, odor Pehlevani sowohl
in

der alten Heldenzeit,

z.

B. von Siydvalihsh gesprocbeu als noch spiiter
ist

unter den Sasaniden. Es

deutlich die alte Sprache, wie sie vor

dem

Islam gesprocheu wurde, andere Unterschiede keiint FiRDAUsi nicht.

Man mus3

sich dieselbe dera Neupersischen ziemlich

iihnlich denkcn,

wie schon Olsbausen gesagb hat.

Ob

wir nun unter dieseni gesprosollen,

chenen und geschriebenen Pehlevi dir Sprache verstehen
wir in den Schriften
linden

die

der Parsen als Uebersetzung ibrer alten

Tcxtc
ist,

und

die bekanntlich

mit semitiscben Elenionten gemischt
selbstverstandlich
ist

scheint

niir

uicht so

ganz
Sicher

zu sein,

wie

man

gcwijhnlich

annimnit.

dass die

von Firdausi citierten
wie dies nachfolgende

Pehlcviworter siimtlich indogermanisch sind,

Zusammcnstcllung zeigeu wird.
Shah. 22, 10 (Turner
Pehlevi -zahl wort jj^^

Macao)

=

VuUers

28,

Icsen
^

wir

das

und den Kiinigsnamen

v-*^j^aj

dessen beide

Bestandteile autdieavcstischen

Worter r*>»rt^ 10,000 und -«£)»>»

Pfenl zuriickgeheu.

Shah. 39, li
/JLa.^
,

= Vullers
Name
ist als

51, 9 erklart

FikdausI
ist,

durch das

arfibisclie
«^Jj^J,

was der

dos FIussos Tigris

das

Pohloviwort

das nichts anderes
schnell, slark.

das im Avesta so hiiufig

gcbrauchtc

I*

^i»» OA*
der

Shah.

39,3

v.

u.

Vullers

52, 5 begegnet uns
libcrtragt

Ortsnanio o*i.^A jo
die

^t

Piese

Pchlovtwortcr

FiUDAUSi durch

arabischin

u-'^^^^iVi Beit-ul-mn-

qaddas

o<ler

das geheiligto Haus.

Kino iUtcrc Form

^i^ ^iit^

aus

dem Minokhired fiihrt Si'iEOEL in seiner Parslgrammatik pag. 13<^, ll>9 an. Im crsten Toilc nun dieses Ortsnamens crblicken wir das an zwci
Stellen des Avesta (Yt,
.5,

54.57)

und im f^undchesh

oft

vorkommendo
des

-^0*3).

das mit dcra Kandizh dcs Minokhired und

dem QanyiHz

96

EUGEN WILHELM,
identisch sein
dlirfte

Shahname
suclien
ist,
.J

iind jedesfalls

im Norden Erans zu

wo auch

die Chiuesen

ein

Reicli

KhanJciu kennen.

Das

Wort J

ist siclierlich

von der avestischen Wurzel. ^v^.^^ aufhdufen,

aifftcerfen

=

Skr. dih abzuleiten.

Im

Altpersischen deutet noch die

Nominalform didd, Festung auf die Wurzel bin, ebenso im Neupersischen J«> arx, castelluni,
sein

Dass endlich v:*a^a

:=

^^)^

nichts anderes
liegt

kann

als

das avestische -^^iyfj^ heiliges

Wort,

auf der

Hand.
J.xii',

Weiter wird auch Shah. 910, 6

=

VuUers 1283, 10

die Stadt

eine jungere

Form

des Naraens,

die

wohl der iilteren

Kandizh

gleichzusetzen

ist, als

identisch

mit der Stadt BaikAnd in der Kahe

von Bokhara erwabnt.
glosse aus

Endlich weise ich noch hin auf eine Pehlevieiner Episode, die nicht von
»*^j^

dem Kampfe Rustems mit Kak, FiRDAUSi herruhrt, wo das Pehleviwort
,

durch das arabische

^^JCA

locus

munitus erlautert wird.

Die AusdriJcke

(SJ^ und
des

is'^j^^,

als

Bezeichnung zweier Sprachen

NEBBN EiNANDER habe ich nur einmal gefunden, namlich Shah. 2029,
10,

wo dem Wachter

Khoslav

II.

befohlen wird, er

solle

nur in

seiner

Gegenwart Jemanden mit dem Shah reden
sein.

lassen, es

moge

Pehlevi oder Parsi

Diese Stelle scheint allerdings darauf hinzudeuten,
jener Zeit

dass

man

in

am

persischen Hofe bald in der einen, bald in der andern

Sprache verkehrte.
in Parsi von der

So wird von Firdausi auch schon ein Schreiben
1798, 7 Nirgends

Hand des Jihosrav I. erwahnt Sbah.
als eine

geht aber aus den Andeutungen persischer Schriffcsteller hervor,

dass

Pehlevi etwas anderes

eranische Sprache gewcsen

sei.

EUGEN WILHELM.

THE PAHLAVI JAMASPNAMAK,
So far as
it ivaa

extant in 1876 in a very old Manuscript

belonging

to tlie late

Shams 'Ul-Ulama Dastur
Hormazd khudal
dadiir-i

Dr- Peshotanji Behramji Sanjana,^

Pa-nam u kam u ram u
kirfah-kar

pana«/i-i

vah

mlnuan getijan mahist ameshiisfendan avani
nikas/i u

izdan-i

minuan

u Izdan-i getiyaii didl nik u paranas/t u pirfizgaras/i u dostas/i u besh-

zanuslmas^ u
azbayi>*b

hu-briina.«?//

u

khara,«?/j

ii

bar vaban sbnayisb u

an cbi nirang u bamainim vash u flruzkaras^ dadar Hormazd
getiyiin

kbudal kirfab-kar mlnuan

mabist afzunitum amesbasfendan
avaziiran

kbudayan bu-dagan

din-i vab-i

Mazdayasnan asboiin vaban

avazunyan IVobar u bama Izdan-i mlnuan izdan-i getiyan
dadiir

iivados/i-i

vab

Ormazd asho band.

in asbnad-kar- Jamaspi kbwanand pa an gab navisbt kih Visbtasp
shab dabyuvad bud, a^asb din rava
J.ir/,

azasb kbudaibi pa sparuk

kard, azasb 61 busbmandiin buzurg karizarava paristasb kbananbudi,

azasb Jamasp ^darpiidakan kib vataran rudasta cbun pas az Zaratusbt

Asfentaman mobadan mobad Jamasp bud, azasbiin Jamasp paidayisb
kbvanand.

An
Ormazd

az pas Visbtasp sbab, pa zlvisbn-i Zaratusbt, edun guft
ra

:

Man

farman

Jiiniasp

ra (blna

kard,

bama danad. Pas

pesb-i

Visbtasp sbab Jamasp raft u idun guft:

Man bama danam

az anosbab-

rawan Zaratusbt Asfentaman, ku In
»

cbi

dana ku In yak 5 damastan kih

the text, tbas

A8folio8l-16, 20-26, and 32 were missing in the DP. (Dawtur Peshotanji's) MS., lotit, is supplied from the Persiaii-Paznnd (or Parsi) version in Hang's MS.

No. 7 (now No. 62 of the Zand C(xiicc8 in Munich Stnat-^bibliothek). The smaller defcot^ in DP. are also rcctifml in acconlance with II'. This Parsi yerston contains several ml.». this error, and some othern readings of the Pahlavi, such as x/t fur the abstract huthx ih when noticed in the Parni text, arc Italicized, as well as defective words rectified in
;

the Pahlavi text.

For aijdd-hdr.
17

98

EDWARD WILLIAM WEST,

arad chand srishk, u koh chand, u zamin cband, u dasht chand, u

darya davarid, In

clii

daned kih pa orvaran u gufah chand, u
geliiin ast
;

shi'kufah
rii

chaud, u orvar darakht andar

in chi danii
;

ku

iisman star

chand har yak

star ra

pa tan chand kih khwesh
ii

In chi danii

ku andar

ramah-i gospendan u gavau, siyah rauT chand

mui safed chand, mul

shumar haraa danam,

Ormazd

ra farman pursid gah-i

gehan

ta sar

(^jVi pasukh chaharum.
Pursid Gushtasp shahku: Chi hama bed, u chi hama bud, n hast

bah guzasht u akanar gui

?

Shinu dahyavad, an chi hama biid roshanal az Ormazd an bed kash u rdshanai, andar Hormazd awaj Hormazd andar khvaned, chi azash dm rabiiyishn bud; azash zamiin Ameshasfenhamii hudas/i Ormazd bud, chfin hast minu rainidara^/i. dan, izdan, awanichi har dam u dahishn-i vah Ormazdafrid bakhshid, bah avezhas/i fraz dad vinid az roshani u tarlki bud; Ahriman chi
Guftash Jamasp Betash ku
:

kirra

humana andar

tariki,

edun chun kirm andar pur ba-ham bused
chi zan

;

Ahriman pa farjam pa avasayad, u agar
ano dami dahishn anaghra

Gana-minu bed, nah
sal,

chish-i geti, ta

nuh hazar

pa gumizash

raved, chi nah az yak gohar hand, chi az r5shani u tarlki az roshani
hii-bandas/i

vakhshasA har nekash ramishn.

Az

tariki har

anaghas^

kih hand, jud-gohari ra, yak o dud hamestar u hamishasni hand, chun
sardi

awa garmi u gandagi awa awa bahi,
az chi

hu-boi, u tariki

awa roshani, awani-

chi har vatari

in awa shayad daued kih nah ham-nirui

ham-g(")har hand, chi

ham-gohar nah chiiuash gohar hamestar, nah pa
aj

avazivanidar niroi chi dadar band, edun chiin

kih oi aj rasad, vad
ra yak dudigar

kih oi vad rasad, atash kih oi atash rasad,

ham gohar
;

ra afzayish gired, anaghra chi jud gohar hand

rdshani kih oi tariki,
li

hii-boi kih oi gandi, garmi kih oi sardi, u khushki kih oi tari rasad

rashid

kunam kuned.
:

Pursid Gushtasp shah ku
geti nukhust chi dad
?

Hormazd dam

kih nukhust afrid, azash

Guftash Ja^nasp Betash ku

:

Hormazd nukhust dam ameshasfendan

THE PAHLAVI JAMASi'-NAMAK.
dad,
chi

99

chuu gojastah Abrlman aodar
V^ohuman nam

tarlki o

bam bud, Orinazd
Ormazd
bi-

pa an vah-miuishui vah-diinishni avar miuTd, az au vah-minishni Vohu-

man

fraz dad, anfighra

chi az vah-niinishni

bud, Vobunuin ashabi bi-sitiiyad, az an asbabi

Vobumau

bi-sitayad

Ardavahisbt fraz bud; pas Ardlbabisht asbabi bi-sitayad, az an sitayishn
Sbahrlvar cbun bast miuu
;

Asfandarmad

Kburdad, u az

Ormazd az Shabrivar Asfandarraad, u az Kburdad Amardiid, yak az dadigar, paidfi
cbiragbaz cbiragb girad, az an chi-

bud; yak az dud bast
ragb

bi-bfid cbi

kam nab

bed, dudigar an avazani
In ayin by-avared
;

mad; azasb osbau amesbasfenazasb avizbab kih dana bina
;

dan, yak az

dud pa

vazTdtir u farziinab dad,

usban nisbast bavasb darad, guft ku
;

Bun-i

kbuda u dastur kib sazad budan

pas

amesbfisfendan pa nam-cbisbt

Ardibabisbt guft yak javidani 6 bama bud u bama bed, an amji kbada
u dastur yuba' dadar

H ormazd

6

man

rainidar

yubi*'

kat

ama dad

afrid az kwesb-minisbul frarun az-esban

pa-bam dad stayisb yak ava

dud, Ormazd pa khudayiVi bab minid, u Ormazd vazarisbu in kib

kbudai
^ct~\

danii, u

kasb khudiii kbvesb paida kard biid

;

azasb az diim-i

nakbust asmiin, dudlgar av, sadigar zamin, cbabarum aurvar,
diid;

panjum guspend, sbasbum mardum

azasb mirad ava ravisbn-i
;

amesbasfendan pa kburisbnas7i-i pur-ramisbna^/j bi-kard azasb gabanbar

nam

nibad

;

azasb nakbust gav, dudigar

Gayomard dad

;

az

padvaud-i
kib

an giiv dvisat u hasbtfid u do sardah stor u gospend
patyarab

by-iifrid

o diim

mad

;

nakbust

oi

gav az an gavan band sard az sard

bi-bfid, kib oi

Gayomard mad.

Pusnr murd'' pa jai mardum az tokbm-i

Gayomard rawayisb

kirfab az zamln avar

amad

:

panjjib
sal,

sal

an bud,

kibsban zanisb u sbavisbn na-bud; u navad u basbt
iin

u basbt mah,

bud kib sban zanisb u sbavisb kard; az esban baft sbikanbab farzand

dogjluab bi-zad, yak
zanisb

madab u yak nar bi-bud; yak bab dadigar pa
briid

u sbavisbn

band, u pa<lvand

rfibisbu-i

janvaran geti

az osban ab bi-bud.

In hast

dam

dabisbu^M/j u patyarab

mad

azash n

dam gamikht

bi-bud, ta

ristakhez tan-i pasin an palud na sbavad.
fiyiu

In gdhar chaniu guftash asho Zaratusht jud dev In

avaz 6

ham

»

Pcra. ta,

• I'erH. tu

hastL

» Pert, mtied.

;

100

EDWAUD WILLIAM WEST,
iiu

ayad, andar bud khrastariin,

chi kih bah an -piruzash an

buklitas/i

pa an hamavandas^i.
Pursid Gushtasp shah az Jamasp Betash
khudiil kih
kfi
:

Nukhust dahyuvad
?

bud

?

Oshan khudiiyan yak yak ravishn ravishn chi bud

Az-eshtm

dm

u dad salara67i piidshah chun bud, u chun kard ?
:

Guftash Jamasp Betash ku

Nukhust
si sal

khudiil

Gayomard
hand ash

shfdi

bud, sih hazar
azash

siil

andar apatyaras/i, u

patyaras/i

zivast,

kiir dadistiin

chunan

biid, az
jai

din paida danist narra bud,

ham

chuDinash patyiirah avar
padlrashnas/i.

mad pa

murd azash pa zaman andar bara patyiirah

edun ku nek chun man az kamashahi dahish

avar mad; azash tokhm bah aurvar shud, aurvar bah na paziraft, ba

zamin shud, zamin na paziraft;

si sfd

andar zamin bud.

Pas ravash

karfah az zamin abrust, az-eshan nakhust zad shatid, ran az avid,mard

u zan bah paivand sim nah murd bah paivand pa l^dshang, mard u
zan zad, chihal
sal khudiil

kard avar

bum haft. Hoshang bud
heshm
u

peshdiid,

kih dad-i khudiiyish pesh avar Vakard, azash haft
druj
oi

bi-zad, u

yak
ziid

avar kard.

U

az

Hoshang Vivigahan mard
dam-i

zan

Vingahan bud,

61 chiin pari biid, ash pa

dadiir friiz girift. zad

Kakbkhumiirap, u azash chi Spendivar Tahmuras budzadkashgardad,
in padash

avar haft kishvar

si

siil

Kheshm-i Ahriman pa

barii-e

humana

azir rani diisht, si sal hich
;

gunah na tavanast kardan; azash
azash shah az hami raanash u

vash zad shah u pari u dev
nishastas/i-i

marduman judii

kard.

Az Viviugahiin mard
girift

u zan zad.

ham Jam

u

Jami

zad, u Jamshed-i

huram bud, pur khiirah u
u hafdah

rajiivand

tagish'

parviivtin

pirozgarai'^; azash avar

haft kishvar pa khudiiyish
siil

avar mardumiin u devan haftsad
rozgiir abar u

sal

u haft

mah

;

pa an

vad u varan andar farman-i o bud; azash bandah
6i

shiih-i

dev u

druj pa paristi-s/ian
khird-i

marduman

dad, devan kard,

marduman
Pa an Jam

mardum andar

asayish-i

kam

ziwishnash bud hand.

khudsLyish nah sarma bud, nah garma, nah zarma,^ nah margash, nah

arishk biid, deviin dad in

hama bud hand bah

oi kih az kar aviij dasht

istadah hand.
1

Azash haft pari kih pa
Fers. zurdi'ar.

star
'^

ku roshan ravad, az

Pers.iW't.

THE PAHLAVI JAMASP-NAMAK.
paristarakiiu 61 stiirakan kukhshluaiid, cliasbin jud
girift zivandiin

lOl
az kinaii avaul

kard, azash kinan pa 'yak cliashm kur
aviij

kard, azash
chish
avaj

padman

az

oslian
;

estad

;

azash sarma d garma

liar

padnian kard
Hal

azash ^ehau paravantar'
u haft

bi-kard pa bundasA haftsad
;

u hafdah

sfil

mah andar

an-i

khvesh dadar hu-sipas bi-bud

sad sal pari nihan-rubishnas/t andar daryii raft, ava
az
Jin

Jam
varj

rati

;

pas chi

chun hu-sipas khvast gavishn bud, zanish
;

khurah azash
Bevarasp

azar bud

61 girifttiras/i

mad

gujistah Azh-daliak,

kill shiin

chi khvauaiid, ava spcdi dar khiinah chi vas (lev

chi andar girift pa

aid burld hazar tegli, azash avar

girift

:

khudai-i Azh-dahiik sih zavar/'^

shash chashm, bazar zavastar,* avar bum-i haft kishvar, avar devuu
u

marduman, bazar
pa

sfil

;

azash vanah u ziyan u anagha«/i pa

mardumau
kard
pas

Miigam kard; azash
iijara.s7/

bar roz d6 uiard-i javan bi-girift,hajat-i an daser
;

gardan bud, azash maghz-i marduman
;

khfid nan khurd

azash anfighas/i

angam uumfidan,
Atvyiin
girift,

azat was adadw/t

avezhah jama kunishna*-/i pa-marduman angiimkard audakht.
hazftr
Sill

U bunda«/i

kam yak nimroz, a Farldun
pa kin-i Jam, Bevarasp

Jam dan khveshandiiu
tiigish

:<hud; azash,

pa an shikufttum band pa
Farldun khuda.s/i
sfd
;

k6h-i Damavaudbast; khvesh varj
fraz girift ba-kishvar-i

hand-ash

Khauiras, avar devau u marduman, pansad

azash

Ormazd din

pazlraft, azash afsun nirang

u darmau az Ormazd

fimukht, vash dostash u bcsh- zlvashncw^ pa

damau-i Uormazd kard,

azash farm fid, u 61
j»a

marduman
nah

kfi

mardumiin-Inak khvesh zived raved
nali

khvesh karafr/i tukhshed, aztau nist ava devan kar kardaud, nah
haml/j/i
dusharnia.«?/i

khird

ava khud yak ava doain pa

dfisharma*/* dadistan hfi-parasti«/i- zlved raiiiedi dad-i frurfin gircd,

az an-i avarfin bih varaved,* chi shuma ava dcviin chish chi kar ni»t,
g.lh

yak Mazandar, yak Uezand
;

daryil, u

pa pa-I 61 dalrad 61 kisbvar-i
girififdi hast, u

Khaniras amadand

az-eshan

marduman Hezand
Mazandaran
khudii-i

khird

pas mardumiin bah

girzishn-i

61 pesh-i Farldun

amad

hand az-cshan gaft kih: Azh-dahiik
azash

vatar bud az bar aish;

dushman murv

iivaj

dasbt

;

tu diishtan na-taviln.
6i
"•

Pns Farldun
kih:

61 nazdik-i
*

Mazaudariin Bhud, azash

oshiln

^ft

Mardum

PcfM. /orwA/i.

zclran tlahMH

want

^li

iitrurtti.

: :

102
az-in kishvar

EDWAlil) WILLIAM

WEST,

ma

gired,

pa avczlmh daoibh bi-shaved. Osban guft ku

Ema

az Tdar bih nashavim, nah cLi idar zivand bilam.

U

Faridun
cstad,

kasb pa an ayiu shinid pa varj kburab an aisb az yazad avar

mad

audwa^ avar sbud

;

azasb vini

pazaft,'^

azasb az bar kust yak viui

sang yak cband bazar min afzuntar bar yak cband kob yak avar osban
afgand
;iz
;

isban Mazandaran buras^ az-in kisbvar apeda
sib pus,

bud band.
;

U

Faridun zad

Salm u Tur u Iracb nam bud band
yak yak guft ku
atan vab
:

azasb bar

sib oi
bauifi

pesb kbwand,

oi osbiin

Geban avar sbuma
ta

ba-kbasbm bar

yake an
sej

sbabid kbwabed

tan

navasb dabam; Salra vasb

busb, Tur tagi, u Iracb az-an chlnash

kburab kyiin avar
cbandiin
daryfi

biid

diid

din kbwast.

Faridiin

guffc

ku

:

Edun
ta

khwiist, atan
biir,
;

bam*gunab

ba-rasiid,

Zamin-i Arum,
tii

61

u

oi

Halm dad; u Turkistan
Hindugan,

ba-vabiij,

61

daryii bar,

ba

Tur dad

Iran sbabar u

ta

darya bar,
sar-i

6i Iracb

mad.

Faridun andar zanan anagb 6 sitayam az
Iracb sar band, guft ku: Nist
liavanan pursi kard kardaras/t
iin-i

kbwesb
iin-i

estad,

pa an

man

kbiirab pa
tii

Iracb sar ta

bama

zivandas/i-i

farzandiin-i tu
biid,

avar

farzandan-i Salm u Tiir, u kbudayas/t u padsbaba.s/i

Salm u Tur

kib sbiin pa anain did, guft

ku

:

In cbib bud Faridiin pad-i ama kard,

kasb

Stllfir^fs/i

na 6i farzand-i mas, na 6i farzand-i miyanab dad, bab

61 farzand-i kas dad.- Az-esban Iracb, brad-i kbiid, avazad, farzandan-i

hiihakhtagnn ba-kanizak yak, Virak

nam,

ta

bicb zivand bab nab

balam. Pas Faridun an kanizak bab niban bama parvard; az padvand-i

an kanizak andar k6b pin ban manad

ivAijad

u

si sal, si

bazar

mardum

bi-sbud ba-salaras/i-i Manasbvyiir u farman-i Nery6sang oi Iran sbabar

amad band;
aniigbrji

az esban babiir Iracb kbvast, az esban Salm
azsbiin

u

Tiir avazad.

Manasbvyar Iracb pa khudiiyash-i Iran sbabar,

Manasbvyar
kii

nam Manand bab
bud.

kard, cbisb cbibar pa an Iracb manast; az esban guft

cbihar pa cbiharab-i Iracb, azasb kard, u sad u bist sal
pur-nek^s/i, avi-bim

kbudayas/i andar kbudayasA-i 6 geban avadan,

Andar vaban
dvazdab
sal

kbudiiyas/i-i

Manasbvyar, avani Afrasyab-i Tiir

jadu
kob-i

piidsbabi

estadi

Manasbvyar,

iivani

Iracb andar
oi get-i

Padasbkbwargar zlvisbnah biidab band. Pas Sfendarmad
1

Pels, atidiih.

a

hi-suft,

a

bi-zad.

THE PAHKATT .lAMASI'-NAM AK.
karosh vast, az-eshan
v:is

103

avazar chahur parhez yaras/t ;avaul ralnuan-i
sitad.

vah zamlu az Afrasyab avaj
kard
paiicli sal
;

Pas Manashvyar Azo bin Tahmaspan
sal;
ii

n Kai-Kubad-i Kayan sad

u Kai-Kaus sad u

panjah sal; Kai-Khusro Syavakhsbau sbast
bist sal; az

sal;

Kai Lahnrasp sad n

Kal Lahurasp khudai

ol shumtl by-ayad.

Pursid Gushtasp shah ol Jiimasp Betiish ku: Oshau marduman

pa Arzah, u 8havab, u Fradadatsh, u Yidadafsh, u Vdrubarsht, u
Voruzarsht jud jud dad ravislm
khurishn bar
chi

pa

jiiu

kih

estad?

Az-C'shan
!"

ham

padiiiuzan chun? Az-eshaii zIvanda»/< chand mirand
?

Ol kih afganaud az-eshan ravan o kih shavad
Guftash Jaraasp ku
:

Pa Arzah Shavah mardani duinastan Srosh
az-eshan zivandash vas vas
az shan kar

ra yazishn, pa aa pad-dabishn Srosh avar oshan khudaya.sVy faristed; az

-esban diid baha^/i u dia pdryo-dkeshasA.
hast az-eshan kih si-sad sal bi-zlvand
:

;

bar nekas/i az
;

I^JoQ^^

)y^ muru
;

niahl vas pa kam-i dshau khudiisalar Srosh

6 kih

mirand asho band

o an kih awiini kisbvar bast pa kdh-manishn, u
u

hast aurvar-manishn, hast u yar hast u khir hast n vabisht hast,

duzakh na-shavand.
Pnrsid Gashtasp shah ku
-chi
:

Oshan marduman

kill

pa Alburz, an

pa Alburz

di

an kust manand,

eshiiu diid u varzishn chi^

u zTvishn

obi u

chun?
:

Gaftash Jamasp Betash ku

Oshiin

marduman eshan

jal rdsban-

khush bar nekow/t hast, azeshan zivanda«/i vas kbudiiyiir bahdin raviln
dost u din dost band, az esbrm

khuda dabyuvad Srdsh, az esban

patyarah kam, kih mirand ashd band.

Pursid Gushtasp shah ku
chill

:

PJshan

marduman bab

Kan<ijdizb, an

pa Var-i Jamkard,

iin

chih pa iran-vej manand, esbiin dad n din

u ravishn

u zIvanda/»/i u khurishn chun? u kih mlrcnd ravan d kih

shavand

?

Guftash Jiimiisp ku
devfiD, azash rah-i viran*

:

Kangdizb

gehiinax/t

bami kard avar

karaiiiw
firast

plramuu haft^sad farsang, nxash hnft

104
hast,

EDWARD WTLUA^r WEST,
nakhust
ahinln,

dodlgar

ruyln,

sadlgar
sTdiTd,
;

puladln,

chaharum
;

buriujin,

panjum kaasakin,* shushum

liaftum

zarin

azash

kushk

giih slralu, azasb kih zarin
;

barham-aud

azash haft margh-zar
:

andar vas uekasli u parv^ar

azash haft rud bfda az andaruu by-ayacl

an ja hamishah bahar avadl-chi darakht pa bar; azash sarma u garma: estad, nah bed. Azash avani patyarah kam manaud u khub zlvishu u
ytlr-i

bah-din hand

;

az-eshan dad bahisA, u din pdryodkeshas/i

;

az-eshan zivandas/i vas kih miraud asho hand.
;

Azshan rad Peshdtan
azshan

-bami shuma pus, u khiidii u salar Khusrob eshan gehan u raarduman

pa Var-i Jamkard ham a bah-din, ravan-ddst, kirfah-kar hand
zivandas/t vas hast
si- sad

;

sal bi-zived
;

:

pa har chihal

sal,

az mard-e, u

zan-e, farzand-e bi-zayad

azshan patyarah kam; andar an ae kih
shikuft mirad bed,

Malkus jadu damastan aedun
u janvar pa-zayast
bi uf tend,

mardum u

avanI stdr

u niardum u avani stor u janvar az and

by-azard, eshan avaz khursand.

U mardum pah

Iran-vej

manand

ham a
chih

yar-i bah-din
;

;

az-eshan bar nek, u dad, dam, murvan, mahin,

gad, u gdspend vas

u dab

mah

:iuja

damastan u dd mah hamin, u an
:

dd mah

sard

;

azshan patyarah zamastau u mar-i avi vas bed
sal.

kih

mirand ashd hand, u az-eshan ziYsmdash haftad
Fursid Gushtasp shah ku
:

Oshan marduman pah Hindiigan u

Chlnyan u Turkistan u Tazigan u Barbaristan, jud jud, dad u ravishn
chih
?

Azshan zivandas/i uekash
d kih shavand?
kii
:

chiin ?

Kih mirand d kih afganad ?

Azshan ravan

Guftash Jamasp

Hindiigan shahar buzurg
;

hast, u sard hast

u

garm

hast,

u tar hast u khushk haat

dar u darakht hast ; kih dasht

sakht hast, kih niyaz hast, kih eshan zivishnas^ az barinj hast, u kih az
shir-i

gad

hast, kih az

tokhmha khurand

;

azshan, kesh u dad u ravishn

vas u hast pah nimah-i Aiirmazd u hast pa nimah-i
ashkarii kunand; u kih

Ahriman jaduyas/i
u har kih nah

mirand hast kih andar zamin nihan kunand, u

hast di av afganand, u hast

pah

atash

bi-sozand

;

hu-din di diizakh shavand.

U

Chinastan shaharha-i buzurg vasi zar,

vas muskh, vas gdhar, vas an-chish andar

band kard

oi niz

aman bar

yak vinash estad band, u but paristand
1

;

kih mirand darvand hand.

Tiusah,

;

THE TAriLAVI .TAMASP-NAMAK.
Tazjgtia u Barbarlgan sbahar

IQo
nlst bar

garm u khushk vjavan,

6 av

dod azsban kbfirisbn
rubah u kaftar u

sblr u kbarastaraa u

musb u mar u gurbah u
parastlnand
;

aviiiii

Inash anazdls/t*
cbisli.

az

esban

zTvisbn iishtar u chabrir-paya,9/i

Pars Id Gusbtasp sbab ku
duvfdpayaQ
u
tasb-tezan u

:

Osban u var-cbasbman u vargosban u
kabrubri-saran'-

bum u zamin

cbfin

?

pab nimab-i Aurmazd estand, aya pab nimab-i Abriman? az-esban dad u din cbun ? kburisbn u zivisbn cbib i\ cbun ? kib mirand o kib
afganand? azsban raviin
Guftasb
Jiimasp
oi

kib sbavad?
:

kib

Osban
jai

marduman pab zamin
u
;

var-

cbasbman
and
;

manand,
dilr

azsban

zamin-i paryan

parus-nisbin

azasb
inast

u darakbt vaa bed, u gao vas darand
;

azsbaa

eiilar

kbuda

pab nImab-i Abriman Gstad

6 kib mirand bi-kburand,

ba-bar-yak kib osban 61 atasb afganand, u andar miyanab pur bad
iiY&ndash bar jiinvar esban kburab kilrad bi-kburand.

Var-gosban

bamgunab, b-esban kburisb barg-i darakbtan va-giyab ("Hyy)* u nab
dad sbinasand, nab din
;

kib mirand darvand band.

U

tasb-tezagan

sbabar Kuzl, u kbwesb cbib pab tan kanizak bab niz gumiin u zir
parasiiir

band; bab nimab-i Aurmazd band, u bamvarab ava var-gosban
kiirizar

pab gavisbn vakbsbas/i
bast 61 duzakb sbavand.

estand

;

u kib mirand bast 61 vabisbt,
sib'^-saran varzldiir

Duvillpayan u

vasturg u

rlman, nab dad, nab din, nab kirfab, nab gunab sbinasand; az-esban

mab

Balar

nlst,
;

u pab nImab-i Abriman estad, a bar cbib asbo band

bi-kburand

u bar kib sbiin azasb bi-mlrand bi-kburand; azsban puk
i

pakizi nlst; azsban ravan nimab

Abriman, 61 duzakb sbavand.

Pursid Guslitasp sbab kib

:

01 68ban marduman-i

Siblnl, u iin
f

cbib andar zarab darya manand, az esban zivisbn vadiirisbn cbib

&l

esban kbudal

saliir

kib

?

pa nImab-i kib estad?*

^<;0)V-^1

tH

^)

J^^ rW^
tit
"

5))^^ t^

h

^S)^Ji

^^

)

IJ5
»

jy*»-fi^^
Perhaps
:

wc\

-^^50)
Pcrlia|i.H
;

-^er**^
k'tlha-taraH,
folio 17.

-o^^e)K
»

(fu*h auzdijih.

For M^.

*

Here the PahlaTt text, cxUnt in DP., begins with

14

106
hfi)^

EDWARD WILLIAM WEST,

jwo

-^^1

m> ^^

-^

Vt^

'^)^-C

hr^^

exj'^)

_y^^

^1

-'i^^O^)

^])^4

9"V>*» ^1

5))^^

^^

5^T^^ooi

:^

-^^1

°<?

A^j,^

Mi^y

^^

2^^

^^

^*u

jy^^

Jei5^^

-\5)^eJ)*

-^j
^)A»o»)

^oo

W(^ :^ (\wo^)
^)*e^)
-vrt^V^

Vii^t*»
9^-^^*^

v-v<50e3

-^)^*»

^5)

3^-^^ "^o£y

5)o^*>^

^fO

v^w

-"•^)^)^

^^f's

^^1^

)*<3^e)

^•*o'

-^^-V)^*

^^^"^

THE PAKLAVI JAM ASP-NAM AK.
-^^-o^

107

^

-^^^

)0^e)

->M^
5^e)i

lie)

-*•-?)*»>**

1^

w-^

l^-V

v-vs^e)) 5^iH3

^^y^^

^oo»

s^yV

W^

^o»^ ^^e))

-oy^^coo s^e)

-^r^-^)

^

^^^

^

-"-fy**)^'

til

^^>

°o^

<50)r-^J

t!I

^^

j]^^ W00»

5iv53 ti!

'^)

^))^^

ifif^

-fi^^

5^*^ )>wi5)o»-f

^

-ij**^

Jer*»^

-K5)^e)>'

j)^) )y'^e

'>)^^

j)C)

^

woo* ^n^^Jj)

^e)Mjf5)

)«oo^ ^)P3) ^t^Y

\»)

)^^^
J^cd-f

^^^•^^
ne))

1»^

^^-^e) ^n^^ ^^)
jmj

_^)

^n^'o ^>^v

)^^r^

-^w^ '^ -J

^V

^)1^

)itf^^|

Hy)H51f»^-5t^^a
»

WOV
yo

^HO-i

^o

^>'-^

"

Fear.'*

Pcrbap-

108

EDWARD WILLIAM WEST,

YW^ hy^

y^f^ i>

'.
.

.

:a3

5^;^-^ j'^e)

-^^1

^^
hand,

Zanan sakht, az
marzishn vas kunand
;

eshan zanau
az
eshaii

pah
didan

slialvar

ustuvar

u

chih

dar u

chashm dud,

vas sard u vas garmtar band, az esban hamvar yak ava dud vakhshash
karizar,

u an varzishn bed

;

az

eshan margas/i khvar afsend, andar
in kih padiraft estad, kisht

chih an kishvar hast, u kih az

apasend dad,

varz

avadanas/i

kunand

;

kih mirand 6i be-shak afganand, o hast 6i
nist ^JO-^-^J^)

bahisht, o hast oi

duzakh o hamistakan shavand, 6 kih

oshan chih
bed.

avfiz

J^^^J^) azshan minishn u varzishn ava marduman

Pursid Gushtiisp shah ku

:

Tu

in kiidakas^ az chih kih in kfidakas/i avar

chun avar
nah mad

mad

estad, chi-ra

khudayan dahyuvadan

estad? haft in kudakas/i u agahas/t oi kas chJisid u guft tavan, ay a nah
haft? nakhust oi kard ayiift az ashkam-i miidur dashtand? tu
1

Jamasp

No. 7 has

:

mar hud

ztvishn.

Pahlari Folios 20-26 are missing; the Parsi text HauK''8 MS. No. 7.
2

that follows

is

supplied

from

THE PAHLAVI JAMASP-NAMAK.

109

andar-an zaman ravan GarothmaDi, aya nah haft hargiz darogli gufb
ayao, iiah ?

Guttash Jamfisp
Zaratusht khush

ku

:

Man

in

agabasA az

din-i

Afirmazd u

mad
I

Gstad, u

m

kudukash

u zirakash di
;

man cbun

tin

mard kih
az

61 shumil daliyfivad A

kbudayas/t estad
oi

avam nah

az padar nah

madar ^OOl) vandadam bah
in kfidaka-s/i u

kas cbasbidan 6i kardau tavan
kbfisli

avam
az

agabas/t aedfiii
ziid u

mad

cstad, kih In bar
niim,

abanab-

mardum

hamii roz

mirad, in

ku cbib

u kih pus, u

kadam tukbm u chib esban, u pah kadam akhtar
hamimal,
az

yar, u kadfim

avakhtar
kbudaya.!>7i

esban zan u farzand

u

zubau nakbust, u
u
iin

u padsbabas/t
a
tau-i

chand, cbun, cbib ayiu,

cbib

tii

frashakard

pasin

danam

cbasbidan 6i kard tubiin, cbun

avam 6i man Jamasp pah an zaman ravan
;

dahyuvadan mardnman

Garothmani, avam hargiz darogb na-guft, nah cbib goyam.
Pursid Gushtiisp shah ku
:

In bama dahyuvadan n khudayan
?

in

fravan gab chand sal nishinam
kartar sazad
friiz girift

avman kar

kirfab cbib ])ab khoc^^b-

kardan?
:

Guftash

Jamasp ku

Pa-kar

kirfab

kardau tukhshash biiyad
u an
"

farmudan )*>^-^ acdun bud ha pah padid bed,

^^>0d)
u

^-^
bar

Aurmazd u Zaratusht

padiraft, padash avirtar tukbsbid,
;

az

vanah frod minad, pesh parbczcd
avar khudai u padshah hu
be-kar-i .madar-i

in

bama marduman
giib avi

kih sban

shuma
S3i»

mInad u

bim dasht, azshan
geti

ma

chib bar

mardum andar
kiir

barhfin nmadan,

barlian bi-sbavad; cbish chib ova ball nah barOd, jud az kunishn-i
nck-i sburnii, cbib

chand tavan-ba,

kirfab avazi*
iin

ma

6i hilad,

cbib zud bed; kih
chill' tiiii

tiin

pah kirfah kardan kamu avad

zamiin nah bed,

goyam; shuma dahyuvadan ku pesh

az yak

sill

6 vadiriiua«A

u natistas^ rasad.

Pas Gushtasp shah, kash an asbnud, ^Ov) ^d)>*^
anduh-khviir

kiir

kard,

man nzash pus
J*«*^.

u dukbt as

si

azash sadah hand, u

»

y«/'.

•V"'".

*''i/"*-

"D?^

?•)(?)

110

EDWAHD WILLIAM WESt,

avani b-an bavishnan u farzandan kasan an kar ashnud, haraa pali

5^ o tamam shaved shudah
6i giriftan, andfih afganand,

band.

O

kib Gusbtasp kburab, andar

u gunabgar yak afganand, u kar girand.
:

Pas JamJisp farman dad ku
kasb

Bar

ma

vasbcd farda

f rod

afgandan

OW"^^

^^^^ biland.

U
Ama
man

pas Giisbtilsp sbab, bam-chuu ^(2

r bud, o Jamasp guft ku

:

in kib

man

in din-i
driij

avczbab padiraft, andar geban rava kard^ 6

band, u dev

u ^J^cO**-^

^V^

zadan avazadan az Iran sbabar

birun kard u Asfeudyar,

man

farzand, avaj dasbt, u vas

bam man
in

sipab

u daban az babar-i din

ra avazadan

avaman dasbt pab sban

avayad

bud, cbun hubin 6 paida bud, u man, Visbtasp az-in gab u az-in

geban pab sud rozkar juda bud, man az-in bradaran u farzandan u

man bosban
II pas

u takbt u kburab-i
kfi
:

Kayan

band, stayam davar vadKayan.
giriid, in kbiirab-i

Jamasp guft

Osban ravan
azared,

Kayan

pab sbuma avar nisbasted,

ma

u dard babar

6i tan
avii

ma

biled, o

pab yazisbn dabisbn kbvesb tan andar ramisbn dared,

farzandan u

bradaran b-an bavistan mezad kuned, ayin giib u kbub pab ramisbn
dared, cbib zivandisbn basim nek u yak sal nab az bazar sal andar

abasimash avadan^

in

cbib

goyam

kib

marg kasb avaz

na-gired, u

zamiin na daded, cbib

Gayomard bud Aurmazd-dad, kasb

zamiin mad,
biidab

Abriman pab marencbinid, u dadigar yak yak kbudayiin pesb

band, kasb an zamiin fraz mad, cbisb az kardan na-tavan, pa namcbist

Tabmorap kasb

si sal

Abriman bab bar

dasbt, u cbib kasb kbvesb

friiz

mad, kbvesb tan az kbusb ava

diisbt na-tavan.

U

pas Gusbtasp, kib

sban azasb sbinid, andar kbvesb tan -^0^^)05)^ padiraft, azasb andar

geban

sipiisdaras/i

kardan, u JUraasp afrin kard.

Pursid Gusbtasp sbah ku
in faravan

:

Az pas bama dabyuvadan
?

u kbudayan

gab kib kadam kbuda darad jud cbib
u bar

u kib pas az tukbm
?

kadam band?

yak kisbvar cband
1

sal

darend

kib an-i nek, u

akhar.

THE
kill
iin-i

I'AJiLAVI

JAMASP-NAMAK.

HI

vatar? pas az
ta kl

vm
sal

cbih augain u zamanah rasad? lu din-i

Mazdayasuau

chand
:

ravad

?

Guftash Jrimilsp ku
oi

Tan gdyam,

pas az shumii az in friivan gah

Ardlbahisht Ast'endjar rasad, u darad kislivar pah kliudaya»/t sad
sal,

u dvazdah

ava dam, kash Chihar-azad

cliih

khvanand,

si

sal

khudajas/i bi-glrad.

Darai Darajan sezdah

sal khudiiyas/i bi-girad.

Pas az kih
rasad, d
sal.

oi

Askandar-i

Rumi sezdah
rasad, u az

sal.

Pas bah d tukhrai u dad

Kbusrd ba-Ardavan

panand dovist u hashtad u do

Pah

dshfin khudayfin sar anakas//

andak andak pas ayad,u nckaah

sapar^ yak, u kishvar andar

iivadauas/i avibiraa5/i, u

mardum andar
sal.

krimah-zivishna.s/i diisht estad band.

U

pas khudaya«/i dl Ardashir

Babakau
Ardashir

rasid,

darad kishvar pah khudaya«/i chahardah
Shtipur Shapuran yak
sal.

Shapur

bist sal.

Afirraazd ddd yak sal

u

(Id

mah.

Bahriim Bahnlmyan, yash khvauand Sikan shah, chahal

sfd.

NarsI, Bahrain brfidar,

nuh

sfd.

Shavar'-'

Aurmazdau haftad u dd
bist u

Ffd.

Ashadvaran haftad u panj
sal.

sal.

Bahram Shavaran, khvanand
yak
sal

Karinanshah, yazdah

Shakut Shadvaran'^

u panj

mah.
sal

Varahriim Shakutan, kash Bahram-gdr khvanand, bist u sih

u

dah

luah.

Shakut* Varahram panjdah

sal

u chahar mah.
sal.

Plrdz Shakfitfin bist

u dd

sal.

Lis' Pirdzan chahar

Kobad

mah u

Jamasp Khamlst chihal u haft sal u haft Aurmazd Khusrdan duvazdah sfd. Khusrub Aurmazdan, Avarvez^ shah si u haft sal. Kabad Khusrdb, kash Shiruyah khvanand, nuh sal. Ardashir, khud vastar-i Kabadiin, yak
PIrdzan ava
sal chihal dd.

haft

rdz.

sal

u pauj

mah.

Shakut^ Shaharyar

bist sal az
;

an fraz na-panand,

dshan khud pah khud bah avaslnand
avazarad varas az tukhml
friiz

pas pah aimand-i Tatigan

heshm u pah andak zur a zuvar Iran shabar
sal

girand sl-sad u hashtad u du

u nuh

mah

u haft roz u chahur

ea'at.
I'liryid

Gushtasp shah ku

:

In din-i avczah chand

sal

ravu bed

?

u pas az
*

an cbih aubam u zaman rasad ?
• ifhipur.

akh/ir,

«

Yazdakard
Airrir.

i

Skafmtim,
»

«

Yoidakani,

Palask,

Vagiakard,

112

EDWARD WILLIAM WEST,
Guftash Jiimasp ku
:

In

din

hazar sal rava bed, pas oshan
oi

marduman andar an hangam band, bama
ava dfid rnvtirash
ii

mibr-drukbsb estand, yak
cblni Iran sbabar oi

drogb kunand, u pah an

Tt'.zjgan avaspiiraud;

u Tazlgiin bar rozpah roz nlrdtar daband, sbabar
61 avaruni

sbabar fraz girand,
cbisb

mardum hama

drogh vardlnand,

ii

bar

an goyand u girand, azshan khvesb tan sadmandtar, azshfui
I'raruu

ravisbn-i

azasb azar bed, avez sanast in Iran sbabar.^

(^ «^5^ ^n)*o

^**^o» )rr^

^^p

i)^) ^^y^ ^^^r^)

a^

r'sl^f

wc^)

->i^

U

i)<;oo ^«^>»

rp

^n)*oJ)5 y^^^o*

m) h^)^

-O^Y^

^^)A)3

3^

jxS

^))^

J ^u^^

^i:))A)

^) ;*o\(2n

i)^^o»i
i))S^*»

^)iw -^

y^^e)

^^e))) -O)*^

-^^

^1^
se)))*o

^_^

^^V

woo»

^w^

50^^

-jo^5)jj5

-*M) r^y^

m

^^f V^^

^i^^ej

-^^jn^y)

pj^

iio«

^))a^

^r

-JO^^yA) ^V^5

^

-K)^i)y^ |J5-«0o» s^l^s^^-f

V^^

I

Here begin the remaining

folios 27 to 31 of

the Pahlavi text extant in

DP.

TIIK

I'AIILAVT .lAMASr-NAMAK.

1V^

^^v-^j Yiy^6

:^v

f^^r") -ok^^))^*

V) ^))^:^

"*o^**^e) ^i

^(^i*

^i

^i«) 9v»e)ro^« -u»pj>)

h\^^

-^^ooo^)

-V)^

-"i)

^e)<j*9)

^nw ^oo^

V^o^o*

-jo-^)^-^

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j^p5) i^^
ne)

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^We)^

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^HJ-^i*,) i)^

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9^^0^^ 9^;05^^

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u^oo

114
j-^P)

EDWAltn WILLIAM WEST,

s\^)

i)ji^^y

^o»'ne)
j^v^'^e))

^yf ^^^

^)

^W) ^**o^)

)»e)

-^i^V iro^e)-^
))^

i

^w^

^V

lie)

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\)l^^)

->^^^o»

Me)

"»o^^ fi-K5-^^)

-^ ^^i ^w^ "X5-00
V^o<jo^

^*ro

if

-vwf

^ii>*^

^00)^*

i)y^

^

-^

5n>Hs

y^ia<^>)o»

w^v S^^^^-^

^^^ ^^ ^^^

^-^^

^^^^

^^

"^

^1)

J0^*>

-"H^

S^ll^^

)^^)0^0»)

)>^3-Jo)^

J^

^1

5>>^)

^S^siy^-^ -^^y^e) -w^Vi ^0^0^

-w-^))J-^

^W4?0

^ wo^^i

^

5^^^-^^ -\j)^(^

m

1)^001 o?* 501
->y»o»-f

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-*o^ro -Ci^^V
?*^)

^)))H3 5*»^^)»i Jijt^ -^s^^-X5

i^e)V) ^ii)H$

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'^)))^

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5))^

)*^Ai

^)

-^59

ts

G^r

^^

""s^

:^

^^)^ )i^^>^ -^^^^-f

^w-x)

THE PAIILAVI

JAAIASl'-NAMAK.

115

-^^c.

\s^

11SOO)

h)y^

-«o^^y^ \)^

f^s

-^Y^^)^

o»)e)

v^-^r'ier)

^-*iy^

i^e))^i

W^^i

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y^viw

y^c-^r^

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-^ ^^

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;^

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Y'^Y'^S

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-^(^'^\

Y^t'iS!'^

116

EDWAHD WILLIAM WKST,

-^)i^

-")5

-Vi^y**

^
^
^'^

-^j

(»y5

a5

-u3

^^ ^%xy^

-ny^r^

^)kJ)

^

-^^'**"

-Vi^y**

v^w^

^

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^^A

^**^^

-ny^

T^^^

^^

s^^K-^1

^15

^

)

y^s^^

^'-^0^55^

^

j!>^i>wo^'e)

^

^

^-v

^

^^'^^i

^^e)^

-^-^^

Watford.

K

W. WEST.

1

Kest of rahluvi

is lost.

'J'he Pp.rsi

version ooiitimics

itiie

line fuit her, as foUowi:?
.

:

i

daryji

bar raard-c Milir Jzad bab avazud, Mibr Jzad vas.
brcak>: off in the juiddlc of a scntcnoc.

.

.

and then

THE LIFE AND LEGEND OF ZARATHUSHTRA
Zarathustra (Zoroaster), the founder of the Iranian religion of the
invokers of light, received in antiquity such nniver.<al homnge, that

he was honoured not only by the Modes and Persians,

who revered
Zaleukos,
celebrated

him as a Lawgiver and Teacher of
their political enemies, the Greeks,

religion sent

from God, but also by

Minos,

Numa, and Lykurgos

;

who compared him to and many of their own

philosophers became students of Zoroaster and of the Magi, his followers.

The Zoroastrian

religion

was the

first to reject

the ancient
all

Aryan

heathenism as false doctrine, and in an age, when

the world knelt

before Baal and Astaroth, shuddered at the demons with

which they

peopled nature, or worshipped trees and animals,
of a higher being, presiding in perpetual light,

it

taught the existence
too holy to

who was

accept bloody

sacrifices, only

demanding good thoughts, words, and

actions, to enable the

realm of truth and purity to become triumphant

over falsehood and darkness.-

To the imagination
(the
first

of the Jews, the Zoroastrian king of Persia, Kyros

con([ueror of the world,

who no

longer allowed vancjuished

kings to be skinned alive and to have their eyes put out) apjieared
as the promised Anointed

One, or Messiah,^ who, by direotion of

Jahweh, the God of heaven,^ commanded the restoration of the temple
of Jerusalem
;

and tradition allows the Magi, or jMedian

priests,

to

worship the child Jesus,^ whereby the Jewish Christian

religion

doea

not entirely reject the Zoroastrian faith which also expects the coniiDg
of a Saviour,
('*

so

separating

it

from the Mythology of the Goyim

Gentiles"), or Pagans.
>

ZamthuXtral^ theexnct pronnudation of

ihi« Aiioieat

Moiiao name; ibo X
>>>

\isM

the Hoft bissitig sound an in FroDcb, ih has the •ante ttouml aa lb« bmitl th

th.-

Engliih word thumb, and n hiM a miuu«I between * and mK * Mills Tho iHUlntirc of tho ArctUt. Jonrnal, Hoyal AtAaiic rvKJaly, 180l», |.. ^io. » Matthew, il., I, 2, ^ The liitcr I«;ibh, xlv., 1. * E«ni, I. S.
:

118

FEKDlNA^'l)

.lUSTI,

No wonder

that,

300 years ago, scholars begau to collect every
this

detail that antiquity

had preserved about

remarkable

man who, by

his theories, that the cultivation of the land and

the advancement of

every kind of culture was an act of worship, stands out really as the
founder of civilization in Iran.

Barnabas

Brisson*'

was the

first to collect all

records of antiquity

relating to the Prophet.

Thomas Hyde^ quotes
Adolf Rapp,8
is
luis

the statements of Eas-

tern authors on Zoroaster*

again worked

all

these

ancient recordsinto a collection that
collection of Arabic, Syriac,
edited, a

well worth reading; and so is the
allusions to the prophet,

and other Eastern

few years ago, by R. Gottheil.^

Professor Williams Jackson^^ has rendered important service by
his writings

and

treatises

on the language of the Awesta, and by his

comprehension of these sacred books; he has also written a shorter

work on the same

subject^^

and has made such an exhaustive
virtually

collection

of notes, concerning Zoroaster, from the Ancients and Oriental sources,

with name and subject index, that one
trouble of referrinsr to the
collection

is

relieved

of the

numerous works that he has used.
contents of
partly

This

from the fountaiu-head, the

which are based
of the

partly on the Zoroastrian legend, and are

a correction

same, have been separated from the descriptive portion of the work

and placed

in the appendix.

He

relates the life of the

Prophet chiefly from the Pahlawi works,

Dinkart and Zat-sparam's Selections, written in the ninth century, and
also from the Zartusht

Namah,

written in

the thirteenth century, in

« De regio Pcrsarum principatu libri III. Paris, 1590 with notes and index. New edition by Friedr. Sylbuij:, 1595 and 1606 also with Latin transh^tion of the Greek eit:iStrassburg 1710. Lib. II. Cap. 57 .scq, tions, and revised index by I. Heinr. Lederlin.
;
:

'

Veterum Pcrsarum

et

Parthornm

et

Medorum
(18U6), 21

religionis historia.
If.

Oxford 17G0.

s

Zeitschrift der Morg. GeselL

XIX.

» Kef erences to Zoroaster in Syriac and Arabic Literature (in Classical Studies in honour of Benry Drisler), New Vork. 1894. 10 Zoroaster, the Prophet of Ancient Iran, by A. V. Williams Jackson, Professor of (with a splendid 1899 Indo-Jraniau Languages in Columbia University, New York
;

;

map).
11

Journal of the Auioriuan Oriental Hociety, xv.. xvi., xvii.

LIFE
the

AND LECENli OF

ZAIIATIIUSIITRA.
is

119

modern Persian language, which

chiefly

based on the above-

mentioned works, and at the same time he submits the relation of the
legend to a comparison with the text of the Awesta.

As Jackson

evidently intended

to supply

the complete material

for the investigation of the life of Zarathustra,

he presents the legend

to us with the suppression

of

all

the positive incongruities quoted at

length; this one accepts with gratitude, but with the reserve that they

have no historical worth, and

it

only gives information of the
essays

manner

in which such an edifying work of exegetical

can bo put

together, by the help of ancient traditions preserved in the sanctuaries

We could

have wished that the author had laid more stress on the

unreliuhility of the legend,

which he admits

(p.

141)

;

instead

of

arousing the impression that he himself believed in the

details.

There

is

surely no sense in tracing out plans of battles (pp. 120

122) for which a poet, even were he Firdausi,
his

had used a picture of
not possibly
118,

own fancy

for a basis

;

for Firdausi could

know the
119).
It is
Desiitir

tradition of the battle with Arjasp in Khoriistin (pp.

also hardly necessary, because of Pythagoras, to refer

to the

written in 1818, and on account of the murder of the Prophet, to quote
authorities like Majdi (end of IGth century, p.
131.); neither
if it

he,

nor

Firdausi, could supply a single historical note,

were not

in the

Awesta,
extx?nt,

for

neither of

them had any other
some

source.

Only to some

inquirtial

accompanying statements,

particularly those that

contradict the legend, offer

certainty that they are not influenced

by

it,

ond may have some

historical chanicter.

Uow much

nonsense a complete collection

of all

the

wisdom
rest,

produced by wiseacres about Zoroaster

offers, appears,

amonj( the

from the opinion, upheld by monkish narrow-roindcdness and Jewish
presumption,
that Zaroaster

was Baruch, the scribe of Jeremiah.
\

Tabarl also notices this opinion (648, 10), and Bishop 'lesudadh (abont
852), in a
that

commentary on Mat.

ii.

1,

on the Magi, makes the remark,

'Hhis Jewish renegade wrote that vomit of Satan, the book of

Abhashtii/' )

As Jnckson remarks

(pp. 105, 166), the similarity of the

)

120
S3Tiac

FEUDINAND

.lUSTI,

name Ermaye (Jeromiah) and
lias,

Urmiyii,

tlio

birthplaco

of

Zarathustra,

no doubt, given

rise

to

this discovery.

What
very
little
;

is

known

of the conditions of

life

of the Prophet

amounts to

his descent from Airyana-vaejo, his residence at the court

of his protector Wistaspa, the

names

of a

number

of

members

of his

family and of the prince's court are noticed in the oldest parts of the

Awesta, in the Gatha poems, or metrical sermon-psalms, written in the
Atropatenian
dialect.

The

other portions of the

Awesta describe him

as already a saint, and can

therefore be quoted for

many

facts

in

the

history of the

religion,

but cannot be considered as a source for

biographical details.
A.S

Zaruthustra's patron
it
is

did not
to

belong to the line of the
fix

Median great kings,

difficult
is

the time of the founding

of the religion; therefore one

surprised to find in Jackson's
life

work

that he gives exact dates, not only for Zarathustra's
also of separate events,

in general but

his missionary travels to countries not exactly
(p.

defined geographically
Dr.

207), as also a battle of the religious war.

West,

the chief

expert

in

Sasanian Pahlawi

literature

(which .Jackson compares to the Patristic literature of the Christian
church), has lately examined the artificial holy
Parsi priests, that

chronology of the
the Bunin

had been

partly

known

for a long time in

dahishn

(a

cosmography), and which

he

has
it,

illustrated^

a

chronological table of holy events.

According to

the time

of the

founding of the religion was 300 years before the burning of Persepolis

by Alexander, that

is

in the year 630 B.

C- The

figures are variously

given, those derived from Pahlawi books, or authors instructed by the

Magi

of the time soon after

the

downfall of the Sasanian dynasty,
2^)S,

oven Tabari and Firdausi, give the years 300, 280 and
variation

The

may

arise

from

this, that

sometimes they had had the birth of

Zarathustra in their mind's eye, sometimes the founding of the religion,

and sometimes the conversion of Wistaspa, or the death of the Propliet.
12

Pahkvi Texts V, Oxford 1897,
D. Bharucha in

p.

XXVII.

seq.

;

Jackson,
p.
1.

p.

179.

See also on

that

(late, Shoriarji

Cama Memorial Volume,

LIFE

AND LEGEND OF ZARATHUSHTRA.
this chronology, as has

121
lately,
*'

One cannot designate

been done

a

deplorable fabrication," for these figures
sion, as they are moderate,

make

a fairly correct impres-

compared with the improbable estimates

of time by other religions, and because the occurrence of the founding
of the religion would then coincide with the culminating point of the

Median dominion.
people
still

It is

quite

possible that, at

Alexander's time,
;

possessed data for estimating the age of the religion

or,

just as in Islam, the years were first counted from

some
till

definite event,

and that

this

important knowledge was preserved

the construction

of the holy chronology.

Already Hyde and Anquetil du Perron, and recently

Geldner,

'^

have accepted the reckoning of the Magi as correct. For separate items
this
artificial
1

system

is

untrustworthy

;

it

is

also

suspicious

that

exactly

,000 years after the proclamation of the religion, the Awesta
II,

was edited anew by command of Sapor

and furnished with a

complete translation in the Pahlawi language^ under the direction of
the supreme high-priest Aturpat (Atropates) Mahraspend, whose son

Zarathustra followed his father in his priestly

ofiice in

the year 371

and could^ therefore, pass as the Prophet Ukhshyad-ereta (Oshedarba ml), appearing 1,000 years after the founding of the
Yet,
at the

religion.

*

same

time,

the idea

would not

lie

far

away that by the
the

establishment of the strict doctrine of the Magi, the re-writing of

Awesta and

its

translation into the Sasfmian language, undertakea by

the 8asauids, they

had

really

had

at first the intention to erect, in this

great work, a landmark and
of the first

memorial, just at the epoch of the end
of

and beginning

the

second

millennium
li

The

error, already noticed
is

by Masudi, that the Parthians
h}-

iv*-

.

nly

284 years in the chronicle
length of the reigns of
»"»

compensated for

the tradition.illv

;^'reat

Wiatasp and his grandson Bahman.
Comparo

The

Qruiulriss der Jrinisohcii Philologie, II. Zl.
I, li»3.

Spiegel, Kranisohc Alter-

thumskniulc,

Zoiuchrlfl

tier inorKenliin.l. Ck-9olUch»ft,

XLV,103. Jwtl, B*ila«e
Livrc d*Arrti.Vir»f trad,

Knr Allgcmoiii(>n Zcitunjc, MUiichcn. II. Nov. 1888.
«•

WcMf,

pur M. A. Rarthdlemy,
Iti

PahUviTextM v., p. .\XXVn. PaHt 1887, p. Ii8.

On AtQrp&t

<«oe

122

FERDINAND JUS 11,
authors,
particularly

Muhammadan
that

Al-Beruni,

who

is

here of great
it is

authority, accept the Persian chronology as correct,

and

known

the Persians

have been in possession of an exact calendar since

1075 (the era of Jelal-ud-dm Melekshah), which proves their competence for such calculation J'

Greek

and Roman references

contain

important statements
its

conducive to a knowledge of the Zoroasti-ian religion and of

founder,

and are particularly valuable, because the periods in which the writers
lived are

known, and

their

statements can, therefore,

be applied to a
present
latest

temporary, definable phase of the religion; whereas

among the

day professors of the
phases.

religion, the Parsis in India,

one finds their

We

know,

for instance,

from many authors, that in Iran the
edifices

dead were neither burnt or buried, but exposed on tower-like
to be devoured by wild beasts and

birds of prey, as
this

is

still

the case

among

the Parsis of to-day.

That

custom prevailed at the time
is

of the Sasaniaus, yea even of the Parthians,

authenticated by

the

contemporary works of Justinus, Prokopios and Agathias.
other hand,

On

the

we

learn from the older writers, Herodotos,

Xenophon, and

Arrianos, that,

till

the time of Alexander, the Persians buried their dead,
;

and only the Median Magi exposed them

that these statements are

accurate, is proved by the fact of stone sepulchres existing

among
from
this

the

Achaemenians, and the mention of burying and burning the dead in
Arachosia and Khorasan (Chakhra) in the Awesta.^^

And

we

may draw

the conclusion that

the

Median custom extended only by

degrees over Iran, and was particularly propagated by the Sasanians

who, by the help of the Magi

(to

whom

their

ancestor

belonged),'^
\

spread the strict observance of this custom through the kingdom.

Ideler,

quities,
p. 121. i»
17

Handbuch der Chronologie, II, 624. Prinsep, Essays on Indian AntiThomas, Useful Tables, p. 143. West, Grundriss der iranischen Philologie, II. Hyde, Veter. PerH. Relig. Historia, p. 194.
1,

Wendidad

12 (48). 16 (66-).
is

The prince of Istakhr (Persepolis)

called on

pre-Sasiinian

coins
Tal)ari

Fratakara
2546,
17.

("the Piremaker"),

later, tfZ-Hzr&ad/i ("the Priest"),

anno 638, 644,

Beladhori, ed. J. deGoeje 388, 11.

^

f

LIPK AND LE(;ENI) OF ZAKATHUSHTKA.
All statements of the ancients,

128

and of non-Zoroastriau eastern
of the

writers, are thrown into the shade by what the holy scripture

Magi, the Awesta, declares, which has been gained for science only in

modern

times,

and the manuscripts of which are
It

chiefly in

Bombay,

Paris, Oxford and Copenhagen.

has been edited in Europe by Spiegel,

Westergaard and Geldner, and translated by Spiegel, C. de Harlez,
Darmesteter, Mills and others.

As

its

oldest

portion,

the Awesta

contains the already-mentioned Giithas which, as the Awesta expressly

mentions (Yasna 57,

8),

and which

is

universally allowed, originated

among
the

the disciples of Zarathustra.

The other components

of the

Yasna and Wisperad,

liturgical invocations of the

higher beings, and

Wendidad or

the Law, group

themselves round the Gatbas, and

become a book of the
belong to a

rules of worship
Still later

and practice of

sacrifices,

but

much

later age.

appeared the Yashts or sacrito a later

ficial prayers for

household use, which point

form of religion

with a leaning to polytheism, and contain, besides the
to the genii of Parthian

hymns

of praise

and divine beings, many accounts of heroic myths, partly
times.'

and partly of Sasanian
wishes to use

Any one who

the legend of Zoroaster for an his-

torical representation of the life of the

Prophet, must investigate

its

relation to the Awesta, with which, as is usual in such literary works,
it is

connected partly by natural and partly by mystical interpretations.
real

The legend only seldom touches the
it

meaning of the

religion,

when

mentions the cause of the introduction of a religious custom or the

genesis of a doctrine, but engages itself
founder, which
is

more with the

birth of the

related as an event that the Deity had prepared for

the salvation of mankind, and arranged to

take place

with extra-

ordinary circumstances and miracles.

The new-born

child laughs init

stead of crying, and his brain beats so violently that
laid

repels a band

upon

it

J

a token which
era.
106.

is

attested by Pliny''' already at the begin-

ning of our
i<*

In Tnsht XIII.
Pliniut,

Atikrpit
p.

is

mentioneil

by tiM

title

of RmMtar9»ranhcnt

compjire West. P.ihlavJ Textn V,

XXXVI.

UUt. Nat.

7, 15.

124
The
spiritual

FERDIXAND

JUSTt,
eifected not

development of the Prophet

is

only

by

the natural cultivation of his talents, but also by inspiration for which

he

is

prepared by ascetic exercises in the wilderness
*'

;

just as in the
this holy

book of Arda-Wiraf, even so a narcotic {mang,

hemp ") helps

man

to the vision of

heaven and

hell.'-*^

How
treated

untrustworthy this legend (which has already been critically
Spiegel)''^^ is

by

from an historical point of view,

is

shown by

the attempt to connect Artaxerxes I (Ardashir-dirazdast) with Isfendiar, the

son of Wistiispa; whereby

it is

sought to connect this prince,

or Danghupaiti, in Media, with the dynasty of the Acha^menians, of

whose glorious names the tradition of the Median
shir^

priests, besides

ArdaI.

has
III).

still

preserved only the two Daras, father and
therefore, prefer to go

son (Darius

and

We,

back to the Awesta, the source
thirst for

of the Zartusht Namah, although we have to satisfy our
;

knowledge with fewer, but more trustworthy statements and the sacred
book
not
itself

would be an exception
sacred from

to all writings of this class, if

it

did

separate the

the

profane

impulse,

and

express

mysteries in mythological symbols.

Not only the Karapan and Kawi,

(the priests of the

old

religion

and their followers the princes) mentioned in the Gathas, already lay
snares for the child, but also

from wolves (often mentioned
fire,

in
is

the

Awesta) and wild horses, and even danger from
culously delivered
tation
;

the child
to

mira-

and

in

manhood Zarathustra has
The legend
doctrine
exhibits

endure tempstruggle,

by the

devil himself.

the soul's

which the renunciation of the faith of his fathers and the conviction
of

the truth

of the

new

occasioned

as

outward occur-

rences of the appearance of the

tempter, because religiously excited

conditions could really produce visions of this kind.

The Book of the Law contains the oldest version, originally a portion of the Spend Nask (according to the classification of the whole Awesta into 21 Nasks, or books,^'^) which contained the history of
ao Livre d'Arda-Viraf, trad, par
21
•23

Barthaemy XIX,

6,

147, 149.

Sitzungsberiohte der Kgl. baiyerischen Akadetnie der Wissenschaften. 5Jan. 1867,
Geldner, Grundriss der
itsLB. Phil,. II, 17.

:

LIFE
Zai*athu8tra.

AND LEGEND OP ZAKATHUSHTRA.
this

125
latest portions
is

That

passage

is,

however, oue of the

of the Avesta follows from this, that to worcU out of the old books
attributed the

witchcraft for

scaring

away the demons and
" Kill,

that the

language

is

ah'eady treated artificially, as the grammatical error at the
it is

very beginning reveals, where

said

:

O

holy Zarathuatra !"
in nearly
all

instead of "the holy Zarathustra".
the

The vocative appears
;

M8S., and

is

undoubtedly the original reading
it

the coppst

was

used to the vocative, us
structure of the

occurs hundreds of times in the conversational

Book of the Law.

A

scholar,

whom the error surprised,
often apparent

corrected

it

by using the nominative:"-'

" Kill, the holy Zoroaster/'
is

The incorrect use of the Median language

To give an example of the
here translated

style of the original legend, the extract
'^*

may

suffice:

'*From the north region, out

of the north regions, rushed

Angra*

Mainyu (Ahriman), the death-fraught

devil of devils {daewaf Fern. diw).

Thus spoke the evil-intending Angra-mainyu, the death-fraught one
'

Fiend

!

rush here,

kill

the holy Zarathuatra/

The

fiend rushes around

him, the

devil Buiti, the creeping destruction,'^^ the evil-intending.

" Zarathustra
guide,' etc.),
*

recited the (prayer)

Ahuna-Vairya

('as the desired

honoured the good waters of the good

Daitya,""'*'

acknow-

ledged the Mazdayasuian religion,'^^

The

fiend rushed

away from him

confounded, the devil Buiti, the creeping destruction, the evil-intending,

" The
see

fiend spoke to

him

:

'

Thou tormentor, Angra-mainyu

!

I con

no death

in him, the

Spitama Zarathustra.

Much

glory of light
:

has the holy Zarathustra.'

Zarathustra jjerceivcd in his mind

'The

fiendish demons are i)lottiug ray death.'
''

Up

started Zarathustra, forward stepped Zarathustra, uninjured

by

evil thought,
'

through the severity of the malicious questions, holding
1 $fq,

For the accusative.

•»
•>

Wendldad XLX.,
According to

Jacksou,

p.

.*.l.

lat4*r

opinlou, ithyejo (Ten, ••})

it
;

bring dettraction upon the

hooM

in

which an iafant

lives

ha

% tiemon who endeaToara to flaas from the orowing oC

aoock.
••
•7

The The

river in

religion that worships

Airyunom Wavjo. Ahura Haada (Ormasd).

6

126

FERDINAND JUSTl,
;

stones in his hands, stones^° as big as a house

he, the holy Zarathustra,
'

had received thetn from the Creator, Ahura Mazda:
thou them on
this earth, the broad,

Where

hadst

round and far-ending, in the house
?
''^^

of Pourushaspa, on the bank of the Dareji

"Zarathustra replied to Angra-mainyu

:

'

evil-intending
I

Angra-

mainyu

!

I will

smite the creation produced by the devils,

will smite

the corpse-phantom created by the devils,
(sorceress, fairy)
shall be

I will smite the

Pairika

who

is

worshipped (?), until the Saviour^ the victorious,

born from the water of Kansaoya^*^ from the eastern region,

out of the eastern regions/
" Thereupon answered
not

him the

lord of the evil creation
!

:

'

Destroy
of Pou-

my

creatures,

holy

Zarathustra
;

Thou

art

the son

rushaspa, by thy mother was I invoked

abjure the good Mazdayasnian

religion, so that thou mayest gain the favour which the

monarch Wadha-

ghna-'^ has obtained.'

"Him
dered.'

answered Spitama Zarathustra: 'I
religion,

will not abjure the

good

Mazdayasnian

even

if

body,

life,

and consciousness be sun-

''To him retorted Angra-mainyu,
'

the lord of the evil creation:

With whose word

wilt

thou vanquish, with whose word wilt thou

drive away, through what

weapon

(will)
'

the good creatures (vanquish)

the creatures of me, Angra-mainyu?

" Spitama Zarathustra answered him

:

'

The mortar, cup, and
and poured
nocjara,

haoma
s**

(the holy draught prepared in the mortar
this

into the

The Parsis explain

term as "

a,

stone- weapon,"

und by

which means

a shepherd's crook with nine knots (?) that would imply Pers. nuh-giriJi. 20 The construction and moaning of this scutenoe are difficult. Perhaps the writer meant to say how earnest thou from thy father's house, to conquer for thyself, with
:

this

stone-weapon, the wholo world,

over which

the

power

of us

demons

is

spread

r*

According to the Buudahishu and the Selections of Zai-sparam, Dareji is the river The identification in Airyana-yaejo, on whose banks the father of the prophet live!. with the Darja-i-Urd (Darmesteter) rests on the error that took the j (sy) in Darja (Pers. for " river ") for the French j; see Jackson, 193

•''0

The lake

of

Segestan (Sistan).

31

A name

of the

tyrant Dahaka, see

'

The Dina
80, 3.

i

Mainu

i

Khrat

',

edited by Darab

Dastur Peshotan Sanjana. Bombay, 1895, p.

Irauisches Mamenbuch, 332, 337.

LIFE
(Mip)

AND LEGEND OF ZAUATHUSHTKA.

127
this

and the word spoken by Mazda are my best weapons; with
word
will
1

word will I vanquish, with this

drive
(thy

away, with this
creations),
evilspirit

weapon
thinking
created
;

(will

strike)

the
!

well-created one?5

Angramainyu

(The word and weapon) the holy
boundless

he created them in

time

;

they were created
rulers, the very wise

by the holy immortals (Ameshaspends), the good
ones.'

''Zarathustra recited the prayer Ahuna-Vairya."
After a lengthy interpolation, this history of the temptation closes
witli

the account of the disappearance of the evil spirits, as

it is

written in

another place.'^ "
earth.''

Thou

causedst

all

the

demons

to hide themselves io the

'*Thus spoke the evil-thinking Angra-mainyu, the death-fraught

one

:

*

What

shall

we bring

together, through collecting,

we wicked
•'"*

devils, weevil-thinking ones,
'*

on the head (skull) of the Arezura?
devils, the

Hither they rushed, they consulted the thinking ones
the
;

wicked

evil-

they lamented,
;

they consulted the deWls,

wicked

evil-thinking ones

they cast the evil eye, the

devils, the
*

wicked evil-thinking ones.

This will we bring together by collecting on the head of the

Arezura.

Born

is,

alas

!

the holy

Zarathustra, in the house of Pouru'r

shaspa
ilevils,

;

how may we procure

his death

He

will

be a blow to the
;

an adversary of the devils, he the

fiend's anttigonist

down

fall

the devil's imps, the corpse- si>ectre (iicwiw) created by the devil,

and

the deceitfully-spoken lie/
If

*'^^

we

look

away from

tlie

mythical parts of the legend, then

ii

is

of particular importance that they state that Zoroaster was Inirn and
pre|>ared for his prophetic career in Atropat<»ne; but later
'

let

him take

TaaiiA IX, 16 (46).

The mouiitaiu at the entrance to bc)l. on thr Domiiwpiul. 8evonU expressionii are tmcd In thit ulauiM% which are ••nljr iiied for evil KpirlH tlic (ierlU do nor walk, they ranh they do not ^p«ak, bat howl thejr have ao hc«d. uo eye, no hand, hut n sknll, a tqaintor. a paw, etc Alno, in nnoient Peniao, the word imrtt *'HUte-nrmy *') id relaUtl t<> the (iemtan Haer. but a hwUle army !• U«»t (flanakrtt

:

^^

:

;

tend).

128

FERDIXAND

JUSTI,

refuge with Wlstaspa, the king of Bactria.

This opinion stands mid-

way between two
people
still

others.

In the beginning of these researches,

when

defended the hypothesis, although supported by no single
or anthropological
fact,

historical tradition

that

the Indo-Germans

had originated from Central Asia, Zoroaster passed for a Bactrian who
lived in the year 1200,
itself

and

his doctrine

was

said

to

have extended
to

westward by degrees. The other opinion endeavours
Bactria,

prove the

proposition that Zoroaster had never been in
religion of the Zoroastrians, or

and that the

Magianism, has proceeded from Media.

The evidence

is^

therefore,

somewhat complicated,

as the legend has

transferred Wistaspa to Bactria, and, on account of the connection of
his

dynasty with the Achaemenian, even
facts,

let

him

issue from Persis.

The contradictious of
numerous that we

which the legend has not regarded, are so

are well enabled to discover the real circumstances.
of the religion of the

The question of the origin
important for
its

Awesta

is

not only

own

history, but also

for the history of religion in

general, as Zoroaster's achievement records an important and effective
step for the development of religious thought in

mankind, beyond the

worship of nature, and other preliminaries of a pure understanding of

God, onwards to a contemplation of a world of higher moral capacity. ^^

Man

is

no more called into existence by the caprice of a wrathful

despot, to be shortly afterwards (according to the impulses that

had

been planted in him) condemned to everlasting ruin, or destined for
eternal bliss
is

hich cannot be so to us as long as
hell-fires.

we know our brother

tortured by

But he

is,

through the fulfilment of his

duties,

through founding a family, cultivation of the land, resistance

of harmful violence in nature, through

advancement of prosperity,
heavenly

and thereby rendering charity, intended

for the partisan of the

bdings, which, under the guidance of the Creator, endeavour to remove
the obstacles prepared by the evil ones for
the

coming of God's

Kingdom.
^^

Compare

Mills' copious essay

in the Journal of the Royal Asiatic 8ooiety, 1899,

p. 273.

LIFK

AND LEGEND OF ZARATHUSHTRA.

1

?9

The Persians have been educated, by tbe teacher
for rulers

of their religion,

and heroes, not

for

slaves and monks.

Yea, even in paradise

that arises, on the earth
fire,

itself,

out of the ashes of a great universal

destroying sin and the devil, the pious Mazda-worshipper, with

his relations, will

wander

in the

unfading garden of trees (Paradei.sos)

that he once planted here on earth, and will enjoy other pleasures, to

which he had himself

laid the foundation

during

his earthly existence.
its

The Persian
the people
for their

religion, certainly like others,

much

injured in

purity by
it

who

hate the sublime, and by the rulers

who make
and,

useful

own
last

purposes, has once lent to the declining heathenism of the

West a

support by their Mithra- mysteries

;

through the

Gnostic dualism of ManI, put the Christianity into excitement.

The following

particulars are

intended,

partly to substantiate*

Jackson's views through some further details, partly, where he
hesitated

has

between two opposing views,

to indicate the right one.

Nobody now

believes that Zoroaster

may

be a mythical figure, as
in the

was once affirmed.

The names of

his family,

mentioned

Awesta,
if

have no religious or mythological signification, as would be the case
they were invented.

Of
in

the ancestors mentioned in

his pedigree,*"' in

Haechadaspa occurs

the Gathas, Chakhshni
:

and Pourushaspa
!^j->i f am d 07) hd

other portions of the Awesta
Giithiis,

the family

is

called

in

the

which reminds one of the Median Spitamas, the husband of

Amytis, the daughter of Astyages, who was probably a descendant of
Zoroaster and the Zarathiishtrotcma (Maa-i-Mnghati), the great priest
of Ilagha, and by his high rank the son-in-law of tbe Median King.

These names show,
8e<*.ondly,

firstly,

the descent from Media (Atropatcno);

that the family

belonged to the nobility, as only nobles, or
{'*

Dihkans, boar nanjes ending with aspa

horse'*).

Zoroaster's

name
in

means

" one possessing old camel«
;

'*

(or quiet camels,

grown grey

service)'^

it

appears

that

the need

was

felt to

give him a more

""

Bartholoraa*, (Jruiidriw der Irtn.l'hil.

I.

»82. n. 44.

Jttokton, )1, 13.

17

1

30

FERDINAND JOSTI,
name, and they therefore
called

spiritual

him

Zoroastres, one half of

which name would be the Greek
(power,
sacriticer)

pronunciation
version

of Awesta zdvare

Persian zr>), the
:

other half, a

of

yashtdr

— " whose sacrifice has strength, or effect."
by Diodoros, seems
Zathra-ivahlshta (like Tithraustes

(the

Also the name

Zathraustes, quoted
of the

to contain another interpretation

name: " the best by

= Chifhra-icahishta),

birth," with reference to his marvellous birth. in

The country

which Zoroaster was born, and where he prepared
is,

himself for his ministry,

according to the legend and the Awesta,

Airyanem-vaejo, which

comprises the countries between Armenia,

the Caspian Sea, and great Media.

This name

is

the Awetic

term for

Atropatene (Pahlawi, Aturpdtakdrif now Adharbaijan), a country called
after Atropates, the prince of the
said, as it

Kadusiaus and Sakesines, who was

seems, a descendant of Atarepata, the son of Wibhtaspa.

Atropates was confirmed in the possession of his land by Alexander,

and founded a dynasty, whose

capital,

during the summer, had become
;

Phraaspa, or Shiz, ynd during the winter Gandzak (now Leilan)

and

whose

last descendant,

Artawazd (Aw. Ashawazdah]j

after his father's
old.

dethronement (A. D. 10), died in Rome when 39 years
If the

Awestic term should really describe the Aryan source, or
(^ae^'o is

mother-land

explained by hduy ''pit or mine
oldest habitations of the

"•'^^),

then the

naming would agree with the

Mada and Parsua

at the time of the later kings of Assyria, and the scene of the founding

of the

kingdom of Media

;

for

it

might

already'

have disappeared from

their recollection that both nations

had originally immigrated from
used by Apollodoros to designate*-

further east. The name Ariana

is still

the coujitry contiguous to the land of the Kadusians (Gilan)^^.

By
that
-» p. 60.

collecting all the accounts of the ancients

(among which

those

are not influenced by
Therefore the
'

the legend are the most importunt), the
ed.

officina

Aiiomm,' comp, Jordanis Getica,
das Awesta,
I. 8.

Mommseii, IV,

25,

Spiegel, Coramentar ueber
o«fc/i.

It cannot

be the same thing as

Vers.

"

root."
,».

''*

fetei)hano8 Byzant.

r.

Aiiania

j

comp. Htrabo XV,

2, 8.

LIFE
Zoroastriaii

AND LEGEND OF ZAUATUUSHTKA.
modern
times,

131

writings of ancient and

and those of the

MiihammaJan geographers and
thi3

chroniclers*^,

who

usually call Urniiah

town ol'Zaradusht, Jackson has provided an overwhelming refuta-

tion of the torri)L*rly accepted view, that Zoroaster's descent and doctrine and the language of the Awesta had proceeded from Bactria. This view (now relegated to the lumber-room) about the founder of Magian-

ism and the head of the Median

priests,

the

moghu, ancient Persian

maguj Armenian, from the Median, mog, wBo<e official name was aihrava^ " priest of fire," Tru^at^ot, " arises from this, that the legend
transfers to

Balkh (Baktra) the residence of King Wistaspa,

to

whose

court the prophet proceeds from Aturpatakau.

Tho reason

of this will

become evident

later on.

That some ancient authors also speak incorrectly of Bactria appears

from the fable of Ktcsias, preserved by Diodoros, according to which
Nines

and Semiramis defeated King Oxyartes of

Bactria.
first

Other

writers (instead of the Oxyartes, father of Roxane,
in the text in Alexander's timo)

who

appeared

have the Zoroasties^ or Zathraustes^

intended by Ktesias, as well as Diodoros.
to the names, to support tho error.

A

few writers add Magus

Bactria
(as

is

here chosen

as the

outermost

land

in

the

east

Egypt and tho land of the Scythians
to

are in tho west

and north),

and accepted by Ktesias

produce a really great impression.

An

Assyrian army never penetrated beyond the Caspian Gates, and neither
a Nines (tho hero of tho City of Nineveh, Greek Nines),*'' nor a Semi-

ramis (tho

human form

of the goddess Ishtar of Nineveh), has reigned

over Assyria.
Also the attempt, through a very uQoertain refenmce to the campaigns of the Assyrian Sbamsi-Adnd,

who

(B. C. 820) captured

tho

king of Gizilbunda, and defeated the Mddes there, at the " white moun«•> Ifnmmlhani (IMhlioth. Gcogmph. Arab. VI) 119.17. 121. IS, nolo A.

V. 235, Tu

3S6, 3. Ibn Khardi^l-Ub

('/'.

«>

Rapp. ZdtHchrift dor
('ont^rc^n*-?*,

Ori.ntallHtou
'

Euichi.Ki.

AM

C. de Mftrlen, Wbniidl. d. Berliner 1^2, If, 7, 27;». Jnokton 243 oomp. OUmorf. KImIm, Load. IMS, p. tO, 29 499.
Hor((Piil. Oca. 19, tl.

Berlin,

;

\

132
tain'' [shadipisi), the

FERDINAND

JUSTI,

Kiz Ka})an, westward froui Takht-i Suleiman, or
1

Shlz/^ and

to

Shammuraraafc, the wife of Adad-Nirari, B. C. 81
in Media), to find an historical
it

— 782

(who likewise made war

background

for the Ktesian fable, would be to accord

too

much honour.
Ammianus Marcelin Persia,

Even an author
linus,

so generally

trustworthy as

who, as participator in Julian's campaign

would be
added

able to

make

enquiries, says that the Bactrian Zoroaster has
;

much
the

out of the secrets of the Chaldees to Maglanism

but Hystaspes,

the wise father of Darius,

had appropriated,

in India, the

knowledge of

Brahmans about

the path of

the stars,

and

of the earth,
this

and
from

about prophecies; nevertheless Ammianus cannot have heard
Persians,

who never speak
but
his

of a

Bactrian

Zoroaster,

but

only of

Spitama, or rtshava (*^pure, holy") Zarathustra, later of Zaradusht

from Adharbaijan
Trogus.*^

;

words are only a reminiscence

from

Moses

of Khorni,

who preserved many

absurdities, is disconcerted

by the passage, quoted from Africanus (and further on by Kephalion),
of the Berosian Sibylla, ^^
is

where Zradasht Mog arkay Baktriatsvots,
and adds,
in explanation,
*'

called king of the Bactrians,
(I, 17)

that

is,

of

*he Medes *';and again the

he calls Zoroaster a Magian and chief of

Medes {Markh), and

states that he is

made governor
to

of

Nineveh

and Assyria by Semiramis, because she wishes
to

go for her recreation

Armenia, where she has built Shamiramakert, or Wan. As Zoroaster

tries to

make himself independent, the queen marches against him,

but

is

defeated and slain by her son Ninyas.
for

The comment of Moses, whereby he here takes the Bactrians
Medes, might lead
to the source of the original

Ktesian error. The Per-

sian Empire, or Airdn-khshathr (Pers. Irdn-ahalir^ Awesta.
lihsJiathrem),

Airyanam

was divided into four groups of provinces, or countries,
das Sanclschak Suleimania
9.

*3 Billerbeck,

;

Leipzig, 1898, p. 66.
so
;

** Justinus,

I, 1,

The Brahmans, besides the Magians, name him
Arrian
6, 16,5.

also Nearch

in Strabo,
*^

15, ]. 59,

61 06.

Appiauus, de hello

oivili II. c. 54.

Jackson, p. 187.

LIFE AND LKGKNU OF ZAKATHUSHTRA.

133

named

after the four quarters of the heavens,

and fgoverned by four

Spahpets (ancient Persian, spddhapati), commanders-in-chief, or governing Held-marshals.

The northern
is

of these provinces contained

Media

and

Atropatene, and

called

by Khurdadbih and othere that of

Adliarbadhakan, or Adharbaijan ;^ but, by Ibn Rosteh and Masudi,
/yj/i/i^rtr,

"the

north''*'

(Pahlawi, ap«A*/itor; Awesifk, apdkhtara).
'*

In

the so-called geography of Moses are also mentioned

the Scythians

who

are Apakhtarkh, that

is,

Turks."
it

As Ktesias

lived 17 years in
that, in his
to

Persia and understood the language,

might be thought

cursory manner, he had taken Apakhtara for Bakhtra.

Also

Moses,

who

lived in the time of the Sasanians,

when Armenia was under Persian
its

rule, the expression for

the

'*

North,'* and

applicability to Media,
his

must have been known and may have occasioned
worthy of notice that Burnouf,'*^
Bakhtar.

remark.

It

is

by the name Bactra, refers to that

Besides the literary evidences, fully collected and commented on

by Jackson, there are also historical relations to consider.
impulse from outside, no religion usually changes much, or

Without an
is

replaced

by another. Putting aside missions, which aim at the introduction of a

new

religion into foreign lands, religious opinions also spread unnoticed

from land to land, by the intercourse of nations, and especially nations
of lesser civilization accept, from their
useful

more important neighbours^
nature of things,
in

knowledge,

skill,

instruction relating to the

and the

religious views

which were connected with these things
these

ancient times, because by
existence,
in

means they procure a pleasanter

and are able to gratify their curiosity about many phenomena

heaven and earth.

The

religion

and mythology of the Greeks

is

inconceivable without their intercourse with Asia Minor and

Egypt;
far

how should

the Medes, and

still

more the Bactrians, who were
tlie


'
«*

Tttbftri 894,

in

Noldeke, Tahari's History of

Persiaiw, 155.

J.

dc

Gt>ejo

Biblioth. Geograph. Arab. VI, 118.
J. dc Gocje. Bibl. VII, 108, 22.

VIII, 81, 6.

Commcntaire sur

Ic Ya^^na.

Paris, lh36.

Notes, p. cxii.

134

FERDINAND JUSTI,

removed, in ancient times, from the cultivated States which were making
the history of the world, without having received such an impulse, have
arrived at

making an alteration in

their old

Aryan

religion that

had been

sufficient for their social circumstances.

In India the change of religion

occurred indeed without foreign incitation, but went hand in hand with

an immense convulsion of the people who were confined by the system
of caste, and suffering under oppression by the priests.

The Medes,

and after them the Persians, already early in contact with the Assyrians

and Susians, became, by

their

conquest,

the

heirs

of the ancient
it

Mesopotamian aud Western Asiatic

civilization,

and

could not be

long before the religions of the nations, conquered by them, also
excited their attention.

The most ancient Great-King had already

established a

mighty

empire, after the Assyrian model, by the uuion of small principalities,

and surrounded the royal castle of Agbatana, in which he shut himself with a sevenfold wall, whose battlements were painted with the colours
of the planets.*^

This statement, even

if it

should be uncertain, proves

that the Babylonian star-worship had spread out over Iran.

And

to

that the Chald^aeorum arcana of
refer.

Ammianus

could most appropriately

In the Zoroastrian religion the reverence of
very conspicuous; in the cosmic

stars is certainly not

system the planets are the enemies

of the fixed stars, because, according to the dualistic view of the world,

the

army

of heaven is

drawn

into the conflict of

good and

evil,

and,

exactly like the Persian empire
patis,

and army, remains under four Spadha*'

among whom
is

Hapto-iringa, or

the seven stars," as Spadhapati

of the North,

the opponent of the planet
;

Mars (Wahram).^^

This

view, however, appeared late

in the oldest portions of the

Awesta

there

is

no occasion to mention any other astronomical events than the
of the

course of the sun and stars, and the waxing and waning

48 Herodotus, 1, 98.
50 51

Bundahishn (Westerg.),
Yasna, XLIV.,3.

p. 7,

1.

7

;

p. 12,

1.

19.

LIFE

AND LEGEND OF ZARATHUSHTRA.
makes use
of the

135
of a seer
is

The manner
and prophet
to

iu wliich the Deity

mouth

impart revelations and holy laws to the faithful,
also

pecuharly developed with the Semites, though seers
in the

appear

Weda, whose words are
mankind,

inspired.

The system

of oracles, or

the communication of the will of the gods^ through dreams, signs and

precepts to

is

an important

religious institution
f-aid,

with the

Hellenes, but of which the
oracle existed in Meroii in

Greeks themselves
;

that the oldest

Nubia
is

yet

the direct

communication beview, and Zoroaster

tween God and the prophets
reminds us of
this

really a Semitic

when, in the Book of the Law, or Wendidad, he asks
latter, in his

Ahnra Mazda, and the
to him.
It

answers, communicates the

Law

certainly cannot be

proved that this circumstance was
Zoroaster and his

very ancient, and in the anthems, originating from

immediate followers, there

is

only

one poem (Yasna

XLIV) whose

twenty strophes contain questions of Zoroaster to Ahura, which,
however, arc not answered, because every answer would repeat the

thought that Ahura Mazda
the questions.
dialogistic
Still
it
is

is

the author of

all

things mentioned
later

iu

not impossible,

that the

favourite

form has been constructed on the model

of this

ancient

poem.

As Spiegel has remarked, the doctrine
first

of sin

and

holiness (in the

place cleanliness of the body, then freedom from moral contamin-

ation) also reminds one of

Semitic ideas

;

and

Hyde'''''

points

to

the

resemblance of the Zoroastrian and the Christian Hierarchy. By these
details

one comes, however, no further onward than a genei-al impresis

sion;

and the Iranian religion

rooted too deeply in the nature of the
its followers,

country, and of the views about nature of
})e(!iiliarly

and

is

far too

and independently developed

to allow of the entry of strange

elements.

"Great men are the children of
of the past, they are

their age.

Heirs to the lieritage

charged with

th| ..tewardship of the possessions to

be handed down to the future.
'•

Summing
n

up, within the teaching of a
8^4.

Veterpni PernaruTn

'Ig. Iilf^t.,

336
prophet
is

FERDINAND JUSTl,
the voice of the age ia which he lives
;

his preaching is the

echo of the heart of the people of his day.
therefore, not without its
historic

The
it

era of a prophet
is

is,

significance,

an event that

marks an epoch

in the life of

mankind.""
is

Important, however, here

the cult of the sacred fire y^^ which
;

is

characteristic of the Zoroastrian religion

while other Indo-Germans,

indeed, worshipped, as holy, the hearth-fire (the Hestia or Vesta) burnt in
the perpetual lamps of their temples, the Iranians, however, as
is

known,
the

connected

it

with the naphtha springs which are found
Bakfi/''^

chiefl}^ in

neighbourhood of Tiilis, Salian, Shemakha, and
sula of Apsheron,

with the penin-

and the island Swjatoi, therefore
in

in

Airyanem Waejo;
upper
the

even on the other side of the Caucasus,

the province of the

Kuban,

or

Hypanis, in the
''^'

country of

the

fire- worshippers

Sauromates,

who came from Media;

in Assyria, to the south of Arbela

near Demetrias, where naphtha and petroleum springs are mentioned in
the temple of the Nanaia to the north of the residence of

Dareios

I.

Sadrakae (Tel

Ser-^^),

also at

Nimrud and
at

at the other side in Sinn,'*" at
Ilamrln,'^'-^

el-Fathah, where the river Tigris traverses the mountains of
at

Kirkuk or Mennis and Kufri,

Tuz Khurmatu,''" between these two

places, at Mendeli, to

the east of

Baghdad on

the Pusht-i-Kuh,^' in

Babylonia at Hit on the Euphrates,^'-

Zoroaster must have found the

worship of fire as a holy

spirit,

to be already in existence in those parts

and changed

this

into the doctrine,

that

fire,

'Hhe son

of

Ahuri
spirit

Mazda," was the emanation and the earthly sign of the sacred
^^

Jackson, 150.

Compare the grand account

of the Jewish prophecy in Wellhausen's

Israelitische unci Judische Geschichtc, Berlin 1895, 108.
5* Istakbri (J.

=

de Goeje, Geogr. Arab. I.„ 190.
{ih.

Masudi, Kitab at-tanbih

VIII.) 6

J,

l^neq.
p. 32,
1.

"
•'''*

Clemens. Alex., ed. Frid. Sylburg. uugd. JJatav. 161G, Strabo 738, ed. Meineke, 1028, 20.

37.

Map

of Jones, Journ, Asiat. Soc.

XV.

5"

Chesney, Expedition to the river Euphrates,
5, 1,

Map

No.

6.

80 Curtius,
«i «2

Ker Porter Tra'.-^l. 440. Rich, Koordistan 1, 22. 31. 2, 277. Petermann's Mittheiluugen, 1874, >, Heft 9, p. 344. Comp. Brisson, III, 94. Plutarch's Alexander, (7hap. XXXV. Comn. Maunsell, Proceedinafs, Geog. Hoc
1«.

9

(1897)528,

LIFE
of
liglit, anil in

AND LEGEND OF ZARATHUSHTRA.

137

which he manifested himself to
Fire
Nfieir
is

his worshippers, or, as

Firdun
the

Pays,

**

not a God, but the Mihrab," or, nccording to

words of

Khusrau, " the Kiblah or prayer-niche of the

Dihkan."^*^

Bel'ami^* asperts, indeed, that the fire-cult comes from
of Oriental religions,

Atropatene, and Shahrastani,^^ the historian
agrees with
Firdusi,

that

the fire-temples

are

more ancient than
are not

Zoronsfer and that the Pnrsi books and Firdusi

making an

anachronism
the
firo.

in stating that the pre-Zoroastrian
fire

kings built houses tor
is

The worship of
in

by the Assyrians
at

shown by

their
''^

monuments
fire-temple

the

palace

of Sanherib

Koyundjik, Nineveh.

i*amucl Johnson^^ refers to the naphtha springs and calls Iran the
of the world, but at the same time considers Partria as the

home
wicked

of Zoroaster and of the Awesta,

and gives as

his reason the

limitation of sacred
in the

geography

to the east,

and the placing of the
this
fire-cult

west.

In the Fame

way

that

points to

Atropatene and Media as the original scat of the Magiau

religion, the

legends and traditions take this north Iranian land as their scene of
action.

At

the time of the Kawi-dy nasty mention

is

often

made

of the

DTws

of Mazendoriin (in

Awesta

:

daewa mdzainya), who were especially

attacked by

Kai Kaus [Kawa Usa).
wild-asses

DTws are

usually demons, also

animals, like lions,

and

locusts, also
;

powerful enemies of

man, oftrn with the attributes of other races Tahnnirath, the Tamer of Dlws, had himself been instructed by them in handwriting. Jamshed

made them
the

build brick building.^, which points directly to the fact of
Firdusi calls
calls

the introduction of these things from foreign countries/*"

King

of the Slavs, Shah-i

Sckliii),

but the

narzu-iulmeh

him

UTw-iSekhlb, and the
or armies of

Russians arc called
devils.'''"^

Khakaui Diws or
the neigh-

diw'latfhLfrdn

The Mazenderanis,

's Fir.uiM, lisrt. 223:.. Etb^, GottinRer Nacbrlchten, J882, 149, 14w
•» Tabtiri transl. by Zotenl)cr^', 3, 494. «» Kd. II«arl)rilckcr Hallr, 18&0, 1, 281, 298. *" Layard, Nineveh an<l its remains II, 441, 467. ^JoiiumcoU of
•'

Kinevch

II, 24.

Oriental IleliKions, Persia. Load. 18R5, p. 24. 80. 125. 144.

«" FirduM, 22, 44, 24, 34.

•• Dorn, CasplA

(Mom. de TAcad., Imp. XXI II),

Pctertburg, 1875, p. BOi, rS)*.

138

FERDINAND JUSTI,
that,
like the

bouring people to Atropateiie, arc a race

Kadusiaiis

in

ancient times, always defended their independence and whose country

was protected by the high mountains of Alburz (Hara-lerezaiii)
the

and

swamps of the lowlands.
fortress,

A mountain
devil)

to the west of

Amnl was

formerly crowned by a
tlie

IspirTz or Asproz,

whose coniinandcr,

D;\v-i-sopid

(the

white

of Kfijur

was only conquered
If the

by Rustam after sustaining many dangerous adventures.^^

dynasty had originally been considered to be in Bactria, one would
have more probably
tribes
let

them take the war-path against the robber

in

Paropanisos.

Even

the most

ancient

recollections

and

legends are connected with places in the mountainous countries to the south of the Cispian Sea: the heroThraetaona
fold strength) is
(i.e.j

who

possesses three-

born at Warena Chathrugaosha (the four-cornered)^
is

that

IS in

Warek, three Parsangs east of Sari/^ which
P'roin

also called

Gosh/^

the smith

Kaweh

of Ispahan,

who

first

goes to help

Ferldun (Thraetaona), nre descended the Karin who rule over Tabaristau.

Feridun carries the conquered tyrant Zahhak (Azhi-dahaka)
is

to

Sherchwan'^: his grave

in

Tammisha, which was on the borders of
His sons are buried
proved by the
is

Tabaristan and Gurgan, 16 Farsangs from Sari in the south-eastern
corner of the Caspian Sea/*'
is

in Sari 7^

That this

a very ancient account

is

fact,

that no other place

in Iran has claimed the honour, as
thf^ir

usually the case with saints and
his

bones.

The Kai Kaus

fell

from

balloon to earth at

Amul

"">

Firdus', 325,

10''.

"27, 196. Rustam's Journey to Mfizenderan

is

the prototype of
10. Dorn.

Ispendiar's Adventures to the hronzc castle (^Dizirfun) or Paikand in Tnran (Manpiart,
Zeitschrift Morgenl. Gesellscli. 40, C!39). Corap.
Cas^pi'i, 83.

Zahir-ed-din ed. Dorn, 186,

5.

Melgunof, the Southern Shore of the Caspian Sea, 212.

'1

72

By

Melgunof, 171. Wnrek, Zahir-ed-din, 11, U. Firdusi, 64, •J8, Gosh (manuscripts give the reading
;

KoO

is

called the seat of

Feridun in Tammisha Zahir-cd.din, who quotes Firdusi's Distichon, lias Kosh (Gosh) 73 To the south of Douiuwend, Firdusi, 60, 613. Zahir-od-din, 291. 9. 6. Comp

Marquart, Zeitsch. Morgcnl. Gcselhch.
7* Firdusi, 64, 47.

49, 665.
2.

Zahir-e<l-dln, 12, IP. 066,

Yakut,

3.

547, 14. 17.
188^^,

Melgunof
Bpiegel,

216.

Tomaschek..
1,

hi storischc

Topographic von Persien, Wien,
1371).

60.

83.

Iran, Alterth.

ni%.

Dnrn, Caspla.

I3lb.

"

Melgunof. 165-

LIFE
(or at
Sfiri"'^).

AND LEGEND OF ZARATHUSIITRA.
ciistle is

139

As the Dejokes

connected with Assyrian pro-

totypes,

or

perhaps with the kindred Alarodian or old Armenian
ot*

architecture, so the royal architecture

the Persians also sprang from

the west.

Tho tomb

of Kyros shews the typo of the Mesopotamian
the
;

gradient temples with Greek outlines''";

tombs

of the kings at

Naksh-i Rustam are inspired by the Egyptian

the ground plan of the

fire-temples as they appear in tho quadratic buildings at

Pasargaduo,
tlie

near Naksli-i Rustam, and in Naubandagan,
politan

as well as on

Perscis

coins

of

the

Fratokaras from

.

Seleukidian

times,

also

developed in the Lykian town-towers of Pinara and slone sarcophagi
as those at Phellos'^°
;

Assyrian, Greek and Egyptian Art has part in

the composition of the Persep;)litan pillars, tho wall decorations arc

undoubtedly carved out by Greek sculptors, and has
Khorsabfid, and, what
is still

its

prototype in

more important

for our subject, hieratic

representations, like the winged figure of the divinity,'^ or the repre-

sentation of the Ahrimanian monster, or of Hades'^" with a wolfs throat,

a lion's forepaw, and bird ^-of -prey claws, so to speak a Patyara or
count'3r-creation to the

winged Cherubim on the Palace
plastic
p.rt,

gates,°'
it

are

borrowed from Babylonian and Assyrian
rapossible
sentations
if

and

would bo

nothing from the contents and meaning of these repreinto the Iranian religion.

had found an entrance

All this
so

is

not to be conceived in Bactria.

Even Rudolf Roth, who was

much

prepossessed by the Bactrian origin of the Awesta, allowed in a very

7a Firdusi, 412, 482.

1639,2519.

George N. Curzon, Persia, II, Lond. 1892, 142. 190. Fellows, Account of Discoveries in Asl:i Minor, 1 12. iKiimiuii imii ^lctIl;lIm Retse in Lykien, Wicn, 1884, 54. 109. Tab. 37. Jueti, Gcfchichto dcr Oriontnl. Vtilker

"

"

412. 4li. 453.

Stack, Six

Months

in Vcnia,
T.

Loml. 1882, 60.
29.

Ham. Johnson. Oriental RcHgioni*,

blochet, IJevno de THistoire

«lcii

Beli*

gions, 38, 18«8, p. 31.
"•^

On Hades and Ahriman.;

Rapp,

Zcit«chrlft d.

MorKCul. OesoUsch. 10, 1866

pp. 60, 79.
"» Observe the Nergal or Hotics on the bronze plate from Palmym Clermont* Ganneau, Rcvuo Arch<?olog. XII. Doc. 1879. PI, XXV. Maspcro, Hihtoirc ancionne dc rOrieDt, 1. 1895, r.Ql. The tigure walking Diculafoy, Acropolc de Suao, repeated by iklwin Schultr, Allgemeine Kanat'gesohichte, 1, 146.
: :

140
fine essay^-^ that the

FERDINAND JUSTI,
Calendar of the Awesta, computed ou the climatic
of
Bactria,

and agricultural conditions

would

also

suit

Media.

Ch. de Harlez"^ points out that the calendar of the Magi can only have
originated in

Media

at

a

much

later time."*

Even

if

a

Bactriau

kingdom had

existed before the Achaemenian, which^ face to face with
is

the accounts of the battles of Kyros against the nomads of that district,

not probable, there would liave been no occasion to alter the old Ariun
religion, especially as the customs of the Bactrians are still described

in Alexander's time as rough.

''-^

That the Bactrians were not only
Sakian
tribe,

Arians in a broad sense, as perhaps a

but Iranians,

is

shown by

their armour,

which Herodotus

7, 64, describes,

and

also

from

the especially Bactrian names, Oxyartes, Roxane, Spitamenes, Spithobates, etc.

That no tidings of the Bactriau kiugdom was known in
is

ancient times

shown by Strabo's words, which expressly

state that

Bactria only became
Parthians.^^
'Ihe find

known

to the

western nations by the wars of the

legend

relates further

that the revealed doctrine

did not

any sympathy

in Atropatene, therefore the disappointed

Prophet

preached
there
tion

at a far distance at the

court of

King Wishtuspa, and from
Zoroaster^s emigra(Yasna-»
shall
L

the doctrines
is
:

again
his

returned westwards.
in the

proved by

own words

Gatha Ushtawaiti
'*

46, 1)
fly,

Kdm

nemoi

zdni,

kuthrd nemo

ayenl,

To what country

whither can 1 turn?"

A

classical

outcry which (Yasht, 22, 20) the
it

soul of the dead sinner makes,

when separated from the body,
teirible visions of all the sins
in his
is

wanders

the

first

three nights
its

and has

committed

during

life-time.

The Prophet found no favour

own country
called
*'

where the reigning house was hostile"' to him, and
8* Zeitschriftd.

the

Morgenl. Gesell 34,715.
II., 2,

S3

Abhandlungcn des Berliner Orientalisten Congresses, 1^82,
Coinp
Justi, Zeitscbiift d.

270.

8*
•'»»

Morgenl. Gesellsoh. 5 J, 260.
Cuitius, 4,
G, 3.

Strabo, 11, 11, 3 (ed. Meinekci 726, 9.*e(/).
IlistoriJe

Later authors, like

he

Itcriptorei

Augustse, Eusebios, Ammiaiius, have the
12 (after Apolludoros of Artemita).

Hephthaliaa

and

othei analogous nations in view.
•* Strabo,
«7
1, 2, 1
;

2, 5,

Ya

na, 46, 11; 48, 10.

LIPK

AND LEGEND OF ZARATUUSHTKA.
his

141
embraced
liis

wicked ralers of the land"; only
doctriues,^**^

nearest rehitions
to AVishtfispa,"^

and the divinity
Huwogvva,

directs

him

who

does not
ia

live in Bactiia,

but in another part of Media, for the family Spitiima
to

related

to

the
lie

whom

Wishtaspu's Wezir Jamaspa

helont^s, us

was the husband of i^ouruchista, the i^rophet's daughter^^*;

so

it is

imagined that Wishtaspa, who supported the claims of his house

Naotara to the kingdom, offered protection to the Prophet^ who was
persecuted by the Kawis.
family of

The Gathas do

not mention any of the royal

Kawi even
;

the old

King Yima, from whom the Kawi were

desC'Mided,
to

is

counted with the sinners, from
If

whom

the Prophet wished

be separated.^'

Wishtaspa had been king of Baclria, Zoroaster
his existence^ asB.ictrii is so

would probably have never even known of
fhr distant

and divided from Media by mountain passes and
calculates

deserts,

that

Ibn

Khurdadbih

the distance from Rai (Hagha) to

Marw

at 201

Farsangs or o4 days* march, from
is

Marw

to

Balch at

J

18

Farsaugs, or 20 days' march, which

about the same as the distance
to Naples;

between Bombay

to the borders of

Assam, or from Hamburg

even the journey from Urmia over SliTz to Hai, Zoroaster's later dwell-

ing

plfice,

would mean a journey as
to

far as

from Bombay to
to

Go;i, or

from
this

Hamburg

Munich

— and he

would have had

undertake
first

journey on pure chance, as ho was not invited to go and had

to legitimate himself by miracles.

The question

is

now how

the

connection of Wishtiispa with the

Kawi

is

treated

by the legend, and again

how the

stiitement in the

Awesta compares with the history of the Median kings.
ation
is

The cxphin-

difficult

because, as might be expected, the legend has altered
bias.

according to the received
the ancient kings
full

They were

especially obliged to describe

whom

they considered as rulers of all Iran as being

of glory
»'•

and pertaiuingto Zoroaster, and even tho pro-Zoroastrian

lh*d. 16.

«• Ibid. 14.
I" Ihiii. 17. PtMhjipa Z<»roiiitcr*i
i»f

noD in-lnw

is

a aeco/tt Jum'iiipa, ihc ion or n |»hcw
230.

tbe
•»

\Ve7.ir.

VHsna,3;,, 8.

Ticum. Juhrbllcher,

18l»7, p.

142

FERDINAND JUSTI

kings are described as being devoted to a stepping-stone of the Mazdiiyasnian religion.

The Kawi dynasty, according

to the early conception,

overthrew the dynasty of the Median race Xaotara.
the founder

It is stated that

Kawi-Kawata was adopted by

the last Naotara,

Zaw, son of

Naudhar

(Naotara),-'-

and according totheShahniiuieh, Kobild (Kawata)
;

was considered a prince sent from God

but of Naotora's race
in Firdusi), ^vho have^

still

live

Tusaand VVistakhma (Tus and Gustehem
lost the

however^

Mhwar end,

or royal majesty. ^-^

Easily the fall of a dynasty

may
title

be traced here, and Wishltispa descended from the rac3 of Naotara^^

nmst be looked upon as the conqueror of the Kawi dynasty, whose
he adopts
;

but, as the

Awesta

testifies, in spite

of belonging to the

Nao-

tairyan family, he was also related, through his father

Lohrasp, son of
Ptxrs,

Kai Ogl, the son of Manus,

to

Kawi

Pisina,^'

who

ruled in

and
the

was

a brother of

Kawi Usa,
is

the successor of Kawata.

The

fall of

Kawi

d^uiasty,

which

probably in connection with the introduction
because,
as Spiegel
is

of the Zoroastrian
leo^end at this time
its

religion,
is

shows, the priestly
as

inserted into the tradition,

much

veiled as

commencement.
is

The

last of the

Kawi, Khusrau, weary of governend
of his

ing,

said toliave abdicated at the

long and glorious reign,
the

and

in the face of energetic

resistance to have resigned

kingdom
a son

to Wishiaspa's father Lohrasp,

and then

to

have been taken np to

heaven in secret
of Khusrau,
of the way.

in

asuow-storm/-^^

But the Awesta mentions

Akhrura,^^ who by this means was probably moved out

The

title

Kawi

lost its hostile

meaning, since Wiehtaspa^
for

as successor of

the ancient kings,

used

it

himself;

the priests

changed iu the old songs the
that
of

sense of kawi
to

"hostile

king"
a

in

blind "

(Pers.

kur)

the

good doctrine,

meaning

»2

»a
p*

Jranisches Nameubuch, 395. Compare Samuel 1, 16, 14.
;

Yaaht 5. i!8 15, 35. West, Pahlavi Texts, V. 80. Jackson, 70, 192. A Kin" Tasln of Daiabgerd in Pars was conqncrofl by the founder of tho Basaniau comp. Iranisches NaniciiViUv.'h, 895. dynasty
fs
;

0*5

Firdusi, 14:^7 -vy.

07

Perhaps Akhrura (with short

a),

Skr. Akrura.

LIFE
that
of

AND LEGEND OF ZARATHUSHTRA.
a

143

contradicts in
the

curious

manner the etymological meaning
" seeing,
the
tlio

word,

which originally moans

wise" (Greek

Koiw, evoi'K6o^,' \inro'K6av\

Germ,

schaueu),

wliilo

Karapans,
idols

who
kar

are mentioned with the Kawis, the old priests of
h'llpa, rite,

(Sanskrit

custom), are

now become

the

*'

deaf ones," as Pers.
in Zoroaster's

has this meaning.^^
AVishtilspa

If the

Kawi dynasty reigned
the ancestral

home,

may have chosen Ragha,

h;me

of his race, to
not'

be the seat of his government.

The Median great-king could

allow the remains of small principalities to exist;
his

by the extension of
fell

power across north-east Media and Atropatene

the Binghwpaiii
the

Wishtiispa.
further.
religion,

We

may, therefore, perhaps
the conversion

continue
to

connection

If after

of Phraortes

the Zoroastrian

when he assumed
Median
language
Zoroaster,

the important
{

name
ihe

of

the

''confessor"

in

the

fraoreid

),^^

priesthood of

Ragha
priestly

remained under
principality,
it

then

under Spentodata, as a

we may presume

that

Spitamas was

at

the head of

at the time of Kyros.^*^^
19,

Thus, therefore,
SlVjt.)

may

the much-debated

passage from Yasna
rulers? the
lord
of

18 (50

be explained:

"Who

are the

the

house, the lord of the village, the head of the
is

tribe, the prince of the countiy, the fifth

Znrathustra, namely, in the

countries outside the Zarathustriau dominion.

Four

lords has the Zara-

thnstrian Ilagha.

Who

are the lords? the lord of the house, the lord
is

of the village, the head of the tribe, the fourth

Zarathuslra.''

Out-

side

Ragha, stands (according

to the priests)
in

above the prince of the
R:igh a
itself

country, the representative of the church;

Zoroaster

combines the priestly dignities with those of the ruler of the land.

«"
I'ari^.
'"-'

Comp.

Barth(-l..my. Ciujaatak

Abaliah (Bibl. «k I'ioolo

«K'«

hnutes dtudos, 69)

18S7, p. 57.

The verb
if

i«^/r

(related to tho
in

German

u'a^r, Russitiu tojera, fuitli),

from which

/riicrdn

(lerivc<i,

used

at

the commcnccnicnt of the Zoroastrian creed,
the creed ( f'ntorrti).

and the

chapters Vasna 13 and 14

iiro o.illed

100 Spiiifil, Zcitschiift cltr Mnrijonl.

GriclUch.

3.',,

(i2y.

C. do llarh-J!,
C6.».

I.

v.

275.

Marqiuirt,

Zcit-^chrift,

d.

Morgenliind.

GcscllM.l.uft,

JO,

AMm?

.Huniri m

drr

Guttingcr Qcn.

d. Wits., Ill, 8, 137.

144
The Zoroaster
in

FREDINAND JUSTI,
Ragha, taken as the successor to the Prophet
head
in the

priestly dignities, is called also Ziirjithushtrotema, the

Zoroaster.'*^'

This passage also settles
asks
the
question,

tlie

question where Zoroaster died.

One
of this

why
is

did

not Balkh

become the

seat

priestly principality, especially as Isfendiilr, Wishta^pa's son,

whose

name Sphendadates

borne by the Magian Ganmiita in Ktesias, and
7,

who, according to Tabari, 683,
ment, and appears as a fighting
says that Zartusht finally
tions say that
l:e

receives Rai as his seat of govern-

monk and

missionary.

A

Parsi

book

returned to Eran Wej, and western tradifire.^""^

was removed by a heavenly
see in

He most certainly
is

died at

his

priestly
is

Ragha, and the death by the sword of
to

Arjasp, that he

supposed

have suffered

in

Balkh,

a fable to

Median make him appear
Jackson
considers

a martyr.

that

Atropatene has

been proved to

be

Zoroaster's native place, but

still

seems inclined to the opinion of the
is

Iranian and

Mohammedan

authors (that

to say the legend)

that

Wishta^^pa ruled over Balkh, but leaves the question

undecided. ^"^

We

should, therefore, like to endeavour to piove that the Bactrian hypothesis
is

untenable, and to

show what caused

tradition to

place the

princes in Bactriae'^**

The Awesta never mentions Wish taspa
even the country and
with the
its

in

connection with Pactria,

capital

are only

once mentioned, and then

adapted Awestan

Pahlawi form of the name

Bakhdhim
is,

(accusative,

AVendidadl,

6), in the

Pahlawi translation Bakhr, that
is

Bakhl, from which the modern name Balkh

derived; the dh seems to

take the place of the missing Zin the Awestan language, that has arisen

from

dht-y

old Persian

tr

in

Bakhtris, and without mentioning either

Oxford, 1887,

Mills. The Zeid-A vesta (Sac:r,l Books of the East, XXXI.), Jackson 203. Conip. Pieussi^che .Talubuclier, 88, p. 260. iNmongthe Sasaninns the high-priest (^Mavj'fiidn-Maiq/fit) was the first mau after the King, Masudi
101

Spiegel, das. fi31.
26.'».

Kitab nt-tanbih, 108, 15.
io» Spiegel, 1.70G, 707.

103
lot

Jackson, 171, 172, 177. 218,2:5.

Comp.

Spiegel ZeitBchrift d. WorgcLl. GcBellsch. 41,250.

Ufe and legend
ZaratLushtra or Wishtasija.
given to the town

or Zaratiidsutra.
epithet
srira (the beautiful)

1-Jo

The

is still

by Persian and Arabic writers {al-husnd by Tabari
its

and Musudi)^ and
banner/'
is

second adjective eredhvodrafsha "withwavinpf
a green
silk

thus explained, that
is

banner waved from the

Naubehar, which
wihara ''the new

not a Pyreum, but a Buddhist cloister,

Nawa*
banners

cloister/''*'^

The Buddhists

usually placed

on

the Stfipas or Tope:?.

Barmek, the ancestor of the renowned
this cloister"^^' in the

Barmekides, was the head of

8th century, which

allows one to conjecture a unity or a syncretism of tho religion-.

Buddhism appears
(2G1

in Bactria as early -as the

time of Autiochos Theos

— 247), and by the 1st Century B. C. has become established there.
show
At
that this

The well-known coins of Kanishka, with the imago of Buddha and of
the Zoroastrian genii,
religious.'"'"

prince

inclined towards both

To

this time

may belong
this

tho much-discussed Gaotema iu
in Bactria

the later

Yasht

13.^^*^

prime of Buddhism

occurred

perhaps tho promotion of Wishtaspa to Balkh (Baktra).
element felt itself confined to tho eastern
empire,
it

As

the Iranian

provinces of tho formor

looked for a centre of religious

life; that

was offered to

it at

Bactria, the scat of the

Greek kings, and from whence Greek culture

radiated as far as India.
of the religion

By

appealing to the defender of tho founder
his enemies,

and adversary of

one was able at tho same

time to raise old claims for the possession of Bactria, which after tho

Greek kings had again passed

to

non-Iranian rulers.

Bactria waa

undoubtedly the greatest capital, and, at the time of the Achacmenians,
the grandest scat of the Satraps, which was held by the king's brothers

Tanjoxarkcs, Masistca, Uystaspes^ and Dareios

(later king, the

second

105

Oarrtz, Journal ABiatiquo, VI., 13, 179, 180.

Justi, Prculssisolio Jfthrbticcbcr,

88, p. 62.
relief in

Grundriss

(Icr

Irnn.

I'bilul.,

H., 401.

A
;

lianncr

on the stupe
I., 0,

is

ibown on a

»o«

Buddha (Jaya. Cunuingham, A Iran. Namenbuch. Ci^; Al-Uaiua
Laiwen, Indischo Alterthumskundc

cal Survey,

Tlnte VI.

,bl.Qeograp1»

Aral..

V.) 332,

13^3|,
ITertt-

10.

YaknbiCift. VIL)28S,8.
»07
2, 107r..

Spiegel,

1..

1.

*.. .

.

III., 717.

berg, Geschlcbta
COl.

von Hellas and Rum.
IJcTue, 1808,

Berlin, 1879 (Onckon's AllgutnoiDO Ocschioktc)

Jiick>.on. 177.
»oi

Comp. Blochct,

XXX VlU, 27.

146

FERDINAND

JUSTl,

of this name), and lastly Bessos (an Acha3menian, whose relationsLip

is

not defined).
vities at his

Bactria was chosen by Alexander for the wedding festi-

marriage with Roxanc, and thus became the capital of the
Characteris

immeasurable kingdom that united Asia and Europe.^^^
istic

of the relationship

between Buddhism and Parseeism

the legend

of the holy cypress-tree which Gushtasp planted before the house of
the fire Mihr-burzin,
religiosa

and which must have been
in

originally a Ficus

which appears

the

Buddha

legend,' ^^

As Wishtaspa

appears here, not in Bactria, bub in Khorasan, a province of the
Parthians, so in the Awesta he comes forward in the west, in Atropa-

tene: according to Yasht 5, 108, herezaldhish

Kawa

Wishtdspay

'*

the

highly wise

Kawi Wishtaspa"

sacrificed at

the back of the water

Frazdanawa, and his brother Aspdyaodho Zairiivairish, *' the horse champion Zariadres " at the back of the water Daitya, to Ardwi Sura
Anahita, that she

may

give them the victory over

Arejadaspo Waii-

daremainishj and this also implores, but without success, for victory

over the brothers at the Sea Wourukasha.

As

this last is the Caspian
it

Sea

(in

the cosmographical and mythical Geography
flows round the

also

means the
central
so

ocean which

Karshware Khwaniratha or the
flows in

portion of the world)^

and the Daitya

Airyanem Waejo,

Frazdanawa must be a
says,

river, not a lake in Segestan, as

one tradition

and in

fact

the

Armenian Hrazdan, which
to the

flows

by Eriwan and

through the Sewanga or Gelam lake
of Waraznunik.'^'

Araxes, in the province
offers a

In other

accounts'''^

Wishtaspa

sacrifice

on the Daitya

for victory over the

Hwyaona (Khionian)
*'

Arejadaspa,

and over the Hunu, from
Gathas^'^ he
is

called

whom he liberated Kawa Wishtaspo Yahl,

the religion.

In the

the victorious," and

109 Curtius, 8, 4,25. 10, 3, 12. 110 Jackson, 97.

Firdusi, ed. VuUers, 1499,

75.

Spiegel,
v.

Eran. Alterth.

1,

704«

tToflEmann,

Akten Syr. MSrt. 297.
1,

Lefmann, Geschichte
Geography
19, 80,

Indlen ^Onoken's

AUgcm

Geschichte), 794.
111

Mose Choren.
Yasht
9,

U.

Indjidjeaii,

of

Old Armenia, 467

;

compare,

iackson, 211.2:0.
11a

29

;

13, 100

;

17, 49, 61

;

113 Yasna, 4G, 14.

LIFE

AND LEGEND OF ZaRATHUSHTBA.

147

the sentenoes that somewhat point to war and shedding of blood in
the Gathas/'*

may have

reference to the downfall of the

Kawi dynasty
Zoroaster

which was connected with the introduction of the

religion.

himself pray*; to Ardwi Sura Anahita at Airyanera Waejo, that she will
allow

him

to accomplish the king's conversion.^ '^

If he

had been

thinking of the king as in a far distant land, surely the Prophet would

have waited with his prayer until ho had seen the towers of Bactria.
These citations are among some of the
latest in the

Awesta.

As

in

the quoted 5th Yasht, Verse 130, Huwafrita occurs, which

is identical

with Behafrid,one of the last kinc^s in the Persian
or

lists

of the Arsakidog

Parthians,

and probably Vologeses

III,,

who

is

here glorified,

because, according to the Dinkart, he had distinguished himself by the

maintenance of the Awesta and the revival of the religion

;

so

we

must place the Yasht under

his reign
it is

(148—190).

The

citation can-

not have been interpolated, as

necessary to the disposition of the
rule of the world,

Yasht.

The author having praised Anahita and her

firstly calls

the goddess herself, who, after sacrifice in Airyanera VVaejo,

ntters the wish, that Zarathushtra

may be gained

for the religion,
for

and

adds to this the prayers of the mythical kings and heroes

her favour.

Then

follows the continuation of the song of praise to the goddess,
after

and her discourse with Zarathushtra,
are brought forward.

which the figures of the

Zoroastrian circle, the Prophet, Wishtaspa, Zairiwairi and Arejadaspa,

A

third song of praise has a very interesting

description of her personal appearance (after her idol in the temple),

and with

this introduces the

prayer of sacrifice of Huwiifrita, with a

passage that seems to describe the king at the head of the Parthian

horsemen. At

this date,

however, the legend had long boon devel opi^d

that the author, purposely or
a strong

by chance, does not mention

Bactria, ih

proof of the correctncFS of his views concerning the geograBesides which, the mention

phical position of Wishtris|)a*8 kingdom.
of the

Khwyaonas and

the Gelanians and

Huns brings OB

still

further

n« Tuna,
>>»

81, 18. S2, 10. 44, 14. IB. SS, 8.
6, 10r».
T
.

Yasht,

lOAAwi^oM

1-r.

Daiitur Poshotin nohranjw Panjooa, 1^.. ^'"•MCliJmrh, 131», 140.

The Pfnkani VI.— RomUr,

148

FKRDINAND JUSTT.
to the

down
the

time of the Sasaaians, as the Huns or Massagefces (in
of Agathangelos stands the

Armenian text

name Mazkhuth, perhaps

the Moshiaus of the ancients, but in the Greek Huns) invaded the

kingdom of Persia
the

in the

year 50i

;

by Faustus Byzantinus (Bizanites)

3, 6 (12, 33), appears as the leader of Honkh, the Arsakidian king of

Mazkhuth

Sauesau, against the

Armenian king, Khosrow

II.

(316

— 325); theHunnian king, Urnayr, as well as Grumbates, the king
The
pahak, by Prokopios T^ovp,
is

of the Khionians, are in the train of Sapor 11- in the year 359 J ^^
wall of Derbend, Tshor

also called the

Albanian gate or bulwark of the Huns, pahak Honats.^^^
the

The poet

of

Shahnameh even
to

places

Arjasp in his own time, calling him

Paighawnizhad, "of the race of the Paighaw (Peghu)/' and causing

him

write with Paighaw characters.^ ^^

The Sultan Mahmud

of

Ghazna had,
Tatars,

as did his father Sabukbegin (in 997), to fight against the as far as Balkh, but were repulsed

who had penetrated

by him.

These Tatars were the forerunuers of the .Seljuks, who certainly were
not conquered by

Mahmud

till

after the poet's death, but before that
at last

had already vanquished many generals, and
dynasty of Ghazna.

overthrew the

Paighaw

is

a town in Tatary, and a Seljukian

word

or name,

among the

bearers of which are called

Musa Paighaw
against.

(Peglu), son of Seljuk (in 1030), the son of

Dakak,

the son of Jaghri-

Beg, and Paighaw, a brother's son of Musa.^^^

The wars

Turan are

laid

in the

Shahnameh

in

the

country of the Oxus or

Weh-rot, and, according to Firdusi, the heroes of Iran sometimes
penetrated as far as Gulzarrium or Yaxartes, like Kyros
built the fortress of Kyreshata,

who

there

and Bactria seems

to

be the sally-port.

Even

the legend has accounts of battles to relate that took place on
;

the western side of the Caspian Sea, or in the interior of Iran
ii« Langlois, Collection des Histor.

and
479,

Arm^n.

2,

34a,

Comp. Nbldeke's Tabari,

note.

Zeitschriftd. Morgenland. Qesellsch, 36, 686.
(1892), 2.

Sitzungsber. d. Wiener Akadcmio

CXXVI.
117

Prokop. Bell. Goth.

Wilhelm, Zeitschrift Morgenl. Ges. 42, 96 seq. Grundriss d. Iran. Pliilol. II., 535. 4, 3.

US

Firdusi, 1506, 187. 1537, 734.

Comp. Abdulqadiri, Lexicon Shaha'am.,
18. 312, J7.

ed.

^ar.

Palemann. Pctropoli, 1895, p. 50. 119 Ibn Athir, Chronic, ed, Tornberg 9,267,

LIFE AND LEGBND OF
even
if,

ZARATHUSHTRA

149

as

is

usual with legends, quite late events had been placed ia

ancient days, the oldest and correct opinion, that Wishtaspa's kingdom
lay to the south of the Caspian Sea,

would

still

shine through.

Tradition
his resi-

relates that the king's father, Luhrasp,'-^

before he

removed

dence from Istakhr (Persepolis^*')

to

Balkh, made war against the

Alans

in the

Caucasus,'*^ a deed, which, in the

Kitab al-paikar trans-

lated from the Pahla\^i, has been assigned to his

nephew

Isfendiar.*"

A

tradition preserved

by

Kazwini (1349)

relates

that Gushtasp-bin-

Lnhrasf the Kiiyanian caused a great network of canals to be dugbotwoen Aral and Kur*'-^ at Salian, the seat of the

Shirwanshahs,
son of
his

which was destroyed by the Mongolians, 1258.
Gushtasp,
is

Isfendiar,

thrown a prisoner

into the fortress of

Gumbadhan by

pious father^^^ after the
gel remarks, is the

Mojuiilu'ttawarlkh.*-^
castle

This

castle, as Spie-

same as the
the

of the Mulhids (Ismailians or

Assassins),

Girdkoh, above

place

Dihdajeb, to

the

west of

DtiraaglmnJ^^
lived in

The choice

of this castle has only sense if Wishtiispa
his son

Media and had sent
;

away from

his

Court to the

mountains of Tabaristan

in Bactria

ho would have had fortresses
itself

nearer at hand at his disposal.

The war against Arjasp played

out in Khorasan,'-^ to which distance Wishluspa's power could only

have reached,

if

he had, according to the fiction of the legend, ruled all

Iran from Baktria.
>•<> In the Awesta he is called with the epithet of the «im, Aarwada^ps, •• driving with fast horses," his father is Z)jl, a name by which Orma«»l is known (Aojl), whoM

father

is

Manas, called

after his ancestor Manashchilhra.

Luhrasp mcan.i

•'

who po«cm«t
ftl*o

rod horses.*'
»«»

hns a

Kal Kau3 reigns in Istakhr, where Oushwiid of Ispuhan, father of Godanc, (Kakh). Firdusi, 750, 1221. Tabarl, 697, 17 sayi In Balkh. >" FInlusl. H32, 297B.
castl.'
:

>«^ Marcinart, Zeitschr. »••

MorgrnU

Gcsell. 49, 6D9.
•'«

7,

Khanikov, Bulletin de I'Aoad., IX., 1852.260. Dorn, M^moiroj* 611, BJ9. Barbicr do Moynard, Diet. G<«oj?r. 489.
»«»

«•*'"»••
,

VT

>»«
>«^

Jackson, 118, I'M. Firduji, 1650, 060. ir.e6, 1104. 1643, 2r'Mohl. Journal Aiiiat.,IIL, 11,353. 1.

V

5.

Zahir td-din. 84, 16.

la

6fi.

6

7. 11

105. 1<'.11

<

^uairenv
«''

oh dc

la rcrne, Paris 1886, p. 27**.

Ifinlfichc Zo(t

MoiRonl. (M^. 16, oAQ. ii.kibicrdc Mejnartl, Diotionnairo GiV>gr. 223.
J.uk^on, 123.

;•

150

FERDINAND

JUSTI,
of,

A further

statement of the legend contained in the genealogy
1,

the Kawis in Tabari's Chronicle
of Apiwanghu^-^ receive

G17, points also to

Media

:

the sons
;

portions of the

kingdom

as inheritance

Arshan becomes king of Khuzistan, Pisina of Pars, Byarshan of Kermau; for Usa (Kai Kaiis, the eldest and chief ruler) remains
Media.

How

uncertain

all

these accounts are is

shown by Wishtuspa
to connect

being descended from Pisina, which was arranged

the

Naotarides with the Kawis (Kayanides),and that Kai KaQs was living
in

Balkb,

while this town was

supposed to be founded only by

Luhrasp.

Even Afrasiab, who, according to the epos, appears as ruler of Turkistan and neighbour of the Emperor of China, and whose name
and the names of
his

heroes are Iranian, does not come to a place in
flight,

Turkistan during his

but, like the Scythians in the time of

Kyaxares, from the Caucasus to Berda in the plain of Kur, on the Terter,'^^

where he hides in a cave, called after him Hang-i Afrasiab'^'
is,

driven from there, he hid himself on the lake of Chaichasta, that
lake
of

the

Urumia,

where he

is

taken prisoner^^^ and killed by Kai
Hither must Khusrau pilgrim-

Khusrau, the predecessor of Gushtasp.
age from Pars (Istakhr) to the
fire

Gushnasp, to find out through

higher suggestion the hiding place of his enemy.
fortress of

By

the taking of the

Bahman, near

Ardabil,^^' as a youth he proved himself to
fire

be a worthy heir for the disputed throne, and plants the sacred
this castle

on

which before was given over to devils and sorcerers (gods
heathen religion), Ardabil has been cited incorrectly
place.

and

priests of the

FirdiJsi

had no exact knowledge of the

The town was probably
it

only built by the Sasanian Peroz, after

whom

was called Badan

129
130

Comp. Noldekc, Zeitschr. Morg. Gesell. 32, 670. Armen. Partav in Bakasene or Uti comp. Indjldjean, Armen. Geograpby, 341
j

342.
I'^i

Firdusi, 138C, 2241. 2243.

i^«

The same,

1391,

2317.

Tabari C16, 12 (instead of bir read bi-bar, at the lake

(ghadir) Chast),
133 Firdupi, 756. 1321.

UVt AND LtGEND OP ZARATIIUSHTRA.
Peroz, as Fi'rdusi remarks himself.'^*

I5l

According to Parsee writings,

Khusrau

des?troys the
fire

heathen temple on the lake of Chaichasta and
to the

assigns to the

Gushnasp, that had clung

mane of
it

his stallion

and illuminated the scene of the

battle (from

vhich

received the

name
takes
est.'^-'

''the stallion's fire**), a seat

on the mountain Asnawant,with the

wonderful blue lake Aswast in the same province from which the town
its

name Chls

or Chiz, Arabic
this lake,

Shiz, from

ChaicLasta or Chich-

The waters of
to

according to the Bundahishn, will he

brought
of

awake the dead

at the last day;

and

its

Waters form the river
to the Balarathos

Airyanem "Waejd, the

Daitja^

which corresponds'^

of Theophylaktos, where
the

Bahram Chobin was

defeated by the Romans,

Armenian Wurarat, the present Saruk and Jaghatu.

That Kai Khus«

rau, as Wishtaspa's predecessor, reigned over

Media or Atropatene after
;

the original tradition,
ties

is

shown by the scene

of the le<;cnd

but

it

idunti

Wishtaspa's nephew

Bahman

with ArtaxerxesL, places his daughter
Parthian Ktesiphon,'^'
the

Khumani's (Humai) residence

in al-Madain, the

and

Jro

connects

that

Median dynasty

to

more

importatit

Achaamenians and Parthians.
are considered
to

Already Kai Kafis and Kai Khusrau
latter

have lived in Persepolis, from where the
his successor

was

to

go to far distant Atropatene, just as

Luhrasp

15* Firdusi, cd.

MohJ, VI., 94, 39.
41, 15.

»3» Bundahislin,

Spiegel, Kran. Alt crth. 1,654,1.,

comp. G. Hoffmann, 8vr.

Wiirtyr. 292; Bartholomac, Orimdriss d. Iran. Thil.

56, note 6.

Tho name of the

ftrc

Adhar Gushnasp (from

wliich has arisen by the clipping of tho last syllable, Adharakhsh,

not l»y speaking, but by careless copying of tho munuw:ript><), Armen. hratn Wfrhnasp (corrupted Wasliamb, Wnasp), Arabic iifiror adhar .lusnaa, seems also to be contained in the corrupted names in the manuscripts Ban Sw for nar(.Ia)8nas, at the source of the L«tidh
rudh, Ibn Ko»teh(Bibl.Geogr. Arab.VlI.) 89, 19
Kctis, Bis.
;

Sisar

i

n Ma»u«li, €2, 13;

Pa

(riir)

Dorn, Bnllefin

do

I'Aca.l. T.

VI, Nov.

1871, p. 635. t;62, 666.

In Arabic

letters all these variations

may hare
The

arisen

from
Kitil

niir

(he variation for the

names Bahram (tushnaap.
Ispi Irudh or
Is

B. Sis occurs.

Jushnas, in the samo manner ai It might also bo nar Phw
rl«oa to the

BhiO, the
i3«

fire

of Shi*.

Uten

north of Sbli, tbo

river that received the outlet of the lake,

the Karuk, an affluent of the Jaghatfl.

weat, PahU Texts, V., 161, n.9. Theophyl. Simocatta, Hbtor. libri VIII., cd. I, Sobt>os, ed. Tatkanean, 37, 8. llnwlinaoo, Joum. Oeogr. 8oo. X., 1841, 47.75 (with majw). Hoatum-Schiudler, ZcUschr. d. Ge*;llsch. f. Erdkund*. XVIII.,
Bekker, 223, 11.
327.
i'»

Manudi. Kit. ai-Unbih 106,

4. 107, 7

;

comp. Abdula«dlrl, Lci.

f.

Itttkhr.

lo2
bus to remove his
culled

FERDINAND
residence to

JUSTl,

Bulkh.

Even
in

Wisbtris^ju

is

oucu
of

an Acbajmenian,

probably because of some reminiscence
Istakbr, in tbe

Darcios,

son of Hystaspos, and deposits

castle

of writings or tbe archives (Diz-i Nubisbt) tbe

Awesta that bas been
calf-skins.^^^
is

written

down on parchments made
is

of 12,000
DJukarfc,

(

?)

This

archive

also

mentioned in tbe

but the king

more

correctly called Dara-i Darayiin (Dareios III.),

and be

is

said to have

presented another copy to the Shapikan, that
priests' robes

is

tbe sacristy, where the

were kept.^^^

What

a chaos bas arisen

by dragging

in

Nebucadnezar and the doubtful figures of Darius tbe Mede, Daniel
and
others, can be studied at length in Tabari.

The Greek and Roman authors, whether they accept Zoroaster
Only Ammianus mentions him

as a

Bactrian king or as a Median niagian, never say that Hystaspes was
his patron.
to Zoroaster,

as a wise
;

king and successor
as

bat moans tbe father of Darius

and Agatbias/*" who,

he says himself, repeats the Persian legend, places Zoroaster under
Hystaspes, of

whom

be

is

doubtful

if

he be the father of Dareios or

another, but no mention of Bactria.

That king Wisbtaspa or Hystasis

pes

is

always placed in Media, nob in Bactria,
to

shown by Justinus

Martyr and Lactantius, according

whom, Hystaspes was ''an ancient
is,

king of tbe Modes," who bad prophesied tbe groat World-fire, that
the
fire

Harmusbtin,

''

tbe all-destroying," of tbe Bundahisbn, which at
all^

tbe last diy will cleanse the earth from sin. Again, before

from tbe

often-quoted tale of Chares of Mytilene,^^^ a
in

companion of Alexander's,
Anubita^^'^),

which tbe sons of Adonis and Aphrodite (Mithra and

namely Hystaspes who ruled over Media and tbe country below probably
tbe plain of

Urumia and

tbe Araxes, Atropatene), and Zariadres, over the

country of the Caspian Gates (eastward of Ragba) as far as the Tanai's,

133

Jackson, 97. C21, note 2.

Comp. Tabari

67G,

3. 5.

Mirkhond

1.

180, 8.
viiuf. Paria

130

Hjde, Vet.

Pers. relig. hist. 303 scq, 322.

Barthclcmy, LiTrc d'Arda
f.

1887. 137. 138, 140.
110
111 Athcnaio.s,

Fr. MUUcr,

Wiener Zeltschrift
(od.

K. d. M. V. 18D1,
207).

fJ

K

Jackson, 218.

Ddipnosophistac 575:i

Kaibel

3,

113

Comp.

Spiegel, Zeitsciir. d, Morg. Ges. 62,

ISf),

LIFE

AND LEGEND OF ZARATHUSHTRA.
and the plain
of the Oxus.

153

therefore, over Khorfisjln

Zariadres marries

Odatis, the daughter of the king of the Marathes Homartes (perhaps

Horaarges

or

Amorges)

in

the

same

way

as

Gushtasp,
in

in

the

Shahnamehj wins the hand of the emperor's daughter
tale of

Byzanz,

The
parts,

Chares
is

is

older than the Awesta, excepting
of.

its

most ancient

and Bactria

not to be thought
it

The Marathes
to

are otherwise not

mentioned^ therefore

was wished
in

put a better
*^^

known
is

race like the

Sarmates or the Maiotes

their place.

But here
in

erroneously

assumed that Tanais were the

Don, as

Herodotus, whereas at
it

Alexander's time the Jaxartesor Orxantes was called Tanais, as

was

thought

to

be in connection with the
lets

Don.^*^*

The

tradition

in the

Shahnameh

Hystaspes take his brother's place as being more
is

important to the legend; and the wedding journey, therefore,

not

taken to the Amyrgian Sakes, but to Byzanz, from which the late form
of the tradition can be traced in Firdiisi,

which has

also used remini-

scences of Xerxes' campaign against Hellas, but has already knowledge
of the Kliazar prince Elias.^^^

That the
is

latter tradition

had not even

thought of a kingdom of Bactria,

shown by the

(naturally otherwise

worthless) account that only Luhrasp founded Balch.'*^

The coin men-

tioned by Jackson with the legend
it

'Apooao-tro

cannot allude to Luhriisp,
India in 78 A.D.,
the coin
is

belongs

to

Kanerki,

but did not reside in

who reigned in north-western Bactria. The representation on

a

man

with a horse, and the legend answers to

the Awestan Aurwadaspa, a

surname of the genius Apam-napat J *^
action has been

The reason that
in historical

the field of

removed

in the legend

from Atropatene or Media and
circumstances.

from Pars to Bactria may be sought
»*' LutiR Holstcnii iiotJC in Rtcphaiil

Byz. Kthnicft. Lugd. Hat. 1684, 106».
2:.,

»*
7, 4,8.

l)l<)dor.l8,S, 4.Arrlani Expctl. Alex. 3, 33, 8. 4, 1,4.5,
r.,

5.

Q. <^artlu8 6,6, 13.

7.1. Comp. Niese, Goschichte d. priooh. u. niakcdon. Btaaten 115, n. 6. i*s Comp. Rapp, Zeitschrift d. Morg. Gca, 20, 65. Spiegel, Althcrth. I, 065. Jackson
.V2.

12

TX

FirduHi 1481, 6G4.
i*«

Jaokson 208.
A.
V.

Ho
rlic

hasoa\le<l the

town al-Husna, that

is

the beautifal, Awostari

mrrf, Tabari 1,045,12.
i*'

Sallct,

Naohfol«^r Alexandcr'n 189.
7.

I'ercjr Gartiner,

Coins of Orcek

and 8c7thlc Kings,

PI.

XXVL,

Hoffmann, Syr. Gc«cl>ichicn
:

perH.J

MKrt. 150, Aurel

Bteia, Zoroastrian Deities,

London

188V, 4'^

154

FERDINAND
the whole of

JUSTI,
of India

When

Western Iran and the remainder

was

under the sway of Alexander's successors^ the legends and traditions
were placed partly in the eastern province which was
still

in the

possession of the Arians, where the Greek-Bactrian kings and the

Parthians ruled, without interfering with the religion of their vassals.

The Iranian

tradition suffered

many changes and

extensions during

the five hundred years' sway of the Arsakides, and the Iranian princes

endeavoured to write their names in the Book of Kings. Rustam,
in the

Awesta Sdma Keresdspa, appears

as

the embodiment of the
in Sakastiin (so called

princely house,

who

since the

first

century ruled

since 140 B.C., from the Sakas
to

who

settled there)

and Arachosia, and

child Jesus,

which the mighty Hyndopheres, one of the Magi who adored the Hyrkodes and others belonged,^ ^ and the figure of the
;

Parthian Gotarzes lives on in that of Godarz of Ispahan

a.nd

Meher-

dotes(Mithradates V. 107—113) inMilad, son ofGurgen (Firdusi).^^^
It is related of

Yezdegerd
fire

III., that

when

flying before the
it

Arabs he

took the sacred
fire

from Rai and placed

at

Marw.^^°

The sacred

Khurrah was

at the wish of Zoroaster conveyed

by King Wishtaspa

from Khwarizm (Khiwa),
mythical

where

it

had been worshipped by the

king Jamshed (by some accounts, only by Anosharawan,
district of

531

— 579), to al-Karian in the
says, to
fire

Darabgerd

in Pars (not, as

the Bundahishn
land, the sacred
partly to Pasii

Kabul).

When

the Arabs broke into the

was divided and taken more into the interior
to

and partly

al-Baidha to the west of Persepolis.^^^
(Seistiin)^^^

The

fire

Gushnasp was taken to Sagastan

and so the origin
to that place.

of the Kawi-dynasty

was transplanted from Atropatene
d. iran. Philol. II. 506. 507.

145
149

Comp.

Grnndris

Marquart, Zeitschr. d. Morgenl. Ges. 49, 634. 641. 150 Tabari 3682, 3. Tabari transl. by Zotenberg 3, 503. 151 Ilamadhani (Bibl. Geograph. Arab. cd. J. de Gocje) 246,8. Masudi, IcsPrairied'or, ed. Barbier de Meynard et Pavct dc Courteillc 4, 75. Shahrastani, transl. by Haars brflcker 1, 299. Hoffmann, Syrische Miirtyrerakten 285.
i5»

Baihaki in Yakut

3,

958.

HofEmann

tan, the Kaiani, pretend to descend
i,SS28, note.

297. Jackson 44. 45. 212. A Tribe in Seisfrom the Kawi-dynasty George N. Curzon, Persia
:

LIFE

AND LEGEND OF

ZARA'l HUSHTRA.
11.

155

Sagastan nas probably conquered by Bahrain
Bahrain
III.

(275

— 293), and
kingdom
as the

(293) and Hormizd

III. (457)

were Saganshahs before

they became great kings.

By degrees
movement

the whole of the Eastern Iranian Parthian

rose to attack the Greek powers in

Western Iran,

in like

manner

against the Arabic Khalifat began in Khorasan,
If

Segestan

and Transoxauia.

we

notice the

names of the

first

Parthian kings

Arshaka, Frahata, Frijapita and Mithradafca, we observe they bave distinctly old Persian

and Awestan forms;

it is,

therefore, easy to imagine
artificially in the

that the old

Median language was employed

Parthian

period, as the

other dialect of the sacred literature, the Pahlawi, has

been

still

used for centuries after the modern Persian language had

been developed.
In the Yashts, that

may

be

placed in the times of the

late

Parthians, places in Western Iran are seldom
(Bavri, that
district
is,

mentioned, as Babel

Bavli,

the Aramajan form of the name), Kwirinta, the

and lake of Chaichasta, and others, but the province of

Sakastan and the basin of the Hilmand are more often mentioned and
with

many

details

and names

of towns, rivers

and mountains.
is

^*'^'

The
the
of

geographical chapter already mentioned,

which

prefixed

to

Wendidad

or

Book

of the

Law, seems

like the letterpress to a at the

map

Ariana in the time of Eratosthenes.

Only

beginning Zoroaster's
it is

home

is

stated to be Airyauem-waejo, and at the end

said, there

might be other (besides the quoted places) regions, plains and countries.
This very innocent religious-geographical account of the countries

which

at that

time were already taken away from the Seleukidean

dominion,

probably dates from the year 129 B.C.,'** and
first

by the

mistiiken interpretation of the

part and of

the purpose of the

chapter, aa

if it

had been a most ancient document about the immigraIran,
it

tion of the Arians into

has added greatly to the mystlBcation

of the part that Bactria has played in the Zoroastrian roligioo*
i»«

Yasht

10, 13. 14. 19,

06.07.

»»* PreasslBche

JakrbUcher 88 (1897) 62.63.

156

FERDINAND JUSTI
Bactria was conquered

by Kyros, without a kingdom of

tlie

Bactrians, or even the

name

of these people being mentioned with that

of the Sakes, Masagetes, Derbikes

and Dahas

;

according to Ktesias
time of
Dareios'
is

the Bactrians surrendered
accession to the throne,

voluntarily.
all

At

the

when

the provinces revolted, no mention

made

of

a

pretender as in Media, Pcrsis, Susiana, Arachosia, and

the Satrap Diidarshiof Bactria could unconcernedly leave his province to
quell the insurrection in

Margiana which belonged
enormous

to Bactria.

Xerxes

could augment' ^^

his

army with Bactrian
in

and Sakian

warriors under his brother Hystaspes, and lead them against Hellas,

without

having

to fear

a hostile attack
;

the

north-east.

After
(Haital

Alexander Greek kings ruled Bactria
or

when the Hephthalites
allied

Yuechi, sometimes called Huns)
the

with the Tokhars des-

troyed

Greek-Bactrian kingdom and made Balkh their capital
fell to

(128 B.C.)^ the duty of defending the north-eastern frontier

the

The Sasanians Bahram V. and under Peroz.
Parthians.
to the Haittil

vainly

tried

to

retake

Bactria under
to

They were even obliged

pay tribute
(484).

after Peroz's defeat

by Yu-chin or Khushnawaz
this people,

Khusrau
Turks, ^^^

I.

gained in 557 a victory over

who were

already

hastening towards decay, and which was soon after wiped out by the

The

victory enlarged for the first

time, since the days of
to the

Dareios III., the frontiers of the Iranian

Kingdom
of

Oxus and
in the
is

reminded the Persians of the heroic deeds
legend,

Kai Khusrau

who had conquered and
is

killed Afrasiab,

and whose figure

much worked up according
Since then the warfare that
until

to the pattern of his Sasanian

name-sake.

pictured in the

Shahnameh

did not cease,

Mongolians and Tatars razed the frontier walls to the ground,
Iran

and

was taken

from

the

Persians,

who had

long

since

changed the

religion of the old Persians for that of Islam
to

and had

become subjected
i»5

Turkish dynasties.

Herod.
II.,

7, 64.
II.,

150

Compare with F. von Richthofen, China
No.
2, p.

439.

MuB^on T.
aroh^l.

165.

Spccht, Journal Asiat. Dez., 1883, 319 seq.

Vasconcellos-Abreu in Le Drouin, Revue

II. 6, 142.

LIFE AND LEGEND OF ZARATIIUSBTRA-

157

The

Parsi

tradition

has presented us with a portrait of the

Prophet, and Jackson supports the view that the well-known relief of

Tak-i-Bostan, which represents the king standing by a 6gure with a
halo, receiving a ring of

government from Ahuramazda,

is

a Sasanian

representation of the Zoroastrian legend, and that the Zoroaster-figure

may more
this

correctly

be AhuraniazdaJ^'
of the

The

Parsis have often used
for religious

so-called likeness
;

Prophet as a frontispiece

works

for example, in the edition of the

Awesta

in (fuzarati writing

by Bahdln Dadabhoy
edition of the

Kavusji,

Bombay, 1240

(1871), in a lithographed

Shahnameh, Bombay, 1846,

p. 567, at the

head of the

song beginning on p. 1067 of the edition by Turner Macan.

The
Saper

relief

undoubtedly represents Ardashir

1.,

the

ancestor of

III.,

who had

the grotto decorated, in the act of receiviug the

wreath or circle of rule from Ormazd.

Both figures are standing over

Artaban V., the
this

last of the Parthians,

who

is

prostrate on the
first

ground;
Naksh-i

follows from the comparison with the

relief

at

Rustam,^^'^ where the
inscriptions

God and the king are mounted, and in the
horses
are

on

their

mentioned by name.

The genius

who, with a club in his hands and a halo round his head, stands on a
star-lotos flower '^^ (an old

symbol of the Sun-worshippers on account

of

its

Heliotropism),

is

the sun-god Mithra.

He

appears with the same

halo on the coins of the Turushka kings and with the inscription of his

name,'^ and most prominently on the
is

relief at Nimrod-da^i^h,

where he

giving his haud'^'' to Antiochos

I.

of

Kommagene, the descendant
Inthe MihirYasht Mithra
and 100
club, with 100 knots

ofthe AchasmeniansandSeleukides (69-34).
stands: "holding with
the hand the

»»»

Jaokson, 288. 292. 293 (with throe cute).
In Curzrm's Persia II., 125.

»• The seventh
»»»

of the Hindus also Iovch tlic lotos, Mc^'haluta iO. VII., Percy Gnnlncr, Coins of Greek and Scythian King-. Plate XXVI, 10 ; 4.24. Aurcl Btciu, Zoroastrian DelticH (Oriental and Babylonian R«N-ord, 1H87) B. S; Le Coml ftlso in the excellent work on Mithra by Fi-anss Cumont, Bru-<s<^, 181X1, l?«.
»«o

The Bun-gixi

XX

Goblet do Alviella. Co qnc I'lnda
i«»

doit k la Grk.-o. Paris. IS07, S. 30.

llumaun und
1S6.

PuoUstcii), Ucistn

iu Klcinaslcn, IkTlln. 189C.

Taf.

ZXVIII.,

2.

Oumont

158
blades,

FERDINAND

JUSTI,

a powerful one, heros-down-throwing, mounted with yellow

brass, strong, golden, the strongest of the weapons, the

most victorious

of the weapons, before which
sinful one, of
evil ones."'^-

is

afraid

Acshma, the evil-thinker, the

whom

are frightened all invisible tlevils
club'^'^

and the Warenian
also

Likewise Sraosha curries a

and

Ahuramazda

in the Sasaniun sculpture.

FERDINAND

JUSTI.

i8« Yasht 10, 06
10 3

comp.

6, 5.

Wendidud

18, 30 /^(^D-

KHSHATFIRA VAIRYA,
One
*

of the Zoroastrian Archangels.

prayers that

Thy Kingdom como is one of the petitions in tbe we Christians ns children are taught to
'

first

and best
our

utter at

mother's knee.

It

is

interesting^ therefore, to find that this conception
its

of a divine kingdjni and

establishment, so familiar to us in Christ's

teaching, and one of the ideals of the ancient faith of Judaism, traced in a somewhat parallel

may be
Tho

manner

also

in

Zoroastrianisra.

conception

is

contained in the

Avestan Khshathra Vairya, 'the
*the

Wished-for

Kingdom/

Vohu Khshathra,

Good Kingdom,'

or

Khshathra Ishtoish, Hhe Kingdom of

Desire.'

And

as the notions of

an earthly and a spiritual empire blend together in the older Jewish
conception and gradually become more exalted and idealized, so
it

seems
bolic

to

bo possible

to recognize a sort of

shading between the syminterpretation,
of the

and tho material

application,

or

word

khsliathra in

the sense of sovereignty or

kingdom and

as the genius

presiding ov^er metals.

In the court of Ahara Mazda, Khshathra Vairya stands as one of
the Amshaspands, or Archangels^ before the throne.

Tbe arrange363

ment of

this celestial council
I

in

order of rank about tho Supremo
fiir Religionswissenscluift I.
seq,,

Being, as
is

have shown in Archie
:

as follows

Ahura Mazda

Vonu Manah /
Asha Vahishta /

\

Spenta Armaiti

*\

Haurvatat

Kbshathra Vairya /

Skaosha

Ambbktat

160

A. V. Williams Jackson,
But before proceeding further with the discussion of Khshathra

in detail, a

word may be

said with, reference
in his

to

the

radical theory

propounded by Darmesteter

great translation of
death.

the

Avesta,

which appeared shortly before
ascribes the doctrine of

his

This hypothesis, which

the

Neo-PIatonic 'Ideas,' and regards
e€tos Adyoff

Amesha Spentas to the influence of the Vohu Manah as a reflex of Philo's
parallels
to

(Theios

Logos),

and argues that
in

the other

Amshaspands are
So

to be found

the Philonic

Awdfids {Dunameis)

cannot be said to have met with favor among A vestan scholars generally.

much
the

has

been

written

on the subject by
little to

specialists

—and
least
it is

that most ably
that

— that there remains

add but to repeat again
to

doctrine of the

Amshaspands can be shown

be at

a century older than Darmesteter would place the Gathas, and

undoubtedly as old as Zoroaster himself.
25),

Strabo
than

(o.

B, C. 63- A.. D.

who

lived

nearly a century

earlier
Avdbaros
'Qfiavrjs

Plutarch,
i.e.

mentions
'Afxapdaroe

Ameretat under the Greek form
(AmJirdatos),

(Anddatos),
(Omanc's)
i.e.

and

he

refers also to

Vohu Manah
Mlinchen
equivalent

(see Strabo 11, p. 512c, cf.

Windischmann, Andhita,

p. 86,

1856).

Asha, moreover,

is

not only admitted to be an
as a concept
is

of the Yedic rta, but the designation

found in

many

Old Persian names under the form Arta, as well as

in the Bactrian

name

'o^vdprrjs,

Oxyarfes,

which apparently corresponds, etymologically
See, for example, the long list of

at least, to

Avestan Ukhshyat-ereta.
in
Justi,

Arta-vamea

Iranisches Namenhuch, pp. 31
or

— 40,

48").

The
of the

same

is

true of

Vohu Manah, Vohiiman,
to

Bahman, the name

Amshaspand given

Artaxerxes,
hero

whom

tradition calls the son of his
life

Isfendiar, that valiant

who gave np

in defence of the

Zoroastrian creed.

The comparatively frequent occurrence of these
of the

names based on the names

Amshaspands, as I have noted in the

Grundriss der iranlsclien Thilologief proves that the doctrine of the

Amesha Spentas must have
the Achfemenian period.
as

existed,

and was current, at the

close of

These names presuppose that doctrine just
Gabriel,

much

as our

own proper names

Michael, and Raphael,

Khshathka Yairya.
presuppose the Archangels of the lUble.
It

161
added, moreover,

may be

that the wliole Zoroastrian system from the beginning to the end, from

the

Gathas

to

the hitest

Ravayats, postuhite tho existence of the

Amshaspands

as a cardinal tenet of the faith.

So much of a digression was allowable by way of criticism, and we now approach our subject when we mention, 'o^d^pi/f, or Oxathres,
as a Bactrian

name

in early times;

for thi3

name we know

contains

khshathra, whether the form be Uu-klishathra or
otherwise.

Vohu-hhshaihra, or

The name

itself,

therefore, appropriately leads us

back to

the idea of the

Kingdom (Khshathra)

accordint^ to Zoroastrianism.
'

In Avesta Khshathra Vairya means
'

Wish ed-for Kingdom,' or
paraphr.'^so of the
it

Kingdom
;

to

be Desired/

It is

found in

Pahlavi as Khshairaver or

Shatravcr

in Persian as Shuhrcvar,

The Sanskrit

Ya:*na by Neryosangh

has saharcvar, as a sort of transcription, or

gives rajya, svdmitva as paraphrases.

Consult for example Ys. 28, 3;

45,

l'>;

49,8,

&c.,

and

see Geiger,

Ilandbuchder Awestaspraehe,
gives in his
et
list

p. 224.

The Greek rendering which Plutarch
that

of the

six divinities
ti'pofiia

answer to the Amshaspands {h.

Os, 47)

(eu-nomia), *good rule, good order,' which corresponds precisely

to

Vohn Khshathra.

This

is all

that need be said

for

the
is

moment
the idea

with reference to the form of the name.

More important

which the words convey.
Briefly
stated,

this

personified abstraction in
of

its spiritual

sense

represents an

embodiment

Ahura Mazda's might, majesty, dominion,
will
*.

and power, or that blessed reign whoso establishment on earth

mean

the annihilation

of evil and will ac4!ompany the millennium
to

Tho Bundahishn and the Dinkart serve
texts

supplement the Avest^n
on the Annent
ISt'C).

on this point as

I

have noted in

my monograph

Persian Docf fine of a Future lAfe (Biblical
In
short,

World, Chicago,

Khshathra, with

its

various attributes, denotes the rule of
or,

Ormazd, tho kingdom of heaven hereafter,
*

as

is

said

in

the

Ree

Yfi.

81. 4

;

51-

1

;

Hd.

3a

19-3*'^

:

Dinknrt %%\.t', of. aIm (Vartelli, Mazda

HtXigifn, tran^l p. 20O.

162
Haptangbaiti,

A. V. Williams Jackson,
'may we
'

attain

to

thy

Good

Kingdom,

Ahura

Mazda,

for all enternity
cis'pdi

(Ys. 41, 2 vohii khshathrem toi
this

mazdd ahura
is

apaemd
times

yave

).

In the Gathas
khshnthra
'

hallowed sovereignty

sometimes called simply
it is

Kingdom, Rule, Power*;^ someas opposed
);**

w/iu

A;/?

^/m^/mi

Hhe Good Kingdom,'^
(i.

to
is

'the
*

Kingdom Kingdom
Mighty

of the

Wicked One'
the Wished-for

c,

Ahriman

or

it

the

of Desire/^ 'the

Realm where the sun
Sovereignty

(ever)
'

shines,'^

'the
to

Rule,'^

'

which belongs

Ahura, Asha, and Vohu Manah.^
In general
is far
it

may be

said that

Khshathra Vairya as an archangel

more

abstract than either Vohu
in order

Manah

or

Asha Vahishta
as a figure.

to

whom

he ranks next

but

still

vivid

enough

The whole

Zoroastrian tendency to personification is in fact remarkable, consider-

ing

its

antiquity.

It can but recall

such

later

day personifications

of

abstract virtue's, or the like, as are found in the early
* »
e.

European mora-

g.

Ys.

30.

7.
;

For convenience
51.
1
;

Justi's transcription is

adopted in this article.
1.
'

Cf. Ys.

Ys. 31- 22

48.
i/ii

8.

See also Ys. 37. 5 and Vsp. 20.

y4 dregvdiie khshaihrein Jtunditi I ask this, what is the punishment for him who advanceth the Power of the Wicked.' A noteworthy contrast between the sovereignty of gool and of evil ralers upon earth, will be
*

31- 15 Peresa avat

iH'iiaish

found in the Dinkart, translated by Dastur Peshofcan Behramjee Sanjaua, VI. 422—3 vii. 466; viii. 468. * I*. 51' 2 duiiJil moi ishioish Jihshathrem, wliich Nerayosangh plainly renders by see Spiegel, Nerioaengh's 'grant me the desired power,' dehi uiahyarh vdnchitam rdjyam Yarna, p. 219. The Pahlavi has isht 2)avan lihvtdylh, cf. Mills, Gathas, p. 343. Com;

pare also Ys.
°

48-

8.

Lit.

'in the

Neryosangh
teter.
' ^

(kila^ .suryapade

sun-seeing kingdom* (qdny-darcol hhshtthrui), which the gloss of prasudo 'sti) also refers to Paradise. On the sun in rela-

tion to the other world, see the Great Iranian

Bundahishn passage translated by Darmea-

Le ZA.

ii.

314.

Yi. 31. 4 KhsliatlD'em AojoTujhvat.

For example see Ys. 30. 8 mazda tajhyd khshathiem 'thy Kingdom, O, Mazda' Ys. 32. 6 thwahnti vd mazdd hhshathroi ashdicd in thy Kingdom, Mazda, that is, your.:! and Asha's' Ys. 34- 10 tJuoahnn mazdd khthathroi d *in thy Kingdom Ys. 48. 9. tTircahmi d hJiahathroi ya^di vlspdi 'in thy Kingdom for alj Mazda'
*

;

;

;

eternity'
8.

Ys. 51. 4 thivd khnhathrd mnzdd through thy Kingdom, Mazda' Ys. 30. mazda taihyu khshathrem voJiu mananhd rdivlddltl thy Kingdom, Mazda, Vohu
;
• ;
'

Manah'
i.

(instr. as
;

nom.) shall establish,'
Ys. 31. 6

cf.

Bartholomae, Gi'undriss der Iran. Philol.

§ 128.

cf. also

•that

Kingdom,

mazdd n vat khshathrem hyat hut vohu vakhsliat mananhd Mazda, which Vohu Manah advances for him, Furthermoie, Ys. 41. 2.

KusiiATUKA Vairva.
lity

163

dramas, or tho images that

rise

above the crest of that allegorical
in Spenser's Faerio

wave which swept over England and culminated
Qaeene.

As a specimen of Zoroaster's graphic
up his

portraiture of Khshathra
11.

Vairya with the other Amshuspaudsj we may refer to Ys. 33.
phetic vision the inspired seer
to join with
lifts

In pro-

eyes, calling

upon Khshathra
to his

Ahura and the

celestial host in

hearkening

prayer and

granting favor to his petition:

'May

the most beneficent Ahura

Mazda

and Armaiti (Harmony) and Asha

(fiigbtcoii.suess),

that promotes the
favor to

world,and Khshathra (Kingdom) give ear unto
at the

me and show

me

giving of every reward.'

^

Somewhat

similar is the plastic con-

ception of Khshathra, as Power, joining with the other Archangels, in
the defence of newly created man,
forces of evil
:

^

And

to his side

Gaya Maretan, when assailed by the came Khshathra and Vohu Manah
One
is

Good Mind) and Asha

(Righteousness).'^'^

almost reminded of

the angels at the opening of the old morality play, Castle of Perseverance, or the similar striking scene in Marlowe's Faustus.

But more
a

often^ perhaps,

Khshathra

is

passive rather than active,

medium

rather

than the agent, the sway or rule through which
the world regenerate according to
wish,'''

Ormazd
Mind)
weal

'shall

make

or

again a realization of 'the Sovereignty which
shall establish for Mazda.''-'

Vohu Manah (Good
of

The

idea of this rule of universal

accounts,

no doubt,

for

the

association

Khshathra with

^

Ya.

33.

'••

^

'-

scri-^ihlu

nuinascd vvhu khjihathri-mrd sraotd add,

ahura mazddascd dnn^ituhra ashemcd fradat-gaitliem nioi marezhddtd mvi ddd kuhydicit jftiiti. The word
'

a cardinal one in the Gatbas, denotes not only
final

gift,

reward, recompense,'

but

aho the
»'*

reward or retribution given at the Day of Judgment.
2r»s,

Sec OcUIuci,

Bczzenberger's Beltraegc, xv.
Ys.

30.

7 ahindicd khtkathrd jatat inanahha vohu a*hdca.

By ahmai Qaja

Maretan is meant. Caland and Geldner
*'

Notice af;aiu the iuHtrunicntal case /r/i«A(7Mra as noniinatiTe)
in h'vftn'g Xcitfchrift, xxx'x. 269, 323.

no

Ys.

34.
Yci.

\^ khjfhmdlid kh^hathi'ci ahTKiaftrafhini va»nd hnithyim ddo aJiHHt 'by

your Kingdom,

O Ahura,

thou wilt
at

make

tho world

rt l'c

iu r.iio

aooording to wish.'
at tZi

Compare
1*

also

30* 8— O*

matda taibyo kh^hnihrc'
vok% manahha

rn4m qyimi

yoi im/cratheitt kcrendun

ahum.
voividdtti.

Ys.

30

8 at ttiatda taibyo khihathrem

164

A. V. Williams Jackson,
The two are

Marezhdika, or 'Mircy which careth for the poor.'^^
invoFe^ side by side

m the Avesta
It is this

;

and the great Iranian Bundahishu
is

adds that *the function of Shahrevar
behalf of the poor.'^^
passion that

to intercede

with Auharmazd in

same

sort of

uprightness

and cominfer from

should rule in the hearts of kings as
texts.^^

we may

incidental allusions in later Zoroastrian
tributes to the

It is this that

con-

good rule on earth.

In the world of material things Khshathra Vairya has a special
duty or charge as an Anishaspand
ship of metals.'^
as is
;

it is

the oversight and guardianitself,

This function

is

recognized in the Avesta

shown by

the pious utterance
;

'we worship Khshathra Vairya, the
;

Amcsha Spenta

we worship
^'^

the Molten Metal

we worship Mercy
also the tra-

that careth for the poor.'

The usual explanation, and

ditional interpretation of
is

Khshathra Vairya's association with metal
symbolic of
This
is

in connection with regal wealth, or precious metals as

sovereignty and metallic weapons as an instrument of power.
13

Yt. 2- 7

marezMikem
of.

tlirayd-drighuni yazamaide

*

we worship Mercy

that careth

2' 2. Add perhaps the last line of the Ahuna Vairya formula Tihshathremod ahurd a im di'Ujuhyddadat vdstdreni. 1* See the passage from the Gt. Iran. Bd. translated by Darmesteter, Le Zendfor the poor';
:

also Yt.

Avesta,
15

ii.

313.

See references under Note 4 above and compare Sad Dar 3, 6 transl. West, Sacred Books of the East, 24. 261. [Add also the interesting passage from the Kavayats, The function of translated by Ervad E. K. Antia, Caiiia Memorial Volume, p. l62
: '

Khshathra Vairya is to guide sororeigno on the path of justice. He is always on the watoh that sovereigns may act with justice. He is the friend of just rulers. A just He is the protector of gold, s'lver, as well as other metals, and it is ruler lives long. he who brings about an abundance of metals in mines. It is Khshathra Vairya, who bestows livelihood to Derwishes in this world, and recommends them for a sublime
place in the next work).']

Bd. transl. Darmesteter, Le ZA ii. 313 Sis. 13- 14, and especially metal is a counterpart of Shatvair5 himself in the world and whosoever propitiates melted metals, his fame subsists in the world, and the glory of ATIharmazd
i« Cf. Gt. Iran.
* ;

15. 14—19,

;

becomes his own in heaven' (after West's translation, S,B,E. v. 376). See also Zsp. 22* where the archangel Shatver as.signs to Zoroaster the care and keeping of metals, cf. and Wilson, Favsi Jackson, Zoroaster the Prophet, p. 47; West, S.B.E, xlvii. 161
8,
;

Religion, p. 497.
17

inaidc,

Yt. 2. '!.—Khshathrem vairim ameskeiii spontein yazamaide, ayokhahmtcm yazamarezdihcm ihrdyd-driglmm ijuzamaide. Cf. also Yap. 20. !• I'oJiu hhahathrcm

yazamaide, khshathrcm vairim i/azamaidc,aydkhshu8tcm yazamaide.

KhSHATIIKA

\

AIUVA.
aud elsewhere.'^

l65
Riches,

clearly implied in the Iraniaa Buiulahishu

uuthorily,

and power should go hand

in

hand with compassion or

uiercy and generosity.

Bui, perhaps, there
of Khsltathra
'

is

even .something more back of this association
Metal.*

Kingdom' with ayokhs/msfa Ololten

In

an

article published in Proceedings of the
p. Iviii. seq.y I tried to

American Oriental Society , 1890,

as old as the

Gathfis

show that the connection between the two was (cf. Ys. 51. 9; Ys. 30. 7 Ys. 32.7), and that
;

according to Zoroaster's teaching the coming of the Kingdom,
tkra or hhshathra vairya, was to be accompanied by
'^

hhsluv-

a

fiery

flood

of

molten raetnl/ in which the wicked should be punished and the good

purified, as described in full in the Biindahishn (Bd.

30.

19).

If

this

view Lc right,

it

would make clearer the connection between the

Amshaspind
in

as a personification,

and

his duties as a presiding divinity

charge of the metal kingdom.
is

In any case, the interchange between
if it

the ideas

possible
old,

;

and even

be argued that the material notion

may have been

we may

still

recall that

Haurvatat and Ameretat
but in a

are not only the genii presiding over waters and plants,

spiritual sense, more particularly, they are the archangels of Saving

Health and Immortality.

For that reason, aud

for others,

we may

safely concede that Zoroaster's idealizing
lifted

tendency has, at

aH events,

this conception of Khshathra Vairya out of the domain of

material

things into

the realm

of the spirit.

He
if

has exalted the

symbol of earthly sovereignty,
pret
it,

riches,

and power,

so

we

are to intershall

into the

dominion and empire which Ahura Mazda

establish to banish evil from the world

or,

to use the Prophet's

own

words— 'that Kingdom which
with Paradise.'^

beholdeth the

Sun/ which

is

synonymous

However

that

may

be,

and whatever may bo the direct or indirect

connection between the two ideas in question, there can be no disputing
the fact that the association of hhshathra and ayah khshusta, or 'KiDg*
1* Qt. Iran. B<1. tr&usl*

Darmestctcr, Le ZA.

ii.

318,

ami

cF.

Note IG above.

"

Bcc N(.4e 6 aboTc.

166
dora
'

A. V. Williams Jacksoi^,
and
'

Molten Metal

'

is

as

demonstrable in the Gathas as in
1
;

ayok/isusta of the

Younger

A\resta (Vsp. 20.

Yt. 2. 7
it

;

Yt
is

17. 20).

In a couple of Younger Avestan passages, moreover,

perfectly

evident that hhsUathra vainja means simply metal (see Yt. 10. 125 and

Yd. 16.
p. xciii)

6
;

— both of them prose passages—
and
iu
s. v.).

cf.

de Harlez, Avesta Traduit,
9)

one place in the Veudidad (Vd. 9.
for a metallic instrument,

the words

(iro

employed as a synonym

of knife

(see also

Kanga, Avesta Dictionary,
In conclusion,
it

may be

stated again,

as

was stated
the

at the outset

:

Khshathra Vairya,

Hhe Wished-for Kingdom,

Good Kingdom,
ideal rule,

the

Kingdom

of Desire,' in Zoroaster's teaching denotes, in a spiritual sense,

that dominion which puts an end to evil
it

and brings

whether

be on earth by regal power and authority, or in the realm of Ormazd,

the

kingdom

of

heaven

;

and, secondly, in the realm of material things

Khshathra Vrnirya presides over the kingdom of metals and minerals,

which stand as a sign or symbol of power.

A. V.

WILLIAMS JACKSON,
New
York.

Columbia University,

MEDIEVAL GREEK REFERENCES TO THE AVESTAN CALENDAR.
Thk most
Calendar
is

iinportnnt

source

for

our knowledge of the
itself,

A vesta n
There

nndoul)tedly the sacred text

which

is

supplemented

by most helpful information furnished by the Pahlavi books.
are,

however, other allusions
if

to this chronological
is to

system which must

be considered

our collection of data

approximate completenes?.

The

best

known

of these references are in Persian or Arabic, but while

much

attention has been given to

them

iu the study

of the ancient

Parsi Calendar, little notice has been paid to the Byzantine accoants.

Yet these medieval Greek accounts,

too,

have their importance, and as

they are both few in number and scattered in books which are not easy
of access, the
public.
translations of

them may bo of

interest

to

the Parsi

These translations are presented as a tribute to the memory

of Dastur Peshotan Behramji Sanjana, one of their most distinguished
priests

and scholars.
is

It

to

be noted that the
is

earliest

non-Parsi allusion to the ancient

Iranian chronology
of the
3,
first
;

found

in

Quintus Curtius Rufus, a Latin historian
writes in his History of Alexander III,

century A. D.,

who

10

" There followed the Magi 305 youths, clad in scarlet robes,

equal in
is

number

to the

days of
days,"

all

the year^for the year of the Persians
in

divided into so

many

There are no other references
I

the

Latin authors to the Iranian Calendar, so far as
earliest

am

aware, and the

Greek allusion known to
in }'}iC),

mo

is

the treatise of Georgios Chrytells us

sokokkes, written

This author

of his sources

of in-

formation and gives us un impression of his honest wish to gain
truth.
'J'ho

the
is

text of Chrysokokkes, so far as

it

has been published,

found in Hermann Usoner's study entitled,

Ad

historiam (utronomiw

163
8 ymholaJ

LOUIS H. GRAY,
Bohu, 1876^ pp. 27-37.

The
is

translation of the portion of the
:

Greek text which concerns us here
^'

as follows^

Long

ago, as you

know,

my

dearest

Johannes,

I

pursued the
teacher a

investigation of this Persian matter before us,
priest

and had

as a
too,

named Manuel, of the city of Trebizond. You, and took pleasure in what was said^ and, so me with
averse to the acquisition of this subject,

were often

far

from being

you embraced the science and
f^ishion

urged me

to set forth in

more ordered

the words

which had
outlines

been spoken.

Listen to me, then, as I describe

the mere

of

this chronology,

and

recollect, as far as
recall

I

can^

my

teacher's

words.

hi the
Persia
told

first

place

we must
it

how

tliis

system was brought from

and by

whom

was translated

into the

Greek tongue.

Manuel

me

that one Chioniades had been bred in Constantinople, and had
all

acquired

the sciences, but that he longed for yet anotlier subject of

study whereby he might get wisdom and practise the healing art with
skill.

Thus when he heard from some friends that he would not be
his wish unless

able to attain

he went to Persia, he counted

all

as

naught and hasted thither as fast as he might.

On

the way, however,

he stopped at Trebizond, and there associated for a considerable time
with the Great Comnenus.^

Fevcaling

to this

prince his purpose, he
to

received from him the utmost consideration, and proceeded

Persia

with much honor.
Persians
enjoyed.

Chioniades soon became skilled in the ways of the
a

and was made

friend

of their king,
to

whose esteem he
astronomy he

When, however, he was mitded
it is

learn

found none to teach him, for
1

a law in Persia that they

who

will

For further infortnation on Chrysokokkcs see Weidler, Historia astrononiire^

Groeca, ed. Earless, Hamburg, p. 280; Fabricins, BlhliotJwca 153—154, xii., pp. 54-57 Krumbachrr, GescTxichte der hyzantini^chefi LUeratur, 2nd edition, Munich, 1897, p. 622 Usencr, p. 23. Portions of the text here translated have also been edited by Ismacl Boulliau, A-stronomia^ j)}ulol(iica,YQ.x\H, 1645, pp. 211-2L4 Joseph Scaliger, Dc cniendatltme femjwrum, Geneva, 1629, jip, 522, 52f5-5:;7 Denis Petau, I)e doctnua Canones Ictigof/icce, Amsterdam, 1658, pp. 247, 249, 315 trmjforujn, Antwerp, 17^ 3, xi., p. 55.

Witemberg, 1741,
iv.,

1790-1809,

pp.

;

;

;

;

;

a

One

of the

Greek emperors
list

of Trebizond, probably Alexios

II.,

who reigned from
1146, and

1297 to 13B0.
Usener, p. 23.

See the

of this dynasty given

hj Krumbachcr,

p.

consult

MEPIEVAL (.UEEK KEFKREXCKS TO THR AVESTAN

C.M.E\nAl{.

169

may

acquire

all

sciences but that

Pei-sians

aloue

may pursue
the Persians

astro-

nomy.

Now when

he had

iiKjuired the reason for this

prohibition and

learned that an ancient prophecy prevailed
effect that their

among

to

the

kingdom would be destroyed by Komans

ac<iuainted

with the science of astronomy, the rudiments of which they

should

have previously learned from the Persians, he knew not
the knowledge he desired.
to the king, he succeeded,

However,

after

how to gain much toil and many services
According
to

though with

difficulty.

the

royal

command, Chioniades was admitted hy the

teachers,

and shortly
their

became great among the Persians and was counted worthy of
king's favor.
pupils he

After he had acquired nuuh wealth and gained many
to Trebizoud, bearing with

came again

him many books of

the science of astronomy.
best,

These he rendere«l into Greek, as he thought
of

and produced a work worthy

remembrance.

There are

also

other books of the

system of the Persians which he translated into
first

Greek, as having in their
This was the only

part detailed accounts of the chronology.

system, however,

which he rendered
it

in

Greek

without a commentary, for he regarded

as plainer

and more accurate
Herein
it

than any other system, according to what

my

teacher said.

Manuel was
this fashion

correct,

it

would seem, sinoe Chioniades had received
by word of mouth
is

in

—interpreted only
is

l)y

the

Persians.

This, then,

the

way

this

system, which

called

the

Manual, was

acquired.

We

set forth in the first place

the

chapters of which

wo

shall discuss the interpretation below.

method was mudo for longitude 72 in the district of Chazaria which is called Tibone.' The entire longitude from west to east, or from the extreme commencement of one sea to the other, is 180
**

This

Zezi"^ or

degrees.

a

Arab

^^

Portian

,ilj

j,

iilmitify Til»eno or

Lapardo, ftfimnnnrftr Ahhnndhni<jrH, Leipxig, lS6r.. p. J31. Hn<l runner, p. 17, Tybene with tho Armenian city of I»vin or Tovin nc«r the motlera

Krivrtn

(Lynch, Armenia, I»ndou,

1»01.

i.,

p. 3<)1.).

J

70
'*

Lams
The year
of the Persians

h.

gray,
in the time of lasdaker-

was determined

dea

Sariar.'^

The beginning

of this year

was Tuesday, the beginning
lasdakerdes sat upon the

of the

months was Pharbadin.

When

throne this year was determined in two ways/ one according to their
religion/ which
is

Pasita,^ or non-bissextile.

In both chronologies

there are always 365 days, and 30 days in a month, and at the end of

Asphantar they add
the determination the

five

epagonaP days.

According

to the other year

was

for the occupations^^ of the four seasons,

and

commencement

of the occupations, and this is called Kapisa,^^ or

bissextile.

Now, each month
is

of this, too, has thirty days,

but

six

days are added at the end of the year, for when the Kapisa year comes

round there

an
is

additional

day.

When

these epagonal

days are

combined, there

an extra month every hundred and twenty years.
is

Therefore the excess of the solar year over the lunar year
in this period,

comprised
is

which

is

thirty days.

Every 1,460 years there
is

an

extra year, and the

first

month Pharbadin

found in

its

proper place,

and the entrance of the sun
din. If

into Aries occurs on the first of

Pharba-

we wish

to calculate

the Persian year,

we

take the years

from the creation of the world and subtract from them 6,139, and
the remainder
is their

year, reckoning

from the

first

part of October

with which the Persian year begins,
" The year of the Sultan Melixa.'^

A

decree was issued by this

Sultan that they should date the journals by his year, according to
the
* «

commencement
Cf. Persian
Scaliger,

of the time of his year,
^^J *3>^«3jJ

when

the sun begins to

jLj^m

Can. Isa//,, p. 250, argues that Chrysokokkes translated from an Arabic ** This original, and that he should have said year is of two kinds '* (with intercalation
:

and without).
^

This should have been rendered, according to Scaliger, 'equality,"

8
»

Arab. (/Ju«) Alax-»j
Literally, " furtive, stolen,"

a translation of the Arabic &5 JL,^
in Scaliger's opinion.

10 Rather "usage," Arab,
11

jU*iu«|

Arab.

(/«Ju«)

&—aa^
Seljuk.

12

The famous Jalal ud-DIn Malik Bhah ibn Alp Arslan the

.MEDIEVAL GREEK HKFERENCES TO THE AVESTAN CALENDAR.
enter Aries.

171

Moreover, the commence meut of each month occurred
to another.

when

the sun passed from one sign of the zodiac
this

The

beginning of

year was Sunday.

If 0,586 be sabtracted from the
is

number
Melisa

of years from creation of the world, the remainder
.

the year

of Melixa.
is

.

.

Therefore the beginning of the year of the Sultan
it

when

the sun enters Aries, and

enters

now on

the thir-

teenth of March.''

A
be of

full

translation of the text of Chrysokukkes, as

it is

given by

Usener, in his book entitled
little

Ad

Risioriam AstronomUe Symhuluy would

interest

here.^'

The

treatise

of

Chrysokokkes consists
to

mainly of intricate rules for the reduction of Persian dates

Greek,

and

it

will be sufficient, in
its

my

judgment,

to cite

two passages^* which

seem above
of

general level.

These selections treat of the reckoning
:

months and days, and are

as follows

—" On

the calculation of the

time of the months and days of the Persians.
in the year

378 of the Persians their year
If then

You must know that began when the sun
mouths and days of

entered Aries.
the Persians,

we wish

to calculate the

we proceed
we

as follows:

Taking the required temporal

period of the Persians,

subtract, according to the prescribed method,

the years already mentioned, or 878.

We

take a quarter of the rethe

mainder, and

thi.>^

number comprises the days from
until

commencement
falls

of the 3'ear of ihe Persians

the

equinox, which

on the

thirteenth of the

month

of

March.

Reckoning backward the days
in

which have been calculated we find
beginning of the Persian year
thirty
falls.

which one of our mouths the
reckon the months as having

We

days, and tike the days below thirty, and in this
of the

way

is

fouud

on what day

Greek months the day of the commencement of
Furthermore, the
first

the Persian year

falls.

of the Persian year

ifl

the

month Pharbadin.
»^ Sol-

Uscncr

8

icxi, pp. ;k)-li5.

Tin- p:i--ago
p*

Uicner, pp.

8— D,

19—21, Krumbacher,

from Tbco«lor«» Melcteniota* ( of. ^^3) publi-bcd by U«encr,n». 1S-H», Is «lto

devoted to chronologic.il formuliiM.
U«euer, pp. 31, 32,33.

172
" Rcample.

LOUIS H, GRAY,

— We
is

subtract 878 from
336,
of

tlie

714tli year of tlie Persians,
is

and the remainder

which a quarter

84,

These are the
till

days of the Persians from the beginning of their year
Sixty days

the equinox.

we give

to the

two months Pharabardi'n and Ardempeesti,
to Chortat.

and the remaining twenty-four

The twenty-fourth

of

Chortat was found to coincide with the third of March.

Take, then^ 84
of the

days from the beginning of the equinox.
year of the Persians
for then the
is

Thus the beginning

found

to

occur on the twentieth of December,

number

is

completed."

The second passage reads thus
sian day according to the required

:

^'

On

the calculation of the Per-

Greek month.

We

must observe
falls,

on what day of the Greeks the beginning of the Persian year

and proceed from
the number of

this day to the

day of the required month.

Adding
since

the days of the

G reek year which have elapsed
year,

the beginning of the Persian

we
so

divide

it

by thirty, and as
of the Persians

many

times as thirty
off,

is

contained in

it,

many months

do we count

beginning with Pharbardin, and give the days leftover

to the following

month.

^'Example,

— We

desired to find to

what month and day of the
in the Persian

month
found

of the Persians, the eighth of

March corresponds

year 715.

The beginning

of the Persian year at this time has been

to fall

on the twentieth of December.
left in this

We

take the number of

days which are

month, that

is,

twelve, also thirty-one days
if it is

of January, and twenty-eight of February,
it

not leap-year

(if

were,

we would

take

twenty-nine), and eight of March,

total,

seventy-nine.
teen.

Dividing this by thirty, we have a remainder of ninegive the two periods of thirty days to Pharbardin and
to Chortat.

We then
is

Artipees,

and the remainder of nineteen

In

this

way
The

Chortat
five or

found to have nineteen days on the eighth of March.
epagonal days, as

six

has been said in the section on the
af;

years and months of the Persians, are placed

the end of Asphan-

taremat,"

MEDIEVAL GREEK REFEBBNCES To THE AVESTAN OALENDAK. 178
The second Greek authority ou the Iranian calendar
after Chrysokokkes.
is

Isaakos

Argyros/^ a Byzantine monk, who wrote about a quarter of a century

He composed an

explanation

uf

the

Persian

chronology, from which the old scholar Fredrick Sylburg copied a
portion.

This section of the treatise of Argyros

is

found in Jacob

Christmann's edition of al-Fargbani {Muhamedis Alfragani Arahis
Chronologica
ct

Astronomica Elementa), Frankfort, 1590, pp. 218-219.

The

translation of the passage

from Argyros, which forms an
is

interest:

ing pendant to the account given by Chrjsokokkes,

as follows

" The

method

of

the Persian canons were
first

drawn up by the
year of lasdagerd

mathematicians of that country, according to the
Sarien Mastre,'^ king
of

the Persians, and their calculations were

based upon the Persian year.
creation of the world,

This year
at

falls

6,139 years after the

and begins
is

midday on the new moon of the
according
is

Persian Pharouartes, and

calculated

to

the meridian

through the Persian
theNtzaer Chalitat,''
sea.

city of

Tybene, which

72 det^rees distant from

or, as the Persians say,

from the extreme western
:

According to the Persians the mouths are named as follows

Pharouartes, Artipeest, Chortat, Tyrma, Mertat, Sachriour, Mecherma,

Apanma, Aderma, Dema, Pechraan, Asphandarmat, and the Masiarcha/^ which the Greeks
call

epagonal.

Among
and
five

the Persians, as

the Egyptians, the year consists of only 365 days,
their reckoning there are thirty days

and

in

among each month of
It

are epagonal.

thus

necessarily

follows

that the

Persian year gains one day over the because every
four years the
is

Roman,

every

four years,

Roman

year has 366 days.

Furthermore, every 1,460 years there

a gain of

an entire Persian year, and once more the Persians and the Itomans
»*

Ki>r further
jk 21,

information oa Argyros sec Kubrioius,
p.

iv.,

p. 15r»,

xi,,

p. 120-180,

Uncner,
»"

Krumbaclior,

628, aiui

compufc Lagardo, pp. 230^i.
(*^^)
^^'^

Argyros evidently misread
Arab. c*loJ l^^jJb

p. 17.
>'

/c^^ ^

(SJ^

°'*

O*^^"**'****' *" Utincr^

1^" the islands of
cf.

i

he blesMd," wli«uo«

ibtt

Arabs, foUowiaf

Ptolemy, reckouc<l longitude,
i>

Lagardc,

p.

Gildemeistcr In Uscner, p. 17. 231. correctly notes that w« •boold read Mantaracha (Arab. fi^^Lyt),

174
make
so

LOUTS H. GRAY,
the beginning of their years coincide.

After the lapse of four

years, however, the Persians again begin to gain one

day over

as,

and
at a

on regularly.

The revolution

of 1,460 years

was determined

point of time 307 years before the beginning of the reign of lasdagerd,
so that

from that time the Persians again began

to

gain one day over

us every four years."

The

brief account of the Persian calendar given us

by an anony-

mous author who wrote
It

in

1

443

is

of particular interest in one respect.

furnishes us exact equivalents for four days of the year of Yezdagird

812 in terms of the Byzantine year 6951

which

corresponds

to

1443 A. D.^^

We

thus learn that in this year
seventeenth,
to

March
to

eleventh correstwentieth,

ponded

to

Terma

June twelfth

Mecherma

September fourteenth

Dema

twenty -fourth, and December twelfth
is

to Farvadin eighteenth.

The passage under consideration

found in

Joseph Scaliger's Canones Isagogicae, Paris, 1658, pp. 314-ol5, and in

Denis Petau's work De Doctrina Temporum^ Paris, 1703,
reads as follows
" Aries
:

ii.,

p.

213, and

was chosen, and
of the

it

was found that
at the

at the

end of the year

6951 from the creation

world and

beginning of 6952 the

sun commenced to enter Aries on the eleventh of the month of March
at 8,

29

:

40 A.

M.

Then 813^° years

of the Persians were completed,

and the eleventh of March was the seventeenth of the Persian month

Terma.

In the same year on the twelfth of June at

2,

20

:

8 P.

M.

the sun began to enter Cancer, for then 813^^ years of the Persians

were completed, and the twelfth of Juoe was the twentieth day of the
Persian month Mecherma.

Moreover, on the fourteenth of the

fol-

lowing September, when the year 6953 began and 6952 was completed,
the «uu

commenced

to

enter Libra at

1,

24

:

28 A. M. of the same day.

It was then the Persian year 813, and the fourteenth day of Septem10 To reduce Byzantine years to dates A. D., subtract 5608 from the Byzantine number, thus 6^51 5608=1443, cf. Ideler, Jlandlmch der Chronologic, Berlitif 1826,

ii.,

pp. 459-461.
^0 Scaliger corrects to 812.

Conault also the rulos given by Ideler, pp. 520-522,

or the reduction of dates A. V. to dates A, D.

MEDIEVAL GREEK REFERENCES TO AVE8TAN CALRNDAB.
ber was the twenty-fonrth of the Persian Dema.

175

On

the twelfth of

December
Capricorn.

of the

same year
814'-^

at 7, 41

:

16 A. M. the sun began to enter

Then

years of the Persian were completed, and the
of

twelfth day of

December was the eighteenth
In this
is,

Pharoaarden, the

first

Persian

month.

fashion

the

four seasons

of the year are

determined, that
as
it

the two equinoxes and the two solstices are chogen,

is

in the Persian,

manual, according to the year which baa been

described above.''
It is almost certain that there

were several more references to the
lost

ancient Parsi system of time.
in

These allusions are either

or exist

inedited

manuscripts.

William Burton, in his Leipsana Vetcria
p. 6, refers to

Litiijucn Pcrsicrpy

Lubeck, 1720,

a manuscript at

fjara-

betb, which has since disappeared.^^
as Burton copied

The names of the Persian months,
:

them from

this source, are as follows

PharpharJin

Ardempeas, Chortat, Tourma, Mertat,
Ntai,'"^
iv,

Sarebar,

Mechir, Apau, AHer,

Mpachman, Auphantar.

Fabricius, in his Bihlioihcca Graeca,

pp. 147-148, 151, lo2, mentions as writers on

Persian

chronology

Achmet and Mazunates
would be hard
to say.

(both probably Greek translations from Persian

or Arabic), and Aatrampsychos.-*

Whether

their

work

is

of value

In view of the treatises of Achmet and Astramreliability

psychos which have already been edited, their
doubtful.

would seem

But

tlie

passages which

I

have rendtjred from the Greek
to

of Chrysokokkes, Argyros,

and the anouymous author seem
of that noble

me

io

be well worth the attention

community who preserve

unsnllied the ancient creed of their holy prophet, Zarathushtra.

LOUIS H. GRAY.

^1
-

Scftligor correctfl to 8]8.

•• Ooiwultalso Lagtide, ppw SM-SSO.
to bo

The combiuation tiMh
Krambncher,
Snmpfl
in

proiiounoed d, anil

mj» is eiiniTalont to 6

Mia

Jlixlcrn Oreok.

*« Seo further

Groek

traiii'lAtinn of
i,

Ufi ttom lite p. 630, lTw>nor, pp. 24-S6, nmi the MjHXichareH (Appnrcntly 8hams u«I*I>ln M-Saaiarqaildl not

p—

»1-Bnkhfti

rf.

QildcmcUtor

Usemr,

p. K*) odilJil

by the Utlcr

iHjholnr, p. ?!.

THE LITERAL WORDING OF THE GATHAS.
These bymns, being unique, epoch making and also unrivalled in
the richness of
f-heir

historical connection, should

be learned carefully

by

all

Parsis, for their difficulties lie chiefly in matters of close inter-

pretation, there being a

mass of important meaning

in

them which
first,

is

not disputed

among

respectable scholars.

One
I
it

of the

as well as

one of the most useful duties of a close
cutive words into Sanskrit.

critic is to

turn their conse-

Many

years ago

had completed such
to a memorial

a translation, and I contributed one chapter of
of an importance surpassing that of

volume

most works

of the kind.
will

My
at

translation of

Yasna XXVIII, into Sanskrit
to the late Professor

be found

page 153 of the Fostgruss

Eudolph von Roth

the editor of the Vedic portion of the |Great St. Petersburg Sanskrit
dictionary.
It is

now

several years old for

it

was
It

offered

upon the occasion

of

the 50th anniversary of his doctorate.
there, but
it

might be improved here and
it

possesses unusual authority owing to the place where

appeared
for
it

;

I

having

also received the special

thanks of the great vedist

in a letter.
it

Professor Oldenberg in citing
note), remarks that
it

in his

Vedic Religion, (see 37

recalls

an ancient Indian piece.
is

And ho
other.
I

notes that the Avesta language

nearer to the Indian

Sanskrit, than

some of the various

dialects of Greece are to each
to

append the Zend equivalents

two of these strophes so
language
is to
is

that the Parsis

may
S

see

how near
The

their ancient

that of

their primeval kinsman.

chief difference to the eye
'

that all or

many many

of the

'

'

sounds of Sanskrit are

h

'

in the Zend, just as so
'

of the sibilant sounds in French, Italian, etc. are
I

h

'

sounds in
latter

Spanish.

gave a simple text omitting the accents as the

can

be added by any reader for himself; and, I not being in Germany at
the moment, I could not have corrected the proof-sheets so
easily.

— —

THE LITERAL WOKDIXG OF THE GATHAS.
The
text is also simply pada.
real

177
iu order* to

The sanUhi was omitted
like the

show the

forms

;

it

can be read

accents by every scholar
6.

for himself.
6.

Here are
\_d]

my

Indian equivalents for strophe

Vasund

gadhi manasd dehi [he] ria-dds^ dtrghdyo.Jfirnilni.<ltrt'nja (sic)

Rshvdis tvam ^iJdhdis l_sn-]mr'dlnx

ojasvai

rabhas [uii-dam]
ca asura yena dveshinas^ dveshdnsi turvenuL

Asmahhyam
Hero
is

the original gaidi

Gatha

:

Vohu

manauha

daidi asa-dao dar(e)gayu

Eresvais tu ukhdhais mazda zaratlmstriil aojonhvat raf(e)no.

Ahmaibyaca ahura ya
Here
is

d(ai)bishvatr) dvaesao

taurvayama.

strophe 7 in the Sanskrit.

Dehi

[he]

rta

idm rtim

[iti

kUa phalam puny am]
isham mo/iyam ra

vasos

[phaldni] apidni manasas

Dehi tvam aramate Vishtdcpdya

(sic)

Dds tvam [su-lmedhas hshiya^ ydma^ radhudds.

ca yena vas

mantrdn^

ff^*'**

And

here

is

the

Gatha

:

daidI asha tilm ashim vaiiheus iiyapta

mauanho

daidI tu ar(a)maitc vistasptil aewem maibyaca
daostii,
I also

mazda khshayaca^ ya ve

mathrii srcvacma riidao.

contributed the Sanskrit eciuivalents of Yas. 44 to the Trans-

actions of the Congress of Orientalists at Paris in 1897 which will be
followed, as soon as 1 can in any

manner secure

the time, by Sanskrit

equivalents for the other chapters long since standing in manuscript.

LAWRENCE

MILLS,

Professor of Zend Philology in Oxford.
Anlui-ddo auch Voc, 8g.
Veiiluicht aolltc (la8 Noutr. dirghdyHtvain stehcn, es fehlto aber

*

'

daon datuot-

wendige ca. Odor vidlcicht •rfr/#/*r<i^o*. • Impcriitiv Ton lifu " vorfugc" odcr cin Vocntiv im Kiono

iroii

" rcgicrcnd."

AVESTAN
A

ZEVISTYENG AURVATO,YS>

S'yil'

Contribution concerning Zoroastrian Angelology.

Shakspcre's vivid image of

*

heaven's cherubim horsed on
whether or not some remote
simile.

the sightless, couriers of the air' presents a picture that few
readers of

Macbeth

will forget,

lines of the

Psalms may possibly have suggested the
tion of celestial chargers
is

In general the concep-

familiar elsewhere.

We
all

need only recall

the

horses that draw the chariot of the sun in

mythologies, from

India onward, or the old Germanic conception of the steeds of the
Valkyries.

Mithra, Sraosha and Anahitp. have their care in the Avesta.
is it

Herodotus, or
Persians.

Xenophon
(

that

alludes to this belief

among

the

Dio

Chrysostom

Bor.

Or at,

36

)

tells

of Zoroaster as

chanting the praise of the chariot of the supreme god of the universe.

The Pahlavi Bundahishn pictures the Fravashis, or guardian spirits, as mounted 'on war horses' when they fought against Ahriman at the
beginning of the world.

But the conception of the archangeUc Amshais

spands as

mounted or driving

one to which attention has not been
is old.

called in detail,

and yet the idea

The mere mention

of the subject naturally brings at once before the

mind the representation of the Lord God Ormazd on the Sassanian basreliefs, where the divinity is portrayed as mounted on a charger and
preiienting the

crown

to Ardashir.

The

figure is familiar to all Iranian

students.

^

But

this is not all.

In the Chapter on the conversion of
(p. 65), I

King

Vishtaspa, in

my

'

Zoroaster'

have given the traditional

account of

how

three of the Amshaspands, or Archangels,

came from
to

heaven to the palace of the king as witnesses from Ormazd himself
1

See Ed. Thomas,
note 3
;

'

Saasaniau Inscriptions' in JRAS,

New

Series, vol. iii.,p
;

269 and

Kiash, Ancient Pcfdan InscripHunft, p. ]2l G. Kawlinson, T/ie Seventh Oriental Monarclii/, p. GOG; Curzon, Pcma, ii., 125 (the same cut bciug reproduced in my 'Ormazd, or the Anoicnl Porsiau Idea of God,' in TJw Monist, Chicago, Jan, 1899.)
p. 267,

K. D.

:

AVESTAN ZEVISTYENG AURVATO,

YS. 50-7.

179

the diviaely-inspireil message of the prophetic priest.

These three

heaven-sent envoys are Vohuman, Ashavahist and the Propitious Fire
(Burzliin-Mitfo, or Spcni-rht, Av. Spenislita). Their glorious effulgence
is

so great that the palace of the

king seems aflame with a blinding
filled

light;

the courtiers trembled
7. 6.

and

all

were

with dread
is

(of.

Dk.

7. 4.

76

;

13; Zsp. 23.

7).

This part of the narrative

further colored

by the

later Persian

Zartusht

Namah which

graphically describes the messenstyle, bristling
;

gers

as majestic

knights on horseback^ in cavalier
p.

with armor and clad in gfeen (Zt. N.
Dabistan,
tr.

510,

Wilson

so also the
is late,

Shea and Troyer,

p. 257).

The Zartusht Namah

but I now believe that this conception of the Archangels as mounted

on horses, or driving,

is

as old as the

Gathiis themselves,

if

I rightly

interpret a certain passage.

I believe also that the Snssanian sculptor

made no

innovation, forced

by

art,

when he represented Ormazd on

horsebf^ck to

match

the figure of the king.

The passage

in the

Gathas to which

I allude is Ys.

50.

7.

The

text

in Geldner's edition runs
at ve yaojcl

zevistyeHg

a u

r v

a

t

j a y d is peyethus vahmahyd yusmdkdhya

mazdd am ugreng vohfl manaiM ydu azdthd mahmdi hydtd avanhe
The three stanzas which
directly precede this contain

the Prophet's

devout appeal to Ahura Mazda and tho Amesha Spentas to bestow the
longed-for revelation which shall guide the faithful to Paradise, to grant

him

their visil)le aid

and manifest sanction

{aiht-dorcsld

dnsyd avaiihd

zasidistd) as well as to direct his tongue.

The

old reading for aurvato jaydvS

was urvaiO jyditis (Sp. Wg.).
first

Professor Koth with his keen insight was the

to see that at least
;

aurvato was tho better reading

({?i>itf6?.

xxv.

21 y

of.

also Millst

Gdthaa

p.

590).

Professor Geldner's edition of tho Avesta proves this

to have been right as his text

and manuscript variations show.
;

The

reference

is to

horses, as

Roth saw

and

zcv'isty^ng aurvato

means

180
'

A. V.

WILLIAMS JACKSON,
Bat
in

favorite steeds, beloved chargers.'

my judgment
The

the allusion

is
it,

not to be interpreted through the Veda alone, as Roth interpreted
but rather through direct Zoroastrian tradition.
bas-relief of
its

stone and the inscribed page of the later Persian book with
letters

twisted
link to

must

also

be our commentary.

The verse adds a new
It

the chain of unbroken Iranian tradition.

shows us that the Pro-

phet for the moment used not a general metaphor, but actually thought
of these holy angels as

mounted knights, or
is

as driving,

and

this con-

ception

is

the one that

later repeated.

The rendering

in this light

would be:
'

Your

favorite steeds

—the stocky, sturdy ones —
To

I shall

yoke up by

speeding

my

prayer to you,

Ahura, Mazda, Asha and

with which (steeds) ye shall drive hither.

my

aid

Vohu Manah, may ye come.'
rendered

As

for details

and single words, the adjective

zev'istyeug is

as elsewhere in accordance with the Pahlavi

which connects with the

word the
tive

idea of

'

friendship, favor, etc., the attribute being a deriva-

from a root

zii-,

which

1

have mentioned elsewhere

;

for the for-

mation compare Skt. yavistha.

The
lavi

special

term aurvato, under consideration,
;

is

given in the Pah'

by arvand
'

Neriosengh's Sanskrit version shows vegena

with

speed

(cf.

Mills, Gdthds, p. 334).

There can be
*

little
'

doubt any longer

that Av. aurvanta has here the

meaning

horses

;

we need only com-

pare such passages as Ys. 57. 27

aurvanfa, Yt. 10. 12 aurvanta aspa,

or a half dozen other instances in Justi's Handbiich

— see especially Ys.
The
Pahlavi gloss

11-2 aurvaiam ^/^'M^a 'a yoker of swift steeds'.

there explains the word as Svar-horse'
n. 8;,

(cf.

Spiegel, Neriosengh, p. 74,

Note

also there the presence of the verbal root yuj-, in connec-

tion with aurvanf.

The

instr.

fayais (for such
Skfc.

is

the oldest and best reading)
hi-

is

from a

stem jay a- akin to
of urging

haya- from

a root which

is

used specially

on horses

(e.g.

U. V.
1-

3. 53. 24).

and then of sending forth a
shall

hymn

(e.gf.

R.Y.

2. 19. 7;

184. 4).

Prayers and praises

be

AVESTAN ZEVISTYENG AURVATO,
the impulse to the divine beings to

YS. 50-7.

181
mast take

yoke

their steeds.

We

yiismdkahya objectively.

For

'pcrethOi
'

one

naturally
i.e.,

thinks

of

Skt.

prlhu- which Roth

rendered
attribute
version,

breit,stamniig'

'broad, stocky, sturdy'

— taking
bridge
'

it

as an

of the

horses

like

ugreng

and zevuiyeng.
*

The Pahlavi
(vatarg).

it is

true, sees in the

word the meaning

The

variant

readings of the Avestan manuscripts actually show also
Geldner's footnotes.

peretils

— see

This can hardly be an allusion
it,

to

the Chinvat Bridge; the plural and the sense speak against

although

attempts have been
be insisted on

made

to

support both.

If

the

'

bridge' notion

one might perhaps think of the word as being used

metaphorically, or a-ijectivally, the horses being

means of transferring
and then
'raft

from one place

to another (cf. Skt. ^arani-' transferring/

boat, transport')

— but

this

seems far-fetched.
it

From the
voIu2
liar in

syntactical standpoint

remains only to add that asd and
instnnnental famiaurvathis.

mananhd

are cases of the special usage of the

the Gilthas, and with ydis

we must understand

At

all

events the interpretation of the passage in the

way suggested
the

above makes

everything simple.
steeds on

Ahura Mazda and
Bfindahishn.

Amesha

Spentas have their
Yashts or the
helps
to

occasions as

well as the angels of the

Fravashis in the

The Zartusht Niimah
bas-relief

clear

up the Gathas

;

the

Sassanian
far
j^stray.

with

its

equestrian statue of

Ormazd was not

The

picture

which

must have arisen before Zoroaster Galha verse
is

in his

mind's eye as he chanted the

clear

;

the godhead and the archangels seemed mounted,

or ready to drive to his aid, as did

the Fravashis of old on their char-

gers in the primeval
give a scene for

war against

Ahriman.

The stanza

itself

would

the brush of an artist.

Zoroaster, too, saw visions
I

of heaven's cherubim horsed on the sightless couriers of the air

A. V. WiliJ.l

\M- JACKSON,
\
>'«Mk City.

Columbia Univer^itv

TRANSLITERATION AND TRANSLATION OF THE PAHLAYl VERSION OF YASNA XXXII,
The
Fifth Chapter of the First Gatha.

INTRODUCTION.
The most
that
still

tinistwoi'thy

MSS., containiug the Pahlavi text
to Gelduer's
2,

of the Gathas,

remaiQ accessible, according

researches/ are those

which he names

K 5 and its cousin

J

both
,

written A. D. 1323, to-

gether with the brother MSS., Pt. 4 and Mf. 4

both copied about 1780,

from au Iranian MS. written about 1478, Those latter two MSS. may be roughly described as second cousins, once removed, of the former
two, so far as our information extends.

The Pahlavi text

for this transliteration

and translation of the Gathic

Ha XXXII,

has been obtained from Spiegel's edition, which represents
with the other three

K

5, collated

MSS.

And,

in the foot-notes, the

letters S, J, P,

M

severally represent the

MSS. K5, J2,

Pt.4, Mf.4.

When
is

more than two of these four authorities agree in any reading, it adopted, unless there be any special reason to the contrary, such as

inconsistency with the Avesta text.

All the explanatory Pahlavi glosses are distinguished by being
closed
in parentheses;

en-

and the marginal notes

of the original

MSS.,
to

regarding the supposed speakers, are printed in
but when the same marginal note

italics,

as headings

the stanzas, or the particular metrical lines, to which they appear to
refer
;

is

repeated, with reference to

successive stanzas or lines,

the unnecessary repetitions are not given.

The age of these marginal notes is quite uncertain, but they must have existed in some common ancestor of the four M.'SS., most probably in the
twelfth century; or they mciij have boon introduced at the last real revision of the Pahlavi version, in the time of

KhusroNoshirvan, probably
and when

about A.D. 530 ^ In the translation, words that are merely understood

but inserted to complete the sense, are also printed in
1

italics

;

See his Avesta, Prolcffomena,

-p^p.

XXIV—-XXXIV.

THE PAHLAVI VERSION OF YASNA XXXH.
the original Pahlavi word
italics,
is

183

quoted,

its

translation

is

often appended in

and marked

as a parenthetical quotation.
is

It

should be noticed that this

only a translation of the Pahlavi ver-

sion,

and

is

intended to show exactly

how

far the

Persians understood

the Avcsta text in Sasanian times. For an admirable French paraphrase
of the Avesta text
itself,

the rer\der should refer toDarniesteter's Zendvol.

Avesta

in the

Atmahs da Musee Guimet,

XXI,

pp. 234-242, which

was prepared from the same authorities as I have used.

As
last

the Siidkar,Varshtmansar, and Bako Nasks were commentaries on

the Grathas, tbey might be expected to explain difficult passages;

and the

two do often refer

to, or

quote from, the Pahlavi

ersion, as

may
13.

be seen on reference to Dinkarci IX, chaps.
10, vol.

XXXII

riid

LIV,

in ?.

XXXVII.
K.

W. WEST.

184

TRANSLITERATION OF PAHALVI YASNA XXXII.
KHVfeTUMAITO HATO bOn.
l^raz gohisluiih'i Zarainshtar,
1. a.

Zak'

jaii-i
;

val«- pivau khvcshih bavihftnast^, zak-i^ vala^ varunih
(zak° mozd-i^ Auharraazi/ nafshci shcdayya-c^

levatfi

airmanih

pavan
ghaZ*^

dend, aOgh
bevihiiuast'^)
b, Zak-i'"

YarAn^

va^^-airman^^-i

lak^^

havfiem,

ashaii

vak^

sbedaaa pavan li-minislinih (aeghmA,n^^ ^^minishno

ac(/uno
(asbaii
c.

frardno cigun Zaratushtar, zak-i Auharmasjrf aurvakhmauoili

gba/ bevibunasto).
rayinif^ar-i

Lak^^ gobak yehviinem (aegb,

lak

yebvuncm^^);
min'-^

^^vaMshau^ yakhseQunein

mua lekum

besbiaend (acgbsban^^

lekiimlakbvar yakbsenunem).
2.
a,

Avo^'

vaWsban

(shedaaii)

Ailbaroias'i

pavan

sardarih-i

Vobilman6'^'^ (amatasb
h.

Vobumano^^ pavan tano mabmanyebvunto'^*)^
gufto'^^ va-Abarayib-ic-i^^ kbiipo

Min Kbsbatrover bara pasukbvo

'^%amkbak-i nevak kardo, (afosb pavan tano mabman-^ yebvun^^^^
Doshishno-l Ameshospenddn-i sud-aumanddn,
c.

acgb) SpendarmafZ

lekiiin rai sbapir

doabcm (bondag-minisbnib)

^^'zak-i

lan^ aito (acgbman pavan tano mabman'^).
Pasukhvo-gobLshnth'-i

Auhavmazd,
(mun-^-^)

3.

a.

Acduno

lekum^-^
(aito)

barvispo^^

sbcda

bavc^ci (atan^^

min^^
aegli

Akomano

tokbmako^^ (aeghtano tokbmako'^ min tam4

Akomano-c).
J. zr.k-i.
J. Ano.
B.
2 s. J.

1

Ano.

»
'

P. adds o.

* P.

M. omit
adds
i.

i.

» »

«

S. J. zak-i.

J P. omit t
.

« g. j.

shedaan

adds
avo.

0.

lo J.

omits va.

"

J.

adds

o.

i" S. i' J.

13 J,

1* S. J.
IS
ai

add

o.

i' S.

prefixes va.

aegh.

17 P. M. buv^m. 20S. niAn. 23 S. P. M. omit

P.

M.

prefix ya.

i^ P.

M.

omit,

;

S.adda o.

s. J. vulfi, for val.

aap, M. omit6.

6.

*i P.

M.ychvAnef/.

.

185

TRANSLATION OF PAHLAVI YASNA XXXII.
Beginning of tJw Chapter relating to Kindred, Statement of Zaratihht,
1
a.

That

life

of his*^ is begged
;

for

Kindred, that

life of his

for

Serfdom with Confederacy

(that reward of Aftharmazci*8
*'

own even
and con-

the demons begged, for this reason, because
federate").
h,

we are thy

serf

Tho demons of

his are fancying

as

to

mo

(thus

:

**

our thought
(is

is

us virtuous as Zaratilsht "),
:

and that joyfulness of

Aiiharnia;:(Z

begged by them)
c.

"

We shall become
we

thy

testifiers (that

is,

we

shall
is,

become thy

promoters);

shall hold those

who

ofFend you (that

we

shall

keep

them away from you").
2. a.

To

those

(demons) Auha/-ma..«!,

throu«^li
*')

the

infiueuce

of

Vohilmano, (when Vohumano (" Good thought
his body),
b,

became lodging in

owing

to

Khshatrover

(

" desirable atUJwriiy "
(
**

)

exclaimed in

reply,

and made even the excellent Aharayih
also

righteousness ") a

good companion {who

became lodging

in his body,
the henefitcis.

Love of the Ameshospends,
c,

arid thus

he spoke)

:

— " On

your

account
is

we

love the
is,

good
she is

Spenda/ma(Z {complete mindfulness) y her who
lodging in our bodies).

ours (that

3.

a.

" So, of

all

Reply speech of AiViarmazd. you (who) are demons (your) lineage
is,

(is)

from

Akomano

(" Evil-thought "), (that
is

your lineage

is

from there

where Evil-thon;^ht

also).
r«ad iak-1 •nd-1 vald, " to

»» It Is juRt possible to

he Pahlavi version probably rappoMd that

maoh of hit," AveiU aq^A bore much
omit
-Ic-1.

but tb« autboni of
the aame rclatioo-

iiip

to

anhu

as (hiqyu boro to dahhyu

»• 8. omiis o and va.
»» J.

»
*o

8. J.

•» 8. in«rt» t«,

M

S.

adds ot addt yehvOna*/.
omitfc

a

yehvimtA; J.

biWc

J. iniirti Ta, ».
I*.

»

8. J.

luMit inOo.
o.


^

M. UrvlstO*

^> J.

«• 6. J. atAno.

F.M* oaAu

8 omits

.

186

E.

W, West,

transliteration, §§ 3.^

—6

.a.

FTaz-gSbishnlh-i Anharmazd.,
h,

Mun-ic lekum (shedaun^) kabed yezbekhunef^, drojanotar- va-'
;

rtfar-minishntar (yehvunerf^)
c.

Sagitiininef?

man min

akharJh-i zak^

fradkishno,^

(aeghman
pavan

Zaratushtar

yehabimrf^), milntano^

asrayishnih

(yehabunet?)

buim VII.5
4.
a.

Mun min
(aegbasb

zak^® ayujishno (zak-i^^

fraruno-ih

yekavim^ei^^

pavan zak-i^^ koZa 2 mindavam-i^' minog va-stib) asb
varc^inec^

Mz minisbno
vinas
(-i^^

bara

freuecZ

;

afasb mioishno ba?*a avo
danisbno^^
yebvilneffo

karc^ano

varcZinef^^*)

ansbuta^^

saritar

dusbakas).
h,

M.tn yemalelund zak-i^^ sbedaan dosbido^^ (aegb, mindavam pavan

avajast'i^ sbedaan yemalelund) asbano^^ Vobftman sisbd (aegbsban

min rakMk).
c,

2^Zak-i AubarmazcZ ^'kbirartb nasinSnd^* va-abarayib-ic (aegb,

tapab bara vabidunand).
5.

a,

Pavan

zak^^

koZa 2

Mv^d
la

ansbutaan/^ pavan bu-zivisbnib
^^

va-amarg-rubisbmb (a^gb, avO ansbutaan^'' yemalelune(Z aegb:
zivastano sbayecZo^^ apa-gayebe
d.

Amat

yebvAnec? pavan ras-i lan4).

Mun

lekum

saritar

minisbno,

mun

sbedayya

bavaecZ,^^

atano

saritar minisbno,
c.

«ftan-^ saritar
:

kunisbno va-gobisbno
^^
)

mun

frdz casbec^o^^

(avo
^^

aisbano aegb

Min ano

druvand (gonak

^^

minog) pa(/6kbsbayib.

Fraz-gobtshnzh-i Zaratushtar.
6.

a.

Kabed kenig^n

^^

keno

bevibuni-ait

(aegb,

vinaskaran^^

pacZafras va^idunaii)

mun

srucZo^^

yekavimune^'^^

(mun guft yekavipavan zak damano
tano yebabund).
* J.
»

muneiZ-^ aegb)

:

amat vaMsban asar ; (aegb,

pacZafras
^*

bondak bara
1 5

va&idtlnaiid,
a

amat ruban lakbvar avo
»
'

S. adds o. J. adds-i.

S. dr(ij6tar.
J.

S,

omits va.

adds

o.

«

fradift^r.

»

w

P. M. place these three words after
J.

j d^do. yehabAud.

P.

M. aSghtan.
adds
;

zak-i

;

P.

M. omit.

n
14 J. var'zinerf!,

P.

M. omit

i.

12 j,
^' J.

o.

1* J, omits

i,

mardAm

P. adds

i

)

TRANSLATION, §§

3.<5

C.tf.

187

Further speaking of AuhaTmazd.
b,

" Whoever,

too,

worships you (demons) mnch

(becomes)

more

lying and
c.

more arrogant;
deceit^

and makes us go away from the consequence of that

(that Zaratusht produced for us),

which (occasions) a want of listening

to you, in the land of the seven (regions).
4.
a.

As

to

him who

is

of that assembly, (his virtue remains in the
;

affairs of

both the spiritual and worldly existences
is,

his thoughts

you

further change, (that

you quite deceive him
and the

;

you

also pervert his

mind

into

committing

sin),

man (who
is

is

ill-informed) becomes

worse-informed.
b.
''

As
*'

to

them

who speak what
by

loved by the demons (that

is

they speak anything

desire of the demons),
is,

Vohumano

(**

Good-

thought
c,

) is

abandoned by them, (that

far

from them).

" They drive away the wisdom of Auharmazcf and Righteousness
is,

also, (that
5.

they shall complete their otvn destruction).
to

a,

**

Aa

both these you deceive mankind, as to virtuous
(that
is,

living
*

and immortal progress,

you speak to mankind thus
life

:

When
/'.

living is desirable, there will be no absence of

in

our way.')

*'

Whatever

is

the very evil thought of you,

who

are the demons

is

worse thought through you.
c.

" and your very
:

evil

deed and speech, which you proclaim (to
to
his),

others

thus as predominance.' "

*

owing

the wicked,

(smiting

spirit's)

Furtlier speaking of Zaratusht,
6.

a.

Vengeance on many malicious ones
punishment of sinners), which
are eternal (that
is,

is

demanded

(that
is

is,

inflicting the
be thus)
:

is

recited (which

said to

when they

they shall fully

inflict

punish-

ment

at the completed time,

when they
;

give back the soul to the body.)
>» 8.

IS 8.

(UhUhno.
P.

>7

8.

ddnM

J. P.

H. omit.

omits U

^* 8.

omito

o.

•oJ.
•^ 8.
««

M.o.

"iP. omiuo,
*>


••

P. iostrta va.

>• 8. naficAnd.

8. J. omit.

adds o. J. P. add a

*» P. »» P.

M.

vaia.
o.

•• J. addi o. *o p. H. gauAk.
J.

m »

B. inicrto T«,

P. M. omiU
thalUAlh.

•» 8.

M. omit

ghaU

188
h,

E.

W. West,

transliteration, §§ 6.^—8.5.
!

Ashkarako amartnidar, Auharmazrf

(aegli,

pavau vinas va^pavan Vohilmano^

kirfako'"'
(

amar va^idunyen^)

*7a-zak-i pahliim akas-i

mozd
c.

khavttiliieci,

a^gh, avo

mun

avlyedo- yehabuntan^).

Pavan

ae-i^ lak,^

4ekum, Auharmaz^

!

khufZayih

zak-i

Aharayili

amilkhtagano
ba;-a

V)ara khavituni-aito

(amatlekum

pCif^akhshayih^^

bondak^^

yehvuuerf/- koZa aisb^^ pavau frarilnih akas bara yehvunec?^^).

7.(1. Val^isliau

kenig

la

mindavam

akas havdd zak^^

zanishno

rosliano (aegh, pacZafras pavan riibaii^^

ma

cand

la

khavituud),

b,

Mfln^^ zanislino

amukhtend

(zak^^

mindavam amukhtend zishan
srudo yekavimuned (aegh):

pavan ruban^^ zanishno
**

yehvunCcZ^^)

mun

Pavan
c.

zaki*^

and asino (ashan gazed.^)"
Auharmazci

Mim

val^ishan lak,

!

vala-c-i airikbtak^^ akas hav^ib.

(aegh, vala-c-i vinaskartar parfafras khavitunih).

8 a.
sru^fo^o,

Valasbau sbedaau, keuig vinaskar zak-i Vivagbanan

Yim

ft.

miinasli''^*

avo^^ ansbutaan casbi^Zo^^ (aegb)

:

"Lanc^kan^* bisraya

pavan banjisbno^^ vasbtam linecZ-^ (bam-tizako^^ ansbuta^^ pavan sinok--^
masai^^ b^^ai-masai).''

1

J. omitH va.

2 S. 5

omits

o.

3 e »

P. vaMdfina/ld. P.

* P.
7

omits va.

J. P.

M. omit o.
i.

M. add

o.

P. han^,

M.

Sluo,

8 S.

adds

P. M. prefix va.

10 p.
13 S.

M.

pa<f6khshayih.

"
17

M. adds

o.

12 8.
IS J,

yehvilnd.

i« J.

adds 1. adds o.

1* S. J.

add o. p. M. amat.
;

adds i.
omits.

18
is

M.

i» S. friftak, J. riftak, P.

M. riftako

but the Avesta word

irikhtem, which indicates
suflEerlng

the Pahlavi term airikhtak, applied to persons incrinimatcd by undergoing an ordeal.

mjury while

TRANSLATION. §§
6.

6J

— 8^.
I

189
(that shall prepare
is

Manifest

is

the

accountant,

Auharmazd

the account, as to sin and

good works), and he who
that

best aware,
to

who

exists in

Vohumano

;

(the reward he knows,

is,

whom

it

is necessary to give it),

c

.

Through these of

thine, the sovereignty of yon,

Auharmazd
known
;

I

a-nd that of those instructed

by Righteousness,

is fully

(when
fally

your predominance becomes quite complete, every one becomes
acquainted with virtue),
7.
a.

Those

xcho are malicious are not

aware of anything elucidat-

ing that infliction

(that

is,

they do not

know what,

or

how much,

punishment
6,

is

for the soul).
infliction (teach the

They who explain the
for their

thing which constitutes
(thus)
:

an

infliction

own

souls),

which

is

recited

—" In

so

much melted
c.

iron (he tortures them).*' of
I

Which
is

them
(that

is
is,

really

he who

is

incriminated thou art aware,

Auharraas^

thou

k newest the

punishment even of him

who
8.

very sinful).

a.

Of those demons, a

malicious sinner heard Yim,

him who was

son of Vivanh&o,
b,

by

whom

it

was

explained to

men

(thus)

*'
:

He

eats

the

meat of our people in portions (equally greedy with the lapfuls and
armfuls of mankind ^) ".

>o B. J. omit o.
«« 8. lanaigdno.
*i
'^o

»
;

P.

H. m4n.
nnhjishno
;

•• J. P.

M.

mU.

••'>

S.

omits

n.

«3 g.

M.

bajishno.

•• J. *ddi o.

S.

va-anshAUAno

P.

M

maniam.

Pniliably referring to the legend of
;

inHatiablo appetite

told In tiiR

•• P. M. prefix ». •« S. slnd. Ring JamshM and the demon beggar with an Persian RivAjat of PArAb JTormaKyAr, folios 847-8 of

the copy in the

Bombay

UniverJ-ity Library.

190

E.

W. WEST, TUANSLITBBATION, §§
D^shishno-i Zaratnshtav.

8.r.

— lO.C,

c.

VaMshau-ic

ben

(zak-i*
!

Gasano^-i)
vij!f/o*

li

(pavan Gdsrmigih bara
lak-ic,

dosbui^o^) Ink, Auharniazf?

bara

akbar (aegb,

pavan

kbup^ dashto).
Oar*zishnO'l Zarattishfar,

Pavan dush-amujisbnib-i^ srobo (asban) merencinifZ (sbedaan^J val4 (mun zak-i) zivisbn-ailmand kbira(Zo amukbto (avo a^sban). (Aito muQ ae^uno yeraaleKind(i^-a^ :) "srobo (asban) nierencinif^o^ vala/'
9. a,
b,

(mAnsban) bara^° zak-i

li

isbti^^ avor^o^'^
li

(pa</mano-5^^

karrio^*

dasbto-i'^
sbaye/^Zo*^

kbvastakoM pavan dastobar-i
dasbtano, pavan
zak

av&yedo^^ dasbtano-i amat
dasbtano)-i
ar'zuko'^

ras shayedo"^

aito*"

pavan Vobfiraano,* (aegb, amat pavan

frarunoib*''^

yakbsenund

avayisbnig).
c.

Pavan val4sban miZaya-i minogib^, Aubarmazrf-i
gur'zid^'^

Asbavabisbto,'''

avo lekdm
10. a,

(aegbam gasanigib^^
den^-i'-^"
li

la

rubak

;

li-c

gar'zam).

YaW^

gabra avo

srobo merencinisbno yebabunt^^^'
milnasb saritar

(aegbasb

arub^kib'^'-^

avo
;

deno

yehabiinf?.)

pavan^^

venisbno
b,

yemalelunto''^'''

gospend pavan ko/4 2 az

asb/-''

va^^-kbusb^ofo-c

;

'-^^amat-ic-asb

dabisbno-^ avo drevandan yebabun^^^ (afosb merencinisbno yebabund'«).
c.

^'Amat-ic-asb vastar viy^p^ninid^
merencinisbno^'^

(aeghash tapab bara kardo,
amat-ic-asb,

afosb

yebabunrf^

;

pavan

pcrZakih,
avo^*"

kbandabgtino* yebabunc?^ avo abarubAn^^ aegbasb asbkarako''"

kbvasto^^-aumand afosb merencinisbno yebabiinto),
P. M. omit
S. omits o.
* a
5

1

i.

P.

M. omit adds
adds
o.

o.

^

g. J.
J.

M. d68hidano.
i.

P.

«

omits

P.

M.

sh^ia-fl.

8 J.

o.
1"

M. omits o

;

S.

has

i.

10 J, omitB.
IS S.

11 J. ifelito.
i
;

M, omits
P. omits

o.

omits

P.

M. omit

o.

i*

P. M. karr/ano.

o-i.

.

TRANSLATION', §§ 8.C.
^

lO.C.

191

Love of Zaratiishi,
loved)

i'.

Those, too,

among (them, who thoroughly
afterwards by thee,

my (G a thus,
I

as Gathic lore) are selected
is, iirti

Aubarma2</

(thai

considered, evea by thee, as good).

Complaint of ZaratiUhl,
9.
a.

Through the

evil

teaching of assertion, th^t faith

is

destroyed

(by them, the demons, which the)
others).
is

wisdom

(that
:

is)

living,

taught

(to

There are some who would state thus

*'

assertion, that/a*Y^

destroyed (by them),"
b,

(by

whom)
is

that property of mine is snatched
is

away

(the agree-

ment made

maintained, which

the needful that
it is

is

necessary for the
it is

maintenance of

my

highpriest,

whom, when
is

possible to keep,

proper to maintain in that way) which
is,

desired by
it is

Vohumano,

(that

when they maintain him with
c.

propriety^
spiritually,

desirable).

As
I,

to those

words which
to

O Auharmazd!
Gathic lore
is

are Ashava-

hisht6*s
sive;
10.
is,

it is

complained

you

(that

my

not

progres-

too, complain).
a.

That

man produced
is
;

destruction to this

word of mine,
is

(that

want of progress

produced for the religion by him) who

called

very evil in his look
h.

at cattle with both of his eyes,

and even

at the son

;

also
is

when a

gift is presented

by him to the wicked, (and destruction

produced

thereby)
c.

Also when pasture

is

made a

dej^ert
is

by him, (that

is, its

devasta-

tion is accomplished,
in publicity, jeers at
licly, at

and destruction

produced thereby)

;

also

wbtn,
pub-

the righteous are produced by him, (that
is

is,

any one petitioning him, and destruction
omit
1
;

])roduced thereby).

1"

8. J.

a
J.
;

"
hAH
Bi,

P.

M. «dd
m.

o.

** 8.

omiu
I.

th.

>• 8.

«o.

•0 8. omitH

o.

•ifil.addto.
••
.1.

•• J. omits lb.
•« S.

•• J. onlta.
•»


^

8. omltn o
P.

P.

gAftix

P.

pwtbm vm
rtu

M.

(\Uhto.
o.

•• 8. omltii.

*> J. P.

ndd
.

o.

»»

U» pnflnt
P.

»* J.

omits

MB* Adds o.

>*

P.

M

gbiO.

••

M.

ooift o.

;

192
11.
a.

E.

W. WEST, TRANSLITERATION, §§ ll.a.
li

l3.a.,

Valdshan-ic^ avo (dend-i)^

merenciuishno yehabund (aegh,
zivishu-aunmndih^
(yemaie-

ariibakih

avo (deiio

yehabund)

mun

lund aegh amat* zivastano shayedo pavanras-i lan4) va-drevand havdd
va*-pavan
masih^ ktihin^ud, vatarih-ic^
(aegh, pavan^ peshupuyi/i^

va-pasupayih'^ vinas vatidunaud)."
b,

KsLcisk-khud^if

gabr& nesha (yemalelund, aegh

:

"Manpatano'^^;

manpat'^ havdem); va-auorend** zak-! rekhen-ic'^ vindishno

(aegh

anshuta pavan staham vakhdund/^ aegh khvastak bara avo hamih
yehabiin^fl?*).

c.

Miin zak-i
;

y&\d-V^ pglhlum

aharubo; AuharmazcZ

!

ash^^

bara

hinkhitunfi?
i'^*

ash radih reshinend-i pavan Vohuman^^

(aegh, nihac^ako-

shapiran, pavan fr&runoih^^ hinkhitund bara ramifcun-i^^ aharmok.
12. a,

Mun

resh

sr&yend,

pahlum

kunishno avo anshutaan^'

(sastarano*^ apac?man-kushishmh)
6,

Avo

valdshan,

Auharmazi^ zanishno gufto^^

mun min

zak-F*

gospendan* merencinishno^^ aurvakhmanih,'^^ yemalelund, va-zivishnaiimandih.
c.

Valdshan,
;

Grehmako'^^ min Aharayih doshaktar, mftn Karapo
shapir medamaunet/* aegh kar va^^-

(hav4d

aeghshan^^ khvastako^^

kirfako); va-^- khufZayih bavihund pavan drujishno^^ (pavan auarunih).
13. a.
shayih'^^

MAn

khuciayih pavan Grehmako^^^ bavihAne^/* (aegh, pac?akhbavihilnet^) ash zak-i^^ sari tar

pavan parako

ben demon pavan
:

minishno,

(aegh pavan ae^° minishno bavihunec?*

aegh

"100

bara

yehabunam,^^ va'^-200 lakhvar yanse3unam^^-e).
1

S.

has m<J for

ic.

^
*

j. omits
J.

i.

^

g, omits th.
S,

J.
* S.

adds
adds
i

o.
;

omits va.
omits
o.

«
»

masAi,

J.
;

omits
J.

ic.

*

S.

8. J.

have a for A.

10 S.
11

omits y ; P. M, pasAApAyih. Compare Binksurd, VII. viii. 34, 35.
paspAih
i* P. M. mSsnakpato. M. va-shavacrAnd. " P. M, radkhn. i« S. omits i. vagdAnd} J. vakhdAnAwd.

1*

P. M. mAnpato.

1* P.
i» S.

P. M. omit o.

lo P.

M. omit.

TRANSLATION, §§
11.
a. Those, too,

1

hi.— 1:3a.
for (these of)

l93
mine (that
(say
is,

produce destruction

they produce want of progress for the religion)
possession of
life is (*'

who

that) the

when

it is

possible to live in our way"),

and they
is,

are wicked and reduce in superiority, even through iniquity (that

they would commit sin in leadership and vassalage).'^
b.

To the householder,

man

or

woman,

(they speak thus
that

the over-house-owners," and)

they appropriate
seize the

We are acquirement ^ of
:

'*

property

also, (that

is,

they
tlieir

person with violence, so that

he gives up the wealth to
c.

hoard).
perfectly righteous,

Whatever

is

his

who
;

is

Auharmazii

I

(is

fully established

by him
;

his liberalit}',)

which

is

through Vohiiman,
the

they render harmful

(so

that

the decision

of

good,

settled

through virtue,
12,
a.

is

the casting

away of

the apostate).
is

Whoever

assert that

wounding

the best work for
;

human

beings, (the immoderate fighting of tyrants'^)
h,

for

them Auharmazrf announced punishment.
life,

Also for tho$6

whose joy fulness and possession of
slaughter of cattle.
c.

they say,

is

(owing

to)

the

JZ«o/or those

who

(are)
is,

Karaps, Grehmako ("Greed")

is

dear

than Righteousness (that

wealth seems to them better than doty

and good works), and they seek authority through falsehood, (through
wickedness).
13.
a.

Alto for him

who

seeks authority through Greed, (that
is

is,

seeks predominance through a bribe), that which

very evil

is in

residence in his mind

(that

is,

in this mind,

he claims that

*'I shall

give up 100, and I should takebaok 200").

«o S. J. •« J.
** J.

deu4.
;

•I

8.

omiU
adda

o.

*>

M. ramltund.

adds o

V,

H. add
*ih.

ae.

•• P.

M. omit

1.

has ishno for

"* 8. •• 8.

o.
;

*^ 8.

omRa va,
omit va.
•• Ikid. 87.

»
M

J. drAjlnishno.

ballUlh

P.

U. pkiikhahkyXh.
*• 8. J.
riii.

•0 P.

M. haDA.

n
•«

J. omita.

J. P.

M. omtti.

Compara Diokard VII,

16.

194
b*

E.

W. WEST, TRANSLITERATION, §§
gas-i'^

13.^>.

lo.a.,

Ahvan'merencinWarbav4r?, (aegh,
(pavan
zak-i
\a.\df
zak-ic-i

tama bara tapabinend),

mun

Aubarmacf/ (zanisbno) ^gar'zisbuo
zak avaye/Zo/

kamako^; (aegb^ pavaa zak

sbalitaib^ zyash^ aito, asban^

amat ansbOta,^ aevako levatd
c.

tane, gbaZ kushSnd).

Mun

pavan

ae-i'^ lak'

mansar gobak havad, (aegb, pesbupai^^-i
payend^' min nikezisbno-i Abarayib
;

pavan deno bav^d)

valasbanasb*''^

(aegbasbabarmok,^* minkar va-kirfako^ kar(2ano,gbaipaiiraninend.^^).
14.
a,

Yald

(mun^^) pavan Grebmak^* masib, bara
yebabuncc?^

pavan zak-i
parak

Kfivigban^^ kbira(7/0, bara
yebabiln^fi'

(mun

sbalitaib^ pavan^^

pavan

kbirac?o-i^^

valasban^^ mun,

pavan mindavam-i*^*

sban,^^ kur va-kar).^'

b.

Pavan zak-i^ var*j^van (auarun^* danakan'^*) va-freb-devanan*^^,

(mAn, pavan avarunib, hanband-i^^ pavan^^ baba^^ yakbsenund); vaamat-ic
pa<7/irend

ano^^

drevandan aiyyarib, (ac

pavan

kbirac?o-i

valasban yebvun^a?^)
Va-amat-ic^^ avo tora zanisbno gufbo
(
''
:

c.

munasb^^ zak-i'' ben,

zak-i duraosb gufto'* avo'^ aiyyarib "
yebvunef/'^).

ac pavan kbira(^o-i'^ valashan

Fraz'goh'shnih-i Zaratushtar.
15.
a.

Anyatunishnib'^

rai

(amat hard avo den4 deno

la

yatuud)

bara aubeno'^ yebvund,

mun

Kig*° va-Karapo bav4d;

1

J.

adds

o.

3

S. omits

i.

^

j^ ^j^q,

*
'

P.M.

prefix va.

» 8.

omits 0.
ash.
;

«
»

P. M. pAaokhshAyih.
P.

J. ash.

8 S. J.

M. mardiim.

10 p.
13

M. hana-i,

11

P.

18 P. 19
J.

is S. P.M. omit. 17 S. Kigano; J. KigAno. "i S. J. P. omit i. a* S. adds o. P.M. insert yehvAned. 83 P. M. have kar va kAr. a^S. J. add o. ^^So J. P.M. have ddvAn^c S. reads dina

M. netriind. M. omit.

i*

S p^shvih J. p^shupM. P.M add o-

i" P.

M

.

omit ash.

"

J. S. pAdirAudad.

omits i.

ao

;

;

decision,"

and substitutes

its

synonym

dAdistAno,

but both these words require an

;

TRANSLATION, §§ 13.^>.— lo.a.
b.

195

They are destroying

existence, (that
is

is,

they cause the complete

ruin of yonder world), whose desire
of those even of Auharmaz'/,

the (oppression and) himentatioii
;

(through those who are theirs
convenient for them,

that

is,

in

that dominion which
fight together,
c.

is

his, it is

when

the {)eople

one with the other).
testifying
as to this nacred text of thine (that
:i

Whoever are

is,

are

leading in religion), they exclude such

one from the

exposition of

Righteousness

;

(that

is,

they

hinder

its apostat'C

from performing

doty and good works).
14.
a.

He

(who) gives away greatness through Greed, has only the
(

wisdom of the Kevis ;
as regards wisdom,
iiffairs).

whoever gives predominance
of those

for

a bribe
in

is,

one

who

are

blind

and deaf

their

6.

As

those of
for

to those who many demons,^'
)
;

are
(

conspicuous

(

those wickedly wise )

and

a collection of which they keep at the door
of

wickedness

and even when they accept the assistance
through
their astuteness).
it

those

wicked ones
c.

(it occurs really

And

also
is
(it

when, at the slaughter of an oz,
about
it,

is

said

"*

whoever
'

be he that
assistance"

he who

is

called

'

death-preventing

is for

occur really through their astuteness).

Further speaking of Zaratmht.
15. a.

On

account of not coming (when they do not come into
but become heedless, they who are Ktgs and Karaps

this religion),

additional dn for the plurnl.

XXXI,

20^7.

Ilcre

traiiHCript of the

Compare Pahl. fradu'lshnO, for At. dlTtmncM, in Yaa. we might read fn'h-div.'^iiAn, " tho80 of manj daoeits/* a m«r« At. frniilivA, but the Pahlavi writer more probablj thought diTA was a

m

mere variant
«" P.

*«P.M. hanbandag, " fcllow^servant " ( ')• *'B. omitt. '>oOrit might be " deceits, or fraoda** (s«e noC«S6); but meaning is not cODflrmcd by the gloMOs. »i 8. oilds t >« P. preftxM ta. •* j omltfl ; 8 omits t. ** S. omiU o.
of (i&<'vA. *«8.

M.

bfin.

vaU.

tlii«

M

H. omits.

">•

8. J.

omiU

t ; 8.

repeats khlradivL
*• 8. aAbAao.

''
•<>

J. 8.

adds

o.
;

»• 8,

omlU

t;

J. sabstitutcs o.

Klfo

II.

KiT

;

196
b,

E.

W. WEST, TRANSLITERATrON, §§ 15.^.
valflshan

16.C.,

a^Ano

madam amat
yehabun^^
)

bevihund^
la

(aeghshan- dend
zindagih

mindavam' avo*
sbalitaih

nafshci

munsbaa^
shalitai

pavan

kamak^
avayed).

(a^gbsb&n^

pavan

nafshfi

zindagib-i

aishan^

la

e.

Avo

vala-i

lak^

vaMsban'^ koZa

2

de&runand^ (avo val4-i^°

lak asrun Khurdario^^ Amurdac/'*^) ben zak-i

VobAmantV^ demon

(fe^n

Garoiimano^*.)

16. a.

Ham-aet^no, cigAn pablAm pavan far^kbu^^ biisbib (pavan
sbS^e (i^^

d^nak busbib) amukbtisbno^^ zaki dabm

veb mard sbae),

b.

Pavan

sbalitaib^^-i
li

Aubarmaz^i

amat,

pavan

zak-i val4*^

(damano^^) zak-i

(bavisbto) ashkarako^^ {yehyunecP^ zak-i'^^) pavan

gumanigib-'
c.

Amat

keno^'

avo drevandan

(aegb, vinasktirano^"

pa^afras^'*

vaMdunafid;, val4-i piimci kbvastar (mun^^ avistak'^^ va-zand yemaleluned^) ar'janigib^^ (aegbasb

mozd yebabund).

1 5

f

8 11

^ m, adds 1. * J. ghal. o. adds o P.M. omit the word. P. M. omit this and the four following words, including zlndagXh-i. S. adds o lo J. omits i. » S. J, de&rAnd P. deJrAnydn. J. has vaU va-avo lako. 1" J. adds o ^^ P. M. omit o. M. prefixes va. 8. omits 0.

P.M. yehabAnd.

a

j.

adds

P. amatsh^n.
;

« J.

;

;

;

TRANSLATION, §§ 156,—-16c.
h.

197
given to

Thus, though they petition^ (that this thing be
is

their own), whose desire

no
is

life in

their dominion, (yet, in their

own

dominion, the

life

of others

not necessary for them).

c.

As

to

him who

is

thine, they shall, both of them,

convey htm
into

(attaching Khu/dafZ ayid Amurda^Z to him

who

is

thine)

the

dwelling of Yohumano, (into Gar6(?man6, "the supreme heaven ").

IG. a.

So likewise, as the best in wide

intellect

(

in wise intelli-

gence)

is

the teaching which should be the devotiH''s (which should

be the good man's),

h,

through the authority of Ailharma:rJ, when, at the (time) of

his, that (disciple) of

mine (becomes) revealed, (he who

is)

in privacy

;

c,

when

retribution

is

for
;

the

wicked

(that

is,

they shall
is

inflict

the punishment of the sinner)

andforhvii whose mouth
is

a suppliis,

cant (who recites the Avesta and Zand) there
give him a reward).

requital (that

they

»* p.
^r

GarOilmAn
H. omit
o.

;

M

omits final

o,

>» 8.
^'*

farAkhvo.

»• S. prefixes va,
>• J.

H. omiU L

P.

M. pAd6khshAyih.

&no.

•0 P.

«» J. guraAnlg!h.
«• P.
*9

adds o. •» P. M. pAdAfrAs.
•» P.

*^ J.

** 8.
«» J.

M. omit I
n«gU.

M.

aristAk.

M. add
life,

I.

Alluding probably to the beggt&g for eternal

mentioned

In §

1

r.
.

198

E.

W. WEST, TRANSLATION OF YASNA XXXll.
this translation,

It will be seen from

that the Pahlavi translators

had a

fairly practical

knowledge of the Gathio dialect of the Avesta.
first

Their usual

mode

of proceeding seoms to have been,

to divide

each metrical line into two or three phrases which they could under-

stand

;

each of these they then translated into a Pahlavi sentence, to
to

which they generally appended a Pahlavi paraphrase,

make

the

meaning

clearer,

for

which purpose they also inserted occasionally
text.

some additional Pahlavi words, not expressed in the Avesta

Now and

then, an alternative transljition

is

introduced by such words

as " there are aome

who would

state thus :" implying either difference

of opinion, or subsequent revision.

These alternative translations are
§

very rare in the Pahlavi Gathas; one occurs above in
another will be found in Yasna

9

fl^

and

XXIX,
;

lie

;

but they are

much more

frequent in the Pahlavi Vendidad
ritual

difference of opinion

on matters of

being more usual than on matters of doctrine.
sentences in Pahlavi can be translated in

As most

more than one
and that

way, the paraphrases are very useful for

determining the correct

meaning of the Pahlavi
of the Avesta text,
tion,

text

;

but, even with their assistance,
to avoid errors in

it is difficult

an Englsh transla-

although the meaning of nearly every word in the Pahlavi
is

version

well-ascertained.
is

The Avesta word Gerehmo, which occurs thrice in this chapter,
merely transcribed into
its

Pahlavi form Grehmako, and

is

variously
for

explained by the Pahlavi glosses.
*' wealth "

In

§

12c

it is

defined as a wish

to

be obtained by the use of unlawful authority.
^'

In

§

13«

it

is

explained as

bribe given " to obtain authority for extortionate
it

usury.

And

in

§

14a

is

interpreted as
all

''a

bribe accepted

'^

for

giving such authority.

In

three cases, therefore,

Gerehmo was
illicit

understood by the Pahlvi translator as a desire to obtain
extortionate gain.

or

The

best English

word

for expressing this desire

seems to be

'^^

Greed/' and

this appears to agree
It

with the probable
as " a

etymology of the Avesta word.
devouring "
in

was twice translated

SBE.

vol.

XXXVII,

p. 259.

E.

W. WEST.

AVESTA VAREMA.
la Yasna 10,
11?

of

my

edition

I

have written vdrem
caire,

a<:alre.

It

would have been better
difference between the

if I

had written varema
is

although thy

two readings

only slight.

According to thr

metre, vdrema

is

trisyllabic,

thus rdrem^a, not vdr(c)ma.

The a

is

the

shortened preposition d which serves here either as a verbal prefix or
as a postposition
:

thus

varem-d. or

vdrem

ti-

stiinds

for

vdrem a

or vdrem

<^(prefix d).
*'

The a
i.e.

in

vdrema
d
;

is

analogous to that in
it is

timdnay-a
to

in the house,"

nmdnc

but in acaire

analogous

that
1).

in

d-vazaltl (Jackson,

An

Avesta Grammar, § 289 and 18
is

Note
vdrUf

In any case the stem of the word

not vdrenian (Justi) but

and our form vdrema in Yasna
2.

10, 11 is not to be separated from

vdrema in Yasht 17,

Some

future scholar

who

is

so fortunate as to

solve the riddle of the difficult passage Yasht 5, 130

will probably

identify the
instances.

word vdrevia which occurs

there with both the other

The Pahlavi Translation paraphrases vdroma
10, 14

or vdrem in

Yasna

by vdrom or vdlomj and implies
is

in a gloss that a portion of the
is

human body
note

meant by the word.
cf.

This vdlom
in

found again in the
p.

sixth book of the Dinkard,
3.

West

Sacred Books, XVIII.,
there signify 'heart'
J*5 dil 'heart' in the

270,

gloKS in one

From the context vdrom must MS. actually adds the word

and a
margin and the
ti'aches.

as

West kindly iofonns me. This gives the key Veda corroborates in this case what the Parsi
conceived of (1) as the seat of understanding.
for example,

to vdrema,

tradition
in

Avesta vara answers to Skt. hnl in meaning.
is

Now

the

Veda hrd
Varuna

In the
5,

fine

hymn,

we

read in the second strophe (Rv.

85, 2)

hrtsu hraium Varuno apsv agnivi
divi

suryam

ad(ulhdt

sumam

adrau,

"Varuna has placed

the understanding in the heait, he has placed

Ai^nl in the waters, the sun in heaven, and

Soma on

the mouutaio/'

200

K. F.

GELDNEK, A VESTA Vdremci.
it is

Similarly in Yasht 17, 2
turn

said of

Ashi Vauuhi: uta hv dsnem
places natural

IcJira-

nva-haraiii

vdrema "and she

understanding in

their hearts [i,

e,,

of the Saoshyants).'-

In the second place (2) in the

Veda hrd

is

used in a more anatothat have been taken

mical sense as the place of the draughts of
into the stomach.
^a/i, e.gr.

Soma

We

have frequent mention of the somdso hrtsu pita48,12.

Kv.

1,

168, 3,179, 5;also8,

Especially interesUng

is

a verse that has been constantly misunderstood. I refer to 8, 2, 12:

hrtsu ptidso yudhyante

durmaddso na surdydm
iidhar na
*

nagnd jarante

The soma draughts that have been quaffed contend with each other
heart
(

in the

=

stomach) just like people

who

are very drunk from
like

brandy; they (the soma draughts) keep active (wakeful)
persons
I
14,
all

naked

the night (from cold^

).*

now attempt once more

to render the difficult passage,

Yasna

10,

varying somewhat from the Pahlavi translation.

md mc
dsiio

yatha gdush drafsho

vdrema mire,
te

frasha frayarltu

madho;

verezyanuJidoiiho jasentii,
*

Do

not go to
2 {i.e.,

my

heart

(i.e.

stomach) too quickly like the cow as

liquid

the milk); but

let

thy inspiring effects reach farther;

let

them come with a good conscience."
haoma-drinker
is

The good conscience

of

the

the consciousness of having fulfilled a good work,

namely, the pure ecstasy which the haoma produces in contrast to the

wretched intoxication, the

evil

effects

and remorse ("moralischer

Katzen jammer') which the other drinks produce yoi ahhrna hacifde

khrvim drvo (Yas. 10,

8).

K. F.
* Mhaf =/-5/«'i, Naigh. 1, 7» Here it designates answers to Avesta aodafe in Yasna 61, 12.

GELDNER.
j

still

more precisely the cold night
(Yas. 11, 2)
57.

it

2

In the same manner w.(lm Cgdm) Uvilitam 'me (the cow) when boiled
'

'

is

eqtiivaleut to

my milk when

boiled.'

For hvdsta scg Vend.

5, 52,

and Nlrangistan

VENDIDAD
1.
'•

XVIII.
sprach

*'Denn

es giobt vielcrlei Leiite,'* also
;

Ah ura Mazda,
triigt

o frommer Zarathushtra

(darum merke dir
gegiirtet

:)

mit Unrecht
falschlich

den

Penom, wer nicht mit dem Glaubcn
sich einen Priester.

ist,

nennt er

NeDue ihn

nicht Priester,"

also

sprach Ahara

Mazda, "o
2.

frommer Zarathustra."
fiihrt
ist,

"Mit Unrecht
gegiirtet

den Ungeziefer-Tbter, wer nicht mit
falschlich

dem Glauben
Nenne ihn
Zarathushtra."
3.
*^

nennt er sich einen Priester.
''

nicht Priester,"

also

sprach Ahura Mazda,

o frommer

Mit Unrecht
gegiirtet

triigt
ist,

den

Baum(zweig),

wer nicht

mit

dem Glauben
Nenne
Zarathushtra.^'
4.

falschlich

nennt er sich einen Priester.

ihn nicht Priester," also

sprach

Ahura Mazda, " o frommer

"

Zum

Schaden handhabt die
ist,

Geisscl,'

wer nicht mit dem
Priester.

Glauben gegiirtet
ihn nicht

falschlich nennt er sich einen
also

Nenne

Priester,"

sprach Ahura

Mazda,

" o frommer

Zarathushtra."
5.

"

Wer

die ganze

Nacht

iiber schliift,

ohne den Yasna zu beten

Oder (die Gathas) herzusagen, ohne zu memorieren oder zu amtieren

ohne zu lemon oder zu lohren,
(ewigcn) Lebcn trachtet^,

um

den zu besiegen, der nach dem
falschlich einen Priester.
'*

der nennt sich
also sprach

Nenne ihn

nicht Priester,"

Ahura Mazda,

o

frommer

Zarathushtra."

^

Das Bonst anpnhe athtra gcimnnto lastrnmcnt. 7na%tim (Adv. von fnajrya)
(

Itt

ctn«

dnroh den Zusammeniiang gut)otcnc Stcigvrung von ainfm
QDgohbrig, nncrlaabt*
*

=* Skt. aMjfutM 'fiilKhUoh
aidff

v^fl,

Dat'aiumdrarar,

p.

164, 21

tAm

anyath/lbhyttnianyaki

jener trug unerlaabte QelAfte nach ihr.*)

Den Ahriman.

'Wachct und

bctct. da.Hs"ihr

nicht in Anfechturg fallct* Matthiiai

26, 41.

202
6.

KARL

F.

GELDNER.,

" Den soUst du Priester nennen/' also eprach Abura Mazda,
die

"o

frommer Zarathushtra, der
zu
Ratlie
zieht,

ganze

Nacht

iiber

die

reclite

Wissenscliaft

die vor der

Enge bewahrt

iind

die

Ricbterbriicke weit macbt,'

die

ein

gutes Gewissen giebt, die
bes«ten

zum

(ewigen)
fiibrt."
7.

Leben, die

zum Asha und zum

(Ort)

im Paradies

" Frage micb wiederum, o

lauterer,

micb den segeusreicbsten
;

Schopfer, den weisesten, der die
es dir besser ergeben, so wirst

Frage am

besten beantwortet

so wird

du gesegneter werden, wenn du micb

wieder fragen wirst,"
8.

Es

fragte

Zaratbusbtra
ist

den

Abura Mazda

:

" Abura

a.

s.

w. gerecbter, was^
9.

der scbleicbende Verderber" Y

Darauf spracb Abura Mazda: " Der falscbe Glaubo von einem

Lebrer/ o Spitama Zaratbusbtra, der wiibrend eines Zeitraums von
drei

Lenzen

die beilige

Scbnur nicbt umlegt, nicbt die Gatbas aufsagt,
opfert."
in

nicbt den guten
10.

Wassern

"

Und wer

mir diesem Mann, wenn er
verbilft,

Notb geratben

ist,

wieder

zum Woblergeben

der tbut kein bessres Werk, als
"'

wenn
1

er ibni die

Kopfbaut aufweitete.

'*Die
fiir

Briickc wird fur <len Gercchten so weit, als die
sie so

Hbhe von ncuu Specren
'*

betriigt,

und

den Bosen wird

schmal wic die Schncide eines Rasirmesscrs

DAdistan-i-

Diuik 21, 5.
'

Kd

nom.

sg.

fem., well

dem Fragemlcn

bercits

die

Antwort

(if/Jia

dn&na in

9 vorschwebt.
*

Auch

hier ist die

Grammatik ganz korrckt

;

P. V.

:

durch den Lehrer dcs falschen
57, 23,

Glaubcns; zu diaya Lehrer, vgl. daCno-diso dacnaydi Y,
das folgcnde yo zu verbinden,
*

Mit

dist/di ist

uumittelbar

D. h. er erweist
:

ihm

cine cbenso grosse Woldthat, ala

wenn

er

ihm

die Kopfhaut
P. V.

abzbge, wbrtlich

— seinen Kopf zu einem mrtchle, dcsscn Haut aufgeweitet wird.
Virfif 21,

p6eijjnhnd kamO.r Hrt, was wbrtlich in ArdS
wiederkelirt.

2 als kamdr

2foHt
is,

pdhndi vMtind

West

:

the skin of whose head they widen out, that
18,

they flay his head.
3,

Schon Anquetil du Perron be^og Vend.
9,

lOsowie die ahnlichcn Stellen Vend.

20 und

49 auf das Abziehen der Haut.

Die sunderbare Wohlthat, die hier

dcm

Irrlehror er.

VENDIDAD
11.

XVIII, §§ 6-15,

203
Irrlehrer ist
fiir

"

Denn

fiir

einen einzigen bilsen,
fiir

unfrommen

der Gruss ein Kniestoss,

zwei die herausgestiickte Zungo,

dor

gar keiner, vier verwunschen sich selbstJ
12.

"
Irrlehrer von

"

Wer cinem

einzigen biisen,

unfrommen

dem
er

zubereiteten

Hiioma giebt, oder von den Weibbroten, die fur ein
als

Liebesmabl bestimmt sind, der tbut kein besserer Werk,
eine

wenn

Horde von tausend Reitern

in der Mazdagltiubigen Dbrfer fiibrteri
als

die Miinner tiltete
13.
*'

und das Vieb

Beute fortfiibrte."
lauterer, niiob

Frage mich wiederum, o

den segensreicb&ten
;

Sebcipfer, den weisesten, der die

Frage

am beaten

beantwortot so wird

es dir besser

ergeben, so wirst du gesegneter werden, wenn du

micb

wieder fragen wirst."
14.

Es

fragte Zaratbusbtra

den Abura Mazda

:

" Abiira

Mazda

segensreicbster Geist, Scbbpfer der irdiscben Wesen, gerecbter! Wer.
ist

der Gericbtsbote des Sraosba, des

dem Asba zugetbanen,
und dessen Waffe
iu

tapferen#.

der das verkJirperte beilige
setzt,

Wort

ist

Scbrecken

des

dem Herrea

ergebnen?**
:

15.

Darauf spracb Abura Mazda
beisst,

Der Vogel, der da Parodarsb

(Habn)

o Spitama Zaratbusbtra, den die iibelredenden M^nscben

Kabrkatris (Kikeriki) nennen.

Und
:

dieser

Vogel erbebt seine Stimme

um

das zunebraendo Friibrotb

wJesen winl, sowie die grnusame Prooedur mit
TfMjgllndcr der Hohcpricstcr das

dem

grcisen Leichentriiger in Vend. 8, 20

flndet ihre Erkliirung durch Sh&yast li Hhdytixf 8, 6.

Dort

heisst es, daSB

wenn

bei

einem

Kopfnbachneiden

belicliU, dersolbe

auf der BtellogiTochfc

von der Strafe der drei Nachte bewahrt bleibt. Uebw dicae Strafe der drei und \\ V. za Vend. 7, 136 Sp. Es handelt nch um die drei KJichtc unmittelbarnach dem Totl vor dem Befchreitcn der Riohterbriicke, von dencn dass Ave>tafragtiu>nt au8 dem HAdokht NaHk handelt.
wird
iin«l

Nilchte

Bieb Wet^t zu Bund. 30, 16

>

Zdnn

drdjAii bci»<t wortlich

:

'

wobei Vorlaagerung der Zungo

wobet Verliingcrung desKuies Btattfiudet * hitu dnijit* vgl. Vend. 13, 48. Der Sina iat wenn j»tattfindct'
; :

man oinem
liisst

aolchen Irrlehrer bcgcgnet, 80 giebt

man ibm

statt

des Segenagnmca einen

FuMtritt, zweien atiookt

man mit mehr

Vorsicht nur die Zunge heraat, bei dreion nnter-

beatea jede Beleidiguuj^'c, und bei vicrcn ist daa ttberfaaupt nicbt niithig denn Tier Irrlehrer i«ind niemals c*ntriichtig, sondom bcRchimpfen siob gegenaeitig.

man am

:

"
:

204
16.
*'

KARL

F.

GELDNER,

Stehet auf ihr Menschen, lobt das beste Asha, verwUnscht

die

Devs

!

Jene Bushyasta mit den langea Pfoten

kommt zu euch
die
:)

sie

ist es,

die die ganze irdische

Welt mit einem Mai, wann

Sterne

erwachen (am

Abend)

einschlafert
ist

— (mit

den Worten'
*'

" Schlafe

lang, o Mensch, deine Zeit
17.
'*

noch nicht um.^

Verschlafet^ nicht die drei besten Dinge, gutgedaehten

Gedanken, gutgesprochenes Wort, gutgethanes Werk, verschlafet die
drei

scblimmsten Dinge, bosegedachten Gedanken, bosegesprochenes
biisege thanes

Wort,

Werk V*
das erste Drittel der Nacht bittet mein, des

18.

Und

fiir

Ahura

Mazda, Feuer den Hausherrn
19.
*'

Zu

Hilfe*

!

stehe auf, o Hausherr !

Ziehe deine Kleider an,
fiir

"wasche deine Hande, hole Brennholz, lege es

mich an und ziinde
an.

mich an reinem Brennholz mit gewaschnen Hlinden

Es deucht

mir, als ob der von den Devs erschaffene Azi meine Seele von

dem

Lebensfaden losreissen woUe.^
20.

Und fiir

das zweite Drittel der Nacht bittet mein, des Ahura

Mazda, Feuer den Viehbauern
21.

'*Zu Hilfe, stehe auf, o

Viehbauer!
es

Ziehe deine kleider an,
fiir

wasche deine Htinde, hole Brennholz, lege
1 2

mich an, und ziinde

Diese

Worte spricht die

Biishyasta, die

Damonin der Bchlaf rigkeit, am Morgen.

Ueber

saeaite vgl. Kuhn's Zeitschrift 28, 301.

• Dies ist die

Fortsetzung der Rede des

Hahns,

nicht der Bftshyasta.

Ueber

aiwithyo nom-pl. von aiwi-si vgl. Kuhn's Zeitschrift 27, 230.

Par. 22 zeigt deutlich, dass avainhe gegen die P. V. zu der
ist.

Rede des Feuers zu

Ziehen

pairitlina (von pairi-taTi) ist das Band, das Leib
^7fl*ca jjara-iri stake
'

and Seele verkniipft, der Lebens-

faden. Vd. 19, 28

masliyehe pasea fvaaaltlitalie mashyclie pasva
ist,

pairithtwm dcrenenti nacbdem der Mensch gestorben
Nachte,

nachdem der Mensch
Yasht

(die drei

^hrendderen

die Seele noch in unmittelbarer
sie

Nahe des Korpers weilen muss)
ab.*
8,

ueberstanden hat, so schneiden

alsdann den Lebensfaden
'sie

54 vttpahe

ahJieush astvato partit pairithnein anhvainava hisidliydt

wUrdcderganzenjbekorperten

Welt 4ie Seele vom Lebensfaden

los schneiden'.

paroit mit Ace.

=

Jos von,

wcg

vofl.

:

VBNDiDAD xvin, §§ 16-27.
mich an reinem Brennholz mit gewaschneu Handen an.
mir, als ob der von den

205

Es deucht Devs erschaffene Azi meine Seele von dem

Lebensl'aden losreissen wolle.'*
22. Und fur das dritte Drittel der Nacht bittet mein, des Ahara Mazda, Feuer den dem Asha ergebnen Sraosha: **Zu Hilfe (komme),o

dem Asha
an.

ergebner, schbner Sraosha

!

Dann legt fiir mich irgend Jcmand
gewaschnen Handen

in der bekorperten

Welt
als

reines Brennholz mit

Es deucht mir,

ob der von den Devs erschaffene Azi meine
losreissen wolle."

Seeie von
23.

dem Lebensfaden

Daraufweckt der dem Asha ergebene Sraosha den Vogel
Zarathushtra, den die iibelredendeu

Namens Parodarsh, o Spitama
Menschen
Kahrkatas

benennen.

Und
:

dieser

Vogel erhebt seine

Stimme um das zunehmende Friihroth
24,

"Stehet auf, ihr Menschen, lobt das beste Asha, verwiinschet
|

die

Devs

Jene Bushyasta mit den langen Pfoten komnit zu euch

sie ist es, die die

ganze irdische Welt mit einem Mai, wann

die Sterne

erwachen, einschliifert
deine Zeit
25,
ist

— (mit den Worten)
nicht die

:

"Schlafe lang, o Mensch,

noch nicht um."
drei besten

" Verschlafet

Dinge, gutgedachten

Gedanken, gutgesprochenes Wort, gutgethanes Werk, verschlafet die
drei

schlimmsten Dinge, bosegedach ten Gedanken, bosegesprochenes Wort, biisegethanes Werk "
!

26,

Dann

wird, wilhrend sie auf

dem Pf iihl

liegen, ein

Freuud

von seinem Freund ermahnt': Stehe du

auf, er treibt

mich heraus.
des Ahura

War

von uns beiden zuerst aufsteht, wird glUcklich hiniiber^ ins Para-

diea gelangen.

Wer von

uns beiden zuerst

dem Feuer

Mazda

reines Brennhol'/ mit

gowaschenen Hiiudcn zubringt, dem wiin-

Bchot zuf rioden
27.

und freundlich das Feuer Wohlergehen
dir eine
dir

"Mbge

Herde Vieh und eine Schar von Sbhnen zu

Teil werden,

m('>ge

ein WQhlthUtiger Sinn

und

ein wohlthuendes

Gewiflsen zu Teil werden, mbgest du ein
^

Leben mit frohem Gewissen

aoskete

— Bkt. A-u^jate.

liber die

Cinrat Brttokeb

206

KARL

F.

GELDNER,
ist

leben die Niichte (Tage), dieduleben wirst! " Dies

der Segenswunsch

des Feues fur deu,

der

ihm Brennholz

bringt, trocknes,

von den

Sternen beschienenes

(d. h. abgelagertes)

und aus dena Wunsch nach

Rechtschaffenbeit gereinigtes."
28.
*'

Und wer

mirdiese Vogel, Spitama Zaratbusbtra,

— ein Parliiblicben

cheu,

Manncben und Weibcben

—einem frommen Mann aus dem
Siiulen,

Streben nach Rechtschaffenbeit schenkt, der darf glauben, er babe ein

Haus geschenkt mit hundert

tausend Balken,

zehntausend

Vorbangen' und zehntausend Fenstern."
29.
''

Und wer mir

Fleiscb von der Korpergrbsse dieses Vogels

Parodarsh schenkt,^ den werde icb niemals ein zweites
ich

Wort

fragen,'

Ahura Mazda, (sondern sagen
"

:)

du

darfst getrost weitergehen ins

Paradies.
30.

Der dero Asha ergebene Sraosba fragte
Keule aus der Hand gelegt hatte.
gebierst

die Dnij,

nachdem

er

seine
!

''Abscbeuliche, unniitze

Druj

Du

doch allein in der ganzen bekorperten Welt ohne

Befruchtung?"
31
.

Darauf erwiederte ihm die teuflische Druj *'Dem Asha ergeb:

ner, schbner Sraosba! Durchaus nicht gebare ich in der ganzen bekorper-

ten

Welt ohne Bef ruchtung.
32.

Ich babe jederzeit vier Manner.
alle

*'Die belegen

mich ebenso, wie

andern Manner ihren

Samen

in die

Weiber legen."
die Druj,

33.

Der dem Asha ergebene Sraosba fragte

nachdem

er seine Keule aus der

Hand

gelegt hatte: " Abscheuliche, unniitze

Druj

!

Wer ist

der erste von diesen deinen Mannern''?
teuflische

34.

Darauf erwiederte ihm die
!

Druj

:

"

Dem Asha
seinen
Bitte

ergebner, schbner Sraosba

Der
auch

ist f iirwahr

der erste dieser meiner
geringste

Manner,

wenn

Jemand

nur

das

von

Bekleidungsgegenstanden einem
nicht aus
i

frommen

Mann

auf dessen

dem

Ibblichen Streben nach Rechtschaffenbeit schenkt.

«

AfM^to stelle ich zu neupers. »nt«A« 'seidenes Gewand.' P. V. "Einigeerklaren, dass er Fleischindieser Grosse einem « An der Richterbrttcke.

frommen Mann

giebt.*'

!

VENDIDAD xvm, §§ 28-43.
35. in die

207

"Der belegt luioh ebenso, wie

alle

andern Manner ihren Samen

Weiber legen."
Der dem Asha ergebene Sraosha fragte
:

36.

die Druj,

nachdemer

die

Keule aus der Hand gelegt hatte
ist

"Abscheuliche, uun'dtze Druj

Was
ner,

das Mittel, es wegzubringen ?"

37.

Darauf antwortete ihm
!

die teuflische
ist

Druj

:

"

Dem Asha

ergeb-

schoner Sraosha

Folgendes

das Mittel, es wegzubringen.

Wenn

der

einem frommen

Mann auch nurdas geringste von seinen Bekleidungsgegenstiinden Mann ohne dessen Bitte aus dem liiblichen Streben nach

Rechtschaffenheit schenkt.
38.
**

Der bringt mich ebenso

um

die Leibesfrucht, als
risse."

ob ein

vier-

beiniger
39.
er die

Wolf das Kind aus dem Mutterleib

Der dem Asha ergebene Sraosha fragte die Druj, naohdem
"Abscheuliche, unuiitze

Keule aus der Hand gelegt hatte:

Druj

!

Wer

ist

der zweite von diesen deinen

Mannem?"
Druj
:

40.

Darauf erwiderte ihm die
!

teuflische

**

Dem Asha

ergebner, schoner Sraosha

Der

ist

fiirwahr der zweite dieser meiner

Manner, wenn Jemand
liinge weiter pisst.^

iiber

den Vorderfuss hinaus eine Vorderfuss-

41.

"Der
in die

belegt mich

el)en80,

wie

alle

anderen Mlinner ihren
,

Samen
42.

Weiber legen."
d'ie

Der dem Asha ergebene Sraosha fragte

Droj, nachdem

er die Keule aus der

Hand

gelef^t hatte:

'*

Abscheuliohe, unnutze Druj!

Was

ist

das Mittel, es wegzubringen

?"
:

43.

Darauf erwiderto ihm die teuflische Druj
!

**

Dem Asha

ergebner, schoner Sraosha

Folgendes

ist

das Mittel, es wegzubringen.

Wenn

der Mann, sobald er aufsteht und drei Schritte (weitergeht),

dreimal das

Ashem

betet,

zweimal humatandmf dreimal hukhMhathrd'

temal und darauf vier Ahuna vairya hersagt und das Yenfte hdtdm betet.
»

Mao momts Im Hockun geaau
tiftham

yam yas

iwttohen die FasMpiticn piaten rgU uhfihms^* mUrayati, }UhibKA$hya ecLKielhorn L, 4 1 1, S2^-/«iirmi irt n*cb
;

^. V. Prmepotition«-Tor.

208
44.

KARL

F.

GELDNER,

" Der bringt mich ebenso

um

die

Leibesfrucht, als ob ein
risse."

vierbeiniger Wolf das
45.

Kind ans dem Mutterleib

Der dem Asha ergebeno Sraosba fragte
der

die Druj,

nacbdem

er die Keule aas

Hand

gelegt hatte

:

"Abscheulicbe, unnlitze

Druj

!

Wer

ist

der dritte dieser deiner

Manner ?"
Druj
der
:

46.
ner,

Darauf erwiderte ihm
Sraosba!

die teufliscbe

**

Dem Asba ergebdieser

scboner

Der

ist

fiirwabr

dritte

meiner

Manner, wenn Jemand im Scblaf Samen
47.

vergiesst.
alle

''Der belegt mich ebenso,

wie

anderen Manner ibren

Samen

in die

Weiber legen."
die Drnj,

48.

Der dem Asba ergebene Sraosba fragte
Keule aus der Hand gelegt batte:
"

nacbdem

er

die
!

"Abscbeulicbe, unnutze

Druj

Was

ist

das Mittel, es wegzubringen
teufliscbe
ist

?

49.

Darauf erwiderte ibm die
Sraosba
!

Druj

:

''

Dem Asba

ergeb-

ner, scboner

Folgendes

das Mittel, es wegzubringen.
ist,

Wenn
betet,

der Mann, sobald er

vom

Scblaf erwacbt

dreimal das

Asbem

zweimal Immaianam, dreimal huhhshathrotemdi, und darauf vier
bersagt

Abuna Yairya
50.

und das Yenhe hdtam

betet.

" Der bringt micb ebenso

um

die

Leibesfrucbt, als ob ein
risse."

vierbeiniger
51.

Wolf

das

Kind aus dem Mutterleib
die segensreicbe

Darauf fordert man
:

Armaiti auf : " Segens-

reicbe Armaiti

Diesen

Mann

iibergebe icb dir, diesen

Mann

gieb mir

heraus an der Segen bringenden Auferstebung, als einen, der die Gathas
kennt, der den

Yasna kennt, der

die beilige

Scbrift

studiert

bat, als

einen belebrten, gescbickten, der das beilige
52.

Wort

verkorpert.

**Und man

soil

ibm einen Namen geben: Atredata oder

Atrecithra oder Atrezantu oder Atredahyu oder irgend einen mit Atre
gebildeten."
53.

Der dem Asha ergebene Sraosba fragte die Druj, nacbdem
hatte:

er die

Keale aus der Hand gelegt

"Abscheulicbe, unniitze Druj!

Wer

ist

der vierte von diesen deinen

Mannern ? "

!

VENDIDAD
54.

XVIII, §§ 44-61.
die
teuflische

209
Draj:

Darauf erwiderte ihm
!

"

Dem Asha

ergebner, sclioner Sraosha

Der

ist f iirwahr

der vierte von diesen

meinen Mannern, wennein Mann nachdemfiinfzehnten Jahr alsliederliches

Weibsbild geht: ohne heilige Schnnroder das heilige Hemd.'

55.

" Nach dem

vierten Schritt fabren wir
Fleisob.

Devs sogleich nachher

allosammt- in seine

Zunge und ins

Solche sind dann im Stande
die Zaubereitrei ben-

die irdischen Gescbbpfe des

Asha zuverder ben wie

den Ketzer die Geschopfe des Asha verderben kbnnen."
56.

Der dem Asha ergebene Sraosha
:

fragte die Druj,

nachdem

er die Keule ausder Hand gelegt hatte

"Abscheuliche, unn'iitze Druj

Was

ist

da§ Mittel, es wegzubringen?'*

57.

Darauf erwiderte
!

ihm

die

teuflische Druj

''
:

Dem Asha

ergebner, schbner Sraosha
58.
''

Es gibt kein

Mittel, es wegzubringen."

Wenn

ein

Mann nach dem

fiinfzehnten Jahr als liederliches

Weibsbild geht: ohne heilige Schnur und ohne das heilige Hemd.
59.

" So fahren wir Devs nach
in seine

dem

vierten

Schritt sogleich

nachher allesammt

Zunge und

ins Fleisch.

Solche sind dann

im Stande die irdischen Geschopfe des Asha zu verderben, wie die Zauberei treibenden Ketzer die Geschopfe des
60.

Asha verderben kbnnen."

"Prage mich wiederum, o lauterer, mich dea segensreichsten

Schbpfer, den weisesten, der die Frage
es dir besser ergehen, so wirat

am

besten beantwortet

;

so wird

du gesegneter werden, wenn du mich

wieder fragen wirst."
61.

Es fragte Zarathushtra u.

8.

w.

:

"Wor kriinkt
iirgert

dich, d6n

Ahura

Mazda mit der grbssten Kriinkung, wer
Aerger?*'

dich mit

dem

grnssten

>

Das Oehen ohne das

hetllfe

Hemd

o<Ior

ohne die

heilige

Sohnur

gait ala

dn
dit

EntblSost-Gchen, daher der Vorgleioh mit ditrjahika, vgl. Wott, Oloatarj nnter tmshdd

d4b4riihmik nnd
Oramniatll

.

Darmetetcr't Note ta der

Btelle.

OUge UebereeCnog wahit

hakiiU iBt bkt. »dkam.

"

210
62.

KARL

F.

GBr.DNER,
:

Darauf sprach Ahura Mazda

"Das Scortum^, welches den

Samenvoa Heiligeu und Unheiligen, von Devaanbetern und Nichtdevaanbetern, von Verdammten und Nichtverdammten zusammenkommen
lasst,

o frommer Zarathushtra.

63.
68

"Ein

Drittel der in Fliissen fliessenden,frischen

Wasser

llisst

durch seinen Blick abstehen, o Zarathusthra.

Einem

Drittel der

spriessenden schonen goldfarbigen Pflanzen raubt es ihr

Wachsthum

durch seinen Blick, o Zarathushtra.
64.
•'

Einem

Drittel der segensreichen

Armati (Erde) raubt es die

Decke durch seinen Blick, o Zarathushtra.
einen Ueberschuss-

Dem frommen Mann,

der

von guten Gedanken, guten Worten und guten von seiner Stilrke und von seiner

Werken

hat, raubt es ein Drittel

Wehrkraft und von seiner Rechtschaffenheit durch seine Begegnung,
o Zarathushtra.
65.

"^Und ich sage

dir,

o.Spitama

Zarathushtra: diese sind

tcid-

licher als die flinken Schlangen, oder als die schiidlichen

Wolfe oder

als

eine die Steppe
bricht, oder
iils

bewohnende
ein

Wcilfin, vvenn sie in dieiAnsiedelung ein-

tausendlaichender

Frosch, wenn er ins Wasser

springt.

Q6.

*'

Frage mich wiederum, o

lauterer^

mich den segensreichsten

Schopfer, den weisesten, der die Frage
es dir besser ergehen, so wirst

am

besten beantwortet; so wird

du gesegneter werden, wenn du mich

wieder fragen wirst."
67.

Es

fragte

Zarathushtra

u.

s.

w.

*'
:

Wer

einer Frau, die ihr
hat, beiwohnt,

blasses

Aussehen und ihr Unwohlsein und Blutung
wissend,

(den

Thatbestand)

im Bewusstsein

(der

SUnde) und mit
sie

Ueberlegung (der schlimmen Folgen), wahrend auch
bestand) weiss

(den That-

und

(der SUnde) sich bewusst ist

und

(die

schlimmen

Folgen) bedenkt.
I

Jahi

schfcint

hler wie

lat.

scortum sowohl das mannliclie wie das weibliche
!

Individuum zu bezeichnen, daher y$
a

Namlich

liber die

bosen Gedanken

u. s.

w.

VENDIDAD
68.
hesstrafe,

XVIIl.

§§ 62-73.
ist dafiir

211
die Lei-

**Wa8

ist diifiir

die

Vermogensbusse, was
soil

was

liir

Leistungen
*'
*

er

im Bewnsstein seiner Schuld nocb

dagegen aufbringen ?
69.

Darauf sprach Ahura Mazda:

— "Wer einer Frau, dieibr blasses
und
niit

Ausseben nnd ihr Unwoblsein und Blatung hat, beiwohnt (den Thatbestand) kennend,

im Bewusstsein

(der Siinde)
sie

Ueberlegung

(der scbliinmen Folgen),

wiibrend aucb
ist

(den Thatbestand) kennt,

und (der Siinde) sich bewusst
70.

und

(die schlimnien

Folgen) bedenkt,

" So

soil er

tansend Stiick Kleinvieh schlachten und von alien

diesen Tbieren die Herzteile^ mit

Weihwasser dem Feuer im

liiblicben
soil er

Streben nach Rechtscbaffenheit darbringen, die Vorderf iisse

deD

guten Wassern darbringen.
71.

" Tausend Traglasten hartes, trocknes, ausgesuchtes Brenn-

holz soil er

dem Feuer

in

dem

loblichen Streben nach Recbtschnffen-

heit darbringen.

Tausend Traglasten weiches Brennbolz vom Sandel-

baum, Benzoin, Aloe, oder Granatbaum* oder von irgend einem der
wohlriechenden Biiume
soil

er

demd Feuer im

loblichen Streben nach

Rechtschaffenbeit darbringen.
72.
'*

Tausend Biischel Barsom

soil

er binden, tausend

Weihwas-

r^erspenden

samt Haoma und Milch, gelautert und abgeseiht, von einem
(Dastur) geliiutert und abgeseiht, mit einem Zusatz von

heiligen

Mann

dem

Bauni. der

Granatbaum

heisst,

soil

or den

guten Wassern im

loblichen Streben nach Rechtschaffenbeit darbringen.
73.
t(')ten,
*^

Tausend Sohlangen. die anf dem Banch kriechen,

soil

er

zweitausend andere, tausend athmendc (auf
soil

dem Land

lebende)

Froschc

er toten,
soil

zweitausend Wasserfroschey tausend Eorner

stehlende Ameisen

er toten, zweitausend andere.

»

In Gcstalt nlltzlicher

Worke.
klar gwtellt.

"

Die Stello ha ben

Haug and DannMteter
4.

Dte Btdaoiong Toa

mbm*

nirvio ergicbt nidi

aus SbAyatl 11-6hAya«i 11,

Nach Haug.

212
74.

KARL

F.

GELDNEE, VENDIDAD XVIII, §§ 74'76.
soil

" Dreissig Stege

er

legea

iiber

einen

Kanal, er

soil

tausead Geisseluugen
rnit

bekommen mit

der Pferdepeitscbe, zweitausend

der Ruthe.
76.
**Dies ist dafiir die

Vermogensbusse, dies ist daf iir die Leibesseiner Schuld noch an Leistungen

strafe, das soil er

im Bewusstsein

dagegeu aufbringen,
76.

'*^Wenn er sie

leistet, so

wird er nach der Welt der Froramen

abreisen,

wenn

er sie nicht leistet, so wird er nach der

Welt

der Gott-

losen abreisen nach der aus Finsternis bestehenden, aus Finsternia

entstandnen, finsteren."

K. F.

GELDNER.

DAS VOLK DER KAMBOJA BEI YlSKA.
Die merkwiirdige Stelle in Yaska's Nirukta 2,
2, in

weloher von

den Kamboja die Rede
terangen

ist,

wurde, nachdem
(vgl.

sie in

R. Roth's Erlao-

zum

Nirukta, p. 17 f„
p.

anch sein Buch Zur Littratur

und Geschichte des Weda,
nicht gefunden

67),

die

wunschenswerte Aufklamng

hatte, zuerst

von A. Weber, Akademische Vorlesungen

ueber indische Liter aturgeschichto, p. 169^

1 94*

im wesentlichen richZeiUchrifi der

tig gedeutet und kurze Zeit darauf

von Max
7,

Miiller,

Deutschen Morgenldndischen

QesellscJiaft,

373

—377
4,

unter Heran;

ziehung dcr ParaUeUtello des Mahdbhds/iya eingehender erbrtert
ist

aucb

Weber, nachdem

er in

den Indischen Siudien,

379, und

in

den

Indischen Streifen, 2, 493, den Gegenstand fliichtig berUhrt hatte,

Dochmals in den Indischen Studien, 13, 363, auf die beiden Stellen
zuriickgekommen.
klar zu stellen,

Trotzdem

bleibt

an Yiska's Notiz noch einigos
soli.

was daher im folgenden versucht werdea

Der Wortlaut
logie des Namens

ist mit Hinweglassung einer verungliickten EtymoKamboja folgender : savatirgatikarmd kambojepAeva
iti,

bhi^ate

.

.

.

vikdram asydryef^u bhd^ante sava
:

d,
*

h.

in wortlioher

Uebersetzung

'*

iavati mit der

Bedeutung 'gehen wird beiden Kam-

boja gesprochen, dessen Ableitung savas spricht

man

beiden 5.rya."

Yaska
beiden

will damit,

wie allgemein anerkannt wird, sagen, dass savtUi

Kamboja

als

Yerbnm gebraucht

wird, wiihreud die

jjyanur die
?

Ableitung savas kennen.

Was

ist

aber unter savas zu verstehen

Der

Commentator des Mahabhasya, Kaiyata,
als

bei Miiller, p. 376, deutotes

Nominativ von ^va

**

Leiche '* in Uebereinstimmung mit der abwd-

chenden Lesart seines Testes {vikdra eva enam dryd bhdsanU)^ indem
er vikdra durch j Ivato mridvasthd ctkldrt,

wozu man die Bemorkoageo
Morgenliindi§ehm^

von O.A.Danielsson,
Qesellaehaftf

Zeitschrift

der

Deutschen
iihnlich

37, 39 vergleiohen
in

mag;

der

Commentator dot
dflt

Nirukta,

Devarajayajvan,
2,

Satyavrata Sama^rami's Aoigabe

Nirukta, Vol.

161
1,

f.

Besser wird

man mit Weber und
Die

Satyavrata

SamasramI, Vol.
verbale

241 an das Neutrum iava« "Kraft*' denkeOy d«saeii
bei

Verwandte

W. D. Whitney,
f. 8.

Wuneln

tu s,

m. dfr

Sanskrit Sprache, p. 175

v.* 911

veneiohnet lind.

:

214

ERNST KUHN, DAS VOLK DEB KAMBOJA BEI YASKA,
Die meisten StelleD, an welchen die Kamboja oder Kambojasonst

in der Sanskrit Literatur

vorkommen und welohe man in 0. Bohtlingk's
2, 79f.

und R. Roth's Sanskrit-Wbrterbuch,

229 iibersichtlich beisam4, 1

men

findet,

riihmen ihre Pferdezucht nnd die Rajatarangini,

65

f.

setat sie in die

Nachbarschaft der Tukhara

(so die von

M. A.

Stein in

den Text anfgenommene Lesart gegeniiber dem Bukhara anderer
Handschriften und der alteren Ausgaben,
der Zeitschrift

welchen Chr. Lassen in
it.)

far

die

Kunde

des Morgenlandesj 2, 56 gefolgt

Danach sind
ihre haufige

sie also

nordwestlich

von Indien

ansiissig,

was durch

Verbindung

mit den Yavana, d. h. den baktrischen
2,

Griechen (Weber, Indische Streifen,

320

f.,

3,

353

f.,

Indian AntiStellen

quary, 4, 244), durchaus besttitigt wird.
in der
Pali-Li teratur

Dazukommen weitere
die

und

zwar erwilhnen

in

D. Andersen's
erster

Index

to the Jataka, p. 25, verzeichneten

gleichfalls in

Linie

die Pferde

und Maultiere der Kamboja, am

wichtigsten aber sind die

schon von F. Minayef, Grammaire paile traduite du russe par St.

Guyard, p. XVII, Anm.
FausboU, Vol.
kifd jpatangd
ete hi
6,

1

hervorgehobenen Verse (The Jataka ed. V.

208)
|

uragd ca hhehd hantvd iimim sujjhati mahkhikd ca
vitathd haliunnam
11

dhammd anariyarupd kamhojahdnam
man

d.

h.

"Insekten, Schmetterlinge, Schlangen, Frosche, Wiirmer und
rein
:

Fliegen tbtend wird

solche

verkehrte Vorschriften nicht

arischer Art haben viele(oder die vielen) Kambojaka." Hier wird also

das Tbten achadlichen Gewiirms als eine religiose Pflicht der

Kamboja

bezeichnet;8ie waren also zweifellos Anh'angerder zoroastrischen Reli-

gion

— wie denn schon Weber Iranier in ihnen vermutete — undwerden
dem durch
Damit
ist

wir ihre Wohnsitze irgendwo in

seinen Pferdereichtum

ausgezeichneten Osten Irans
Altertum,
sel bei
p.

(W.

Geiger, Ostfiranishe
lost sich

Kultur im
letzte

355) zu suchea haben.

das

Rat-

Yaska: sein Kamboja

—Verbum

nichts anderes als

das av-

estische kavaiti oder savaite, welches

—durchaus ohne
— nur
in

etymologischen

Zusammenhang mit einem ihm zusammenfallt.

Skr. havati

der Aussprache mit

ERNST KUHN.

A FRAGMENT OF THE DINK ART.
Book
Three years ago
ia
I

III.,

Chap. IX.

3.

honour of

my
of

attempted in the Festgruss, published at Leyden esteemed master, C. de Harlez, since deceased^
is left

a translation^
viz.j

what

of the earliest part of the

Dinkart text^
unique

the second question of the third book^ which, like the subsequent

questions up to the eighth inclusive, are so worm-eaten in the
original
difficult

MS. as to be only partly legible, and consequently very My attempt was of course based upon to make any sense of.

by the late esteemed High-Priest, the Dastur Dr. Peshotanji Behramji Sanjana. Shams-ul-Ulama regretted therefore, that the present very modest conIt seems appropriate, in honour of this laborious scholar^ who tribution to a memorial volume
the printed text as published

has certainly merited well of
his

all

students of Pehlevi literature, by

whom

be held in the highest respect, should take the form of a similar attempt to unravel the meaning, as far as we can ascertain it from so broken a context, of the following question
will evfer

name and memory

proposed by the heretic or apostate, who in the present case by his name, as will be noted below.
I

is

quoted

have added but few notes to the transliteration and attempted Several of the words which do not occur in the usual translation. Pehlevi Vocabularies ( West's, de Harlez's, Peshotan's, etc.) will easily
be deduced from the verbal stems or uncompounded

forms of which
unlike the other

they are derivatives.
printer by

I

have not thought
o

it

necessary to trouble the
e,

marking a circumflex over

and

as,

vowels,

it

will be understood that (unless otherwise indicated
)

by

^, d)

they are always written jphne (Phi,

and

J),

whether long or short
to obtain
;

Of
of

course, in so

damaged a
this

text

it is

im|)088iblo

like a consecutive construction,

except here and there
little

an attempt
1

like

must bo

anything henoe muoh better than gneHs-work, mrelative proportionn of

pccially

in dealing

with

a script and a construction so obscure as

Pehlevi.

have tried to carefully keep the

the lacuna as indicated by Peshotan in his printed text
I

MdUnftB ChsH0$ d9 ifarlMi LeU^,

Brill,

1886,

p|UI-4t.

^^i
CNJ

216

L. C.

CASARTELLI,
Thied Qobstion* of Akvan.

Sit!gab P6r8!to Axvani.
P(!lr8tt

Akvan-i

druj

karik*
:

Akvan, tbe detestable
tbus:

(?)

dr6j

pavan gasako^ aliarmoko aigha
.

in tbe sbape of a beretic^

asked

.

.'

ra-atasliaiio

hurvarano
zag-i

and
tbe

fires^

trees^

tbe loftiest of

baWato-i girano va zag-i zofar
rustak*

mountains,

and tbe deep

mountain-gorge
(of)

AAharmazd dino dahishMkan^ mas gabra-i aharubu-c la zag mas zavar-i min aliarAbu akhu-i AharAbu min gabraan-i
.
.

tbese creatures of tbe religion

.

of

Aubarmazd tbe
is

greatest

is

tbe just man, but
tbe JQst one

not stronger on
inferior

dino kutak va
patasb
yashtar-i

account of bis boly nature tban

Aubarmazd

men wbo
religion.

bomanam
li

bara

kutak y^khsunito . . . . pavan zag-i mas nikubito*

Consequently were I a worsbipper of Aubarmazd (I)
sbould
.

.

considered inferior

;

in tbis

I (sbould be)

more despised.*

Pasukho:
.

Answer
-isbnik zak

:

.

.

.

madam

.

.

,

.

-ic to

proclaim tbis

darvandib fraz nimiitano zagasb dino

in impiety

and

tbis bis religion.

to teacb

and tbe
.

amukbtano va kunisbno-i Ganak Minoi varjito va-akb6-c Abarmanaktk yemlalunlt va stlb budatan bomand
dabisbnan-i

deeds of Ganak Minoi worked

and tbe Abrimanic nature. . said and tbe creatures of Aubar-

mazd
of

are

tbe material
creation

world
over

Aubarmazd

.

.

good

....
hostile.

abuo pavan
1 Cf.

sar-

nature in tbe supremacy

Arab. *J^^ 'detestable

'.

But

probably

for

*^*^,

kdrik, 'warlike,

* l**"^3, »

but more likely for |j»00 dah&no ('mouth')—'by the mouth of a
part of the chapter,
*

heretic'.

Evidently, from the latter

waters

'

C^^

"

ny)

^

supplied.
* al

rUak,

For meaning sec Phi. Vend. V,

1.

'gorge between two mountains,' de

Harlez.

Litt.

plural of an adj. formed from dahiihno,
*

'

creation.'

• Litt.

thirdly A. asked.'

The subsequent chapters employ the

substantial form

pdrsiihno.*

i;-> -^^r.
OLVVVd d^i.
:2.tL

"w^*'

O
Ill,

xr
.
.

A FRAGMENT OF THE DINKART, BK.
dar!h-i

CHAP.
as

IX.,

8.

217
mid
es-

diman ctgun
anshdta

martum
• •
.

living -creatures,

man;

va afash tano-mataano^
alyar!h-i

hence (beings) of corporeal
sence
of

clgiin

the
as cattle
;

assistance

gosp^nd hurubano

va
.

rAbano-mataano
.
.

man,

.

i

.

.

.

spiritual essence

va tano-mataano hiitano zlvarih nirukih avlrtar -shnik val martiim . • . . rubano avirtar pavan avoritano zagshano . i- . .
. . . .

good

souls.

.

.

and (beings) or (endowed vrith) and (those)
.

of corporeal

essence with
,

good
the

bodies^
superior.

adornment ( ?)
. .

strength

-ic for

man

soul is superior in the producing of |these things
cattle the

val

gosp^nd tano avirtar pavanshan tano zlvarth^
[?

....
superior
of their

for
for

dr{ijih

ma] yenitano rtmonih cigun m^ndavam va min drujo mahmantar*
veah
drAjo

body is the adornment (?)
to

body
the

measure

impurity as something: diabolical
.

rimonih

martum
rubano

pavan
rai

yln kushashno
.

.

.

.

and from the druj more permanent impurity,
.
.

[ni-] rukih-i

abundantly the druj in
the

man

in

mahmantar

gas

struggle

^

pavan tano vakhdiinit draylnash-i aushuta
tano
hiirayislino

.... zivandik ....
homant

power on account of the soul occupies a more permanent place
in

the

body.

.

.

crying out

va

vitarto

tano

that

the

good-development of

aharubu zagac-i val pavan yekavimunato lakhvar val tano n^flumt va tano rimontar yebevunlt rubano arekht afash val doshahu kaahit
rubano rubano
.
.

iman's living body

dead body when the just soul and what unto the soul

and
in

the

remains,

tar yemlali^nem

back upon the body and the body becomes more polluted poured (upon) the . .
falls
.

«

in4U mo»t be, I guppose, the same an uiHak (OMiiMrteter, ttmiet^

1.

70) and Mie#

(D. K., Vol. IV., 157, $ 28, see mj Mddeeine MaudSenm, Loa^B, 188S. p. 81, a. Tbe roeaalng seems to be * molber-iiatare,' enMBOt : Umo-miU and HkbitUfrnMi wonld be

compoaads.
"

-"oV-^

<*/'

Penkjjij
*

'

jewrl.

orii:iiiiriit

,

Out

we might rather expeot here and
etfWlr.)

below

^^•fS

strength,' ae need in the original

obJeoUoo («nm

^ ?

?

The MB.

MM. hae hefe vh4tMto,

218

Ti.

C.

CASABTELTJ,
soal
.

va y!n gosp^n^imo pavan k»iBh-

and draga
.
. . .

it

to hell

ashno

sijakjli

.

.

.

.

»

.

.

-er

we
.

va-tano vazinarili minot-rai gas

And in
.

cattle

through the strug, .

pavan yin tano karto
^
,
.

.

.

gle perishableness
, ,
,

.

,

zinik drujo

va-azinik

find the

advancement

.....

vato-c kamini^ va
i

anshiita tano

min mahmano
.

of (improvement) the body on account of the spirit a place

drujo pat^sliih liushmorto val
[alia]

made

in

the body

«

«

«

«

riibano

the living druj and the lifeless

lak ahariibyano'^ va va-istarih-i besbishno
. . .
.

pavan
.

.

.

wind meannesa body
dwelling
just

(,?)

and man's from tbe inis

rimono zavar madam
atash.

druj

val

mayab va

balisto-i
zofar-i

girano

madam madam val

val

estimated unto

.....
just

the attack

zak
aito

men and

rustak aharmokiha kartak
la

Thou

atto

dato

....

in the distressf ulness

stagnation

......

women. and

dur min Auharmazd dino andar jo. Zak-i gosp^ndano zavar zak rimonih loitib
. .

impure force upon water and fire, upon the lo/tiest o£
the

mountains, upon

the deep
fa-

dino niriikiha virayisMto

mountain-gorge, in heretical
shion hast made.
(It is)

zakac
afash

hucarak

va

bahar-^^i

not the
the

min paityarak homandih patash
barakartarih
^^

law

.

Far from the
is

religion

of Afihurmazd

vad-kashish

cand

stih

dato
.

doctrine.

shayito bandak gas pateshili
. .
.

The strength of cattle, this
lution, non-existence
. ,
.

pol-

pavan fraz burto-i val avano atashano aharubano ahariibyan^'^ va afzun-i daman dana
dastobarih-i

religion
sets
in

in

a powerful

manner

order and this

Aubarmazd

dtno

succour and advantage which is from the being opposed, there-

Of, Pers. e^^*^ mean, base, despicable.' which would seem suitable here.
9
'

But there

is

also Arabic

{^'^ ambush
*

;

10

Unsual as this distinction

of

gender

is,

I

The form seems modelled on the Avestic
11 Lit. 13 Pers.
'

fern,

ashaoni, pi. anhaonta

cannot see any other likely explanation. if ashavan,

portion, lot, share.'

iJ»^

'

attraction, allurement.*

13

See above.

A FRAGMENT OF THE DINKART, BK.
va bamdatastanih-aoi akano martum patasb.
aranr-

ITT.

CHAP.
it

IX., ^.

219

upon

from

accomplishment unto attnictioD(?)

inasmuchas
creation
vcr}% an attack

the

material
sla-

must be a place of
forward
excellent

carried

upon

fires,

waters^ holy men, holy women,

and the
the

knowledge]

of living-creatures

priesthood of Aubarmazd,

religion

and

the. unanimous agree-

ment
it.

of innumerable

mien upon

The name '^)y^
written
'

in

the

superscription
is

of

the

chapter

seems
(if t),

Akvand

';

but

Akvan

a well-known
s.

name of
p. 12.

a heretic or

see Justi, Irtvnisches Namenhuch,

v.

'

Akwan'

DiQdiv Akwfin

was

slain

leader

by Eustam {S/iahyvamoh iii. 270), There was a Manichasan named Akwan^ who had followers called 'AKowavIrai. In DK,,
§ 2,

Vol. V, chap. 198,

\)^)yi ^if^ny^JS^

is

read by Justi 'Krisidklk

Akwdn,^
tation,
'

i.e.,

'

the Christian Akwan' (contrary to Peshotan's interpreof the

religious guide

apostate

ruler

Karisak').

Perhaps

even the form*J) in our text
.D^jf(^)) as above.

may

be an abbreviation or an error for

As

far as I
:

am

able to

make

oat,

Akwan's objection would seem
is

to
all

be this

You

say that the just

man

the greatest fmat)

of

Aiiharmazd's creatures,
etc.

— greater than
is

the waters, trees, inoontains,

(This claim, by the way,

implicitly

made

for

man

in

general

in a later chapter, ch. 81, § 3, where, after

enumerating Auharmaid's
.

creatures, <atash va

may4 va zamtk va hurvar va gospfod
the Creator
*

.

va

anshut^/ praise
kolA

is

offered to

stihdahishnAno wutrium
creatnret.)

«.«.,

mano aah mat harlo min made man grealer than all
'

material

Bni, layt the heretic, the josl

man

ia

no

220

L. C.

CASAUTELLI.

stronger or more powerful {mas zavdr) than the followers of another
religion.

Were

I to

become a worshipper of Auharmazd,

therefore, 1

should not gain anything in esteem or otherwise.

The

casuist in his reply seems to point out that

man's superiority

literally,

to use

a very

modem

expression,

quite

familiar at the

present moment, owing to recent political events,' sirdarship' (sarddrih)

— over the

rest of creation is

due to his soul or the
to assist

intellectual part

of his nature, which enables

him

and develop the non-spiritual

He then goes on to explain how impurity in defilement is brought upon man by the druj, especially as proceeding from the dead body, both as regards man and animals,
creatures, such as domestic animals.

and how

it is

thence transmitted to water,

fire,

trees,
fifth

&c.,

— pretty

much on

the lines of the similar expostion in the

fargard of the

Vendidad,
L. C.

CASARTELLL

THE IRANIAN HINDUKUSH DIALECTS CALLED MUNJANI AND YITDGHA.
Althoagh
with me, I
I

know
still

that

many an
that

Iranian scholar
fatherland of

does not agree
the

believe

the

Awesta and
If this it

its civilisation is to

be sought in the Eastern parts of Iran.

true, an exploration of the countries on the upper

Oxus

river

and

its

tributaries will be of

special importance.

The inhabitants
doubt a

of those

countries,

the so-called Ghalchas,

are no

very interesting

branch of the Iranian race, and the various dialects spoken by .them
deserve, I think, every Iranist's attention.
I

had myself the opporoutlines of their

tunity to study the Ghalcha dialects and to

draw the

grammar from
are sufficiently

a scientific point of view.'

We

can say now that we
called

acquainted with the Pamir dialects

Wakhi,

Shughni and Sm-yq-qoli as well as with the more
and we had
also a general idea of the

isolated

Yaghnoln,

Yulghah or rather Yodghd, the
south
of the Hindukush.

only dialect of the Pamir group

spoken

But as to the dialects Munjdnl (or Afungi) and Sangtichi^ which are
closely connected with

Yudgha,

all

our knowledge consists of a very
to

short

list

of words, and the Ishqdshamif which seems to be related
is

the Wakhi,

only

known by name.

That want
'

is

now

partly supplied
in

by the excellent work of G« A.

Ghrierson,

Specimen Translations

the Languages of the North-Western Frontier *, Linguistic Survey of
India, Calcutta, 1899.

We find here, on

pp. lOG-202, a short sketoh

of the MunjanI grammar, a

translation of the parable of the prodigal

son into MunjanI and a piece of folklore in the same dialect.

The

Yudgha

it

treated in the
list

same manner on pp. 205-214^ and oo
and phraaee
in both dialects.

pp. 219-221 we find a

of words

1 shall confine myself chiefly to MunjanT to gire some hints regard-

ing the place of thai dialect among the Pamir group of langnagee.
>

Omodriai der

Irmn. Philologie

l« S«

ppw

:

222
The
result
is
is,

WILHELM GEIGER,
as

we expected^
dialect.

that the difference between

Munjaniand

Yudgha
As
in

only very slight^ and that they must be taken as two

branches of the same

to phonology, the soft consonants, as in all
e,g.,

Pamir

dialects

and

Pashto, are changed into aspirants,
hnza
zhia
;

M. wuza '*^goat"=Sh.'M;ae,
zhin,

Aw.
Yd,

M.

zliinha,

Yd. zhlnko

*'

woman "=:Sh.

Aw. jaini;
also in

M.,
glul.

'*^to

beat "= Aw. jan;

M. ghdva, Yd. ghdvo ^*^cow"=W.
dva;

Instead of dh for original d

we have I in both dialects, as

Pashto

M.

lu or

/e,

Yd.

loli ^^

t?fo"

= Aw,

M.

leghda, Yd. loghda

'*

daughdura,
in

ter "= Aw.

dughdar, Pashto tur;

M.

lem, Yd. turo

"far"=Aw.
}\

A medial ch is also softened and " M. zhe from "= Yd, zhe (not ze I)=Aw. hacha,
Pashto
lire,

turned into
Pers.

zh, as

The resemsh in

blance of the two dialects

is also

seen in changing
thr ay o,

initial thr into

M.

sheraiy

Yd. shurai " three ''=Aw.
thr,

and

in eliding the th of the

medial group

as in M.,

Yd, pUr "son"=Aw. futhra and M.
or.
*'

yUry

Yd. ynr "fire *'=Aw. dthr-, Pashto
ft (Aw. ft) into vd
:

Both
seven

dialects soften the

group
*^^.
but

M.

avde.

Yd. avdo
M.
ze.

"= Aw, ha'pta^ Pers,
pron. 2nd pers,

Te pronoun 1st pers. sg.
in
all

is

Yd, zo=Aw, azem^ Pashto
loiiz.

za,

the other Pamir dialects icaz or
in

The

pi. is

in

M. and

Yd. mdf^ but

in

W.

sdisht in Sh. tamdj in Sq, tamash, in

Ygh. shumdx.

As

to

inflections it

may be
two
''

sufficient

to

give

a paradigm

of the

declension of a noun and of the present and past of a verb, to show the
close connection of the
Munjani.

dialects.

Yudgha.
tat

Sg.

Nom.
Dat.
Abl,

tdt,

*'

father

Gen. zhe-tdt-an
7id'tdt-an

wa-tat or zhe'tat^n
ne-tai-a
zlie-tat-n
tate

zhe-tdt
tdte

Pi.

Nom.
Dat,

Gen. zhe'tdt-af
no-tdt-af

%m-tat or zlw-tat-ej
hchtat-ef
zlie-tat'ef.

Abl.

zhe-tdt'of

a

munjAni and y6dgha dialects.
For the explanation of the terminations -an and
Grundriss
\, 2, pp.
-af^

223
-ef-

compare
is

314 and 315, § 43,

1, 2.

The

plural termination
;

to

be compared, as
ally
*'

I suggest

now, to the Pashto termination -e
(ji.g.

it

origin-

belonged to nouns of feminine gender
"),

M.

leghde,

Yd.

loghde

daughters

but was afterwards

transferred also to

such of mas-

culine gender.
I finally

add the present and past tense of the verb
Yudgha.
Munjani.

'*

to beat."
YTidghi.

Mnnj&n}.
1.
I

^^' I: \ 2.
Li

^

duhum
dehi

deham
dehd dehe
I

Sg {'
Pret '*•

ri. zhien

zhim
zhit

^

2.

zhiet

I'd.

zhia
zhi( zhiam

zhio

1. do dcham ri.

deham
!

dehaf
'

dehaf
dehat

PI.

{1. 2.

1.

zhicm
zhiof
zhtet

hoi

iPret

zhi zhiaf 3. zhi zhiat

The

passive construction of the past tense of transitive verbs (" the

horse has been beaten by the

man"

for

"the man beat the horse")

is

not so well preserved in Munjinl and
lects {cf, Grdr. 1, 2,
zhiaf, zhiftf

Yudgha

as in other Pamir diazhiet,

pp. 324 and 32,5,

§ 63), but the forms

zhU and

can only be explained as compositions of the old past
jata)^

participle

(Aw.
thee,

with the pronominal suffixes of the 2nd person

:

'beaten by

by you'.
:

And

I

quote, to

show the construction, the

following sentence

Munjani

:

to hech-kella f/u
io Jtech-kelati
'

channd-men che-U-aL
chi-'Ut,

Yudgha

:

ya c/iennd-men

English:
*

Thou, any time one kid to
kid.'

me

not (was) given by thee'

Yoa never gave me a

WILHELM GEIGEB,
Erlang§n,

SOME INSCRIPTIONS ON SASSANIAN GEMS.
The
Persian
deparfcmeni of Sasanian
art, nevertheless, it is

gems

is

only a small one in ancient
is

highly interesting, and

by no means

unimportant.
as

That, for instance, Sasanian people had such long names

BdfdturmUMibag we should not know without the gems, and that here were such functionaries as an Bran Anbdrakpat or a Nasdnandemingdrdn sardAr
I have
all

(see below),

could only be learned from them.
of

had the opportunity of studying the engraved Pahlavi stones

except one of the

known

public collections,

viz,,

those of the

Royal Museum in Berlin, the British Museum, the Bibliotheque
Nationale in Paris, the Imperial

Museum

at

Vienna,

the

Royal
in

Museums
Gotha

in

Copenhagen and at the Hague, the Grandducal Library
only one specimen, but that
is

(in this collection there is

a

lion,

the famous amethyst of Devonshire), and the
pool.

Mayer Museum in Liverthe Imperial Hermitage
this

The

collection not accessible to

me was
little

in

St.

Petersburg.
is

There seems to be reason for believing that
encouraging

collection

a large one, but the

civility of the

director

Mr. Kieseritzki towards me, made

me

give up the intention of

examining the publicly exhibited gems when I walked through the
splendid room of coins in that palace.
find

At Florence

I was not able to

any trace of the former collection of the Tuscanian Granddukes,
Sasanian gems of
casts in

from which Dr. A. D. Mordtmann published some specimens.
Besides impressions of the
tioned accessible collections, I
ness of
all

the above men-

owe

wax

or plaster to the kind-

many

private possessors.

Since I published

my

two papers on

the subject (Zeitschrift der Deutsehen Morgenlandischen Qeaellschqfl,
Vol. 44, pp. 650-678, see also Vol. 45, pp. 429-431, and Mitteilungen

aus den Orientalischen Sammlungen der Kdnigliehen Museen in Berlin,
Vol. IV.) in the years 1890 and 1891, numerous other casts have been
gent to me.

I

shall select

from them some of the most interesting as

a modest contribution to this volume, dedicated to the

memory of Das-

tur Peshotan Behramji Sanjana, the revered high-priest of the Parsees,

SOME INSCBIPTIONS ON SASANIAN GEMS.
1.

225
seal

The

British

Maseum

in

1898 aoqaired the following

Bust of a bearded
size

man

looking to tho right ; the
out, copied in Lajard,

gem

is

of large

and admirably worked
137.
zi

Lc Cvlte de Miihre,

LXV., No.
Shdhoe

magu

zi

K%ur(r)akan

zi

nasaiv-andemaiigaran sarddr

'Shahoe the Magian, the son of Khurra, the chief of the corpsecarriers.'

We learn from
title

this

gem, that the guild of the corpse-carriers had
is

a Magian as their head^ a fact that
of
this
for

not surprising, but until now the

functionary was

not known.

In the

Pahlayi texts

we have

'dead body' only the form nasal, for which I have
;

proposed to read nasih (Nom. abstract,)

here

we

find for the first time

the regular nas without an ending, that was to be expected.

Andemdn'
QrundrUs

gar occurs with the meaning 'receiving, carrying' (see
der neupersiichen Eiymologief No. 596).

my
'

West

translates, in his Shik.

Onm.Vi^.,
service,'

andemdn

'

domestically

serving/

andemdni

household

One
2.

sees that this

gem

is

of high value for

more than one

reason.

Professor Maxwell

SommerviUe of the University
of

of Pennsyl-

vania possesses a
sent

number of Sasanian gems,
It
is

which he has kindly
all

me

impressions.

unfortunate that tho latter are not
the
*

decipherable

without

consulting
^cd

originals.

common

inscription Apasidn

Yazddn

Confidence in

Some bear the God/ viz,. No.

1421S, a monogram in the centre. No. 523S, a lion attacking a zebu
from the front

Of the
1383S.

others I notice

A,

—No.

Thia fine piece has already been published by

mo

in

tho Zeilschrift der

Deuischen

MorgenldndUehen Oeselltchqfif

Vol. 44, p. 675, No. 140.

Shahpukr-i rahd'S^

*

Shahpnhr the Great,

viz.,

the noblomau/ a

member
>

of the second class of nobility in the Sasanian Empire.

with Dr. F. C. Aoc1i«m this ending in PlahUTi irtttlMhm rM0Ufi$, Vol L, ?art II., p. 109, | 49.
I

md

m ^, Me

enmdritt40r

226

PAUL HORN,
an impression from the collection
viz.,
left

On

by the late Br. A. D.
*al

Mordtraann, I find another rahd,

Barz-i rabd-<i Apastdn
.

Yazddn
a

*

Barz the nobleman.
head).

Confidence in God' (kneeling zebu with

human
B.

—No. 51 IS,

Mitr Shahpuhre Apastdn

^al

Yazddn

'

Mitr Shah-

pnhr. Confidence in

God

'

—a bird on a
'Tir'
;

fire-altar

not lighted.

C—No.
C.

1744B. Tire
inscription.

with a half

circle at

the beginning

and end of the

The

inscription runs

round a monogram.

—No.
*al

1

788B.

This piece bears only
centre
is

an inscription and no
*

image.

The word nearest the
Yazddn.

barah

son/ followed by
of the
possessor

Apastdn

Unfortunately

the

names

and

his fother are not legible.
3.

For some years Professor N. Ogden Rood of Columbia Uni-

versity in

New York
gems

has provided
in
his

me

regularly with beautiful electro-

types of the

own
seals I

possession and others which pass

through him.

These magnificent casts are the pride of

my

collections.

Even two original Sasanian
(see

owe
right,

to his

extraordinary kindness

A

and

B

below).

If I

am

King's collection was sold to

America, and several of Prof. Rood's electro-types are taken from
pieces once belonging to
it.

A.

— Recumbent

lion.

Oushnaspdnddt or perhaps Gushtaspdnddt (the shn or
injured).
to the

sht is a little

The name means ^ Given

to the descendant of Gushnasp, viz,,

Gushnaspanide.'

B.

— Head of a man en face.
(in

Apastdn Wdnd{d)t 'Confidence
perhaps be
:

God) Wdndat* Might

this not
*

Apastdn

'a(Z)
'

Yazd(dn)-d(d)t as a

name meaning Given

for confidence in

God

?

C.

— Recumbent zebu.
Shahpuhr-i

Arwand

Newdnp(d)t(d)n 8hdt{i)st(a)n
Joyfulness
.'

'

Arwand

IShahpuhr, the son of

Newanp^.

SOME INSCRIPTIONS ON SASANTAN
Another(?)

(JEMS.

^2^27

Arwand Shahpuhf was

the

owner 6i tbe
(51.

seal in

Zeltschr, d, deuUch, mot'g, Ges,^ Vol. 44, p, 660, No.

D.

—Recumbent fallow-deer.
propr.).

Warahrdn (N,
E.

— Head of a zebu with wings.
of Mitrdat,
is to

}£(i)trdL

The same contracted form, instead
seal
in

be found on a

Paris (Justi, Iranisclies Namenhuch, Mithradata No. 52), and
;

below (H)
has shown.
F.

a later development of Mitrat

is

Milad, as J.

Marquart

—Recumbent

stag.

Bdp&ke.

A name
G.
W^'ke
zi

formed from Bdp, Pap with the
goat.

suffix -uk,

—Recumbent wild
(or Wa^-ak)

Wakfishikdn '"Wik, the son of Wakhshik.*

Wek
his

may

be derived from
AVik.

Aw. vayu-

'

air,'

Jiisti in

Namenhuch notes a Dihgan

Wakhshik belongs

to

Wakhsh

(see Justi).

H.

—Head of a man.
Prof.

M{i)ir(d)t,

See above under E.
as follows.
It

Rood

writes

me

concerning this piece

It

is

made

of laiiU lazuli

and came recently from Bagdad.
is

has not at

all

the ordinary form, but

shaped as indicated

in

the
for a

two skoiches (which

F

vawivt

reproflure here),

and might pass
and
is

grotesque attempt at a frog.

It is in

my
^

collection,

the only

one of the kind I have ever seen.

I.—Fire-altar.
Aturshusrdost

magd * The Magian AtunllwMoBt.*

228
I

PAUL HORN,
hope that
this

reading
;

is

the shortened shape of a y

in dost

correct. The r hai, as sometimes we miss one hook of the letter *.
cf.

Aturshusr would be in Awesta Atarekhshudhra^t

Atarecithra.

K.— Head

of a

man.

IXa)k(j)chd(d)t (Nom. propr.).
illegible.

Some

letters

behind the head art

L.

—Naked Greek goddess with a bunch of grapes in one hand.
Name
of a

Nutakj,

woman(?)
seal in

Compare Ndtaturfarnhag on a
Zeitschr.

the

British
;

Museum,
of course

d. deutsch. morg.

Oes,, Vol. 44, p. 655, No. 25

also Nartaki

might be read.

M .—Monogram.
Qahwe
N.
zi

mag^ The Magian Mardoe.'
*

—Head of a bearded man looking to the
zi

right.

Mdrsand'i magu

Datshap(j)rc7ivAvd{n),

The
faults.

inscription

is

distinctly engraved, but, as I suppose, with

some
zi

Mdrsand, e.g.,
is
.>

clearly stands for

Maraspand, and instead of
D^tsbapir
is

there

wi (Widat

would be impossible).
0.

Persian D^tw^h, *j

b.

—Wild goat and crab.
;

Neke

with the same meaning as shapir (Zeitft, d. deutsch, morg.

Oes., Vol. 44, p. 669, No. 107.)

P.

— Recumbent zebu.
'

Rdste

Tight.'

The same

inscription is to be found on

some other

stones, as well

as the well-known Apastdn ^al Yazddn.
4.

Mr. D. Z. Noorian
:

in

New York
right.

possesses the following

stones

A.

— Bearded head looking to the

SOME HfSCBIPTIONS ON SASAlflAN QBMS.
Bar Shabdie
Nabdd.'
zi

229

Bar Nabud barah

*

Bar Shab4, the son of Bar
the Pahlavi ending
e,

The Syrian name Bar Shab6 has

B. Standing female holding up a child.

Ohrmazde khwat(d)h-i farsanddn 'Hormizd, the lord of children.'
This
is

a carious

inscription.
is

Firstly,

because the

common

Pahlavi form for Mod. Pers. khuddi
in

khwat&i, modern khuddh occurs
is

Bukhari and Tokharistdn.

Hormizd

again not especially the

protector of chidren, the Frawashis, Mithra or Ardwisdra

Andhita,

and others give children according to the Awesta.

But

I do not

know

how

the

curious words

khwat{(!i)h

and /ar^anc^an can be otherwise
be dialectical (farsand instead of

read and understood.

Both seem

to

/a rzarui as well as Arab, sausanjird, Mod. Pers. i^3>- 'needle' and
others).
5.

Or does farsand belong

to the

same stem as Mod. Pers.

aw

?

In the possession of Prof. Dr. M. B[artmann in Berlin.

Monogram.
M{i)trdtur8hdmwdre
zi

Tdraehdn

*

Mitriturshamwar, the son o!

Tdrach

'.

The name Shim

is

to be

found on the

gem

in ZeiUchr. d,

deuUch,
^ji^

rnorg, Oes., Vol. 45, p.

430.

With Turach compare Mod.Pers.

Eraj.
6.

In 1894 in the podsession of Mr. A. yon Butkowski-Glinka

in Paris.

Standing female with flowers in the hands.

OmMukhi,

Apa»tdti *al Yasd in ' Oin^.dakht.
also
:

Confidenoe in

God \

One might
Namenbuch
?•
p.

read

Adm^tdukht
letter

or

^ra^tdakhi (see Jotta

5

Adm^t), the

being written in carsive.
in

In the Laxarew Institute for Otieotal languages

Moseoo*

Standing goal.

DM Warahr&n (Norn,

propr.).

^30
8.

PAUL HOBV,

80M15 INSCMPTIOKfi

ON SASANIAK GEMS.

In 1896 I received from Bagdad an impression with the
*

inscription Atur Ohrinazde^

Atur Ohnnazd

'

(bearded head).

The

same name
9.

is

to be found

on a similar stone in Berlin (No. 10)7).

In the possession of Mr. C. M. Trelawny Irving in London.
figures,

Two

between them a tree,
*

Hamdwarti'i Zikdn,

Ham4wart, the son of Zik
Pers. ^jj^ (h
'

'.

The name Hamawart (Mod.
seal (bust of a

rival

')

occurs also on a

bearded man) published by E. Thomas in the Journal of
p. 417^

the

Royal Asiatic Society, Vol. XIII,
).

No. 10 (perhaps even so
Justi^

Hamdwarte-i Zik
huehy p. 386.

For Zik compare

Namen-

Of course

forgeries have also been sent to me,

e,g,,

from Calcutta

and from Sult^nabad in Persia.

Even some

of the above-mentioned

gentlemen have been deceived with forged stones.

But I

shall

not

make unhappy

the

owners by enumerating such fabrications. Gener-

ally they are easily detected with

some

practice.

I hope that this short communication

may show

that the Sasanian

gems are worthy

of being collected together in one corpus.

PAUL HORN.

THE OLD PERSIAN INSCRIFnONS
AT BEHISTAN.

PREFACE.
As the method
a
of trauscription in Kossowioz^B edition of the Five
it

Behistan Inscriptions dates from the year 1872,
to substitute for
it

seemed to

me

better

more modern one, which should take account of

the

advances which have been made since then.

As

the old

Persian

cuneiform signs form a very imperfect system of writing, there are

numerous uncertainties

as regards the real

form and pronunciation of
is

many

words.

This slight contribution

designed for the use of

beginners, and consideration therefore could not be taken of subtleties.

Therefore

I

have,

if I

may

say

so,

transcribed roughly kdra(h), ima(h)
,

{FI)utAna{h)f artiyd(h)uvd, ba{n)daku{h)

abara(n), ndma(ii), etc.,
still

».d.,

I

have added the

h'e or n'«

that probably

existed in the language

when
tan.

these inscriptions were engraved apon the rocks of

Mount Behisor mar tiyd{H)

But

I have written neither Zura(}i)kara{h), drauga{h)dis, Ddraya(h)

va (h)u8, mdtya{h)mdm, etc,, nor mar tiyd{h)

— nom.

plur.

— ace. plur.— but
,

only Zu,rakara{h), draagadis, Ddrayava(h)u8,fnd(ya-

mam, martiyd,

etc.

Likewise the a at the end of words, which

is

often

lengthened without etymological reason according to the principle of
writing, has not been altered; or the reader will

hud traoscribed with
only intended

ri-vowel vrkdna (op. aw.

Vehrkdna, Modern Persian Gurgdn), but not

Artavrdiya (cp. aw. verezya).

My

transcription

is

to

give the student an idea of the problems involved in cuneiform writing,
to decide definitely in every case
I

which

is

right
to

is still

impossible; but

have inserted the alterations that seemed

be neoessary.

For the glossary the

latest publications

on the subjeoty eipeciallr

Weissbach and Bang's new edition of the text and the contributions
•cattared

through

various

scientific

journals,

particularly

those by

Bftrtholomiii Juati

and Foy, have, of course, been coosuited*

PAUL UO«i.

.;

INSCRIPTION OF DAKIUS HYSTASPES.

COLUMN
1,

1.
j:>'

V .y
K5aya€iya(h)

Adam* Darayava(h)us*

KsayaCiya(h)* vazraka(h)*,

iS&yaCiyanam, KdAyaCiya(h) harsaiy*, K8aya€iya(h)^hyunam*, "VistaspahyA
pati*a(h)*,

Arsamahyu* naptV^, HalJamaDisiya(h)**.

*

adam
;

pron.

1 bt pers.

*

1

'

(Aw

* vazruka-,

adj.

'

great/ Mod. P.

atem)

ace.

mdm (Aw.
enclit.

mdlw), yathd

buzurg

*

;

nom.

sg. -a(A).

mdm
desire

kdma{K)

dha(h\
mayid

'as

my
a

was/
'

me

not;

gen.

mdtyamdm *that (Aw. mana.

Pdrsa^, m. (1) * Persian '(adj.), Persian (subst.) 2, * Persia.*
'

sg.

nom.

-a(A), ace. -am,

loc. -aiy

;

Mod. Pers. man)^ enclit. maiy (Aw. me)^ e.g. A(h)uramazddmaiy, utdmaiy,
dative
;

Med, P. Fdrsi *Parsi-Zoroastrian'
(the inhabitants of Persia also called

dahydukmaiy,

also

for

the

themselves /r^Tii^^w 'Aryans').
*

ablat. enclit. -ma(h) in hacd*
;

dahyu-, sb.

f.

'

region, province,

ma(h)

from me* (Aw. -mat) plur. nom. vayam we * (Aw. vaem) ; gen amdkham (Aw. ahmdkem, Mod. P.
*

country/
*

Aw. dahyuy Mod.
'

P. dih

village

(Pahlv. deh),

Sg.

nom.

'dush

(cp.

Aw.
ace.

uzbdzdushf G&th.

md.)

-

hithdush),

-dum
;

(of.

Aw.
ace,

Ddrayava{K)u-,
gen.

m.,

sg.
*

nom.

nasdurn)^ loc.

-auvd

pi.

nom.

a (h)ush,

-a (^h)aush

Darius '

-dva(h)y gen. -undnij \oc,-u8huvd.
'

Lindner's explanation of this name,
published
•holding,

YiBhtdspa- m., sg. nom. -a(h),

twenty-one
possessing

years

ago

ace. -am, gen.

-ahya; name of King
(A.w.

goods/
been

Aw.

Darius*

father

Ytshtaspa,

Ddrayaivohu

— has

recently

Mod.
'

Pers. Gushtasp).
sb,

confirmed by an Aramaic-Egyptian

puira-j

m.

*son/

Aw.

papyrns in the Strassburg Library,
dated the 14th year of

puihrat Mod. V.pusar; nom. Pg.-a(A)

King Darius,
with
of

Arshdma-, m.,

sg.

nom. -a(A),

where

the

word

is distinctly

gen. -ahyd;

name

of the grandfather

h

written.

King Darius.

Khthayathiya-y

sb. m., sg.

nom

napdt', sh. m., sg.

nom.

(Aw.

-a(^), gen. -ahyd^ plur.

nom.

ace. -a,

napdo) 'grandson'; Mod. P. navada,
etc.
**

gen. -dndm ; 'king,' Mod. P. thdh KhshdyathiyaQi) KhsMyaihiydndm 'the King of Kings/ Mod. P.

Halehdmanishiya-,
pi.

adj.,

sg.

nom. -aA;
menidae,'

nom. ^; 'Ihe Achai-

ihdhanshdA

.

THE OLD PERSIAN IKSCHiPTlONS AT BKHISTAN,

COL.

I,

2-3.

233

Dirajava(h)u3 lE8fiyACiya(h): Manfi pita* Vi8ta8pa(h) Tafcly^ 2. Vistaapahya pita Ar8ama(h), Arsamahya pita Ariyaranma(h)*, Ariyaramnahya pita [Caispii,] Gaisp&is* pit^ Haiamania.
S8ayaCiya(h) Darayava(h)u8 3. Tatiy Avahyaradiy* vayam HaKamaniaiya fahyamahy, haca pruviyata(h)' amata(h)' amahy*, haca pruviyata(h) hya amaCam tanma" KsayaCiya aha(n).
:

*

thah verb

*

to say. apeak,'

Aw.
thou
*

inally part.

prct.

from

rt.

md and
*

a.

rt.

sahh. Pre«?. conj
say,' indie.

thdhy
'

*

1,

aA
'

*

to be,'

with genet.

be-

may est

th6tiy

be sajs

long to

(khshatram amdkham iauvi*

(botb being contracted from th-ihuhy,'
thahatiy)
;

dyd
amiy

dhaiji)

the kingdom was 'bePres.
ind.

imperf.

athaham
said,'

*

1 said,'

longing to our family').
*

athaha(h)
'

he

athaha(n)
thahyd"
(with active

I

am
'

'

(Aw. ahmi, Mod. P.
'

they
"

said.* Passiv.

pres.

-am)
astiy

;

ahy
he

mahy

we are

called'

ending), aorist. athahy
(or perhaps

'it

was aaid*

amahy

thou art (Aw. ahi) ; (Aw. atti, Mod. P. ast) ; we are' (Aw. mahi) j ha{ny
is
'

athahya{h) imperf, with

iiy 'they are'

(Aw.
'

Aenii, Mod. P. ami);

active ending). Inf. thastanaiy.
*

conj. ahatiy

he

may

be' (Aw. Gath.

pilar
t

sb.

m.

'father,'

Aw.

aiihaitt)

;

imperf.
;

indie,

dham
*

*

I

pilar Mod. P. pidar ; nom.
'

Bg. -d,

was

'

(Skr. dsam)
*

dha^h)
'

he was';
dsari)
;

dha(n)

they

were
*

Skr.

Ariydrdmna- m.,
i

sg.

nom.-a(A),

middle dha{n)td

they were.'

gen. -aAya;
father
of

name of the great-grandKing Darius ( making
m.,

taumd;

sb.

f.

perhaps tau(Ji)md^
P. tukhm; 'race,

happy the Aryans').
* Caishpi'f

Aw. taokhman, Mod.
family,*

nom.sg.
*

a: ydvd taumd

gen.

sg.

-dithf

ahatiy

as long as race (i>.
(t.f.,
*

man-

Teispea. (son of Aehaemencs).
*

kind)

is

exists),'

uidtaiy

ara-,demon9tr. pron.

*

that,'

Aw.

t.

md

biyd{JC)

thou
gen.

mayest not
•oy<l

Mod. P. o. Sing. ace. avam, gen. avahydf com p. avahyarddiy ; pi. nom.
ava.
ace. avaiy^ gen. avaifhdm
;

have
'iiydo,

posterity';

(Aw.
t,

Skr. .<i>7);

VIII.

mand

neut. sing
*

*the eighth of

my

family,' A'(i(fi)&f«ji-

ara(h),

(Aw.

aval),

ava-pard

by,

ya{Ji)

past that' ('he went past that');
in

rddthis

K. of our family/ khshatram amdkham t, dha(h) * the
/. *

amdkluim

avahyarddiy
;

(loc. ag.)

'

for

kingdom belonged

to
*

our

family,*

reason' (adverb)
*

M<xl.P. -rd{hardy),

amdkham
f.,*

t,

kashciy

any one of oar

pruvijiata{h) adverb, with
t^mea,'

hacd
't4ih,

KhBhathrita{h)

(ir)uvakhshm4ra'

from early

from

adj. pruvi"

ya.

Aw.

pourpjfa with
*

suffix

hydt. 'Kb. of H'sf.'; M.-4yd{h) (Aw. -aydt) : khshatram fya{h) hacd

comp. Aw. hvat6
7 dfudta-^ a<lj.
*

by himself,'
proved,
P.
fit,*

amdkham
nom. pi
dh0(h)
*

taumdyd{h)

pardbrfam

the kingdom that was taken
family.'

'i;

Aw. dmdta. Mod.

dmdda (ori^

away from our

;

284

FAUIi HOBN,
:

VIII inan& taumaya tyaiy* i'itiy Darayavt(h)u6 ]wayaCiya(h) 4. paruvam* kSayaCiya Hha(u), adam nayama(b) IX dayitatracam' vayam
isayafiya
5.

amahy.
Vasna* A(h)uramazdaha(h) A(h)urainazda Ksatram* mana frabara(h).'
:

Tatiy Darayava(h)uS lc8ayaCiya(h)

adam

k8ya6iya(h)

amiy

.

6.

tatiy

Darayava(h)u8

lc8ayatJi)a(h)

:

Im^' dahyava(h) tya manfi

^
*

tija-,

relat.

pron.

*

who' (m.,

f.)

*

bar

verb

'

bear,

carry,'

Aw.

what/ Skr.

tya-,

(nom. sg. sya),

bnt Aw, only

ya--^ also as article e.g,

Mod. P. baram; abaram avam (h)ubrtam
rt.

baFf

itnperf. act.
'

I

bore him
'

Gaumdta^h) hya(^h) magush, Gaumdtam tyam mag urn G., the MagiMase. sg. nom. hya{h\ ace. aii.'
*

well-supported,' abara{K)

upaatdm he

bore

aid,*

middle abara(n)td

mand

bdjim *they bore tribute to me'
with
imperf.
^atiy

tyam, plur.
patiy,

nom.
pi.

tyaiy^
;

ace.

tyaiy-

and

«,

*

bring back,*
'

gen. tyaishdin

fern. sg.

nom.
tyd
;

^atiydbaram

I

brought

hyd, ace.
neutr. sg.

tydm,

nom.

ace.

back';
with par^
'

nom.

ace.

tya{h),

pi. ace.

tyd, tydtlish, but also tyd-nd (^mand

bear away*

;

dpiahim
it

ddtd)
with
«tc.

*

whatever

my

laws
in

(were)'

paTdbara(h)
yatkd

'the

water bore

away,'

shortened d as

avadashim,

Gaumdta{h)

vitham
*

amdkham
aside)

naiy pardbaraQi),

tydm when
put
pret.

G. had not yet borne away
'

{i.e.,

paruvam
;

adverb

'

before,'

our
:

family

' ;

part
tya{h)

paruvamciy

Aw. pourva.
old,*

^ardbrta-

khshatraf/i

hied

amdkham taumdyd pardbrtam dhaQi)
"

duvitdtrnam adv. *of

cp.

Lat, diutumus

(W. Foy).

the kingdom that had been borne away from our race,' tya(h) pardbrtam * that which had been borne away';
*

*

vashna-,

sb.

m.

'

wish,

grace

';

with fra

'deliver,

hand

over,'

instr, sg. -a'

by the grace (of Ahuravasna,

im^eri.frdbarafhj
'he
'

mazda)
5
*

'

;

Aw.

handed over

to

mand hhshairam me the kingdom.*
'

ma-jdemonstr. pron.

this,'

Aw.

khshtra-,

sb.
;

n.

nom.

ace.

sg.

rule,

kingdom'

Aw.

khshathra,

ma,Mod.P. m. imam (Aw. imem)^
imam)
;

im-shab, im-roz, sing. ace.
f.

imdm (Aw.
imaiy
;

Mod.

P. shahr 'country' (older),' city.'
sg. -a
rt.

plur.

kJishatrapdvan-, sb. m., nom.

'satrap'; iiom khehutra and
*

pd

(Aw. nom.

iine)t f.

nom. ace. m. imd (Aw. imdo)

neutr.
ace.

sg.

ima(Ji),

(Aw

.imaf),

protoct.'

plur. imd^

;

;

' ;

THE OLD PERSIAK INSCRIPTIDKB AT BEHISTAN, COL.
patiy&i8a(n)*,

I,

4-6.

295
:

Parsah,

(H)uvja(h)»,

vasna A(h)aramazdalia(b) adamsAm* IcBayaCiyaOi) abam Babiras*, ACuraV ArabAya(h)*, Mudraya(b)', tjaiy
Mada(h)»*',

dimyahyi,

Sparda(hy, Yauna',

Armina(h)", Katpatnka(h)",

Par€ava(h)^», Zara(n)ka(h)^\

* I

verb

*go,'

Aw. rt. i,Mod.P. dy-am
d).

it

'

(pleonastically)
in

;

plur.

gen.

(with

prefix

Pres.

indie,

aitii/

shdm

adam-slidm,

avathd-thdnty

*he goes*

(Aw.

aet'H) sigmatic

aorist

avam-shdm,
yathd-shdm,
*

utd-iham,

tya-9hdm,

dith *he went' disha^n) *tbey went'

hya-shdm,
*

witb
dish
*

atit/

'

pass by, go past/
'
;

at%i/»

{Hyuvja-, m.
;

Susiana,'

Mod. P.

he passed by

Chuttstdn
follow,*
:

sg.noui. -a(4), ace. -«m,

with

apariy

*

go behind,

loc. -aiy.
*

3rd

plur.

imperf.

a par%y-dya{n)

ima
ap*

dahydvaQi) tyand mand ddtd
these

Bdhiru-y sg. nom. -w»A, ace. -tim

countries

followed
to

law8,'i.tf.,

'they submitted
reads

my my
and

gen. (abl.) -aw«A, loc. -auv; 'Babylon.'
*

Athurd-,

f.,

sg.

nom.

-o, loc. -ay tfv

laws'

(Bartholoma?
*

a(h)apa'

'Assyria.'
*
'

riydyain)

they

respected'

Arabdya-,

m.,

sg.

nom. -o(A)

compares Skr. saparydtt), perhaps
Hpariydya{n) should be read
;

Arabia.'
'

with upariy^ upariy ahashtdm upa-

Mudrdya-,
*

ra.,

sg,

nom. -a(A),

riy-dyam
f .#.,
'

*

I

went upon the

law,'
'

ace. -COT,

Egypt' (Hebr. Mi^rayim).

I

acted
w'y,

according to the law

Spanda-y m., sg. nom. -a(A)*Lydia'
(cp. Sardes, the capital
*

niy^dyam (corrected from wjdyam) I went away, marchwith
'

of Lydia).

YaMwa-,

m.

*

the

Ionian*;

ed

off

'

;

with patiyy patiy'dieha{n)
'they

mand
I

plur.

nom.

-d.

came to me,'

/.<.,

'they became

"
adj.
'
1

3fdda^,
;

m

;

Mod. P. Mdh (1)

subject to

me

*

with /HirOf imperL paniya^h)

*

he

'Median' (2) subst. 'the Median '; (3) Media ; §g. nom. -«(A), ace. -am,
lor.-aty,pl.instr.-at7>i9A« loc.

marched away
*

'

;

imperative ^Mira-irfiy
idhf)t

aUhvvd,

go,

marob out' (Aw.
;

plur

" Armina'y
*•
*

m.,

sg. nom., -«f(A),

para'ftd
plur. -d,

part. pret. para-ita-^

Bom

ace, -am, loc. -a»y, 'Armenia.'

Katpatuka-t m., sg. nom.

-a{hi)

-

«Aa enchtic prououii

'

h«\

Cappadocia.'
*•

it

(Aw. th« MBie, Mod. P. -a$h) ag. gen. dat. -fAaiy (Aw. -thi) ia adawu^hoiy,
;

Parthara-t m., ig. noBL

^A)

Parthia';
'

Mod.

P. pahl4»t>

•hero'

ooaM^haiy,
pmlh>« thmiy
atMukh$ha(h)
;

utd^thaiy,

ty^U-ihady^

(originally
'*

Parthian').

abUt. '$ha{h) in
*

had

Z«ra(n)l»a-, or Zra(m)ha',
;
*

m.

from

ikerr,

away from

sg.nom. '«(A)

Drangii

; '

2W

PAUL -HOBN,

Haraiva(h)», (H)uvarazmiya(h)»,B&K<ri8%Sngnda(h)*,Ga(n)d«ra(h)»,Saka(li)*,
tatagus', Hara(h)uvati8», Maka(h)»
7.
;

fraharvam*° dahyava(h) XXIII.

i&tij Darayava(h)u8 K8ayaCiya(h)
abara(n)fca

patiyai8a(n) vasna A(h)urainazdaha(h)

Ima dahyava(h), ty& mana mana bad(n)aka" ahB(n)ta, mana
:

bajim**

tyasam,

hacama(h)

aCahy

kSapava*"

raucapativa**

avb}^ akanavaya(n)ta.**
*
*

Haraiva-y
'

m.,

sg.

-aQi),

tivd

as

avadashiMy

tyand
pron.

with

Herat
'

(Mod. P. Uarf),
sg.

shortened a),

instr.-flftia^.

Euvdrazmit/a-, m.,
*

nom.

^*

ara-,

demonstr.

'that,'

-o(A), Chorasmia Aw. Hvdirizdoy Mod. P. Khvdrazam.
;'

Aw. ara-, Mod. P. d ;
gen. avahydy
plur.

sing. ace. avarriy

comp.

avahyarddiy

'

JSdkhM-,
*

f.,
;

sg.

nom.

-tsh^

loc.

nom.
*

ace.

am/^, gen. avaishdm;
ava(K)y

-tyd

Bactria'

Aw.

Bdkhdht, Mod.

neutr. sg.

ace.

(Aw.
('

apa<),

P. Balhh,
*

avapard
*Sog-

by, past that,'

he went

past that').

Suguda-, m., sg. -a(^)

diana';
"

Aw. SugJidka, M-od.?. Sogkd,
of a country

Ga(n)ddra', m., nom. sg. -a(A).
near the Indus,

*• kaJ'y verb make ' (Aw. rt. Jear, Mod.P. kardan)y pres. conj. Icunavdhyy whatever thou mayest do (Aw.
*

'

Name

*

kerenavdhi)] imper&t, kunautuv (Skr.

Greek GandarUis or GandankS,
Saka-f
m.,
sg.

hrnotu)
;

*

he shall do
*

';

imperf .

act.
*

nom,

-a(A)

akunavam
aorist),

I made,*

akunaush
they

he

Scythia';
*

Mod. P.
m.,

Sagistdn.

made' (with
-u8h

sh from
*

the sigmatic

Thatagu-,

nom.
f.,
*

sg.

akunava{n)

made

*

Sattagydia/
• 'H.ara(h')uvatt",

nom.

sg. -tsA,

(Aw. kerendun)y middle akunavatd avam mathishtam they made him
*

ace. -tm, loc. -ty^,

Arachosiaf Aw.

chief,'

alcunavaya(n)td
;

(causative),

Harahvatti.

*they did'
sg.

aorist act., alcumd *we

Maka-i m.,

nom.

-a(^)

;

made,* middle akutd {li)uvdi-pashi-

the country of Makran.
*•

yam
( Skr.

*he

made
)
;

self-government'
part,
pret.
Jcrta-

iraharvamy adverb 'altogether';
*

dkrta

op. Iiaruva

all.'

Aw.
;

havrva.
*

•made, done' (Aw. ^er^fa), neutr. sg.

"
nom.

ha{n)ddka'j sb. m.
sg.

servant,'
-fl(A), pi.

-am

;

inf.

cartanaiy (with c instead
*

Mod. P. bandah
-a (or

nom.

of ky as

Aw. cahyd
perf .
optat.

whose ?

*

near

fem.
'

adj.

*they were

kahyd)
kasheiy

;

cahhriyd(h) ;

subject to

me

).

hya(k)

avam

khshatram

** bdji', sb. f., ace. sg.-

im,

*

tri-

ditam cakhriyd{h)

'somebody who
imperat.
pass.

bute,'

Mod.

Pers. 6dz,
f.,
*

would have made him deprived of the
hhshapa-

*• Jchshap-y sb.

ace. pi.

kingdom'

;

with

a,

vd raueapativd

during nights or

dkariya(n)tdm
with party

days/

Aw.
ikah.

khihap or lehshapan;

uzmaydpatiy * they shall be empaled' (Skr. kriydntdm);
*

Mod. P.
*

guard' (Skr.

adorn,

** raucah-, sb. n. * day,' Aw. raocahlight,*

prepare'), pres. conj. (Ist class)

pan*

Mod. P.

tSb 'day*

;

eg.

nom.
^

rattca(A), plur. ace. rauca-pativd

or

thou mayest guard them,' parikard the
parikardh(i)dtth

kardhy

or

during days* (instead of raucdpa-

stmt

(cp.

Aw. hardhi and paydo).

;

; ,

THE OLD PERSIAN INSCRU'TIoNS AT BEHISTAN, COL.
8.

I,

§§ 7-9. 237

Tatiy
*

Darayav(h)us
daiistii*

Ksaya€iya(h)
{ilia(h)

:

A(u)tar*

ima dahyava(h)
abaratu,

iimrtiya(h)*

liya(h)

avam (h)ubrtam
apariyaya(n)
;

hya(h)

araika(h)

aha(h)

avam

(h)ufi*a8tam^ aprsam.

Vasna A(h)ai'aiuazdaha(h)
yaCasam'
hacaina(h)

ima dahyavji(h) tyana maua data"
aCahy, avatia^ akunavaya(ii)ta.

A(h)uramazda mana ksatram npastam" abai'a(h), yata*** ima(h) Ksatram A(h)ui*amzdamaiy t'rabjira(h), Vasna A(h)uramazdaha(h) ima(h) k8ati*am darayamiy. lulary.*^
9.

Tatiy Darayava(h)u8 K8ayat'iya(h)

:

^

a{n)tar

prcpos.

with
P.

acciis.

''

yuthd.

Aw. yatha (1) adverb
'

*

within,'

Aw.

antarct

Mod.
'

andar

•as,'

a{i{)tar imti ilahjdva{Ji) 'within these
countries,' a{n)tur
fortress,'
*

Conj.

yathd—acathd as— so.' (2) {a) when with indir. preter,
* '

a{n)tar

diddm imd

within ihe

(b) 'because,*

yuthd naiy arai{a(h)
adverb

hamarand

dhair^
'

'

because I was not hostile.*
*

within these battles/
'

acathd

thus *

;

Aw.
-dm

martiya-^ sb. m.
;

*

man,*

Mod. P.

acatha.

*

inard

8g. noui. -a(/t), ace. -am, plur.
-d, instr. -aibish.
in.
'

upasid',
' ;

sb.

f.

sg.

ace.

nom. ace.
^

help

Aw.

upattd.
(1)
'

"
Mod.
with
*

ydtd
indie,

conj.

when,

while,

daushtar, sb.

friend,'

preter.

P. dosidr; sg. nom.-d; A{Ji)uramazdd
tuvdni d, biydiji)
to thee,' avaiy
*

ydtd acdjanam

A. may be

friend

md

when dham
(2)
'

I killed.'

'while
'

I

ydtd mlam Bdbirauc was in Babylon.*
preter.,
*

d, (sc. bii/d) *to

him be not a
tar.
*
*

friend.'

Aw. zaoshanom. m.

until

with indie,

ydtd

ima{lt)

hhahatram Oildry
held,'

until this

kingdom was
arada-,
j'

ydtd adam arasatn ydtd

adj., sg.

-a{J^)

'until
*

I

arrived,'

hostile

Aw. araeka

acdstdyam
«

(epithet

of
'

until 1 put in its place.'

//«

ndt(7

the ant, not clear),

Mod.P. rc(/h

'hatv,'

'enmity,'

Also ariLa may bo read
'enemy.'

as long

until.*
'

Skr.
*

an

" dar verb hold,' Aw. it. Uai Mod. P. ddram, ddshtan ; (1) hold,
*

par$ verb.
*

Aw.

ft.

peres, !Mod. P.
i.c,
*

possess,' ima(fi) khshatrum
'

darayamiy

]>ur«idan,
ini|>erf.
'

inquire,'

punish,'

I hold this

kingdom.' kdru{h) Tig"

I

aprtam ptinished him
*thou

avam

{h)tt/ntstxini
'

severely,' conj. pre8.

rdm addraya{li) the army held tho Tigris,' acadd addraya(h) there he
*

/trsd

mayobt
'

punish,'

avat'i/
I

held,'

(f.t.,

he held that city as
;

the

nhifraithtddiy prad
i-apital

punish them with

king's

ofiicor)
*

aor. past.

batta{h)

punishment.*

addriy

ho was

held boond,' yiid

with/xi^'jf 'read (an inHjripiiou),'

ima(h)

L'hthali'am

addry
(/.r.,

*

until ihis

fonj. pros, jtati
read,'

pmdhy thou mmyest iMtiprtdtiy he may read.'
*
*

kingdom was hold
(2)
*

occupiod).'

stand ground,*
"

oiiakaiy

naiy

* ddta-t sb. n.

*

law,*

Aw.
-d.

ddtu.

addrayaiji)

at that timo hfi did not

Mod.

P.

ddd ;

plur.

nom.

stand his ground.*

,;

238
10.

PAUL HORN*
Tatiy Darayava(h)us

pasava(h) ya£a l£8ayat'iya(h)
l)iiti'a(h),

amakarn avahya Ka(ii)buji}ahya brata® Bardiya(h)' nama(n) aha(b). bainata^ hamapita" Ka(n)bujiyahya, pasava(h) Ka(ii)bujiya(li) avam Bardiyain avaja(n).*° YaCa Ka(n)bujiya(b) Bardiyam avaja(n), kai*abya*^ uaiy azda^*'
abava(b) tya(b) Bardiya(b) avajata(h).

k8aya%a(h) Ima(h) tya(h) manfi krtam, abavam/ Ka(n)bujiya(li)* nama(u)^ Kuraus* taumayA, bauv paruvam ida'^ k8ayaiiiya(h) Aha(h)
:

Pasava(b) Ka(n)bajiya(li) Mudra-

yam^^
*

a8iyava(b).^*

YaCa

Ka(n)bajiya(h)
"
*

Mudrayam

asiyava(li),

bii

verb

'

be,

Atf,

Mod.

P. biijdan

become/ Aw. rt. imperl". abavam ;
*

hamajHtar-, adj.,

sg.
'

num. -d
(Aw. hama

liaving the

same

fatlier

kh8huyathiya{h)

I became

king,'

*the same').
^**

abaca(k)
*

'

he was, became,' abava{n)
'
;

jan

verb.

*

smite, put to tiight,'

they were, became btyd{h) 'may he be.'
^

pres. optat.

Aw. jan, Mod.
jaidJii), -phxv.

P. zanam^ zadan.

Pres. imperat. jadiy
m.,
sg. -d{k),

'smite'

(Aw.

Ka(ii)bujiya-,
ace.
'

num.
gen.

jaid 'smite'; imperf.

-a{h\
-ahyd,
"

-«w,

abl.

Cambyses.'
sb.
ii,,

ajanam

*

I smote'; aja(n) 'he smote";
'kill'

ndman-,

'uame,'

Aw.

with ava
impef.

(also
*

Aw. and Pahlv.)
killed,' avdja{ii)

ndmauy Mod. P. ndm. The two forms we meet with are ndma and ndmd,
which occur only after proper names
in

avdjanam I

'he WMq^,' wvdjanain) *they killed';
part. pret. ava-jataavajata(Ji)
^^
*
:

tyahBardiya(h)

the

meaning

'

ndma

with masc.

N. N. by name,' and neutr., ndmd

that B. (was) killed.'
sb.

Mra-i
-am,

m.,

nom.
-a,

sg.

-a(hj,

with feminines.
ace. ndma{^ii).

Ndma probably is the Ndmd with feminines
new formation
frequently
of

ace. 1
'

instr.

gen.

-ahyd.

army,' 2 'people,' comp.
*

Mod. P.
held

may

be an old Persian

kdri

warrior,' hdr-zdr

'

battle,

on the
*

model
m.,

the

of battle.'

occumng
'Cyrus.'
is

d- stems,

naiy adverb
gen.
sg.

'

not

'

;

Aw.
-d
*

noit,

Kuril-,

-aush

Mod.
^^

Pers. nah or nai.
f.,

The length of the firs« u proved by the Greek Kyros.
^ °

azdd-, sb.

sg.

nom.

know-

ledge,'

kdrahyd naiy azdd abava{Ji)t
' ;

idd adverb
Brdtar,
;

'

here

'

;

Aw.

idha.
sg.

the army had no knowledge

Aw.

sb.

m.

'

brother';

azddi Pahlv. azd.
^^

nom. d Aw.
'

brdtar,

Mod. P.
-am
*

birddar.

Madrdya-, m.,
verb
*

sg.

nom.

-«(/*)

Bardiya-

(perhaps
-a(h), ace,

Brdiya-),
*

ucc. -tfm,

'Egypt' (Hebr. Miyrayim).
go,' set out,'

m., sg.
dis'
;

nom.
cp.

Smerrt.

^* ahiyu-y

Aw.

Aw.

barezah

height,'

sku, shavaite 'go,'
'

Mod.P. shudan,
ashnjavafji)
' '

Mod. P.
^

bald.
adj.,
sg.

shavam

go, be

'

;

imperf. ashiyavam

hamdtar.,

nom.

-d

'

I went,

marched,*

he

'having the same mother' (instead
of

went, marched,' went, marched.'

ashiyava(n)

they

Jiamamdtd),

'

THE OLD PERSIAN INSC'KIPTIOXS AT HEHIST VN.COI..

I,

§§

KM

1

.

230

ljas«va(h) kara(h) ai-aika(h) ahava(li), pasuvaCb) clranpfa(h)^

dahyauva

vasiy'

abava(h), utA Parsaiy uta Madaiy
11.

utfi

aniya(h)uva' dahyusnva.
:

TiiCiy Darayava(l»)a8 Ic8aya6iya(li)

PasHva(li) I raartiya(h)

Magns^

aha(h) Gaaraata(h)' nania(n).

Hauv

ndapat<ata" haca Paisiya(h)avadaya,'

Arakadris'

iiama(ii)

kaufa(h)®
r»lia(h)

haca avada8a(li),^" Viyakiiahya**
yadiy^'

XIV
*

i-aucabis

£akatjV'

ndapatata.

mihya Hanv karahya avafa
enclitic

drauga-,

sb.

m.,

'

lie,'
;

Aw.
nom.

a

following
is

pronoun the
from

draoghat

Mod. P.

(hirogh

sj;.

d

shortened, e.g. avadashim^ ava^

-a(h\
*
'

abl. -^(70.
'

dashishf
uiucIj,' originally
/>a.v.

hacd

avada8ha(^h)

^

vanig adverb

there

'

(see f<ha-).

according to wish/ Mod. P.
^

^^
J

V//ff/7*y/tf-,

m., 8g. gen,

-ahtfu.

aniifa-

prou.

'

another

'

'enemy'), kw.ani'a; aniya
'

the one

— the
;

— aniya
m.
i.

(not

Name

of a Persian
'

month, (accordinir

to .lusti

without

ice,*

other.*

Sing. nom.
*'

Mod.P.

y/i /•//).

-'/(A),

ace.

-aw,

gen. -ahyd^ neulr.

uniyash-c'tf
-d, loc.
r.

plur.

nom.

ace.

thahatd,

a

nmch
:

discussed
in

-n{K)Hrd.
'

word.
lowing
;

It occurs always

the

fol-

("onstruction

Name

of

u

*

>g.
*

the Magian' Magu-f sb. m. nom. -nsli, ace. -nm; Mod. P.

month mdhyd

in genitive, e.g.,

riifakhmihyo
rnucubish
etc.

x

(a

nunu'ral)

Jf»«/A,
'

Mobad

'

(Pahlv.
sg.

Magopat).

thahatd

dltni^li)

yadit/ or avathd,
is
*

Gaumdttt-y m.,

nom.

-o(Ji),

The meaning evidently
such and
when';
sucii

it wa.«<

on

iicc,

-am; name

••f

fix*

false

Smerdis

a day of such a month,
construction
is

('cow.ex|iert').
" y/fl/.

but the
Literally

less

verb

'

to
:

fall,'

Aw.

/m(^

clear.

we

may

translate

Mod. P. u-J}-ddan
*

middle with ud
ud-(ipatatu
prefix
*
*

with X days of the m<Mith y, in the
it

revolt,'
* ;

imperf.
ttd

he

course (of time or the month)
when.*

was,
the

revolted

verbal
j^at.

ont

Then thakatd would
a subst.
f.
*

l)e

(8kr. ud) with
'

loc. sg. of

thakati-

Uhe
of
of a

eourflo

(* cp.

Aw.
the

rt,

«ao

'

to pa»s*),

PaiAh'nd(Ji)urddd-,
geu.
'dtf a
:

f.,

sg.

ace,

and vanfohinh
duratitin of time.

instrumeDtal

Sm,
'

name

of

a city or

If the tirst

day

region.

month
--i^.

is
*

meant, wo find in the text

Arkodn-,

tnMii.

/Mfi

:

name

iati/oa{k)

one day was

in the courRo.*

of a mountain.
* haufip-, 8b.
*

m.,

ng.

nom.

-ai/t)
l:6h.

mountain'
*•

;

Aw.

kaofa^

Mo<LP.

^^ \(i*hif con j.. Aw. yit'i (1) *K' always with a following conjunctive
;

:

avadd,

adverb (Aw.
'thither')

tufodha)
;

(2)

*

when.

'

dha(h)

y^'/i.v

ndnpatmA

'there'

(never

before

it

was wh«n he

roi»c up.*

;

1>40

VAUL HORN,
:

adnrujiya^h)'
yahyji brata.

adam Bardiya(h) amiy hya(h) Kuraus
PasriVa(h) kara(h) Imrava(h)*

putra(h), Ka(u)buji-

haraitriya(h)' abava(h), Iihch

Ka(n)bajiya(h) abiy* avarn a8iyava(n), uta Parsa(h) uta Mada(h) uta aniyu dahyava(h), ksatram liauv agrbayata,^ Garinapadahya" raahya IX raucabis
fakata aha(h) avaCa ksatram agrbayata.

Pasava(h) Ka(n)bujiya(h) (h)uva-

mrsiyus' amriyata*.
12.

raata(h)
^

Aita(h)^ ksatram tya GauTafciy Darayava(li)us k8ayat'iya(h) liyaMa^ns adinsV^ Ka(n)bnjiyam, aita(h) ksatram liacapruviyata(h)
:

diinij

verb

'lie,

tell
:

a

lie,'

Aw.

agrbayata
C'p.

'

Fravartisli
i.

was

seized.'

firitj,

Pahlv. di'iLJUan

impcrf. adn~

Aw.

f/eurvdi'n,
'

e.,

^gereivdyen,

rujiya{h) avnthd Ldrahi/ii or kdram.
*

Skr. grbhdydti
"

he

seizes.'
ni.,

he belied the people thus,' aduru-

Garmapada-,
of a

gen, sg. -hyd.
('

jii/a8ha(n)

kdram
neutr.
'

*

they

belied
'

the
not

Name
'

Persian month
adj.,

having
sg.

people

'

;

part. pret.

duridhta-

hot traces').
huvdnirshiyu-,

true, false,'

hashiyam
not
false,'
lie.'

naiy
with

nom.

-ush,

dnriikhtam
rt.
^

true,

'committing suicide' (Aw. hvd*

merethyu).
^ mar verb die,' Aw. rt. mar. Mod. P. mnrdan imperf. (pass.)
;

man

'

to reg ard as a
adj.,
*

harvva-

whole,

entire,'

lcdra(Ji)

haruva{h)

Hhe whole
har.

army.'

amriyatd
'hither,

*

he

died.'

a

nominal

Aw. haurva, Mod. P.
* hamitriya-fSkd.],

unto,

in'

(t\<7.,

dyadana,
rt.

rebellious,' masc.

dtmhana) or verbal prefix (with
kar^
d,
rt.

sg.nora.-a(A),acc.-a?«,plur.noni.instr.
-aibi'shf

yas), also ava a, patty d\
etc.)

Aw
*

fem. plur. nom.acc.-a, /la'away

(Mod. Persian dmadan.,
"

from' and mztra{A\v.m{thra 'contract').
* abty, prepos.

atta(^h)f

demonstr. pron. neutr'

with accusative

(Aw.

'this,'

aita(h)

khshatram

this

aiwi,

Mod. P.

pref . af-rolclitan, etc.)
'

kingdom', A\7.aetat.
^° di
2i (zyd)^

1, * to, towards' with rt. shiyu
to,' rt.

go over
rt.."^hiyu

verb *to take away,'
Pahlv. ainttan
(a

Aw.

rt.

nt 'lead
'

to,' rt.
'

ish

and fra
and fra

Median

'send
'

to'; 2,

against
rt.

with
?sh

form or only an Awestan
tion) ; imperf. act.

transerijt-

march

against,'
;
'

adinam khshatram-

'

send against
'I

ashnaiy dham ahiy
on
the march

shm

'

I took the

kingdom from
*

him,'

{^ir)uvjam

was

khshatram adind(h)

lie

seized the

against or towards Susiana.*
®

kingdom,' admd(h) Ka(jn)bvjtyam ntd

garh verb
gerew,

*

seize,

grasp,'

Aw.

rt.

Mod. P.

giriftan. Imperf.
'

Fdrsam utd Mddam lie took from Cambyses both Persia and Media,'
'

indie, act,

agrhdyam
seized,'

I seized

(Baby-

tyddhh adind{]i)
away from them
'

'

which he had taken
(cp.

lon and tliat Nadiiitabaira),' agrhdya(Ji) *he

agrhuya{n) 'they
'

pros.) ;part.preter. dita-,

Aw. zindt conj. avam khshat'

seized '
(for

;

middle agrbayata
;

he seized

ram

dt'tam cakhriyd(Ji)

he would have

himself)'

pass.

Fravartitih

made him deprived

of the

kingdom.'

THE OLD PERSfAN 1XSCUTPTH>NS AT
umitkani taumaiya
aha(h).

RKIIISTAN, C<»L.

I,

JJiJ

1 1^-

1

O.

1'

ll

Pasava(h) Gauraata(h) hja(h) Magus adinu
uta

Ka(n)bujiyam, uta

Paream

Madam

uta

aniya

dahyava(h), hauv*

ayasatj? (h)uvaipasiyam' akuta, liaav K6ayatiiya(h) abava(h).

13.

Tatiy Darayava(l»)n8 i8iiyatiiya(h)

:

Naiy aha(h) martiya(h)* naiy

Par8a(b) naiy Mada(h) naiy amalcam taumayii kasciy,* hya(h)

avam Ganmaadana(h).*

tam tyam
atrsa(h)
;

Magam

ksatram ditani calh'iya(h)

;

karasim haca darsam*

'

karam vasiy avajaniya(h) hya(h) paranam' Bardiyam

Avahyaradiy karam avajaniya(h) matyamam*'^ ksnasatiy" tya(h) adam naiy

*

hauv pron. pers, masc. and fem. that (Aw. hdu) fern, hauvmaiy
*
' ;
'

hya{h)
in

*

any one who'

;

cnclit. -kaiy

adakaiy

(q, r.), likewise

tuvam hd
'

hashitiyd abava(h),

she (a land) be-

hya{Ji) *thon

who

(wilt be king)

came

rebellious to me.*

-haty and
"

Ld were

originally cases.
'

darsham adv.

strong' y,
'

very'

'

yaSf

verb

(inchoative

stem to
*

{atrsa^h)

'he feared
thyself.')
*

paf%^^aya(h)'

rt.

yam), Aw. the same with d
utd

seize

uvd 'protect
'

upon,' imperf. middle dyasatd: utd

tarSf

verb

fear,
;

Pdmam

'Aw.
*

rt.

Mddam

tars.

utd anitfd dah'

Mod. P,
'

tarn'idan

imperf. atrm{h)

ydra(h) haur dyaf^atd,

he seized uj)on

he feared,' atr8a(n)

they feared

*

both Persia and Media as well as the

(cp.
*

Aw.

terfsaiti),

*

avam kdram d he seized upon the army kdraiu <f • *he seized upon the troops.'
other provinces
'
;

,

.

paranam,

adverb
'

'

formerly

'

;

' ;

cp. Skr. ptirdnd

former.'
rt.

.

dd, (rather

dan.

*

(h')uvdipwthiya-,
ace.

sb.

n.

*

Mod. P.
s.'lf*

ddmm)
act.

verb

government *;
vereignty)
*

-am, aktitd
*

he
so-

imperf.

aildnd{h),

Aw. gan 'know/ (corap. Aw.
;

practised self-government
:

(r>.

Gath.

zdnntd)

'ho

know'

(had

cp.

Aw. hvaepaithya.
m. *man/ Mod. P.
plur.

known).
***

mdtya{h)
conj.

Ct)nj.

'

that not, least

';

viartiija; sb.

with
"

mard; 8g. nom. -a(h), ace. -am, nom. aec. -d^ instr.*ai^MA.
*
*

that ho

mdtyamdm khfhndsdtiy might not know me,'
maniydhy,
ihadaydtiy,

mdtya(k)

rikandky

mawydWy,
/.VI-,

originally
'

interrog.

pron.
P.

**

khshndn, verb 'know* (inchoative

who,
;

what ?
with

(Aw.
indef,

ka.

Mod.
'

stem); conj. pren,
ndtiy
*

mityamim hkshmi'
might not
ihindtam *1 know.'

hih)
any,*

dy

pron.

every,

that (the people) P.

KoKhciijy

fAw. Oath,

kas-cit)

know n)«,* Mod.

'

.

242
Bardiyu(li) araiy hya(h)

1»AT'L

HOUX,
Kasciy naiy'adranaus^
cisciy

Kumus

puti'a(li).

tyam Map;uTn, yata adam arasam.* Pasavapiy adam A(10ni-araazdrim patiyavaliaiy A(h)ui*amazdamaiy upastam abara(h). Bagayiidais* mahya X raucabis takata aha(li), ava€a adam hada" kamnaibis' martiyaibis avara Gaumatam tyam Magum avajanani uta tyaisaiy f rataiiia
Castanaiy pariy' Ganmatain,

martiya auusiya aba(n)tA. Sikaya(h)uvatis* iiama dida* Nisaya^^ uama dahyans Madaiy, avadasim^^ avajanara, ksatrarasim adam adinam. Vasna
A(h)ui*amazdaiba(h)
ranna frabara(h).
14.

adam

Ksayattya(h)

abavam

:

A(h)uramazdri ksatram

Tatiy Darayava(h)us ksaya6iya(hj
aba(li). ava(li)

:

tanmaya(h) ])arabrtam
*

adam

patipadam^'^ akunavam,

Ksatram tya(h)baca amakam adamsim
'

darsh,
;

verb

'

dare,'

Aw.

it.

'

hamiia-, adj.,

little,
;

few

'

(Aw.
jdur.

darsh

iniporf.
'

act.

adrshiau^h

hamna. Mod. P.
-aibish
;

Icam")
:

instr.

thastanm'y
*
*

he dared to say.
iiiterrog.

adverb -^im
'

ci'
'

originally
Gi
;

pron.

nam
^

dha{h),

the

hamarmy was small in
ldra{li)

who? Aw.
:

ciy 'anything

neutr. -^iy

neutr. ace. sg. chh(Mod. P. n^); onclit. kash-oiy (Aw. Gatha,
';

number.'
Sikaya(h)uvati-i
L, sg.
in

nom,
the

-ish;

name

of

a

fortress

lasoU')

naiy
'

af/rahnauflt

rhh-ciy
not dare

district of
'-'

NisAya.
f.

thaatanaiif

any one

did

d/dd', sb.

'fortress,' sg.

nom.
P.

to say anything,'

aniyasli-ciy (Skr.
-a, ace.
else,' paf^tiram-

'dm

;

not identical to

Mod.

iinydcfid)
ciy
^
'
'

'

something
also.'

diz,

dizh

'foitress,'

which rather
in jKiiiidaeza.

formerly

See also
with

citu.

belongs to

Aw. daeza
district in

party
'

prepos.

accusative

against

(Skr. pari) party

Gauma-

Nisdya-, m.
of

sg.,

nom.

-«(/a);

tam '(any one did not dare to say
anything) against G.'
* ras

name
^^

a

Media.
'he, it';

-shi- enclit.

pronoun

verb

'arrive,'

Mod. P.
Media')

sg.

ace.
sc.

'S/iim in

adam-shim (once
avadd-shim,

rasidan; imperf. arasam 'I arrived'

neut.

Ichshatram),

(^Mddam arasam
withy>a/Y/,

'

I wont to

dpishim (from dpish-shim), utd-shim,
;

'arrive,'
'

imperf.

para-

l-dra-shim, hhshatram-shim, pasdva-

rasam

Mddam

I

par{irnm{h) Arminam
Armenia,'
Vishtasp.'
•"'

came to Media,' he came to
'

shm, haruva-shim
avada-ahish
^^

;

pi. aco. -s/iish in

ahiy

Y>f<ht(hpam

*to

patipada-,

adj.
sg. ace.

*

being in

its

place'; neutr.
sg. gen.
-ai.'^h;

-am

Matram
it';

hdf/ayddi;

of a

Persian

month
*

('the

name month of

akunavam
in
its

*

I

put the kingdom (back)
*

place,' i.e.,

J restored

the worship of the gods').
"

patipadam may
witli instru-

also
sg.

be an adverb

hadd
'j

prepos.

with

'

patiy

and accus.

padam from

mental

Aw. had ha.

pad^ ^foot^ cp, nipadiy).

THE ULD PERSIAN INSCRIPTIONS AT
gaCavft^

151

IflSTW, COL.
avata

I,

§ 14.

248

avastayam,
tyji

'

ya^

paruvumciy

adam

akunavam.
tyadis

Ayadaiia'
kiirahya

Gaumata(h)

hya(li)

Magus

viyaka(ii)* udani iiiyatraravam^
vi€aibisca,'

abiicaris"

gait'amca,'

mauiyamca,*

Gaumata(h) hya(h)
Pai*samca

Magus
ula

adiuA(h).

Adam

kai-aui

Mudamca

auiya

dahyav'a(li),

yata

avastayam paruvamuiy avata
gatva

adam
*

tya(h) parabrtam patiyabaram, vasna A(b)ni'amazdi*iha(li) ima(h)

adam
tin*

akunavam.
fjdthavd

Adam hamataksaiy*^
* *

yatii

vitam^^ tyam aniakam ga6«va avaslii**

ydtfia-, bb. in.,

]»liicc'

j

luc, ^g.

ithdiurish

or

abictirifhy

avdtstiyam
*

1 put in (
std,
;

its )

reiuling being quite uncertain. Tliere

place'
*

are plenty
'

of

interpretations

(e.//.

gtd verb

stay,

Aw.

Mod.P.
imperf.
it

*

market-places,

commerce'

— Pahlv.
"),

Utddan
middle
(the

(older

^stddan)

vdcdr does

not allow a comparison

a{k)i8htatd

avadd 'there
'

withMod. P. hdzdr
none
'

— 'pasture-ground,
but
sg. ace
; '

army) stood*; with avd *put
I
its

resources, watt^'rworks, liberty
of

down'; imperf. ardstdyam gdthavd

them

is

convincing.
f .,

put in

place'; with niy 'comimperf.

(jaithu-j sb.,

-dm pos'

mand,

order,'

nit/ashtdyam

session, fortune, estate
^

Aw.

yucthd.

(with sht instead of nf) uzmayajmiii/

vidniija-,
;

sb.

n., sg.

ace.

*thc

dlantfu^nydni
*

'

I

ordered that they

house*
"

Mod. P. mdn
pron.
*

'liouse.'
'

shall be empaled.'

dyadana-, sb. n., jdace of worship (not temph''), pi. acc.-<l; from rt. yot/, Aw. yaz worship 'and
' '
* '

every (also contrast to rispa)'y plur. instr. rithaibish-cd 'and altogether' (IJartholomae).
vitha-t
all,

visa, a

^ledian form

in

prefix a.
*

han, verb

'dig/

Aw.

rt.

kan,

*

*° takhsh verb, Aw. be active,' Mod. P.
' ;

rt.

thicahhsh,
'

tnhh<M

en'

M<jd. Perij.Jba?i//a7?,— with ova:

ma dug down
Jcdratn

.

.

kd(^h)ui'd
1

adam avdhanam 'I

ergetical
witli

ham

'

endeavour, bo active
ham-aialchahait/

(i.*-.

divided)

my army
*A.

im|)erf.

middle

*1

in

two

i»arts (?);

with niy: avataiy

endeavoured,* ham-aiakhsfiald
vithiyd
of
'
'

mand
side

A{h)unimazdd
destroy
it

iiika(ii)tuv
vi*/

may
n',

he was active

on

the

to tliee;' with

nominal

my
**

family,'

ham-atakli8h'x{n)td

or verbal prefix, •asunder' (Aw.

they were active as
rilh,, sb.
ri**)
;

my

followers,'

^od.V. •In- had destroyed' (the
ndlnj

ffnd/iadht ait y etc.);

viyaka(^n)
pLices
of

f.,

'race, tribe, family'

(Aw.

^^, ace,

-am tydm anid'

worship), pres. conj. mdtya(h)

vt'ku-

hham 'our
kdra(h)
that

family', instr. vithd'jtaliy

*thon

mayest

not
'

destroy,'

hya(h)

dha(h)

the

army
the
of the

yadiy
*

vikaiidh{i)di><h

if

thou dos-

was at home
this

(there)',

i,e.,

troy€Bt them.*
trdri'y

army formed by the
verb
;

natives

(rodupHcated
'

province,

being a principle of
loc.

inltDsivo form)

with niy

restore/

king
active

DariaS;

n'tlnyd
r.
.
'

;

hya^h)

pret, niif^trdriiifam

I restored,*

comp.

ftamatahhthatd

mand

,

who was

Aw. niirdraydo 'thoushalt

restore'

on the

fiido of

my

family/

;

244
yam,
yniii

PAUL HORN.
paruvamciy
avatia

adani hamataksaiy, vasna A(h)uramazdaha(h)
tyani

ya€a Gaumata(h) hya(h)
15.

MagU8 vitam

amakam

naiy parabai-aCh).

Tatiy Darayava(h)as k8aya€iya(h): Ima(h) tya(h)

adam aknnavam,

pasava(h) yata K8aya6iya(h) abavam.
16.

Tatiy Dai*ayava(h)us l£saya£iya(h)

:

YaCa adam Gaumatam tyam

I Atriiia(h)^ Pasava(li) martiya(h) avajanam. nama(u), Upadara(n)maby{r puti'a(b), hauv udapatatfi (H)uvjaiy, karabya ava^a Adam (H)uvjaiy k8ayatiya(!i) amiy. Pasava(b) (H)uvjiy5i at'aba(b)
:

Magum

bamitriya
iiima(n),

abava(n),

abiy

avam Atrinam
I

aaiyava(u)

;

liauv

ksayatjiya(b)

abava(h) (H)avjaiy.

Uta

mavtiya(b) Babiruviya(b),^ Nadi(n)tabaira(b)*

bauv udapatata Babirauv, karam Nabukudracara(b)° amiy, bya(b) Nabunaitabya' Pasuva(h) kara(b) bya(b) Babiruviya(b) baruva(b) abiy avam pati-aCb). Nadi(n)tabaii'am asiyava(h), Babirus** bamitriya(b) abava(b) Ksatnim
Ainarabyu^
:

putra(h),

ava€a adui'a3iya(h)

Adam

;

tya(h) Babirauv hauv agrbayata.
17.

Tatiy

Dai*ayava(b)us

ksayatiya(h)
Atriiia(h)

:

Pasava(h)

adam (karam)

(H)uvjam. adamsim avajanam.
fraiaayam''
^

Hauv
-a(/0,
;

basta(h)^°

anayata^^ abiy mfim,

Airina-,

m.

sg.

nom.

^^cc.

^

JJdbii'u;

sg.

nom,
*aush,

-uah,
loc.

ace,

-am.

Name

of a

Susian rebel
is

not-

-Mm, gen.
'Babylon.'
^

(abl.)

-auv\

withstanding that the name
sian, it is

Per-

an abbreviation from Ata-

ish

(Aw. the same), causative
'

redada or the like with the suffix -ina.
*

stem with fra

to

send

'

;

imperl'.

Upadara(n)ina',

m.,

gen.

sg.

frdishayam
'

'1

sent,'

frdishaya(h)

-ahyd\ name of a Susian {Ukpdtar-

he
'*^

sent.'

ranma),
^

Bdbiruviya-, adj. (1)
;

'

Babylo;

ba(n)d verb

'bind,'
;

(Aw.

rt.

nical'

(2) 'the Babylonian*

nom.

band, Mod. P. ban dan)
basia-,

part. pret.

Bg. -aQi).
*

nom.

sg. -a(Ji), plnr. -a.

Nadi{n)iabaira',

m

,

sg.

nom.
rt.

^^

ni,

verb 'conduct, lead,'

Aw.
pass.
it

-«(A); ace. -am, gen.
tiibel'
*

-ahyd 'Nidinsg.

ni, Pahlv.

nUan.
led

Imperf. act.
(him),'

(a Babylonian).
-aliyd-^

anayaQi)
lather

'he

Ainara-, m., gen.
of
'

anayatd 'he was led'— perhaps

name
Babyl.
"

Nadintabaira's

Aniri:

would be better to read dnaya{h) and dnayatd (with prefix d) j
with
forward,*
'

Nabuhudracara-j m., sg.

nom.
Babyand a 'to bring 'patiy aniyahyd aspdpatiy-dnayam
other
horses,*

-a(h)

'Nebukadrezar*

(the

lonian king).

Nabunaiia-, m., sg. gen. -a/iyd Nabuna*id' (the last Babylonian
'

to

the

(part)
i.e.,

I

brought

forward
horses.

I

gave them

king).

THE ULD PKKblAN
18.

l^bUliirilUiSb

AT

15LUiSTAN, COL.
:

I,

§§ lU-lb. 2i5

tatiy
abiy

Darayava(h)u8
avain

l£saya€iya(li)

Pasava(h)

adam Babirum
adaraya(h),

asiyavam
aganbatji.^

Nadi(n)tabaii'am,

hya(h)

Nabnk(u)dracai-a(h)
Tigrani

Kiii'a(h)

hya(h)

Nadi(n)tabirahya

avudai a(h)istata' utA abis" naviya* aha(li).

Pasava(li)

adam

kavani

ma

.

.

k.v

(h)uva avakaiiara,' aniyara
iiayam.

.

.

sabarim akunavam aniyahya aspa patiya-

A(h)unnuazdamaiy upastam

Tigriim viyataiayama."

abara(li), vasna A(h)aramazdalia(h) Pasava(h) avada kai*am tyam Nadi(n)tal>aii-ahyn

^

tjuh verb,

*8|"eak,'

middle

'

to

*

ndviifd',
;

call himself, lo be called,'

Mod. P.
(/auhatait/
'

ships)'

sg.

sl». f. squadron (oi nom. -d utd (tbi>ih d1m(Ji)
*

giiftan.

Press.

indie,

(J:dra{h)

hyaiji)

mand naiy)
not call

the

cp.

*and thereby was a squadron': Aw. uavdza 'navigator,* Moil. 1*. tidr.
'boat,*
'

aruiy
mine,'

which

does

itself

ndkhudd
'

'shipmaster,'

(kdram
calls

hija{li)

Ddrayaua^h)'

kan verb
P.

to dig,'
;

Aw.

rt.

han.

aush Mshdijaihiyahyd)

the

army

Mod.

hand an
ava

which

itself

of

Darius the
(only once,
the

with
hd(Ji)uvd
{i.e.

king'; conj. gaubdtaiy
jterhaps

adam : avdkanam

Jcdratn
*

ma

,

.

»

erroneously instead of
;

I

divided)
;

indicative)

imperf.

sg.

agauhatd
)

dug down my army in two
I

(ltya{h) Nahuhndracaraiji)

called himself X.,' (Jiya{h')

'who Mddaiy

parts' (?)

with
destroy

my
it

:

avafaiy A(h)Hramazdd
*

hhshdyathiya{h)

*

who

called himself

nika(ii)tuv:

Ma}* A(h)ui-amai5da

king in Media,' {hya{1i) BanHya{K)
*

to theo^;
:

who

called himself

13.,'

imperf.
'

pi.

with viy
stroyed
'

viyaJca{n) he

had de-

ayaHba{ii)td

Fravartaish

they
(/.<'.

(the places of worship),

called themselves of Fravarlish
his followers).*
^

pres. conj,

mayest
them.*
*

mdtya^h) vtkandhy 'thou not destroy,' y^idiy

stdy^rh

'stay,' Aw.fif<l,Mod.P.

nl:andh{i)diifh *if

thou destroyest
*
;

iatddaa

(older

estddatt)

;

imp.,
'

middle
it

aiJCjishtatd

avadd

there
'-put
tr.

iar verb,
*

Aw.

rt.

tar

'

orgsH

(the

army) Htood'; with ova

with jra

conduct,

lead '

(8kr.

down'; imperf. avdstdyam ijdthard
'1 put in its place ^;

tar-\'iua)y part.

\>viit,fratrta(h)
*

l^dha[h)'] luted yaddydijt)

the arm}'

with

niy

*

command,

order,
iht in-

was led astray
i.e.

from
oath

roverenoe/
of allegi-

imperf. niyaahtdnam (with

*it

broke

it.q

stead of «0 tizmaydpa/iy dkariya{ny

ance';

(dm
'

*

I

ordered
ml verb
patiif.

:

they

shall be

with ntf

*

cross

'

(a river),
'

viy

empaled.'
uhiih,

aiaraydmn
thereby'
;

Tifjrdm

wo

crossed

as

the

Tigris':

M«hI. P.

gHduthUtn^

jhitith

from

•luxaiam.

:

246

PAUL HORN,

adam ajanam vasiy. Atriyadiyahya* maliya aha(h), ava€a hamaranam akuma.
19.

XXVI

raucabis

takafca

ikiiy Darayava(h)u8 k8aya€iya(h)

:

Pasava(h)

adam Babirum

asi-

yavam.

Abiy Bubirura yaCa naiy

upayam, Zazana(h)* iiama(n) vardanam^

anuv*Hufrataava,' avada hauv Nadi(ii)tabaira(h), hya(h) Nabiik(n)dracara(h)
agaubata, ais hada kara patis'

mam hamaranam cartanaiy.

Pasava(h) liamara)

uam akuma, xV(li)uramazdamaiyupastamabai'a(h),vasna A(h)aramazdaba(b
kai-am
ahyata*

tyam

Nadi(n)tabairabya
parabara(b).

apisim

adam ajanam vasiy. Aniya(b) apiya' Anamakabya" mahya II raucabis takata

aha(h), avat'a

hamaranam akuma.

*

Atriyddiyarm^i gen.

sg. -ahyd

'
;

dpi-j

sb.

f.,

'water' (Aw.

dp-t
in

name of a Persian month ('the month of the worship of the fire').
"

Mod. P.
aniya{li)

db),

sing.

nom. dpish
loc.

dpishhn (from dpishshim),

dpiyd

Zazdna-, m., sg. nom. -«(/0;
of a city near Babylon.
sb.
n.,

dpiyd

dhyatd

dpisldm

name
*

pardbara{h), 'the other (remaining

Vardana-i
*city'

sing,

nom,

part) was thrown into the watt-r, the

-am

(not

Mod. P.
with

barzan).

water bore

it

away.'

[Pers. UaAj],
*

anuv

^

prepos.

locative

ah

rt.

'

throw
'

'

;

3rd. sing. pret.
'

'along, by'; Avf.anu^
*

pass, dhyatd

he was tbrown

(Skr.

Hufrdtu-y

Old Persian form
;

asyatd),
of
" andmaha; m., gen. sg. -ahya; name of a Persian month (not the
*

the river Frat (Euphrates)

loc. sg.

-auvd {anuv) 'along the Euplirates.'
"

patish
;

prepos. with accusative

nameless

'

which would be the inter-

against'
is

Mod.P» pesh,
to

'

before, in

calary month, but 'the
nameless,'
tlicrefore
/. e.,

month

of the

front,'

be derived
.'

from

Aw.

of the

Highest God

ixfifisho

In front

perhaps dndmaka).

.

'

THE OLD PERSIAN INSCRIPTIONS AT UBHISTAN, COL.

I,

§

19

II, § 5.

247

COLUMN
1
:

II.

Tat iy Darayava(li)us ksajatiiyaCli) Pa8ava(h) N'adi(n)tabaira(h) hada

Babinun asiyava(h). Pasiiva(h) adam Babirum asiyavam: vasna A(h)ai*amazdaha(h) uta Babirum agrbayam, uta avara Nadi(n)Pasava^O avani N'adiCn)tabairam adam Babirauv tabaii-am j«!^Mabay;un.
ksimnaibis asabaribis* abiy
avajauaii).
2.

Tatiy Dai-ayava(h)u3 lisayaCiya(h)
tya

:

Yata adam Bsibirauv aham ima
Pai-saOi),

dahyiiva(h)

hacama(h)

hamitriya

abava(n):

(H)uvja(h)

^Fada(li)", A€arA,
3.

Mndraya(h), Par€ava(li)," Margns, tatagus, Saka(h).
Usaynfiva(h)i:
I

iVitiy

l)arayava(h)us
patra(l»),

martiya(h)

Martiya(h)
P^rsaiy,

ii;in»a(n)» Ci(n)ciki'ais^

Kiiyanaka* Tiama(u)

vardanam

avada adai'aya(h), lianv iidapatat\ (H)iirjaiy, kafahya ava€a a€aha(h): Tmanis" amiy (n)uvjaiy U8aya6iya(1i).
4.

Adam

d'atiy

Dai*ayava(li)ns ksayat'iya(h)

:

Adakaiy' adam asnaiy* aham

abiy (H)iivjam.

Pasava(lO hacAmaCli) atrsa(n) (H)uvjiya

avam Martiyam

agrbaya(n), hyasam mat'istaCh)" aha(h), iitasim ava3ana(n),
I martiya(h) Fmvartis nama(n) Adam hauv udapataia Madaiy. karahya avaCa at'aha(h) Pasava(h) kai'a(h) Mada(b) ksat'rita(Ii)^^ amiy (HJiivakstraliya^^ tanmaya.
5.

tatiy Darayava(h)us k8ayat*iya(li):

Mada(h).

:

hya(li) v(i)£apatiy

aha(li),
;

Imcama'ji)

bamitTiya(h) abava(10 abiy

avam

Fi-avartim a8iyava(li)
*

liauv ksayat*iya(h) abava(h) Madaiy.
plur.
'

'fsab/tri-,
'

si».

ni.
';

iiistr.

adahu'y adverb

'

then, at

that

-ihish,

Iiorseiaau

Pahlv,

ashdit

timej*

Aw.

a(fha

and laiy
'

(see ka-

i.f., a^rdi'^
*
*

Mod.

P. 8<n'dr.
ni.,

above).
'
'

Parlhava-,
' ;

sg.

num. -a(A)
*

az

verb
;

*

march
ashnait/

Aw.

rt.

a:

Parthia

Mod. P. ^ahlav
'

hero,

drive, go*)
'

intinitive lo-

(originally
*

Partliiair).
iioiii.

cative

on the march.'

matin f<tu-, adj. 'greatest, leader.'
masffdo 'greater,'
* ;

M'litffa-,

sg. -<i{/i);

narnr

of a Su>ian rebel.
*

Aw.
*

Mod.P. mahi^i
nom. sg. Median king;

worthy
***

sg.

som. -a(A), ace. -am,
m.,
a

Ci{n)cikhri-,

m..

gtMi.

sg.

h'hshnthn'ta-,

-/linh;

father of the rebel Martiya(the
-a(/4).

Name

of

Babylonian text has SinBukhrish).
*

abbreviation

from Khthairaddra^ or
ni.,
*;

Kuganak/t;

f.,

nom.

8g.

-d.

the like, with the suffix -i/a.

Xnm»» of a
*

city in Persia.

"
-i'hA
;

{^ir)uvakh$hatra',
'tthyd

>g.
tr

Itnani-,

m„
it

nom.

sg.

name

g«n.

Cyaxares

the

of

a Sunian rolxd (the Snsian form

(instead

of lY) belongs to

another

of the

name

UmmnnithJ,

dialect than kkfhatra, etc.

'

IMS
>.

PAUL HORN,
TAtiy DArayava(h)T3s KsAyatiyaOO
upA^
:

Kara()0 Paisa(b) nta
aba(h).

MAcla(li),

liya(b)

mam

alia(L),

liauv

kamnam
:

Pasava(h) adam karam

fraisayam. Vidarna(b) nama(n) Parsa(h) maiia ba(n)daka(li), avamsam mafistam akunavam, avaCasam a€abam Pamta, avam karam tyam MAdai:i Pasava(b) bauv Vidarna(b) liada kara jata, hya(b) mana naiy gaubataiy. YatSA Madam pararasa(b),''' Marus^ nama(n) vardaiiam MAdaiy, asiyava(b). avada baniaraiiam akunaus bada Madaibis. Hya(li) MAdaisuvA mati«hi(b) .1ba(h), liaiiv adakaiy naiy adaraya(b). A(b)iirraazdamaiy upastAmabaia(b), vasiiA .\(li)nrnmazdAba'b) kArn(b) bya(b) Vidarnabya* avam karam tyam

bamih'iyam aja(ii) vasiy. AiiAmakabyamabya XXVII ranoAbis t'akata Alia(b), avamsam bamamnam krtam. PasavaQi) bauv kara(b) liya(b) m{ina-Ka(u).pada(b)* uuma dabyaiis Madaiy-avadA mam cita" amanaya(b),' yata adnm arasam MAdam.
7.

Tatiy Dai'ayava(b)us ksAyaCi3^a(b)

:

Pasava(b) Dadarsis' nama(ii)

mana ba(n)daka(b), avam adam fraisayam Arminam, avafc'asaiy Paraidiy, kara(b) hya(b) bamitriya(b) mana naiy ganbataiy avam at'abam jadiy. Pa8ava(Ii) Dadarsis asiyava(b) yaCA Arminam pararasa(b) pasAva(b) hamitriya bagmata, paraita patis Dadarsim bamaranam cartanaiy. Zuza(b) Armaniyaiy, avadA bamaranam nama(u) avabanam" akuiiava(n).
Arminiya(li)
: ;

upd
'

1,

prepos.

with accusative
'

^

Ka(7i)pada-, m., sg. noni.,-a(/0;

on witb,* upd
i^rofix

mdm

witli
:

me'

;

2,

a district in Media (KermanshAban)
'^

nominal

in

n/>astd

Aw.

vpf/,
is

citd

conj.,

citd

Mod. P.
necessary
^

i»retix
'

ba- in hdi/aff

'ii

long

— ydtd
mdm
'

'as

until':

avadd

amdvthere be

from Old P. vpdyatiy.

aya(h) ydtd
awaited
'

adam arasam
'

rff»
:

verb 'arrive,'

Mod. P. ra si*

me

until I arrived.'

dan
witli

imperf.

arasam
arrive,'
'

I arrived

'

man

verb

expect

,'

Aw.

(Madam arasam' \ went
para,
'

to Media');

imperf. parato Media,
lie

rasam

Mddam
flr/^/y

man Mod. P. w^wc^aw; imperf, amdnaya{Ji) mdm citd he expected
I'i,
'

I

came
'

me
^

until I arrived.'

pardra^a{h) Arminam
Armenia,'
tasp.'
"

came

to

Vishfdspam 'to Visb-

Dddarshi-, m.,
'im
;

sg.

nom.

-ish

Maru-,

sg.

nom. -ush; a

city in

name of an Armenian and of a Persian commander of King Darius.
ace.

Media (there is a Marg between KermansbabAn and Holwan). * \idnrna-, m., sg. nom. -«(/<), gen. -ahyd, name of one of the seven
conspirators against the false Smcrdis
('preserver').

Perhaps Dddrshi,
'

cp. Skr. dddltrsld

courageous, bold.'
®

dvaJiana-,

sb. n.,

'

place, village*;

sg. nom. -am Armen. ran market'
'

town,
'

borough
'

(?),

Skr.

rt.

i'as

dwell

and

j)refix d.

:

THE OLD PERSIAN INSCRIPTIONS AT WFHISTSN, COL.II, §§
A(h)urmazdriiiiaiy iipast/»m
{ibai-a(10,

(>-ll

.

249

vasiia

A(h)umnmzdaha(h)

kai-a()i)

hja(h)

mana avam kamm tyam liamitriyam
r.iucabis takata
;'ilja(h),

aja(u) vasiy.

Tui-avahai-aliya*

mahya VIII
8.

ava^Asam liaiuamnani krtam.

Tatiy Darayava(h)u8ksriya6iya(^h): Patiy duvitiyam liaiuitriya hng-

maia

Tigra(h)' nAm& dida* pai-aita patis Dadarsim liamaranam cartanaiy. Armaniyaiy, avada hamaninam akunava(n), A(h)uramazdamaiy upastaiu abam(h), vasiia A(lijin'aniazdnha'Ji) kara(^h'; hya(h) mana avam karara tyam

hamitriyam aia(n) vasiy. Tnraviiharahya mahya XVI II rancabis fakalu Aha(hX ava^asam Immaranam krtam. TsUiy Darayava(h)us ksAyn£iya(li): Patiy tvitiyam bamitriya hagma9.
fea

paraitA patis

Dadarsim bamaranam cartanaiy.

Uhyama(h) nama didu

Armaniyaiy, avada Ijamnraimm aknnava(n).
abai'a(h),

A(10uramazd:'imaiy iipastain

vasna A(h)nramazdaba(h) krim(h) bya

mana avam kaiam tyam

hamitriyam aja(n) vasiy. Taigracais* mabya IX i-ancabis fakata aha(b\ ayaCasam bamaranam krtam. Pasavn(b) Dadai-sis citA mam amanaya(b) yata adam arasam Madam. a Pasavn(b) Va(b)umisa(b) Tatiy Dai-ayava(b)us ksayat:iya(b) 10. nAma(n) Parsa(b) mana ba(n)daka(b), avam adam fraisayam Arminara,
.

.

.

:

avatAsaiy afabam
bat'\iy,

:

Paraidi}', kara(h)

bya(b) bamitriya(b), mana naiy ganparaita patis

Ya€a Arminam Va(b)umisam liamaranam cartanaiy. YzituS namA daliyans ACnraya, avada bamai-annm aknnava(n). A(b)nrmazdamaiy npastjlin abara(b), vasna A(b)Qi'amazdalia(h) kAra(b) liya(li) mana avam kAram tynm baraitriyam aja(n) vasiy. Anamakabya maliya XV rancabis €akatA Aba(li), avat'asAm bamaranam krtam.

avam

jadiy.

Pn.sAva(b) Va(b)iimisa(b) asiyava(li).

parArasa(b), pasava(b) bamitriya

bagmata

11.

tatiy narayava(b)ns ksAyafiya(b)

:

Faiiy duvitiyam liamitriya
Autiyai'ft(b)'

liagmata paraitA patis Va(b)umi8am bamai-jinam cartanaiy.

bamaranam akunava(n). A(b)uramazdamaiy ui)astAm abara(b), vasnA A(b)uramazdalui(b) kai'a(li) bya(b) mana avam l-iuram tyam liamitriyam aja(n) vasiy. iyamanam Trn*avabai*abya m&bya

nama

dabyAiiA Arminaiy, avadA

.

.

avaCaHam liamaranam krtam. Paijava(b) Vft(b)nmisa(b) amHnaya(b) Arminaiy, yata adam arasam Madam.
patiy,
*

cita

mum

Thwaidharu-^
:

bb. m., gon.

sg.

P. di:,

(?i£/i

*

fortresg/ >vlnch ratbcr
in

•ahya
(•

iiuiiin

of

a

IVr^ian montb
'

Indongs to

Aw. dafza

yaindaiza^

the

month

of tb«'

sul»bme 8j»ring
P. buhtir).

Thuiijract-, gon. »g. -niih. N»in«*
of

Aw,

niha and
Tigva-.

Mod.
HI.,

a

Persian

month (according
of the
'•'"

to

sg.

nom.

•a{h^;

Justi

Mhc mouth
'

garlic-ga-

name
^
-i/,

of n fortress in Armenia.
Bb.
;

'^^'^'^
'

'^'^'"^ ^^^*- ^'

•"^ ^'

gatbcrcr' Mod.P. ndan),
'

iiM',

f.

'fortreiw,*

sg.

nom.

.4m/^>/»yi-, ni,,

nom.

qg. -a(A)

;

%cc.-/im

not identical witli

Mod.

'

name

of a dittrict in

Armenia.*

250
12.

VAVh HORN,
Tutly Durayava(h)as kKaya6iya(h)
:

Pasava(h)

adam niyayam haoA

Babiraus asiyavam Madam. Yata ^Ladam pararasam Ku(ii)duru8* nrima(n)
vardanara Madaiy, avada lianv Fi^avartis, hya(h) Mudaiy Ksayatiyafh) agaubata, ais hada kara patis

mam hamaranam

cartanaiy,
A

Pasava(h) haraaranam

akuraa.

A(h)urmazdamaiy upastam aVmra(h), vasna A(h)uramazdalia(h)
vasiy.

karam tyam Fravartais adam njanam
raiicabis £akata aha(li), ava6a

Adukanais' maliya

XXVI

hamaranam aknmA.
:

13.

Tatiy Dara3'ava(li)iis ksaya£iya(h)
amuCa(b)''''

Pasriva(h) liauv Fravartis, liada
asiya-

kamnaibis asabaribis,
Ya(h).

Raga* namsl dahyaas Madai}^ avada

PasAva(h)

adam karam fraisayam
Adamsaiy

tyaipatiy, Fravartis agrbayata,

anayata abiy mslm.

uta iiaham^ uta gausa" nta (h)izuvam fraja-

nam

utasaiy

casma avajam. Uuvarayamaiy' basta(h) adariy haruvasim*
Pasava(h)

kara(h)

avaina(h).^

adam

Hagmatanaiy^^

uzmayapatiy^^

'

h''u{n)d((rn-,

nom.

sg. -vs/j.

Name
the

\

duvar-,
dt'ar,

sb.

m.
'

*door,
'
;

court'
sg. loc.

of

a

city

In

Media, probably

Aw.

Mod. P. dar door
*

modern Knndurnear Qazwia.

-ayd-maiy
®

at

my

court.*

haruva-,

adj,.
'

'whole,

eutire,'

^

Aduhuni- gen.
of

sg. -aish;

name

of

Tcdra(Ji)

haruvaQi)

the whole army';
Tiar.

a Persian

month (according
-frddhana
'

to Justi

Aw. haurva^ Mod.
"

P.

'the montli

canal-digging,'

Aw.
vain verb 'see,'
P. Inn-am
;

compare

lidhu

fnrtliering

Aw.

rt.

vaen,

the canals').

Mod.
'

pres. conj.

vaindlni

thou mayest

see,' imperf. avaina(1i)

harurashim
^

Jcdra{h)
liim.'
loc.

'

the

whole

amyihaQi),

adverh

'tlience';

people saw

'

Skr. amutaJi.

Hag mat dim-,

sg.

-r//y,

Ecbatana,' Mod.P. Ilamaddn ('the

*

Jiaf/d;

f.

sg.

nom.

-d, gen. abl.

place of

coming together.')
f., lit.

-di/^; old

name

of the district of TJni.
^^ uzajn-y sb.
*a
'

thing protrud(^ud

^

nfili-,

sb.

m. 'nose,'

ing from the
sg. ficc.-nm;

earth

and zam
;

'earth

')

i.e.

-a post, palo'

sg. loc.
*

Aw. ndohhd,
iizinaydjiatiy

uvam aknnavam^
a pale,'
i.e.
' *

I

made him on
*

I empaled

gausla-^

sb. m,,

dual

ace. -a,

him,' dharlya{nydin

they shall be

•ears';

Aw. gaosha, Mod,

P. gosh.

empaled,'

;

THE OLD PERSIAN INSCRIPTIONS AT BEHISTAN, COL.II, §§ 12-lG. 251
akuuavam, uta martija tyaisaiy fratama aunsiya* aha(n)ta, avaiy* Hagmataimiy a(u)tar didain fraha(n)jam."
14. tatiy Darayava(h)w8 K8aya€iya(h): I martiya(h) Citra(u)taKma(h)* nama(n) Asagartiya(lij,' Imnvmaiy liamitriya(h) abuva(h), karahya avaCa a£aha(li) Adam ks;\yatliya(h) amiy Asagaitaiy (H)uvakstniliyii taumAya.
:

iita Madam fraisayam. Takmaspada(h)* mima(n) Mada(h) mana ba(^n)daka(h) avamsam ma^istum akunavani.avaCAsam aCaham: Paraita, kaiam tyam liamitiiyain liyn(li} n.aiia naiy j^aiibatai} avam Pasava(h) Takmaspada(h) hada kara asiyava(h), hamaranam akunaus jata. hada Citi'a(n)takma. A(li)uramazdamaiy upastam abara(h), vasna A(li)ura-

Pasava(h) adaiu kAi*am Pursam

mazdaha(h) kam(h) hya(h) mana avam kia'am tyam bamitriyam aja(n), ata Citra(n)takmam agrbaya(h), auaya(li) abiy mam. Pasavasaiy adam uta uaham uta gausa frajaiiam, utasaiy casma avajam. Duvarayamaiy bastd(h) adariy, haruvaaim kara(h) avaina(h). Pasavasim Arbairaya nzmayiipatiy akunavam. 15. Tatiy Dai'ayava(h)u8 k8aya£iya(h) Ima(b)tya manakrtam Madaiy. 16. Tatiy Darayava(b)n8 k8ayatiya(li). Pai-t'ava(b) uta Vrkana(b)'
:

hamitriyd f/iava(n)

utd

Fravartais

aganba(n)ta.

Vistaspa(h)

mana

pita

ha?<r Part'at'ahj dha{Ji) kara^'lm \\\ura<la{h) hamitn'i/aQi) ahavaiji).

Vistas-

pa(_b)

hada kdrd

hya(Ji) anu8i3'a(h) y^a/aya^h).

Vispa(h)uzati8 nama(n) vardaA{l^)uramazddmaiy upastam

nam
vatfiy,

Part'avaiy, avada

bamaranamakunava(D).

abara{/t), vahnd A(Ji)uramazddha{}i) Vxhtdspa{Ji) hdruin tyam humitrit/am ajo(^n)

Viyaknabya mabya
krtam.
sb.

XXII

raucabis 6akata aba(h), avaCasam hamani-

uam
^

anushiya-f

m.,

*

follower*;

Skr. puras

*

I

hanged thorn
fortress.'

uj) in

plur.

nom.
ara-j

-d.

From anuv
pron.

with the

Ecbatana before the
*

suffix 'sliiya

(Aw.

-ihya, Skr. -tya).
'

Citra^uyahhrna-, m., nom. sg.
-am, instr. -d.
(*

demonstr.

that,'

-i(/i), ace.

Name

of a

Aw.
gen.
plvir.

arOf

Mod.?, o;

sing. ace. avanit
:

Sagartiau rebel
to

strong with regard
ciiram
being

avahyd, conip. araTiyarddiy

the

ufTspring,'

num. ace avuiy, gen. aiaishdm

accusative neutr., cp. Cireek Tiitan-

neutr. *g. ace. ata{li),

(Aw.
'

araf),

taikhmcs)

;

Mod,

P.

cikr-tahaiu

avajiard

*

by,

i>ast that

(*

li«'

went

pAbt that').

(Aw. C Ultra t and takhma), * Af^Of/ardyii-, Hg. num.
'

-«(/),

km{n]J

verb

witli

fra,

iui[H:r(.

Sagartian.'
*

frdka{H')jam

araiy
*

llagmatdnaiy
ut
rt.

Takhmaspd'lu-,
;

m..

uuui.

sg.

a{n)tar di'ldm

1

hanged thum up
fortresb,'

-r/(/()

name
Darius

of
(*

a

comiiiauder of

Ecbatana

iu tlio

Skr.

King
army
*

having

a

btrong

taf^ *haug*; aQi)tar seenih to bo a
false

restoration,
*

Foy
before,'

therefore

propo^s para(h)

Aw.

jntro,

Aw. tpddka. Mod. P. $ipdh). ' Vrkdna, ni., »g. nom. -a(A), Mod. P. Gnrgin, liyrcini*
*;
* ;

252

PAUL

IIORJJ,

COLUMN
1.

III.
:

Tati}-

Darayava(h)u8 k8Ayatiya(h)

Pasava(li)

adam karam Parsam

fiaisayam abiy Vistaspam ImcA RagAyu. Yata hauv kAra(h) parArasa(h) abiy

Vistaspam, pasuva(h) Vistaspa(li) Ayasaia^ avam kArani asiyava(h). Pativardanam Par^avaiy, avadA hamaraiiam akunans had A bamitriyaibis. A(h)urmazdAmaiy upastam abara(h), vasna A(h)urmazdaha(h) Vistaspa(b) avam kavam tyam liamitriyam aja(n) vasiy. Garinapadahya
gi'Abana' naina(ii)

mahya
2.

I

i-auca fakata aba(h),

Tatiy

Darayava(h)us

ava^AsAm hamaraiiam krtam. ksayatiya(h) Pasava(h) dabyAus mana
:

abava(b), ima(b) tya(b)
3.

mana krtam

Part'avaiy.

nama dabyAus,hauvmaiy nama(n) MArgava(b), avam matistam akunavata, PasAva(b) adam frAisayam Dadarsis nAma(n) Pursa(b)
Tatiy DArayava(b)us ksAya£iya(l») :MargQs"
basitiya* abava(b). I marfciya(h) Frada(h)^
diy,

mana ba(n)daka(b), BAKtriya* ksatrapavA, abiy avam avatasaiy aCaham: Paraiavam karam jadiy hya(h) mananaiy gaubataiy. Pasava(h) DAdarsis badA

kAraasiyava(h), bamai-anam akunaus hadA ^Jargayaibis. A(h)uramazdamaiy upastam abara(b), vasuA A(b)uramazdAha kAra(b) bya(b) manA avam karam tyambamitriyam aja(i)) vasiy. AtriyAdiyabya' niAbyA XX III raucabis ^kata aha(h), avat'Asam bamaranam krtam.
4.

Tatiy I)Arayava(h)us k8Aya6iya(b)

:

Pasava(h)

dahyAuH

manu

abava(b), ima(h) tya(b)

mana krtam

Bakfcriya.
:

5. Tatiy DArayava(b)us ksayaiiiya(b) I martiya(b) Vabyazdata(b)* nama(u), TAravA" nAma(n) vardanam Yatiya^^namadabyaus PArsaiy, avada
*

Af/asatd, iniperf. middle,
rt.

rt. i/as

^

Frcw/a-,

m.

nom,

sg.

-«(/*)

(incobative stem to

i/am),

Aw.
' :

the

Name
®

of a rebel in
f.,

Margiaua.

same

;

with
utd

d

*

seize

ujion

utd

Bdhhtii-,
'

sg.

nom.

-isk^ Kh;.

Pdrmm
Persia

Madam

utdaniyddahydas well as other

-itjd
'

Bactria,'

Mod. P. Balhh.
;

va{h) hauv dyasatd 'be seized both

and Media

Atriyddlya-, m., gen. sg. -ahya
a Persian

provinces,'

avam kdrain dyasatd
f.,

name of
of the

'he

month

('

the moiitli

seized the army.'
^

worship of the

fire').

Patigrahanu-,

noni. sg. -d

''

;

Vahyazddta-t

m.,

sg.

nom.
ol

name
'
*

of a city in Parthia.
-urn

«(/i), ace. -am, gen.

-ahyd; name

Margu-, sg. nom. -ushi aoc.

a Persian rebel
l.e,

('

given by the

best,*

Margiana, Merw'; Aw. Mourn.
*

by Hormuzd).
Tdravd-y
f.,

hashitit/a-y adj.,
*

*

i-ebellious,' sg.
'

^

nom. 'd ; ha
Skr.
Ichshitt

away from

sg.

and

nom.

-d

:

name

shiti

'dwelling
'

j)l8ce,'

there-

of a city in Persia.

ol'

fore, originally,

one who deserts from

Yatiyd'f

f.,

nom.

sg.

-d

;

name

his dwelling place.'

a district in Persia.

.

THE OLD PERSIAN INSCRIPTIONS AT BKmSTvN,
adSra ja(h).

TOT,. TTI,

§§ 1-8.

2r>3

Hauv

duvitiyam*. udapatata Parsaiy.

kai-aliyil avaCft

a€ah»(h)

:

adam Baidiya(h) amiy hya(h) Kunius putra(h). Pa8iiva(h) kfira(h) P&raa(h)
hya(h) vi6apatiy haca yadaya(h)* fratrta(h).

Hauv hacama(h) hamitrlya(b)
K8a7aCiya(h) abavah

abava(h) abiy
PArsaiy.
6.

avam Vahyazdatam a^yava(h), hauv

Tatiy Darayava(h)u8 Ksaya£iya(h): Pasava(h)
fraisayara, hya(h)

adam karamPan^m

ut5

Madam

upa

mam

aha(h),

Artavai*diya(h)* nama(D)

Par8a(li)

mana ba(n)daka(h), avamsam raaCistam akanavam, hya(h) aniya(b)
manaa8iyava(h)JJW'Aiw. Pasdva{h) ArtararfUjfa{h)hadC

kara(li) Prir8a(h) pasa

YaCa Parsara parai'afia(h), Raka* nama(n)Tardanam hauv Valiyazdata(li) hya(h) 15ardiya(h) aganbaU, Aw hada kara patis Artavardiyam liamamnam cartanaiy. Pasava(h) hamaranam akuuava(n). A(h)iiramazdamaiy upastam abara(h), vasni A(h)urmazdaha(h) kara(h) hya(h) mana avam kai-amtyam Vahyazdatahya aja(n) vasiy. Turnvahai*ahya mahyji XII raucabis Cakata iiha(h), avatasam hamaranam krtam^
Idrd ti'9iyara{h) Parsam.
Parsaiy, avada
7.

Tatiy Dai'ayavA(h)u8 k8ayaCiya(h): Pasava(h) hauv Vahyazd&ta(h)

hada kamnaibis asabaribis amu6a(b) asiyava(h) Pai8iya(h)uvadam, haca avadaHa(h) karam ayasata hyaparam* ais pat is Artavrdiyam Imraai-anam cartanaiy.
Prga(h)'' nama(n) kaufa(h), avada hamaranam akuuavaCn). A(h)uramazd&maiy upastftm abara(h), vasnd A(h)aramazdHha(h)kAi*a(h) hya(h) manAavam karam tyam Vahyazdatahya aja(n) vasiy. Garmapadahya mahya VI raucabiA fakat^t aha(h), avaCitsam hamai*anam krtam, nta avam VahyasdHtam
aj^rbaya(n), uta martiya tyai&iiy fratama anuAiya aha(n)ta ai^rlWiya(n).
8. Tatiy Darayava(h)n8 ksA)'a6iya(h): rasava(h) adam avam Vahyazdatam nta martiya tyaisaiy fratama anusiya aha(n)ta, (H)uvadaicaya(h)' nttma(n) vardanam Parsaiy, avadasis uzmayapatiy aknnavam.

duvitiya-, mmieral

*

tho second,'

dutiti'jfam or

mostly pat i if duvitii/am

King Darius ( rijijht working • Aw. u»haver(zyn wonld bo Old P.
*

•a second timo'; perhaps duritit/a, ip.

Artavrdiifa),
*

8kr. dritiifa.
• yofid-,

Rakhi'^

f .,

sg,

nom. -4

;

name

sb.

f. ,

'

rnf orence

'

;

sg.

of a city nc»ar the liordcr of Persia and

ablat.

trta{h)

Mra^h) hacd naddyd(h)f,adfta{h) tho army was
*

Suniana (Aniniian has Araklia).
'

M
rt

hy/JiMira-, adv.,

ace.
*

h\fSparam^
after

astray
ifad.

from

reverence
'

'

;

from

from hya, and apara^
'afterwards,' 'again,*

this/

Aw. rt. yaa adore originally y«(/i may have had tho meaning Srorship,* as MrnLP. namSz originally
* ;

P»ya-,m.,nom.8g.
ill

.fl(A),

Namtof
UUiftdtt.

a uionntnin
ilir I'ity
'

r

.UienaiDeof
j in

meant worship' and then
*

'olMsdionco.*

Pury,

A
i>(

• i4rr<iiNirfiijra-,m.,sg.noui.*a(A),

Iluvddaiiaya-,
;

m.,

ijg.

ace.

-am

;

name

of

a commander of

•a(A)

name

a

eity in P<»nda,

;

254
0.

PAUL HORN,
TAtiy Dai'ayava(h)us Usaya6iya(h):

Hauv Vahjazduta(h),

hya(h)

Bardiya(h) agaubata, hauv karam fruisaya(h) Hai'a(h)uvatim, Vivana(h)^

nama(u) Pai*sa(h) mana ba(n)daka(li), Ham(h)uvatiya Ksatrapava, abiy

avam, utasam

I

martiyam mafistara

akuiiaus, avaCasam atiaha(h)

:

Paraitu,

Vivanam

jata,

utaavam karam hya(h) Darayavahaus ksayaCiyahya gaubataiy
cartanaiy; Kapisakanis^ namadida,

Pasava(h) hauv kara(h) a8iyava(h) tyara Vahyazdata(h) fraisaya(h) abiy

Vivanam hamaranam

avadahamaranam

akunava(n). A(h)uramazdamaiy upastam abara(h), vasnu A(h)uramazdaha(h) kara(h),hya mana avam karam tyam hamitriyam aja(n) vasiy.

Anamakahya

mahya XIII raucabis Cakata
10.

riha(h), avat'asam

hamaranam krtam.

Tatiy Darayava(h)us ksaya€iya(h) : Patiy hyaparam hamitriya ha-

Vivanam hamaranam cartanai^'. Ga(n)dntava(h) ' niima avada hamai-anam akunava(n). A(h)uramazdAmaiy upastam abara(h), vasna A(h)aramazdaha(h) kara(h) hya(h) mana avam kiu-am tyara hamitriyam aja(n) vasiy. Viyaknahya mahya VII raucabis £akata :iha(h), avaCasam hamaranam krtam.
gmata,
pai*aita patis

dahyfius

Tatiy Darayava(h)us ksaya€iya(h) Pasava(h) hauv niartiya(h), 11. hya(h) avahya karahya ma€ista(h) aha(h), tyam Vahyazdata(h) frai8aya(h) abiy Vivanam, hauvma€ista(h)hada kamnaibisasabaribisasiyavaCh). Arsada* nama dida Hara(h)uvatiya avapara* atiyais. Pasava(h) Vivana(h) hada
:

kara nipadiy tyaiy a8iyava(h),

avadasim agrbaya(h), uta martiya tyaisaiy

fratama anusiya aha(n)ta avaja(n).
12.

Tatiy

Drirayava(h)us

ksaya£iya(h)

:

Pasava(h) dahyaus

mana

abavah); ima(h) tya(h)

mana krtam Hara(h)uvatiya.
godhuma
but
1.

^

ace.

FzWwa-, m. sg. nom, 'a(Ji), "am; name of a satrap in

wheat,' Mod. P. gandum^ Aw. gantuma, Nirang, p. 39,
*

Arachosia (or perhaps Vivdhana, cp-

5 from below, Pahlv. gantum(?).
*

Aw, Vivdonhdo),
^

Arshddd',

f.,

nom.

sg.

-d

;

name
Kapishaldni-j
of
f.,

of a fortress in

Arachosia.
'

nom,

sg. -ish.

^

ava-i demonstr. pron.

that,'

Aw.

Name
*

a

forti;ess in

Arachosia.

avtty

Mod. Pars.
nom.
sg.
'

6; sing. ace. avam,

gen.

avahydi comp.

avaUyarudiy
avaishdm,

Ga(n)dutava-j
J

m.,

nom.

sg.

plur.

ace. avaiy, gen. ace. ava{h),
('

-a(h)

a district in

Af achosia.

Per-

neutr.

(Aw. avat),
he went past

haps Ga(n)duinava(Ji), according to
Justi,
*

avaj)ard
that').

by, past tliat'

land of wheat,' comp.

Skr.

;

THE OLD PERSIAN INSCRIPTIONS AT BEHISTaN, C0L.III,§§ 9-14. 255
13.

Tatiy Darayava(h)us lc8aya€iya(h): Yata

adam Parsaiy

utA Madaiy
I

aham. patiyduvitiyamBabiruviya hamitriyaabava(n) hacama(h).
ya(h),

marti-

Araka(h)* niima(ii) Arniiniya(li),

Halditahya'

pntra(h),

hauv

udapatata Babirauv. Dabala^naniadahyaashacaavadasa(h)hauv udapatata,
avaCa adarnjiya(h)
putra(h).
:

Adam Nabukudracara(h)
kara(h)
a8iyava(h).

amiy, liya(h) Nabunaitahya

Pasava(h)

Babirnviya(h)

hacama(h)

hamitriya(h)

abaYa(h), abiy

avam AraKam

B&birum hauv agrbayat&, hauv

K8aya£iya(h) abava(h) Babirauv.
14,

Tatiy DArayava(h)u8 K8aya£iya(h)

:

Pasava(li)

adam karam

fraisa-

yam Babirum.
jat^,

Vi(n)dafarna* nama(D) Mada(h)
:

maCistam akunavam, avaCasam aCaham
hya(h)

mana ba(n)daka(h), avam Paraita, avam karam tyam Babirauv

mana naiy

gaubataiy.

Pasava(h) Vi(n)dafama hada kara

a8Jyava(h) abiy Babirum.

A(h)urama2damaiy upastam abara(h), vasna
Margaht/a(h)

A(h)uramazdaha(h) Vi(n)dafarna Babirum agrbAya(h)
zanahya mahya

XXII

raucabis Cakata aha(h), ava€a

avam Aralcam

Nabukudracara(Ji) agauhatd (igrbuya{n)y utd martiyd tyaimiy fratamd anusiyd

dha{n)td agrbdya(n)td, utd bastd abava(n),

Pa8dva{k) niyakdyam Bdbirauv

uzmuydpatiy dkriya{n)tdm.
*

Araiha-, m., eg. noui.

-a(A),

i

( there

is

a place Dublin on

tiie

see.

-am

;

name

of

an

Armenian
; ,

Euphrates).

(Ahirodian) rebel in Babylon.

I/aldita-,

m., sg.

gen. -ahyd

I

*

Y i(n)dafarnah-,
Haosravdo).

sg.

noni.
of

-d

an Armenian.
'

(cp. A>f.

Name

two

Vubdla-, m.,
of

sg.

noni.
in

-'/(//)

i"cn.
;
!

(Aw. Vindalivarcna 'obtaining

name

a

district

Babylonia

majesty*).

;.

256

PAUL HORN,

COLUMN
1.

IV.
:

Tatiy

Darayava(li)u8 K8ayaCiya(b)

Ima(h) tya(h) mana krtam

Babirauv.
*

2.

Tatiy Dai'ayava(h)as K8aya€iya(h)

:

Ima(h) tya(h) adam akunavaiii,
PasAva(h) ya£u

vasna A(h)urmazdaha(h) aha(h) hamahyaya Carda(h).^
K8aya£iya(h) abavam,

adam

XIX
tita

hamarana akunavam, vasna A(h)urmaz-

daha(h) adamsam ajanam,
iiama(n)

IX

KsayaCiya agrbayam.

I

Gaumata(h)
:

Magus

aha(li),

hauv

aduru3iya(h)

avata

a6aha(h)

Adam
:

Bardiya(h) amiy, hya(li) Kuraus putra(h).
naus. I Atrina(li) nama(n) (H)uvjiya(h),

Hauv Parsam hamitriyam akuat'aha(h)

hauv adurajiyaCh) ava6a

Adam
mana.

ksaya6iya(h) amiy (H)uvjaiy.

Hauv (H)uv3am hamitriyam akunaus
hauv adurujiya(h) ava€a

I Nadi(n)tabaii'a(h) nama(n), Babii'uviya(h)
:

a£aha(h)

Adam

Nabukndracara(h) amiy hya(h) Nabunaitahya putra(h).
akunaus.
I Martiya(h) nama(n) Parsa(h)
Imanis''
I

Hauv Babirum hamitriyam

hauv

adupujiya(h) ava£a aCaha(h):

Adam
:

amiy

(H)uvjaiy K8aya6iya(h)

Hauv (H)uvjam hamitriyam
adurujiya(h)
ava6a a£aha(h)

akunaus.

Fravartis nama(n) Mada(h), hauv

Adam

KsaCrita(h)' amiy,

(H)uvakstrahya

taumaya.

Hauv Madam hamitriyam akunaus.

I Citra(n)takma(h) nama(u)

-Asagartiya(h),

hauv adurujiya(h) avaCa a€aha(h):

Adam

k8aya€iya(h) amiy

Asagartaiy, (H)uvak8trahya taumaya.
I FrAda(h) nama(n) Margava(h),

HauvAsagartam hamitriyam akunaus.
:

hauv aduruiiya(h) ava€a a6aha(h)
hamitriyam akunaus.

Adam
I

K8ayaCiya(h) amiy Margauv.

Hauv Margum

Vah-

yazdata(h) nama(n) Parsa(h), hauv adurujiya(h) avaCa a€aha(h) :
diya(h) amiy, hya(h) Kuraus putra(h).
I

Adam Bar:

Hauv Parsam hamitriyam akunaus.

Araka(h) nama(n) Arminiya(h), hauv adurujiyaCh) avaCa a6aha(h)

Adam

Nabukudracara(h) amiy, hya(h) Nabunaitahya putra(h).

Hauv Barirum

hamitriyam akunaus.
*

thard-t
*
;

sb.

f.

*

kind,

sort,
j

"

Imani',

m.,

nom.
is

sg.

ish

;

mamier

sg. ace, -aw, gen. -a(A)

name
form
*

of a Susian rebel (the Susian
of the

hamahydyd
kind
* ;

tharda{K)
'

*

of

every

name
of

Ummanish,)
m.,

Aw. saredha
z.e,,

kind,' Pahlv.

Khshathrita-,
;

nom.

Bg.

sartak,

sardak

(a

Median

-a(7t)

name

a Median

king

abbreviation from Khshathraddra-, or

form)*

the

like,

with the suffix-tYa.

:

THE OLD PERSIAN INSCRIPTIONS AT
3.

BEHIST.SN, COL. IV, §§ 1-7.

257

t&tiy Dara7aTa(b)a8 i8Hy£ija(h): Imaiy

IX

KSiyaCija

adam agrba-

yam

a(ii)tar iuia hamaranil.

Tatiy Darayava(h)uH ]aayatiya(b): Dahyuva(h) imii tya bamiiriya 4. abava(u), drangadis^ hamitriya akunaas tya(h) iniuiy kai'amadurujiya8a(Q). Pa8ava(h) dis' A(h)urainazdu maiia dastaya' akuuaus yaCumAm kima{h),*
;

avaCa di[^ akunavam'].
5.

Tatiy Darayava(h)us k8aya6iya(h)
abiy, baca drauga(h)

aparam

draujaiia(b)^

abatiy

avam

Tuvam k& UsayaCiyaCh) bya(h) darsam patipaya(h)uv&. Martiya(h) bya(b) (h)ufrastain prsa, yadiy avaCii maniyaby
:

Dabyausmaiy duruva" abatiy.
6.

vasna

tatiy Darayava(b)as k8aya6iya(b) Ima(b) tya(b) adam akunavam, A(h)aramazduba(b) bamabyaya €arda(b) akuuavam, Tuvam ka
:

bya(b) aparam,

imam dipim'

patiprs^lby,

tya(b)

maua krtam

vrnavatiim*

Cuvam

;

matya(b) duruktam maniyaby.
:

7. A(b)uramaz . tatiy Darayava(b)u8 k8ayaCiya(b) taiyiya yaCA ima(b) basiyam' uaiy duraktam adam akunavam bamabyaya Carda(b).
.

.

drdftga-,

sb.

m.
dtcrogh

He/
;

Aw.
num.
*

^

draujana-^

ui.,

hg.

noui.

-fl(A)

draogha,

Mod. P.

sg.

liar.*

-fl(A), abl. -d(h).

durura-,
«

adj.,
' ;

nom.

8g,

f

dahifdush
di' enclitic
di;

settled
Bb.
f.

Aw, drca.
*

pi.

pronoun *bc,' Aw, ace. -^Usk in tt/ddisJi adind
rel)els/

'

dipi'j
-I'm,

inscription,' §g,

ace.

loc. -ly^

:

*wbicb be took away from tbcm/
draugadish * the lie made tbom
JMiifilxBh

ava{h) ahfigi
'that has not
inscription.'

dipt yd nafif nipishtam

been inscribed

in

this

"not

tbem/ ptirikardh{i)dixh
guard
them,'
destroy,'

Hlemic word.
'
*

•thou

niayest

rar verb

vikandh (C^dith tbou may est
avathidish akunavam
tbem."
* dasta-t
*

believe; MckI. P. in
*

Aw. bAmr
•,'
;

rt.

tar

*

belief,'

tbus I did to

giraridan
-T" •'

to believe'
'

pros. cooj.

7 (naisfum)
1,'

it

may

not conincredirrtNH'«>

sb.

m.
'

*

band/

Aw.
l»lv t<i
I

(«>.

it

may seem

zasia.

Mod. P. daift;
d. akunautih

loc. 8g. -ajfd: dish

him)

im]»enit. niiddlo

maud
in

ho

made them

dm

thtirdm
'

'ya(A) wuini

krtam

my
*

band.'

avathd

it

may convince
it

thee of what

has been done by me^ that (at I have

kdma-, sb. m., nom. 8g. -a(A)
';

narrated,
'

really

hat bMo').
ig.

*

wish, desire

Aw. kdmMf Mod. P.

hasAiya-,
-«ifi,

adj., Hrao';

neutr,

Aw. kmtkjf.

258
8.

PAUL HORN,
Tatiy Darayava(h)ns Ksaya€iya(h):
nipistara

Vasna A(h)uramazdalia(h)
hya(h)

.

.

.

maiy aniyasciy vasiy Avahyaradiy naiy
pattprsatiy, avaliya

astiy krtam, ava(h) ahyayii dipiya naiy nipistam.*

matya(h)

aparam

imam dipim

parav £adayatiy,' tya(h)

mana krtam naisim vrnaTataiy
Tyaiy paruva KsayaCiya yata

dnrnKtam maniyatiy.
9.

Tatiy Darayava(h)us Ksaya6iya(h)

:

aha(n), avaisam naiy astiy krtam yaCa mana, vasna A(h)uramazd4ha(h),

hamabyaya £arda krtam.
10.

Tatiy DarayavaCli)u8 k8aya€iya(li)

:

nuram €uvam vmava*
apagaudaya.^

tam, tya(h)

Yadiy imam ha(n)dugam*naiy apagaudayahy, karaliya 6aliy: A(li)aramazdaCavam dausta^ biya(b), utataiy tauma vasiy biya(b), nta drgam® jiva^.
ava€a avahyaradiy
11. Yadiy imam ba(n)dugam Tatiy Darayava(b)us ksaya£iya(h) apagaudayaby, naiy £aby karabyjl A(b)urmazdataiy jata biya(b), utataiy
:
:

mana krtam,

ma

tanma ma biya(b).
12. Tatiy Darayava(h)us ksaya£iya(h) Ima(b) tya(b) adam aknnavam, bamabyaya Carda(h), vasna A(b)urmazdriba(b) akunavam; A(b)urmazdamaiy upastam abara(b), nta aniya bagaba(b)^ tyaiy ba(n)tiy.
:

13. Tatiy Darayava(b)as ksaya€iya(b) Avabyaradiy xV(b)urmazda npastam abara(b) nta aniya bagaba(b) tyaiy ba(n)tiy ya£a naiy araika(b)
:

;

*

pis

verb,

witb

niy

'

Avrite,'

^

daushtar-, sb. m. 'friend,'
;

Mod.P,

Mod.

P. nU'Vesam,

ni-vishtan

(Aw.
j

dostdr

sg.

nom. -d
*

:

A(Ji)uramazdd

from tbe same root ailhu-jyaesemndo)
imperf.
written,'
part.

thuvdm d, hlydQi)
to
thee,'

A. may be friend
d. biyd(Ji)
*

niyapisham *I wrote, bavc
pret.
'

avaiy

md

to

ni-jnshiam
in
'

him be not a
"

friend.'

avahyd
ward,'
*

dipiyd

written

ibis
after-

inscription.

aparam adverb
*

drga-,

adj.

*long,'

Aw.

Aw. aparem.
appear,' witb gen.
oi"

(laregha,'Mod.'P. dcr (from transposed
(lagra,
'

tlmd verb
;

day ray, ncutr.acc. 'am adverb
'

tbe person

pres.
'

conj. thadaydtiy

long time
'

(tbou mayest
'

live).

avahyd ])aruv bim mucb (/.
'

lest it

e,

too

mucb)

may appear to Aw, rt.
;

jiv verb

zivastan,
jivdliy
'

live,' Aw. xt.jiv, Pahlv, Mod. P. zhtan, Pres. conj.
live,'

sad, Pablv. sahastan ' tbink."*

gud verb apa witb
*

*

bide/
'

Aw.
tbou

(as long as) tbou mayest
'

rt.

guz

;

jivd dargam
(cp.

tbou mayest
sg.

live long,'

*

bide,
'

pres.

conj.

Aw.

2

conj.

bardhi near

apagaudaydhy
hide
'

(if)

mayest

pay do).

as imperative
hide.'

md apagaudaya
f.,

do not
*
'

ha{n)diujd' sb.

sg. ace. -dm,

edict.'

m. god,' Aw, hagha, Mod, P. Bagh-ddd pi. nom. -dhaQi) (Aw. comp. aspdonho), instr. -aibieh.
®

baga-, sb.

*

;

'

THE OLD I'ERSIAN INSCRIPTIONS AT BFIIISTAN, COL. lY, §§ S-18. 259
uham, naiy dranjana(h) aham, naiy zurakara(h)* aham naiy adara naimaiy huvatam zura(h)' Upariy abastAm* upariyayam naiy sakaurim* akunavara. Martiya(h) hya(h) haniataksata* manu viCiya, avam (b)ubrtam
taurau.

abaram, hya(h)
14,

avam

(h)ufrastara aprsam.
ksa3'aCiya(b)
:

Tatiy

Darayava(h)a8
,

Tuvam ka

ksaya6iya(h)

hya(h)

aparam

aby, jmartiya(b)

bya(b)

dranjaDa(b)

abatiy,

byava,

zurakara(b) abatiy, avaiy raa dausta, avaiy abifrastadiy* prsiu

Tuvam ka bya(h) aparam Tatiy Darayava(b)us ksaya€iya(b) 15. ixnum dipim vainaby, tyara adam niyapisam, iniaivA patikaia" matya' vikanuhy, yava' jivaby ava avaiy parikara.®
:

10.

Tatiy Dara3'ava(b)us ksaya€iya(b)

:

Yadiy imam dipim vainaby,
biya(li),

imaivapatikara, naiydis vikanaby utiimaiy yava tauma abatiy parikarab(i)di8,
A(l»)ni-a!nA7i(b\

tiivam

dausta biya(b), utataiy tauma vasiy

uta

darj^m
17.

jiva, uta tya(b)

kunavaby A(b)urmazda
ksaya€i3'a(b)
:

kuuautuv.

Tatiy Dumyava(b)us

Yadiy imam dipim imaiva

patikara vainaby, vikanab(i)dis, utamaiy yava tauma abatiy naiydis parikaraby, A(b)uramazdataiy jata biya(b), utataiy

tauma mii biya(b), uta tya(b)

kunavaby, ava taiy A(b)uramazda nika(n)tuv.

Imaiy martiya tyaiy adakay 18. Tatiy Darayava(b)us ksayaCiya(b) avada aba(n)ta yata adam Gaumatam, tyam Maijnm, avajanain, liya(li)
:

^

zurahara- adj.

f

wrong-doer,' sg.
'

^

ahifrashU-^ sb.
ahifraslitd
i.e.

f.,

loo. sg. -ddiy^
lit,
'

noni. -fl(A)

naiy aham
'

I

was no
*

/,€.,

adiy
*

sword-

wrong-doer
"

(Mod. P.
sb.
f.,

zurgar).
'

questioning,'

punishment witb

dbashtd-,

law

(by no

the sword

'

;

avail/ uhifrashtudiy

prsd

means the Awesta) ace. sg. -dm, * shakawtm, unknown word.
;

'punish them witb capital punishment.'
"
'

patikara-,
' ;

sb.

m.,

pi,

ace.

-d

^

zurah'f

sb,

n.,

8g.

aec.

-a{Ii)

picture
'

Mod. P. paikar.
*

'wrong,

injustice,'
:

Aw.

zurn-jata^

Mod,
*

Pers. znr

ziira{Ji)

ahunavam
t/iirakhsh

man verb

think,'
;
'

Aw.

I

did (not) wrong.'
*

Pablv. menitan

pres. eonj.
if

rt. man^ maniydhy

tahhsh verb,
active,'
;

Aw.

{yadiy arathd)
rt.

thus thou

may est
false,'

*be

gelical'
*b«'

witb

Mod. P. tukhshd 'ener-, endeavour,* (h)am
*

tjjink,' wa///ci(/«)
*

duniLhtam maniifdhy
it

lest

thou niaycst think

active,*
'

iniixrf.

middle

durukhtam maniydtiy *he may think
it

ham-atakhshaiij

I

endeavoured,

false.'
*

ham-atahhshatd mand vi thiyd *he was
active

ydrd con j.

*

as long as

* :

jirdhy
'

on

the

side

of

my
tbey

*

family,'

thou mayeat

live,'

taumd ahati^

as

ham'ataLh8ha(n) td
active as uiy followers.'

were

long as mankind exists.'
"

See page 23G, note 16,

;

260

PAUL HORN,

Bardiya(h) agaubata. Adakaiy imaiy martiyahamataU8a(n)ta annsiya mana:
Vi(ii)(iafrana nama(n),

Vayasparaliya^ patra(h), Parsa(h)
;

;

(H)Qtana(h)

nama(n), Tukrahya* putra(h) Parsa(h)

GaQbruva(h)''' nr4ma(n), Mardnni-

yahya* putra(h), Par8a(h)
Parsa(h)
;

;

Vidarna(h) nama(n), Bagabignahya* pntra(h),
nama(ii),

BagabuKsa(h)*

Daduhyahya'

putra(h),

Parsa(h)

Ardamanis* nama(ii),
19.

Vahukabya" putra(h), Par8a(h).
:

Tatiy Darayava(h)ns K8aya6iya(h)

Tnvani ka

lcsayaCiya(h),

hya

aparam ahy,

tyama

vidam

martiya

.

.

tya(h)

Darayava(h)aus

aknnavam

*

Vayaspdra-f m. gen. sg. -ahyd;
of a Persian.

*

Bagdbuhhsha-,

m.,

nom.

sg,

name
^

-rt(/<);

one of the seven conspirators,
'

ThuTchra-t m., gen.

sg.

-ahyd;

'

Megabyzos
*

('

redeemed by God').
m.,
gen. sg. -ahyd

name of a Persian (' the red suk'hra. Mod. P. surkk),
*
*

one,'

Aw.
JDdduhya-,

Gaubrtwa-f m.,
'

nom,

one of the seven conspirators against
sg. -a(A),

Gobfjas
bull'').

(*

having the eyebrows

the false Smerdis.
of
'

a

Ardiimani-y m., sg. nom. -ish

;

*
*

Marduniya-,

sg.

gen,

-ahyd

one of the seven who killed the

false
'),

Mardonios.'
*

Smerdis
m.,
sg.

(* of

upright disposition
gen.

Bagdhigna-,
;

gen.
®

•ahyd
to

name
*

of a Persian (according

Vahulca'y
of
').

m., sg.
Persian

-ahyd.

Justi

having splendour

from

Name
'

a

(from

rahu

God').

good

.

.

THE OLD PERSIAN INSCRIPTIONS AT BEHISTAN^ COL. IV, §19-C0L. V,

§ 6.

261

COLUMN
1.

V.
:

Tatiy

Darayava(h)ns ksaya£iya(h)
ra
. .
.

Ima(h)
.

ii/a(h)
.

adam aknnaimaima(h)

vaw .... ma JahyHUs hauv

.

€ardam ....

€a K8aya£iya(h)

.

vajanam

.

ha,c/lma(h) hamitriyd abava(h).
7/ja<'istain

7 martiya{li)

.

nAina(n) (H)uvjiya, avam
frdiksLyam.

aliunai'a{n),

Pasava(h)

adam karaw
mand

(n)vvjam,
,

3/artiya(h) Gaubruva(h) nama(ii) Pdrsa(h)^

ba(n)daka(h) avamtsdm waCistam akunavam,

Pasdva(h) hauv Ganhri(va(h)

hadd hir^ asiyava(h) (H)uvjam, bamaranam akunaus bada hamitriyaibis.
Pasava(h)
. .

ut&saiy
ma7rt
.
. .

marda .... uta
dabyans
.

ava)7i

• .

imaimam agrhdya(h) uta

anaya(b) abiy
2.

. .

dvahanam. avadasim avdjanam,
:

Tatiy

Darayava(b)u8 l5saya€iya(h)
;

A

, •

nta

^hydum

A(b)ara-

mdtzd^^manddastaydakunauk
avaikdik
3.*

vasna A(h)nramaz(^Z<!?ha(b) ya£a kama(b) aha(h)

aknnavam.
Tatiy Ddrayava{h)uts
.
. .

Ic

sdyaf iya(Ji)

:

Hya aparam imam ya
asiyavam abiy Sakam
pisa viyatara
.

..

hatiy, uta jivabya
4.

Tdtiy Darayava(b)us k8aya€tya(b)
. •

:

. . .

.

. .

Tigram baratya . aniyam agrbdyam
rtvada

iy abiy

darayam avam

.

.

.

Ti

.

.

ajanam

...

abiy

mam uta .... SaZrt<(n)ka nama(n),avam agrbdyam..,
. .

aniyam m&tihtam .

am

aba, pasava(h)da

. .

5.

Tdity Darayava(b)n8 ksaya£i?/a(/0
.

• •

Da" iiaiy

A(b)nramazdaih

yadiy vasna A(h)uramaz<itfAa(A)
6.

..

akunavam.
:
.
.

T&Ciy Ddrayava{}i)nh

f:

'idyatiya(Ji)

A(h)nramazdam

yadatfi

. .

.

uta jivaliya, uta ...

The wet of the

Inecription (§§ 3-C) is too

much decayed

to allow as to restore

a

runniDg text

:

;

262

ADDENDA ET CORRIGENDA.
P. 160,

1,

16, read 17,
3,

:

*^];dbaros

{Anddatoa)^

i.e.

*A/iap8aros.

1.

(Amardatos) for {Amhrdatos),
postulates ybr postulate,

P. 161,
,,

1.



1.

16,
12,
1,

Geiger/or Geiger.
but
is still

P. 162,

I.

vivid

enough

as a figure.

P. 163,

1.

or in the images that rise

upon the Crest

.

.

,

L
N, N.
1.

18,
9,
1.


2,

an agent /or the agent.
read
:

merezdatd.

10,
8,

1.

2,

Khshathra.

P. 164,

read: Khshathra Vairya, as an Amshaspand, has a special

duty or charge.

P. 165,

1.
*

4,

read

:

But, perhaps, back of
*

this association of
is

Khshathra
even some-

Kingdom* with aydkhshusta

Molten Metal,' there

thing more.

P. 166,

1.

13,
1,

add
1.

:

or by eternal supremacy in the realm of

Ormuzd.

P. 168, n.

2,
5,

read: Wittenberg.

n.

1.

Astronomia philolaica,

n.
3,
3,

1,

8,

Antwerp, 1703,

II, p. 55,

P. 169, n.

read

^j

and

^j for ^^ and *^i.
:

P. 170,

11.

16 and 17, read

Pharbardin (throughout)


P. 171,
P. 173,

n. 8, 11, read *i*«
1.

4, read:

from the creation
:

of the world.

1.

10, read

was drawn up.

P. 174,

1.

16, read:
1.

Antwerp /br Paris;
at the

P. 175, n. 24,

3,

add

end

also

my

article,

Zu den

hyzantinischen

Angahen ueber den altirdnischen /Calender ^
XI, pp. 468-472.
P. 234,
§ 6,

in Byzantinische Zeitschrifti

read: Darayava(h)u8.

APPENDIX

I.

THH OLD PERSIAN TKXT
OK TirK

INSCRIPTIONS AT HEHISTAN,

A Memorial

of Darius Hystaspes-

COLUMN
1.

I.

m.TT'TrT.v

m^lA-]^m<^.m.r<m{'}<vfh<r\

1 «fT.<<.rTT.T<'.T<T.TT.Tf!TT. ^(ttt.'TtT. 1 {<rT.<<,fTT.r<-.T<T.rf.Tf. 1 ^.nr.ET.TE.rf.Tf. \. <<TT <<.TTT.,f Kr.tr.rf V T!.<=(rHfTr'(tTT.>M. 1 fT.^.^M.m.TEl K,f 1 ^.^fi.R. t nT.:Er.<<.!TT.^M.KTf V ^(^.?TT. r
'TH.M.ET.^.

r

-«rT.^?TT.,f.y<T.Tf.rf

TTT,

!tt.

H«\m.'iii^<rjr<TiA^

c.

,-3).

msT.^.mrhT.Kr^'.tTT.
TtT,^<.

V

^.rf.^w.m.

1

fTT.ET.Tt.rfm.ET.m

r

nT,ET.Tf.T<^!TT.sT.tTT.TTT.H.KT<^tTT.

V

^.ff.^TTT.m.

1

'M.'^irT.^. Veil. 3-6).

3.Kr?TT^TTrnTf
T{T.rf.,f

V

nmsr.rf'THXfT^.

V

«TT.?<.m.,f

1

m.>Tg<^<.T<'.£T.nT .£TTtr

rf

V

>Tg.i<>.-TTT.

V

t Omittoil la the B. luscriplions.

11

THE BEHISTAN

IXSCRIl'TIONS,

<H,mfTT.>TTMff.^.Tf.Tf.!lT.

1.

lf^T.Kr<^tTf/TTT.Krf

1
t
v

Kn^!rT.

V

^.^{W^'llA^'ill

1

fTT/TTr.tTf.^Tl.fTT.

m.-rTr.nT.<<TT.-TTT.

V

^M.^n.'TTT.tTT.r ^{Tr.^.tTT,f.r^T.t?.rf.tTT.

r^'.KT.rr.rf

^TrT.rf rr.rf

Irr.K

1 V mMrT. 1 ^(T^.^TtT. V
.

V 1

{{{?.

1

TTT.^im.

V

^TTTXRrTTr.fTT.Tf.rTr. ^

^r^Xnry^.'rTT.

M.^.trr.rf .T^T.rr.Tf .trr.
{^{{T.

r

1

^ElXn.^.Tr.^TTrm

^TtMK-TtT.

r

!^.T-(^^M.

1

-({rT.^.tTT.rfKT.TT.Tfnf.r

fTT.^TTT,KTfV(ii.9-H).

^I.

\.(11. 11—12).

V A^WM. 1 TT.^TTT.m. V
8. KT.tfT.^iTT.rf.rf
«=(!??.

n.nrM.rf 'T^xn.^.
n.^^.T{^nT.r^.

t
\.

«mm
i
-m.
frr.^??.^!.

i

^TiT.T^'.nr.

^

^.«=TTT,ff.Tf!TT.rf.^.

V

^Ts.^^Ttt,

^M.W.n.tTTX^It

tfT.n-TTT.^.tTT.^M.l {{TT.^.tTT.rfT^T.rr.rf.

1
v

tTT.KT.^n.^T.m.

1

fTT.sET.^r.tTT.Tf.

i

^{'^.n.^r.fTr.X'

.

COLUMN

I,

§§ 4-9.

iii

TtTMI m.£T.K^.rr.^( V MtMtT-.<?t.K V ^.sy.T^Hs 1
<<rT.R.Tf.<<.

V

TEXTT.<s:<fT.n.i -(TT'.fi.tTTEr.r

t^.ka kmit.

T<r f r.,f A

.

rr.'TTT.fTT.

^
\.

.

UU'm^]^. ^
^TE.<<.f(!TT.

.

^TtT.t'(-.?tt.

1

.

^W<m
V

fy'^hiriA'^TiM.
<^(

\.

frf.^n.^T.-TrT.T-T.n.fTT.

V

'MKtTT.l

^T.n.T^m.

V

m.K^TTl.m.t >TtW?tt. V^T.m.
^TTT.rf^.m-TTT.
{^.tr-.tif.

^s.tt'TtT. 1.

nr.^T.^T.^TTTtTT. ^.

'M.

1.

m.KTXrf r

«rT.<<.^.'Ts.!Tt. A

sr.^frM^TTT.u.
1.(11.

'TE.m.V m.-T^.t

!Tf.<T.<Ti.'H£.Tf^TTT.!fT.

.7-20).

V «m^A'. KT.tf.rf.V m.^TrM.t tf-M.m. 1 rT>(,fm.'Is 1 -MET. ^TTT.TT.rf r HAr\. tTT.{n^^rTl.m. V m.K i m.-T^TM
8. Kr.rff.^M.tf.rf
.

1

n.m.sT.rf/T^Xn.^.

r rTTXnEy-TTT.H,n.fTT,{=( 1. urTTfm.r ??>< Tf!TT'T£. 1 ^M.TfKfTt.v 'TrKfTri n.nT.^rTr.m. V m. TH<TrfT<<.rTt.'rTT. ^ET.rr.T<-.?TT.,f 1. 1 •(^(R'fTT.'Trn.
'T£<<KnT.
m.T<T.<^(T<'.1 m.'TiE.T<T.m.'\ .mXIXn.^l'TiE.T^'.^TTT.frT.)
.

(,,

2o-«).

9.

T<T.m.^TTT.?f.Tf

r

?T?TTET.,HEXfT.<<

1

"«rT.?<m.i<'.

KTrrrf r

!Tf.<fT.ET.'M.T"T.f!.rrT.V 'TTT.^(?Tt.V «TT.<<.^.'Trn

.. .

iv

THE BEHISTAN INSCRIPTIONS,

T<(sT.fTT.^T.£T.

V

tTT.^.^r.^TTT.T-T.n.tTTrTTT.TT.Tf.

V m.

TMTT.m.'Trn.

Ttt.^T.^T.V

rf m.^M.tTT.

V

rfrM.l m.<<.

tHtTA. <^ry.^.HTn.

R.fn.^r.rf rr.mr.X'.Vc,.

2.-20).

10.

Kf.m.^M.tf.rf

1
.

n.fTT.^T.Tf 'TE.<n.r<.

V «\nmA'.
ffT.^y.^Ts.-TTT
^.{f!.^.

KT.rM'.l

tHtU.
.

^iTT.rf

V
1

^M.^fn.

1 ^.^sHTHrn.
. .

^.T^.tTT.'TE.^ ,{'.T<r.!fTA
T^^TXfT.--(^.TT.rf.

^TIxl.m.Tf .Kr.rr.rf \
<rx?!.£rxfT.<<.

A

r

^.m.^TTT.

t

>TTT.nT.'«TT.-TTT.V

^TTTXMTT.fTT.rf.tTT.r

Hm^A.
.

V m. ^^m.
trrrT^,

T^.^TtT.

r

TT.n.fTT.

1

{{TT.^.rT.rf .r^r.rt.rf

V

nrX^I

V

^.^T.'(n.^'(^.tt.T{'

V

tTT.^rsrTTT.

r

^r.^r.^TT.Tr.rf.^TTr.

\

fTT.'T^.nr.'KV

rfKT.m.l
,

^.^r.<TT.^'(!H.Tr.Tf

.

t

^r.sT.srr.rr.rf.

M.'^

.tTT'T^.trrrK^ ^.tTT.^TX^.rf .trr.l
^TTT.Tf

<fiA^'^

.

frr.y-T.n.m.l

?TT.^!rT£.V

1

^T.£Mr.rf.,f

r fTT-TM^M. 1

^

i^.tTT.'T^.r

MXTTr^E.rr.rf

r

sf^fT.nET.m.rf'TTn. m.

tHtTA

.

rTT.r<.Tf .rf .!£,

^ r^.r^.m.^T^.i
.

.

r^msr.

1 frr.^TTT.Ki
.

COLUMN

I,

§§ 10-12.

V

«^(Tf .rf .?TT.<?T.'TS.tTTA

.

fTX^lT^'.^Tf.^^TT.'T^.tTt^

.

(ii.

26-35).

11.

T^T.m.^TTT.rT.Tf

r

n.m.^T.rf'T^xn.^.

r ninmAr
^nM'TrT.

m.KV
'M.m.

<TT'.<?T.'TTy.?TT.^M.1.

^(nr.-Mr

Hm^.\.

V
.

<^(?T'.!TT.

1

^.fT.r<.rT.T<'.tTtXH£.fTT.?T.fTt.Tf?TT.l

mEr>.n,Errr.r<.
TTT.-TE.n.<<. 1

V

Kfrr.-rTM.

V.mHA.

KTT'.m.l

fvfiA\«il<HAr\. 'TrT.m.Ktf m.

^TXR.n'.^T.rr.^.V

KT.MTT.m.r trr.KV

1 <«n. Tf£rTjT,f 1
<?T.n.

'"(({fT'T^.r KK^rt.fT.tf .,<'.!

m.^TrT^.r Kn-.Trr.!

T^=T.<n.

^^.Tf.rf m.

r

tTT.^T.TT.tf

1

fTf.'TMTn.

m.^.Tr.rf -T^.

<?t.^TtT.?ttV ^.fTT.£T.T£.1.

{MTT.m.r -TTmTT.V

t <yT.'M.!TT. V v v
-TTT.m.

m.Ktt.rfnr.

r

n.KTf.frr.'TiH.

V

^<TT.r<.HTT.

r

<^(<!Trrs.t

rTT.^yT'.ET.^T.fTT.Tf.^TTT.m.

r

<TT>.ET.-TTT.^,.n.<'(rf.

Krfm.r
^.TiE.m.'TE.

;{{;T.r ET.-(n.n'.^T.rT.r<.i t<t.t^^ttt.?tt.

mxr

V

^.^T.{?T.'-(E.?f.,f

V

-(n.'TE.m.'M^T.rdf.

A-mO.

frT.'TTT.ET.n.if'=TTT.?TT.l(„. 35-«).

VI

THE BEHISTAN INSCRirTIONS,
fTTTT.^TTM.

rfMff.rf.r
M.fTT.^M.

M?<.HtT.
frr

1.

^TtU.

1.

-(THtT.

V HAr\.
^.

^lil<^\m<A.

srT.fr.KfTT.

1

MXfr.

rfiA^i^i

irj.^iim.«i].^]ii

r

^TTrxR.-Trr.nT.rf .m.

i

m.K r

^.T^.tTT.^TE.

r
V

{THMrT.fTf.^TTM.

KrfV
•(?[.

^^^.•(n.^.

1

nrMT.rr.KfTT.

1

MX?T.'-(£.rf.TMTM, {%
^M.m.TT.'TTn.

^Mmv
^TTT.fTT.1
.

^.tTT.^T.r^.'M.
.

<MTMr
.

?TT.^.rT.if .!tt.

1 nX^(Tf .m.'T^. 1

^Trm V

-(R.^T^mriir<TT,rf^M.

H^. >1^. \ frr.rf T^. v trrxrxn.^TTTmr

i3-T{T.WfrMrr.Tf
T^y.tf.Tf

V

n.tTT^£r.rM£.<Tfr<.

V m.r<^A.

V

Ktr.rf

r

trrX^d 'TTM.^M.rt.rf 1 ^tf.rf.V

{^TTrM.i ^Mxn.^TTT.m.Tf.m.i ^.rs^.rf .x^.
'T^.-TtT.

V

•(TT'.^rTTr.rTf.^TTr.'TTT.

r ha^a. m. 1 ^TTT.TfrTrT. V ^TtT.
l^riill^Vfi

<£:<?T.'TtT.
rf.lTT.

r m?<.HTT.V
TrtTT.ET.^.tfrTTT.
^.

£n.r?.^TTT.-TTn,
<=(?!'.??!.

V

V

R.^T.^.^TtT.

1

Krr.Tf n?.

r Km.^HTT.t M.m.^rTr.Tf/TrT.nT/rTT. t nT/TE.nT.•'K<Tr.T'(^!fT. 1 «Tr.^.^.tTf.T^.nT.^M.Tr.Tf. V ^rrLrf. V nr.nrTTT. V Hjrrf t .y.^ysyy.rf.Tf.V trr.y^^rr.rf V -(^df.^ ^TXTT.^T.-(T!.r<.l^,'(f!.RV
m.'i^.KTf ^T.tTT.^n.tr.Tf

nm^m

r t

Ktf.

V

^.^tH'Ttt.

1

^r.Er.sTT.rf.rHTn. m.

.

roixMN

I,

§§

l.')-14.

vii

KT.riHrTTTKfr.Tf
^ttt.tMtt.

V ^^Vf^AA.
^.T^.!tt.-T£.

"(yiMTl.'M.m.^TTT

-M.

1

V

'M.<£'.'(?T.-TTn.

rf tTT.^TTT.m.

r V V

m.n-TTT.r
tTT.<n.sT.
!tt.<tt.£T.

tfT.ET.T^-TTT.

V

V

m.rr.'TTT.

'TTT.H.fT.m-TTT. 1.

^.^M.ff.if.!fT.-T£.<^(Tf..<'.
<?! ^^.TE.^TTT.m.'TTT

TrT.M.n.lTT TTT.rr.Tf 1
.

.

.

^

.

m.^T.^T. 1 ^T.m.
.

<TKf!TT.?T.fT.^.

1

^TTT.mX^(TftTT.

1 (V

^TXn.fT'.^T.TT.^.

t

T<T.MTT.nT.i ?Tf.Ki fTT'T^.Rrfr.r itt.Mtt.i

Kn.m.

V

{TT'Xn.-TTT.m.^iTHTn. ^M.rf -m.
T^.nT.-T(^(-TTT.r <n.^TTT.m.

v

'MX£:<fT.-TTn, m.

V ^TT.if rf.^.rr.rf 1 KI^T.^TtT. t m.K TTT.ffT.V M.^T.^TTT.ff.Tf m. V fTTX^Mrf.^.ff.rf ^TrTm. V T^.Tf.T^rf -(n.^TE.^TTTrr.^. V H^rim. V ETT.rr. KtTT.'TTT.tTT. r n.Ktf!rT.'(fT.r<.v n.m, V ^(rf.T^.tTT.Tf 1 frHE.R.^.Tr.^TTT. 1. fTr.'T^.tTT.'K^MTT. t 'TTT.m.R.tf.rf r mn.-TrT. r tTT^ir.rf.^'TTT. \. «nr<,R.'TTT.<<.TT.-TTT. r
frr.

'i^r<.^<m. tTTxn.^T.-TTT.H.n.tTTX^i^

.

m.n.-TTT.i

mr<^A'.

m^lA-rf^iM. \. «!T.r<m. rfKTrr.rf V «TT.^.HTT.t ^M.rf r Kn-.trr. V m.-MfTT. ^.^HT.fTT.^T.iEHTHTT, r ^TTT.<n.'TTT.tTT.rf.?fT, r «tt.-ttt. r
14
t<T.nT.'T,T.Tf.i<'.

\.

.

m.Kv

m.'TE.i fTTTT-TTn. ^.^M.n.s.n.'M.v

nT.<T.<n.^(

VIU

THE HEHISTAN INSCRIPTIONS,

'Ts.'M.V fTrMTr.^.THTU.

^TT'.tTf.KT.-TsH.fTT.

1

m.^r^.trr.

TE.^M.nT.rHTM.
nrrT^.KI.m.

,"(^T<T.rTT

r

^.{({TtrrS.'M.Tf-.Tf.rf

V

V

trrl'TTT,

t

fTT.<r.<TT.H.'T^,>TTr.

V
\.

m.T•(^

nxm. r
<£:-(n.^.v

^M.TffTT.r <TK<(fT-M.mrrTn.
?^.T?.Tf.Kr

ha

>m.

nr.n.^TTn. ^rf.rf^.tTT.^T.rHTn.
nT.^T.nT.n-.^T.Tf.?<.

KtTT.ETX^iTf.tTT.
-TTT.?!^tTT.

1
V r

^.

nvr^'um.

1
1

'TrT.!TT.«^(Tr.THTT.^.?TT.

t

n.T^T.ri.^T.Tf.^.rf'.frr.

1 1

^TT.Tf.fTT.srr.T?.^.

(TT'XTTrTTT.tTf.^TTT.

r

HA'.
T^.Ttt

V

'TtT.

<£'Xn.^.

ffT.sn.rr.KfTT.

1 frrMrU.

sHtT.

{if.m.T^T-TE.tTT.

tTT.'T^B.T^.^rTT.m.rf.'TTr.

T^rM.R^.tTT.
rf.tTT.

1

'TTT.?TTMTT.?!^TTr.

1

•(fT.'TTT,?TT.

r V

^.rrrsr.
fTT.'(tf.

1

?fX^.Tf.!TT.'T^.

r

rfT^T.tTT.

1

fAWr^i^.
^sTrrr.

TTy.?T^Tt.TfV!TT.M^ml trr.MTT.t ^M.rfl
^T.^MtHtT.

V

^.=TTT.TrTftfH.£T.^rTM.

^T^.?<.H.Tfr.

V

m.MTM. rrrXnTiH 'T^-.TtT. V TtT.MtT. V K^rTMTr.m^.tr.rf 1 rffTf.^MtTT.t
m<?T.£T.^M.H.n.?TT.K

r

rf.^TTn.

KH^.n?.

V

Wf.-TE.tTf.r^.^rrT.m.Tf'TTt.

r

rf.r^r.m.i
K^TtT.
\.

^.-((-(tT.-TMTT.n-Jr.Tf
^TTH^TT.^.TT.rf

V

tTT-Ts.T^r.frf.r nr.fT.TTn.

r

-T^.^.H.!?!.

r

m%^hm-WM<
1
Krr.rf

fi.KTrM.V ^yTT.TftTT/M.V tTT.'M.rrrX^rHTT
^.^M'^I.ET.V
01. 61-71).

1

. .

COLUMN
15-

T,

§§ 14-16.

ix

V «))m^. Tf KT.rr.rf \. tt.-TtT. t ^TiT.rf 1 m.rr.^TTT. V !tt.<T.<tt.K >T£>M. V ^.T^.m.'T^. V if m.m.V '«ir.<<.nT.i<'.T<T.Tt.,f V
m.tTT.^M.rr.rf
fT.rrTiET.Tf 'TE."(?T.^.

r

tTT'^T'TE'TTn.
16-

(11.

71-72).

KT.m.^TTT.n.rf A.

?!.!TT.^y.rM£.<n.?<.

V

•«TT.<<.tfT.Tf

m.TT.rf

V

rf.KT.tTT.

r

TTT.n.^M.l <TT'.-(n.-m.m.^TTHTT.

1

^TTT.rf-TTT.

r !TT.-T£.nT.^T(^(-TTT. r ^. TE.fTT.'T^.r HTT.^HTl.ri.Tf 1 mTl<^. H^rlilA. m. n.^MiT.^^df V ^MA. Hm^A. -(n.n.^.^M.^TTT.tTT.V
V
>TTT.'(£^<TT.TTT.
tTT.

V nr.K^.rf.rf 1
ffT.MTT.

•(fT.'Ts.'Ktr.rf

V

iiinm.ArUiririr

\.

^.T^.m.'TE.

V

(n.-TE.'Krf.rf m.

V
V

KK^tt.
fTT.^.IT.

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^

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1 Krf V K^T^n.KTT.^M.KTftrT. V ^.mA. ^.TE ffr.-TE. 1 KffT.ET. V Krf.V^m.^T.tH^n.ft.ff.Tfr
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Wonls
2

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Old Pt-nian text nro heru marked by antorUks.

X

THE HE HIST AN INSCRIPTIONS,

rfT<y.!r.Tf

1

^.T^.m.'TiE.

1

fTT.fi.-TTT.

1

^.m.sT'TTT.f.

^.tMtT.V ffTrT^.fTf.'TK'M.Vdi.
18. T^T.m.^TTT.Tf.rf

si-ss).

V

n.tTT.^r.rf ^r£."(TT.?(.

V «m<!mA.

V m.-TMrT.V ^(srT.fr.'M. ^r.fr.^TrTTT. r HA.\. ^i^imu^n^^u. nrXTfXn.^T. ^TrT.nr.r ^.trr.^T.V Krf V ^(sTT.n.^TTM.rf ETX^Irf 1 V tTT.R.nr.^T.rf V frr.-T^.n.m. V ^TTT.fTXTT-.^T.nr'TTT. 1 frr.^T.n.^. \. H^.^Ti tfr.fT.^.'TTT.^MB. ^. TftTT.V fTT.KV S.T^.nr.'lss.r mMrT.V KnT.EHTT.l TTT...^Xn.^T^.tTT.l m-TEM^HrT. r fTTKfT.rf V nrXTXnH-T^rTTT. 1 miTiA^M. ..^.^TB.^T.TT'M. V
m.^.TT.iMiErTTT.l
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mxTT.^T-TTT.r-r.

COLUMN
fTT.'KK'TrT.

I,

§§ 17-19.

xi

HA'M

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V >T^.T^.ff.r<>. V m.R.n.Tfm.sTT.fT.Tf. 'fAWMA^. \. W^l V ^T.<n.?T-.^T.TT.^. V

KT.^WtM V

m.Kr
83-90).

ffT.'T^.KT.tTT.VK'TTMK-M.l

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18-

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miii'A.

^.TsH.m.^TsH.r

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BEHISTAN INSCRll'TlONS,

COLUMN

II.

miAA.

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COLUMN

II,

§§ 1-5.

xiii

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nt.

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.

Xiv

THE BEHISTAN INSCRIPTIONS,
e. T{T.?tt.^TtT.??.t{'.

^

m^iA-]^.m.

\.

«m^A'.
TTT.nr.R.V

mhi'X

KtTT.^T.l ^.trr.^T.T^.V
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-(MiTmr

Krf 1 m'mA.
K-M.r WMA.
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WMA. H.m^X
Kffr.'M.V

MtT.

^.T^.m.-TiE.vtfTMTT.l K^.^ET.-Trn.

m^T.!rT.?T.^.Tf -M.

V mR.EK V

^.m^T.
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m.-T;E.-TTy.^.tTT.^TTT.

1

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!tt.T<TXM.-TtT.V ^.^T.tt.^TtT.Itt.V rT.^T^-TTT.r

r ^.trr.^T.^rTT. V
TTT.^IfTT \.

^TtT.tHtT.1 M.m.n.^TTT.V-K^TTT.m.
KTT.rf A.
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V

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t
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'TtT.^T.^.'TtT.

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r

nr.^.TT.Tf ^i^.

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nr-Kl

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COLUMN

II,

§§ 6-7.

XV

KTrr.^n.

HA' A.

-TTTKnT. A.

Mn.l

Km-TTTm V

tT.KT'(^m.•(?T.^. VTTT.fTf.Rff.T^'.

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XVI

THE BKHISTAK INSCUIPTIONS,

nT/r^.KT.!TT.^.tTT.'TTT.
'^TtHtT. A.
8.
(11.29-37).

1 K^1)l^)MM. V

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V f!.nT.£T.TH£.{n.<<. V «]imAr mU^A. ^.^M.rr.rf V <(iHT.<n.?^.fr.^TTT.TT.THTT. V <^mri
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t

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COLUMN

II,

§§ 8-10.

xvii

^m.tHtt.v

V m.-Kv T£.Ts.n.,f\ T<T.!TT.TT.<Tr.£T.n'.n.^. \ TTT.nT.Krfm. v ri^t. i ^m. ^'}Wr<. V T^T.^.^TTT.tTT. V m.K 1 tTT'T^.KT.tTT.^.nT.'M.V K-M.^K-TtT. 1 ^JhHtHtT.V ^.T£.tTT.-Ts. V RtfT. n.iET.?<.Tf.^. V tT'.ff.^TTTlTT, V -TTTtrr.-TTT. 1 m.'M.lTT.^lTf 1 V rf ffT.^TTT.m r mn.'TTT. r frrsriErTTTi n?
KT<^tT.^.n.Tf'TTy.

10.

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Xviii

THE DEHISTAN INSCRIPTIONS,

^.frrf-TrT.

1

Itt-K

r

^T^.T^.fr.rf

1

!Tf.KtTT.^TTTM(T'(^\

m<A.
11.

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V mxmA'.

^.ff.rf n?.

V

K^rr. TTT.^TT.tTT.v

s.M.ff.^TTT.nr.r ^.^TtT.??.^.

v v 1

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!TT.-(?f.^TTT.Tfrfm.sT.

r

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V

^.m.-Mnf.
tTT.^TS.n.tTT.

tTT.ST.K^fTKTr.rf.
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r

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r

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ror.uMx ir, §§ 11-1^!.

xix

KfT'.nr.

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rf.nTrr.rf

t

^.TE.ffT.'Ts.

V

V «il<<^. Hm^. V T<(eT, v
^m.^TTTm.

>TE eT.^TtT

rr.<<.\ {^(Ti m.'^

.

T^'TtT.^ ?r^T.TT.^.l !tt.T:e .y m.^T.??.

^wx<.

\

^^Hml^.
y
.

EUTr.m.

i

R.Krf fTT.<?T.?<. 1
TE.
1
.

'TTmR.ff.x-.
fTf R.-TtT

1
.

nT.-T;Einf.v!ff.r<ff.T<'.
.

^ TE fTT -TE.

^

Tm eT.'TtT ^

T«ET.nT.f f .^.

t<'.-TtT

VTtT.,<-

f f .^.^TtT f f .rf \T<|1ET

-TE ET.^TrT.f f .r< 1 ?fT.<TTMET.

^TfTfrMTT.m
'TTTfTT'TrT
'^

V

<fT.^TTT.!ff.^..m.^<rf'TTT?TT.r

m.^T.ffTfl

?ftn-TTT<<ff,f

V

^ff'TTTfTT

^

^ilUH-'^iU

.

XX

THE BEBISTAN INSCRIPTIONS,

<fi.^hm.\

iw.mwA.

mmA.
1

n.H.-flf.'T^-M.i

KlETm-TK'TTT.l <MTm.?<,Tr.Tf
^K-TtT.

n^?<.'TTT.M.mTiH.

1

{^r.^.-T£.ET.Tf.!TT.'TTT.?r.Tf.

1

^T.T^.^TtT.

V

^.TEtTT-rs.

y fTT.n.'TTT. \. Hiir.^w^im.^inA ^. m-i^]^iAm-WfiAr \ nT.^Tx?T.^.^T;HrTTT. ^ <n^)im. ^ TTT.^WTT.TT.rftTT. V ^TTT.rHr.^.n.rf 1 T^I^HtHtT.!??. V !TTX<^<?T.^.fr.T<^nf. 1 iTT.K^TTT.ni. 1 m.'T^.?f.,f r ssTT.Tf.n.nr.^TTl. V K<Tr.-TrHTr.!TT.^,rf.rf V !tt.^TtM. V
. .

T<(sT.mX^HHTT.r(n,.o-7s,
,

14. T^r.tTT.^TTT.fr.rf.

1

n.!fT.^T.T<"T^x?T.^.

r

<{TT.^.m.

i<'.T<T.?r.rf

r

T,-TTT.ET.^TTT.??.Tf.

1

R-.rf.^.^TTT.^TTrTTT.

1
\

HU^rmu \

.

fTT.^r.^Ts.

\

.

v^^^i^^m^m a

.

irT.^T^.KT.tTT.

muH
ihHtT.

\. !tt.htt. \.

{immi^mur \. mmAr\.
1
<!TrT^.«TR.^TTT.^T.<^(T<'.tTT.

m^.<iV.^]-miAr
^TTTXn.'TTT.tTT.rf.m.

V

1

^.T^.tTT.'TS.

1

tTTl^M.

t

T^tTT.

1 1

^.tn.iEr.TMTT.

V

<MTT.!fT,

1

'M.tTT.HTT.l

T<(^T,!TT.n.^.THTT.
'TtT.TitI

V

^MX^TT.^TTT.T^.^.fTT.n.

t Km-M.l
l

^Wm\
V

^T.n>.

r

fTT-T^-TTmnr'TTT.

V tTTrTs.KT.tn. ^.tnrM. V !tt.T^T>HtT, V ^.ET.rWTM 1 Ktrr.^HTT.l ^Mrf-TTU. KK^nfT.n.THTT. V Kif r -TTKtrT.A.
'TTT.KT.ff.^.^TTT-TTT.
!TT.<T.<n.^('TE.'TTT.

COLUMN

II,

§§ 14-lG.

xxi

m.^.rf.TME.

1

K'Ttt.ew-ttt.

v

mxT.^nH^R.^.

a.

'M.n.rf

r

<!t.^.t^.'TtM'Ttt.

V

m.^T.^n. -TEMfTT.!
-TTKffT.V
KK^ff.^.!i.

nfXnET-TTT.H.frm.KV KtTT.^n.
IrT.'TE.'TTT.

V

KItt.eT'TtT.

Krf l V ^TTTrf-M. V

i<''TtT.

V ^R.^TrT.nr. V fT'.Tfi^TTT.«TT:TTT.'TTT. \ !TT.m^iEH.!iTTf V fnKTf r m.^TfTrf V TtM-TtT.V ^T;E.nT-T;E.^.TT.T<-. V !tt1'TtT, A. m^mA. ^(m.K-TrT.V <fT.4TT.!TT. V <TT'.<!T.^.nT. r T<(!ET.m>K^'TTy. V <n.^TTT.m. V
!tt-K
'Ttt.tt.t{'.

r

^t.ts.^ttt.

V

nr.n.nr.ET.n.T<-.

i

{^hkr-t^.

?<.n.'M.v Knr.sn.tTf.^TE.n.^v ^.T^.m.'TiE.^.n.'M.v

nr^T.^T.n.^Tmifnr.

V
V

<!T.H.^M.T<'l!T.^.^TTT.?rTf

l

fffXT.<R.K'TMTT.V(u.78-9i>
15- T<T.!iT^TTT.n.r<'.

fTtff!ET,<-T£<1f^.

V «m^.

X'T<T.n.T<-.Vn.'M.V ^M.rf
'TTl.tTf,fT.tf.T<*.V(11.91-M).

V

'TrKtlT.l

K^WiHtT.I

IB.

KTTfT.'M !!,<'.

1

niTTETX'.'TEXff^.

V

<<TT?<tTf.

,f.T<T.n.Tf

V

^.ETm.-TE.V^?T*TTT.!!T.r

'TEET.KnfHV

'TE.ET^m.n.^.r

m.<TT'.<R.^HiT!Tf

r

ft.r<.»m!n.TE.^

i

. . .

xxii

THE CEHISTAN INSCRIPTIONS,

m.H \.

T^tff.ET.?<.tr.'TTT.

\

.

tfr-TSE.m.sT.n. ^
. .

.

<-<mmUr \
.

m.^Hs. V. 5^..^.^TTT.tTT.T£.^. \

if^.«rmriArf,.^mA
^<.m.'TTT A T£.ET.n.^<-TTT.'\
<^<.'TtT.^T.^(-TtT.
,

Hm. \ T^m.^m. \ HAr ^ ^. ^.immhi^mmx
.

f.^m.-MiA'. \

\ .m.-T^.R.m.^

1 nr.^R.ET.'TTT.H.fT.tTT. M.n.rf. 1 ^n.tTMTM'M. \ m.^M.V -T^.Mnr.V nr.^R.iEHTT.H.n.tTT.K V ft.^^M.nr.TsU KtiTSMTT.l
!fT.{T.{n.^(-T£.

V

ft.?r.lf{<TT.K'(^(X^t

M.nr.Krf m. V ^M.

ET.^n.n-.^T.??.^.

T<T.MTT.!fT.

\.

tn.K

1

nr-TE.KT.tTT.^.E'TTT.
92-98,

1 V K^M.

£W-TtT.V^.^T.4tT.^M.V(1,.

1>H

.

cor.usiN II, §

16

III,

§ 2.

xxiii

COLUMN
i.T<T.m.^rTT.n.Tf.

III.

V

tT.m,sT,HE<n.^.

v

«inm
^ I
v V

^^Tf.^T.TE.-M.

V
^
.

r<(^T.!TT.fT.?<.Tf.-TTr.
<^(!T'.nT.

r
m.

tfT.^T.n.T<-.

ft.^ ^TTT.tTT.TE.^'TTt.

\

.

;sT.<TT'.!rT.rf

\ rf .T<T.tTT.
.

«m^.

V

T^tTT.^T.

r

^.^T.m.^T.Ts.

1

nr.^T.tr.rf \.'

^.^mttmemtt. V
nT.r<'.T;E.^TTT.tTT.
.

^.TiE.nT.'T^.
'^
.

r

ft.?<.^M.tTT.y;E.^.

\ nr-TE >TtT.

Ktrr.isT'M. 1 tfr.^ff .t<-.'Tih. ^
.

^.^TTT.ff.<TT-£M.K?TT.

r

M,nf.-TTT.

t

-T^.^TR.^HtT.

^ET.KT.-TiE.n.TfV !rT.-T£.n!TT..r K-TtT.^T.^HtT.

r

nf.<T<TT.

^im<.\. Kntn.

V

KT<^.TT.w]f.TfMT!.r<.

V

nrXR.^T.

TTT.T-T.RlTT-TTT.rT.T<'.

1
't

<TT.^.T^.^TTT.tTf.'TTT.

V

m.^T.ET.V

^Ts.^Knr.V mxn.^T TTT.H.?T.tfT.<^<
nr-T^'TTT. ^ ^.m.£T.-TTT.
.

1
\
.

?^.?<.^rTT.ffr.TE.^.

V
."

.

^TtT.t<'.-TtT.

HmmA-'fm

nf.-y(

r

'TE.T!E.n,f
T.

v

<TT'.Ey-TTTM.KTf

r 'Mm
Wf.K^,
,_.,

KrfffT.V

V

sT.^R'. OT.n.?<.)r

KT.^.^TTT.trt.V

m

.'T!E T<T ?frr<

nt 'TtT \<'< 'TtT ET;< >TtT

1> ET.^TTrTTTA,,,.

XXIV

TBE REIIISTAN INSCRIPTIONS,

fff.^T-TE.

V

ff.-TrT.

V

^M.rf

\.

^Wm. \.

T^£T.^TTT.'tTT.\

^ET.T<HEn,<V(u.9_.o).

V n.!ff.ET.Tf.-TE.<tf.^. 1 -(^rr.?<.!TT.Tf. mu\. 'h^:^i<B.mx Km-TTT.nr. t R.KXrtw.^n.^. v l-tTT.4'T^.V K"(!T,'TMTT.n.Tf r K^.fHTT.if.ifnT. T«.!ET.!!T.n. T-TiT.iET.^TTT.rr.rf. 1 V ^<fiT.-TTT. A. -TTl.tfT. STXTTVTE. V fn.'TE-TTT. V -TTT.T^T.tr.^.^TTT.'TTT. V ^.TiE.ifT'TE. t trflT.'TTT. TE.^TTT.tTT. r V T<(!ET.nr.?f.r<. t<-'TtT. 1 ff.tTT.n.SHT.^.n.^. V ^(tfr.-M. V ^.m.sT.T^. 1 -TtT. KtTT. V ^T.R.Kl ^T.nT,«TT.^TTT.iET.rT.T<'.nT. 1 <{TT.?<ME Ts.m.r !fT.^T.fr.Tf 1 E^r^rTr m-rs.KT.nrM.Tf r trTrT^rTTT. 1 ^.£T.?!,^Tr,ff.T<', V tfr.T^T.K-TTT. V eT.-TtT. a K.^TT.Tt.rf A HAr \ ^W-m \ HMr \ <iV.<fi.
3. T^.tfT.4TT.?t.T<'.
!iT.'(T.'(R.^<.

T^.tfr.

.

.

.

.

.

.

T^tif.iET.nT.

<mA.

Km V

r

!TT.^.n.Tf.-TE.

r K-MSETK-TTn.
r

trrXTXn.

'TTT.nr.^TXTKrf Mtr.^.

trrXRET.

r MTMrTtrf-M. r m.^T.^u. Ts.^.^<!ff. V nr.-flT.sHTT.Hinr.K 1 T^nf.^T.V HAX >Wm. \. m.-T^.-M. 1 T^.tlT.ET.'TTT. A. ^TTT.rf.^M. V KT<^nin.Tf -TtT. V tfT.-K 1 T£.T;s.n,f, 1 tTT.^n.rfE iETT.n.Tf Krf V MMKTftlT.V^n.V ^M^.^ff.^.l
TTT.H.n.nT.'TTT.tM'.

KT.MTT.ffT.r tTf.KV tTT-T^.KT.tfT.^.tTf.^TTT.VK^TrM.

K^TTT.tTf.EHTTrTTT.rduio-m

COLUMN

III,

§§ 3-6.

XXV

m.'T.'T^.

r

tt-TtT.

1

^TtT.t<'.

\.

-rTHtTT.

r

^.^T.^TTTrTTT.l

^T.m.«TT.^TTM.n.T<'.tTr.V(.,.

19-21).

li-miAr V
^(nr-TTT.
^('TtT.

T TTT.sT.^TTT.rf.Tf

V

^TTT.m.^T.'T^.tTT.

V V

^T^.Krf Hnm^TiT. 1
Km.-lTT.

1

-T^.^eT.n.

1

T<MTt.^TTT.fr.T<ttTT.

V

^(tTT.^TTT.tTT.

r

nx^lr^-rnxfr.^.

V

T£.Tf.T<tV

^.m.^T.Kr<tfrT.

t

fTT.'TS.KT.tTT.

V

tTT.KT.Kl

rfHtm.^M'TTT.

V

?Tf.<<ff.T<^TE.

V

<^«n.'I^.

V

8. I<T.m.^TTT.TT.T<^

V

fT.m.ET.T<-.-TE.<jT.^.

^.

«TT.r<m

TH<T.n.,f

V

^.TE.fTTrTiE.

TE.'M.

V

<?T.^TTTm.

V r

tTf.n.'TTT.r

^.m.ET'M.r^.m.iET.

'TTT.m.n.'TTT.

r

T<(ET.m.n.^.

.

XXVI

THE BEHISTAN INSCRirTIONS,

^m>.

\.

m.'T^'TTT.^.fTT-M.

V

'M.KT.ff.^.^TTT.-TTT.

V

m.<T.-(r!.^.'r^.-M.

Ts.

V

^.T^.tTT.

V HAr\. tTTHTf.rf.t ^m^T, 1 V -M.^^nf. V trr.^.fr.Tf-T^. V
nT.^.Tr.TH^.

^.Itt.eT.

-TTTm.

Kff.m.r KfTT.^ymv

v

^.trf.^y.T^H.'TTT.t

srmr
^T.K^M.
M.tr.rf

^.^TtT.??.^.

l

trT.sT.^TTT-T^.sT.^Tr.rr.Tf.^rTT.V

H

^TtT.eT.^I'TtT.

1

n^£y.^TTT.^<.TT.T'('.

1

?fT.^r.<?T.K^T£.

1 1

^.T^.tTT.^T^.

1

-(^(^TtT.

!TT.-(n.sT.-M.H.n.tTr.

V

<?firs.^TTT.?TTrTTT.

V nr.^M.r

TE.^Ktrr.l

mxn.^HTT.H.mKV
m.^TE.^TrT.

T^.tTTsn.

KrfV

-TrKm.!

t

^.tTT.^T.^M. \.

^M.rf -M. V ^T^.KrfW.n.m.

Krf r
'^('TtT.
.

-M.iTTKTf n?.

V

<(fr

£T.<t!.r-.^t.?t.^.

r

Kr>.

^ T^^T.'^TtT.^TtT. \

.

(II.

28-40).

^mM^ ^.T^BrT^ A x^^n
.

rT^. ^ TE.<^(r'(^w.ff .nr.^TTn
.

COLUMN
!TT.!H^-.<n.KT.

III, §§ 6-8.

xxvii

\.

nr.^.TT.rf-T^.

^.

rv.miA^'m.m^w.

n.nT.'TTn.KTT'tTT.ltTT.'T^.n.^.V Ktrr.^y.-TTU. trrATs.

^Trmt Krf TTT.^.SHlrTTT. 1 Wrir<.\. ^.^TtI.tt.^, 1 trrET. r <^HtT.eTM.'TtT. V n-ET.^TrT. .TTT.'T^.ET.sn.Tt.Tf.'TTT. ^<fr.Tf.r^.£TXTf.v ^tTT-TTM. >.m«A. wi^mx <^('TtM.^HtT. r rTT.<T.<TT.^<.-T£. V fTT.<n.ETrfTr.H.?T.nT. 'TTT.TT.Tf.r <(fT.^.TE.^TTy.!TT'TTT. r nr.^M.V T£.?<K?TT.r m.'(fTEHTT.H.n.nT.K 1 ^.m.^n. Krf r 'MKfTt.i. m.'TMTT.r ^.tTTST-lTT. r ^TTTif'TrT. V ^]^MA'him.
TTT.mXrf m. 1 ?{M.
sT.<?T.n'.^T.TT.r<.

r

wmtM \

rf.tTT.

1

^TTT.T<-.tt.^.fT.Tf

r

T<(^T.^TTT.-TTr.!Tf.

r

1v.«^.^.

8. T<T.!TT.^TTT.?f.Tf.

V

n,?TT.sT.rf.-T£-(n.^.

r

mrm.
1
V

r^'.T-T.n.nT.^TTf.'TTT.
^TTT.Tf.??.^.Tf.T<r

r

^.^TTTtrr.

V
1.

'TTT.E^TTT.?r.r<'.frf.

V

T<(ST.^TTT.>TTT.tTf.

?TT."({MfT.^.nr<-m

^HtT.

V

^.m.ET.TE.n.rf

V

!TT.'TE.nr<]?.r<.
(u.

^.

<r.h.-ttT

X'.nt.^.^M.tT.Tf

1 ?TT.<T.<?T.^HE.-TTT.r

«-5,).

.

XXVIU

THE BEHISTAN INSCRIPTIONS,

9. T<T.nT.^TTT.?f.Tf

r

n.fTT.^T.r<'.-Ts.<?f.^.

V

«mfi).

rf .KT.TT.if

t

Hm^A.
V

TE.KrH-T.nm^TT.

^T.ET.iETT.TT.rf

nTXITMn.^T.^TTT.lTT.

1 KrfA. V Hm^. V T^nr.

^T.^M.V

K{ET.frT.rr.<<.rf

V

K^T.^H^.^TTT.n.^TTM.

m

KET."(TT.^TE.^rTT.Tf.Tf.m.

V

<^TT.^.^.^.?TT.-T^.nT.r m.^T.f?.rf.t

fTT.^Ts.^M.

1

<(?l.^TTT.!TT.^lTr.'TTT.

1 1

T/M.£!.^TtT.!t.
nr.'TiE.if^y.tfT.

rf.-TTl.l ^M.T^T.tt.^.^TtMtT.

r

trT.{r.^.^.<?T.^.r

^.m.-M.

r

fTT.KT.K

V

^.^T.tr.^TTT.m.

?^.TT.^T^mK-M.V

m.^hH^.Hm.
m.^.fT.rH^.

1

-(^Tr.^.tTT.X'.T^T.TT.rH^.Tf.tTT.

V V
v

1

^TTT.Tf'TTT.

r V

^TE^U.H.n.tTT.^TTT.

^t.K'Ttt.

1

n^.^r.^M.Ktf.rf

^m^.rf.^>.nT.^(fr.^.

^.tTT.'TTT.ffT.r

^mnm\.
1

i^r]^m.\. k^ttt.^tk^ttt.v
\.

m.-a.^n.^-T^.

!TT.-(?!.£T.-TTT.T-r.n.tTT.-TTr.??.Tf.

m.

TTT.T-r.n.mx^. \
^.!tt

.

>f^^i \

.

ha ^wm
\
.

\

.

u^'i^rm \

ET.'M.

y^.Ts.ff.rf

1 ^TTT.Tf-TTT. 1 KT^^.rT.^.Tr.T•(^TTr. t WK\. V nTKlTT.^TTT.^X^lTf \. ^TTT.nrXH.Tf .m. t

COLUMN
10. KT.nr.^TTT.tf.Tf
T<^T<T.Tr.rf
R.TT.r<Tm.

III, §§ 9-11.

Xxix

1

n.tTT.^T.TH£."(n.^.

V
\.

«!T.^.!Tt.

V HA-m^hW. r <^«Tr-TTMTT.TTT. V ^JET.Tf.^TTT.m.A. V
^.^iTT.tr.rf

Hmi

^.^TTT.Tf.<<.l

<TH;HT.<n.^TTtrT^.

1.

^trTrTTT.nr.

V

RKrf .m.<n.r<. t
A.

'TTT.H.R.m.'TTT.TT.Tf

r

<nM£.^TTT.?TT.>M.

m.^M. V
\.

T^.?<.Kfff.

1

nrXn.^T.'TTT.H.R.m.K

V V^m^l

H,<':\.

TtK!tt.V

frrrT^'TTT.

r ^.m.iHHTn.

^M.^'.-m. 1

K

^m.tTT.

V

tTT.K

V

?TT.'!^T<T.m<<.!TT.'TTT.

r

<^HtT.eT.

Krf V mr!;E.<^,f.fTT. V ^.m.sTX^U.fTT. r -TTT.KT.n. ^.^TtT. V !tt.KV ^TTrf-m. V 'TSE.Kif H.R.!tt.^TtT. V T<(ET.!TT.n.^.rf r tTT.^T.tf.Tf. r ft.TT'TE.tTT.^HTT. V <^(^.'TE. V 'TtTKT.tt.^MtT. r <^(n.m. .MTTKfT.^T.t?.?<.l ^}^.^W^Vf]^VfH<. \. !TT.?<.Tr.rf'T^. V fTTET.<<.?TT. n.m. V ^(trrrM.m^ V ^11.11.?!.!??. V <'(ET.<?irTE.^TTTrr. nr.-Ts.^.ET.ffr. V !TT.^TTT.n.T<'.?TT.??.?<. V ^.Tse.???. ,<'.nT. V TIE. V ^.n:TE.nT.^<, r <'(n.tTT. v v:^^m. \ ^m.
'^

. . .

XXX

THE BEHISTA^ INSCRIPTIONS,

£TT.TT.Tf.
<<.rT.'TTT.

V 1 V

^TTT.X'.rT.rf

V

fTT.^.rr.if.^T^.

t

m.^TE.n.ffr.

tTT.^yr.ET.^r.ffT.Tf
4TT.Tf.fTx7.Tf.Tf.
ffT.<^.4TT.?ff

^TTT.rr.Tfnr.

l V

^TT.^M.frr.

1

^TtT.^T.

r^lET.^TT.-TTT.fTT.
(„.

1

frf.

<f ."(?T.r<.f f .Tf .m. ^

.

.

\ IfT.^^.fTf .'K. ^
.

.

,,-ny
<{iy.^.fff.

12. KT.fff.^TT.ff.Tf.

V

fT.ffT.^T.Tf.-T^.<fT.?<.

r
1.

Tf .KT.ff.Tf

.

1

^.TS.fff.'T^.

1

ff.Krf .tTf.<ff.<<.^

^TKfTT.V

m.^.^SH.v fyrTTM. ^TT.Tf.r

TTKfff.VK^HTHTl.t

{.(^TXfT.^E.^TT.ff.Tf.ffT. Veil. 74-75),
13. KT.tfT.^TT.ff.Tf. \.

fr.fTf.^T.Tf.^^.^fr.^.

V

mm.
1
1

TfWff.Tf

r

Tf ffT.^TT.ffr.

r

^fr.^TM

V

^TT.fTf.fT.ff.Tf A.

V m.fHTU.
ffT.ff.'TTT.
.frf .^

^.frf.^r.rs.ff.Tf

HtT.tt .rf

Mm
,

i^.f f .^tT.t f .Tf .4tT.^

.

4 frf .4.ff .^"(Kff.T^.ff .Tf

.f (T<^.ff ^.f f .Tf .frr.^

ffT.4.4^.
Ktfr.^TT.
^.<f!.^.

V r

Kff^.ffT.^Tn. T.^TT^WTT.ff.Tfi
fTT.^T.Tf.ff.^lffrf.

wnmx
V
\

V

K^T.ETT.ff.^TT.KTf
.

^

.

Hm^. \

.

{ff.fT.^.^TT.^TT.fff

\

.

^mmmm^.

M.m^.m.^n. KrfT.'TTT.ffT. \. ff.KTfffr.^ff.^.i K?f^m.l fTf,'ys.ff.?<. 1 {<m^.\. m.fT.^.^TT.^Tr.fff. \. m.^r^.wnf.i
frf .{£T.<fi.-{(m^<^.f f .Tf
.

^

.

ffT.fT.^TT.

1

.

^.4.{rT.^r.{ff .fr.^T.ff-

ET. \
\.

fffT^^ff.Tf. \.

HA.
.

\.

^(^.^.^.ff.^TT.KTfrrT.
. . .

\.

^.m.

E.y^.tTT.-TE. \ T^ffT.Sy.^ ^.iTT.^.f f .'<«fT.fT.ff .rf \

f (ff'.fff .4tT. ^

KTf

.ff.fT.ff.Tf

.

t

tTT.4.4^.

1

ffr.^.ff.Tf.

1 frf.^MTM.
\.

m.sT.-^TT.^TT.

1

ffr.^.ff.THs.

V

^ffT.^.ff.^'i^ff.-TTn.

{-{.m^.

\.

ffT.{yr.ET.4.fTT.Tf.4TT.ffT,

M.m^.\.

. . .

COLUMN

III,

§§ 12-14.

XXXI

<^TT.<<.tTT.T<(-.T<T.Tf.TfVm.^y'l£.V^T.m.^T.rr.£T.<T!rTE.l(,,,5-82). 14. KT.m.^TTT.ff.rf
.

r Rm^Trf ^T^Xrr.^. r «in<^A.
.

uvfiA' 1 ^.y^.m.^TE. ^

fTT.TT.'TTT.

1 T^.m
.

sMtt. ^

.

n^mn
.

Ti.iH^l \

.

^T.tTT.^T.ff

'(«n.'TTT.1 ft] f .n.y<(sT.^(!TT.^
.

Km.-M. ^

TTT.!TT.?T.\-TTT.^(tTT.^ ^T.?T .^.^
.

.tTTrT^-TTTA

-TtT.T^T.t t.^.^TtT-M

A

nrXT.^.M-T^.'TTT.

V

ffT.-T£.r<T.nT.<<.!TT.-TTT.

1

nr.WK-TrT.V

.y.f f .^Txn.^T^

A .'T(^TTT.fTT A MAr \ ^l^lH^.V<riA\W\m.

^TTT.ff.rf.

V
^
.

^.T^.nrrT^.

V
^
. .

ft.rf.n.K-dHT.M.trr.
frr.^T.f r.rf

t

-(^.R.nr.

1
.

^.f^T.Ey.!Tr.

frr.^.Tf .X-.-T^.

.

fTT.<rT.ET.-TTT.T-T.R.tfT.-TTT.f r.rf

^

.

m

\

.

^T.frr.'^T.f

t."<«MtTA
.

lE.^TTTfrr.-TTT.^ frr.^T.^T.^

']^M^.^.

nr.^n.^T.^TTT.H.RtTT.K

1

ft.tTM«.^T.fTT.1.

^T.m.^T.rf:«MTT,

tiilT^hmAr \. TtT.^T."(TT>>-T.'( Krf r M.mxrfnr.v ^n. ^r.<n.T!-.'Tjr.<<.r ktmtmi
\
^(^T.<R.<T.TT.£T.n'.£T. A trf XlT-Xn.^T.^TTTB. \
.

.

miVn^mAr 1
.

<!t.=TtT.!tt.

\

.

-TTT.^T.^rTT.rf .i<-.m,

\

.

^TTT.rf.f r.r<.rf .,f

\ T^eT.^TtT.
.

TtTB. \ W.ii'.mriA'^m
.

\

.

ij^M^im. \ Him^^l^WAr
. .

^M.frr. \

.

m^m. \

.

^T.TE.rTTT.m. \
.

m.^TrTs \ ^.rs m.-TsE. \
.

.

M.f r.r<^^.'TTT.?TT.r<^TTT. A
^T.'^TTT.fr.if

^T.m.^r.rf .ET.<n;rE, 1
.

.

-(n.T- Wrr.Tfm.

1 fTT.T^^T.^.T(^'^TTT.fTT.'TTT, ^

(u.

m-od.

XXXU

THE BEHISTAN INSCRIPTIOKS,

COLUMN
1.

IV.

KT.m.^M.TT.rf
.

V

TT.fTT.^T.T^TiH.^n.^.
.

1

mTm^t
t
^T.!tt.

mi A. \

frrTTT,

A

.

^TrT.Tf

^

.

-TTT.^ItTT.

^ T^^T.^TtT.^TtT.
.

•^T.Tr.^T.^^TrT^.Voi. 1-3).

m^iA-^n.m. ^. mmAr WTf.rf VtHtT.V ^M.rf 1 WMll V !TTXT.<TiK'T^.^TTU. m.<n.;sT.'yTT.H.n.!TT.<^( v m.K v ^T£.^.=(nT. V
2. T^T.m.^TTT.Tr.Tf. \.
-(^(-ttT.

{^.T^'TTT.Tf.tTT.

1

KT.^T.n.

V

^.T^.tTT.^T^.

t

rf.T^T.nr.t

«Ty.?<.nT.T<'.KT.TT.T{^

1

nr.^T.-T^.^TTT.

t

tTT.n.^M.

1

OV

'M.T-T.n.tTTXK. ^

.

tTT.n-TTT.^.m-TTT. \

.

wiH^m ^ m^m.
.

\.]]]])A.

mmA-rnhm.
1

Mrxn-TTT.nfMVKnT.^TTT.

v nrxrr.isr.^.nT.Tf-rTr.t 1 ^i^K^.mA. nrKt 1
tTT.mT.rf

KV.nr.HTT.
<T.<n.iHT.<Ti.?<.

^.sT.^yy.rr.rf
^.<?T.^.

1 Krf

1.

1

1

Hm^.

r

^.m.^ris.-TTT.

t

KTMT.^.n.Tf-lTT.l

tTTXT.-(?!.K-(n.^.V T.fTT.^.rr.^(

1

^(mrM.

{E.TT.if

r

tTT'TE.KTm

1

m.KTX V

trr.MTM.

COLUMN IV, §§

1-2.

xxxiii

«m^.

r

<fT.^T£.'T(^TTT.

r

nm^mA-'f^i
v

\.

m.

m.^mx -rTrKmi
^m.^vfiHim^iA'.

T.KsTTrf.^TTT.^rfT.iHn.

Ktn.'M.v

r

nm^.

m.<£T.'(?TH«!T.

<r.-(?f.?T^ET.n'£M

mT^^rr.rf
-(HXnrTE.

V Krf r

K^T.<!tKtt.^TtT.

HAr r

^.^n.^.

1

V
T

^T.?TT.^T.Trr«.<ff.'TTT.r <^.T<^TT.

^.rr.rf -TtU. m.<T.<fT.K'(n.^.

V v

'TTT.^MTT.tW'.

V

KtTT.-M.l

m.^T^.T^rm.

v

nr.T^T.K

mn.-TTT.

v

tt.-TtK??.??.

t

<^(^-T£,
K-(TT.<<.r

r

<n.-r£.-T(-TTr.

r

•(H.T<^.Tr.^.fT.r'(^TTT.

i

mxTxif.

r.W£H^.sy.^M.?Tr<.
.

V Km.'M.i
.

-TTTmn.
.

r

H.m^^
ffTMrr.

?TT."(£TX^r«.<TT.'<£.fT.T<^^ !TT,>TE.T<r.?TTA

mKT.Kl
\

V

«TT.^.T<T.^T.n.^rTT.
\.

\.

mmA-.
V V

m^.

<<TT.^.^TTy.^T.Krf

^TTT.^-TTT.fTT.TftTT.

Hm^A.

TTl.nr.HTT.

V

<^(T<^jf.^.tr.rf.-M.

T.R'Jf.^.^M.^TTrTTT.

V

^{m.-TTT.

V 1 m.r^Xrr.ET.^lTT.fr.Tf t
frrXT^n.^^n.^.

fTTMKv
'TTT.m.X'.m.

fTT.n-M.v

«yT.^.fTT.T<'.T<T.tT.T<'.

V

m,T<^n.rfr

m.TE.'(Tr.sT.^TTT.?r.r<'.

1

<?T.'TE.«TT.^.^TTT.!ET.-(^<T'(t

V

^TtT.<Tt.

r

K-ifr.-Ts.

r

fTT.TEXTr^T^TTT-TTT.

V

KT<^tf.

XX XIV

THE BEHISTAN INSCRIPTIONS,

Krf H.n.m.^M. V
.y.sy.sry.rf.x^.-(n.^.

Km-yyT.

V

m^u^A. nm^A.
'(y.'(n.£y.<n.^.v

V V

tn.y^^.n.Xt

t KXt V
^

1

Mi^^i^.

\

.^.tTT.sy.yiE.'yTy.

.<^<.y<^.TT.^.TT.r<^^yTy.

a

.

m.<y.-(TfK<fT.?<.

y.frf.^y.«yy.

r

KnT-yry.v yrT.^y.yfTTKn.

rf.

^.

Hm^.

1

nT,-(iEy.<nH«n.^-(£.TT.T<^

r

m^y^.

r m<iH r nr.nryTy. i ^M.<R.<y.<(^T.n.£y.?T^^y.v!TT. miA. V ^^(rf. r i ^.•(n.fr.i <M.<?T.-yE. V ^y.nT.^y.rrr-^xn.-yTy. v Ky^^yTfr.rT.rf^yry. v
y^y.fiT
K.^y."(!T.H.r?.^yTy.'(^(T<'.

TfrXyxM^?!.^. 1(11.

2-31).

3. y{y.nT.^yTy.TfT^'.

v

ff.rT.£y.T^^y£xn.^.
.{i?}y.

r

{{yy.^.trr.Tf.

mi AA.
nrMry.

V r yTTxyy:^y.^y.tTT.Tf.-yTy. i
rirWfiAA
:ii-32),

{^yy.^frT.TH^y.rr.TftTT.

nr.^yy.^y.

i

TT.-yry.tTT.

t r

K^yTy.^y.KtTT.Vcii.

4. y<y.m.^yTy.Tr.Tf.

r

TT.yfT.^y.Tf.'y^.^n.^.

\

am^n^A'.

miAr\. uiAM^'i^A. ]ir)m. ^. ^iiia-m ^. hu^ti Whi'^. ^. nr.^y.^yE. v R.£y.<(n.'(yy^£yy.TT.^. \. Ky<m
^.mfm.
sy-yry.

1
v

nr.^yxn.K^n.^.

v yy.^yTy.ff .rf \ y^m MmK^mri^riA-Ti. i ^.y^m-y^. i
^yry.rf

v

\

COLUMN rV, §§

3-7.

XXXV

^Tr.tTT.

V

n.£y.?<.-rTn,

HTr.fr.^.Tf<?f.TE.m.

v

-tttet.

'Ts.'TtU. <(RM^T.T^.^TTHTT.t ^.^T.Ts.Ttt.V if ^yT.Tr.T<r

'TTT.Tt.rf

.

\

.

<£T.€'«^?T.'T£.?TT'. ^ !TT.<M.fTTT.TT.Tf ^
. .

.

(,i.

s._40).

6. T^r.m.^TTT.n.rf.

v

TT.m.£T.T'(>-iE.'(TT.r<.

v

«fT.^.fff.

Te.-TtT.

1

'T^.^.^im.

t

!TT.<?T.sT.-TTT.H.?T.nT.K

V

K
V
r

TTyxrftTf.TfiTT,

1

T<r.^T.n.

V

rrrXT. <n.K'^^.'TTT.

'TtM'Ttt

V ^!!m?HtT. V
T<T.<n Ts.m.'TTT.

^.^yTTTf.^.£ry£.m>u.

^iT.m-TTT.V

V

'TTT.m.^TTT,[TT.],<'.

r

<iET.<f!.

7. l<T?Tt.^TTT.ff.T<'.

V m:BlA-^^.m. V

^<TT.<<.?n.T<'.

m.n.rf

V

m.<?T.iEy.-rTT.H.n.TfT.

V

^Trr.n.Tftf.rf

v

.

XXXVl

THE BKHISTAN INSCRIPTIONS,

HA^^A-^. 1
mr.rf

.

KT.^T.R. 1

.

(11.

43-45).

8. Kr.tTT^M.TT.Tf.

1

m^iA-wm.\
V
'T^.T^.n.X-.

M^.nr.rf
'Trr.

r
1

-i^.^.Km.v

rTT.<rT.ET.-TTTM.n.m.'(H.A

fr.Tf.M.
^rT.rf.rf

tTT.Krr.X-.^.n'fT.T^-.

V
t

nr.T^.

K^T.^TtHtT.

r
V

trr-TEl

rTT.Krf trf.rf nr.

1

^TT.fT.^.Tf.rftTT.

1

^.TT.Tf.

^(Tt.^.TT.^.^TTTrTTT.

!tT-T^.

KrfEr.!Tr.£mr.rf

\

^(fr.Tf

1

^(Tr,^.rr.?<.^TTTrTTn.

^rr.rmr.^rrT.
.

^.

^.^rTr.rr.^.^r.r^.!TT.^TTr.n.T^^

i
,

m.-r^.

<^<.rf .nr.i ^.'-(^n.-y^. ^ r<T.n.r-(^.^rTy.Tr,r<(^ ^ ^Ttt.t<-.^ TTr.^itrrA
.

.

^.^r.^rrHTT.

\.

Kti.^-TtT.
.

V

^y^.srMrT^.nT.^TTT.rr.Tf. 1.
.

^£yxn.'{(^nx<yy.^yTy.-yTy. ^
8. y<y.!fT.^yTy.??.Tf

^iii^inA^'mMA. ' \

o,. 45_50).

\.

m^Uri^.m.
\.

\.
\.

mi A.

\.

^yTy.rfrr.rf
.

f^Aim^^.
.

mm

mxmA^.
a.

r<y.f r.rf .tTT.

\

T-(',tTT.^yTy.?TT. '

\

iriK \ Wri^mri^iii \ nn

Tfvm.yMTy.rr.rf

1

y^.sy.^yyyryTy.r

rfy^ymr

-yTy.Km.r

rf .tTT. 1 y<y.Ey.n. i
.

.

y^.^y.^yyy.^yyy.

^

.

d,.

50-52).

10. y<y.nT.^yTy.?T.Tf.

r

TT.m.^y.rM^.^^.

1

mrm
v
^y^.

rfMTf.rf v...<f^n.^y.'yTy.
'

V

y^yxH^m^yry.
amy,

tTT.^yS.tTT.'^yTy.^yTy.TT.Tf

.

suggested by

* *

Jackson maniyaliy,

So Weissbach and Bang.

Jackson reads adata (A v. azata) or amata^

COLUMN IV, §§ 8
£r.^.^i£.^rTr.rnrTTT.

13.

xxxvii

v

.tti.i^-.

\.

'TT!M.m.

v

^.^t.^ttt.'Ttt.v

m.iW.mA'A
^Tr.m-TTT. \.

Tf^mr.rf.l.

Krf.rf

V <^<ET.<n. t m.^.'(Tr.<n.?f.Tf.!TT.KTf i ^.m.sET.
fr.'TrT.TTT'M.

'TE.m.-rrT.

V

TT.<n.?<.^TTT.m.

V

4.tTT'(^rfT.

r

<?T.^TTT.m.

m^m. \
11.

.

n.SHTXrr.'TTT. \ ^^^.Tr-T^.trr. ^
.

.

(„. 52-56).

V n.m.^HT.x- T^.<TT.<<. r a-. m.ft.Tf Vrfsify.Tr.Tf V ff.'M.m.'M. v "(M.<ET.<Tr.nT-TTT.i ?TT.^r.<Tr.<rT.n.rf.nTX=(Tf. i. ^(tt-t^i um.HAr \. Km. £r.'(^(r<'.fTT. V nT.<R£T.>TTT.M.?T.tTT.^TTT.rf 1. 'T^.'TTT.fTT. 1 4rf.Tf.m. r <ff.^TTT.!TT.^TTT.TT.,f r ^M.^R-TTm. V 'TrT.m.l
KM^TTr.Tf.Tf.
«^T.ff.Tf!TT.V
(11.

mm

57-59).

12.Km^MTT.Tf 1

rT.?TT.£T.Tf.-TS.<n.<<.

1

«n.<<.!Tf.

tTT.<Ti,;HT.'TTT.H.?i.tTT.^^(

V V

nT.<T.'(?T.^('T;E.'TTT.

V

l^i^^l

TTT.H.?T.tTT.-TTT.Tt.T<'.

r

^R.^.T^.^TTT.m.'M.

t

m.^^T.V

^R.^M.nr.

V
^

nr.Ktf.X'.tTT.
59-61).

^T.-iTr.m.K 1.

^TTU.n.rf

t

^«<.fTTT.?T.T<'.

(1).

13. T<T.nT.^rTTfT.Tf

.

r

m^iA'ri^m<. r

<<TT.r<.m.

. ..

XXXVUl

THE BEHISTAN INSCRIPTIONS,

m.

V

<tt.^>M!tt.'M.

V

rTT.^ET,

i l

^r.^ttmi

mKtr.TftTT.

r

^T.<yr.tTT."(^(

V
1

^TiT.TfTf.Tf.

<=(^TTT.rf.Tf ^

fr.sTxn.-M
tTT.K'TTT.r

V 1

tTTXH'TTy.

Ktr.rf

r

H.<n.^T>.ET.

^.TT.T<'.r m.n.'TTT.

V

-TTrjiA

v

^TTr.<(nryTT.tTT.

V v

M^r.tr.rf
^(rf .!•('.
'^
.

nT.^T.?<.^TTT.trTrTTT. 1.

M^T.Tf.rfm.rf.^Trn,
.

?<.TM?T.£T.ri.-TTT.^

.

.

X^.^T!rTE.^TTrtrTr.' 1

M.'(n.^r. 1

frrXm^-TE.^TrT.

V

W.^T.^M.Tf.Tf

t Krf.l

(H.-TtWtT.

mr<Mm.V ^MKm.V

^.rr.mr.Tf m.

V m.-TMrn.
^ttrr.-T^.^TTn.

^n.^^T.^TTHTT.Vm.^.^HTT. VKrf 1

<n.r{(Er.r£.^TTr.-TTT.v tTT.^.sHr.y^.-TrT.Vd,. ,i-,n
14. K!,m.^yTT.TT.T<^

V

n.tTTEr.T"('rT^.-(n.?<.

i

mm.

^^im{< \ 'f^M'^WfhiA MArl^m hW^V'i^U m<^)VUr \ 1 riim. \ Km.'im. \
.tTT.-T£.TT.T<^.

T^.TTT.

\

.

(11.

67—69).

15. T^y.tTfrTTy.TT.rf.

A

.TI.tTT.^T.X'.^r^XfT.^.

^

.^TT.^.tTT.

Tf.T^T.fr.X'.^

.TTT>.-(n.^T£ryTT.A

>.!tt.1

MAA

m.^1rli1A.

rfrTTr.m.'TTT,
^rTr.Tf.?TT,'M. ^
-Tg.trr.
^

^

.SETT.tr.^rT.-TTy.
.tTT.n.-TTT,

\

AKfiHm<r<r\.
\
.rirTTl.t!.
'\
.

^

HriMriH^<')r1il
.-TTT.rn.^TTT.Tf

A

.^.^TT.ty.^.^T.m. ^
.^huvatam.

fr.tT.KH.lTT.

JacksoQ reads

.

oor.cMN IV, §§ 14

— 17.

xxxix

^TE.yf.rf^ .^.^T.Tf>.£T.?TT.V,ii.
16. KT.nr.^TTT.fr.Tf

09-72).

\

.mHAr)^m<.
^ \

\

.«TT.<<.m.

rf T<T.Tf.r<'.

^

.T'(>.ETT.Tf.r<(-.

^ .Tf'TTTB.-TTT. \ .STTJT.^.ff-TTT.
.^.^TtT.ttY.

Tsjr.^inrX^df

\

.frrTTT.Tf.^Ts.tTT.

V ^T.m. V
1
.'TtT.tt.
.^.

'^(mf sTT.r?.^.
rf
1

^

^jV^^KWMA.
^
.^TTT.^fTrTTr.fTT.

.mm.

.rf .m.-r^.n?.

\

.mX^I^TTT.TT.rf ^

£T.TT.^£r.fTT.-(^.£rT.ff.<<.

1

.tTTxn.^T/TTr.r-T.TT.m. \

.y<T.<n

T^nr.-TTT.
^TtT.tt.i'('.

^

.nxn.<<.^TTT.?TT.

\

.^T.ff.rf.tTT.

't

.<(fT.^rTT.m.

V ^TTT.^R.^M.nT. 1 ^.^TtMV R.sHTMtM.
r

-TE.T^.TT.Tf
--(sjr.-Ts.lTT.

V t

^T.rr.rf .trr.

-(n.^MffT.

r V

^TTT.T-T.fT.m.^
17.

<(T.'(n.M.'(n.TTT-.<nrr^.^

.

c. 72-76.

wm.^Mjf.rf

1

TT.nf.ET.,H^.<n.r<.

V

«inm
.

ifT<T.Tf.r<>.

V

rf £TTjf.rf

t

ft.-TTT.tTT.'TTy.

\.

^mW1rW.\
V
ft.n.
.

ff-M.fHiH.nT.V

^.^TTT.fr.r^.^T.tTT.

t

TE.f?.'<.tTT>(Tf

T^.=(?ttX^<. [tf jETT.tT.^. \

.

{M\mrmU. \
V

rf.lTT.-TS.lTT.

\

^TTTXTT'TTT.m.

r

nrX^I^M.rf.T^-.

^(ft-if .£!!.??.?<. 1. ^.isT.tf.

^.£T.nTX^.T<'.
^TrT.m.

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xl

THE BEHISTAN INSCRIPTIONS,
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INSCRIl'TIONa.

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(11.

34-30).

An

Ajjmireu.

APPENDIX

II.

FIRST SERIES
OP THE

SELECTIONS OF ZAD-SPARAM.
+++

CHAPTER

I.

Deufl

aiyyacikar

nipishtako

Ci(i?akiha-i

Zuf/-sparam-i

Yfl6an-

Yiman' Karitund.

CHAPTER
0.

I.

Shnayishno-t

da(/nr

Auharmaz^ va-vispan
stiban,

Ya."(iano, haiiiak

Y&zdanA mainogan

va-Yazf/aii-i

g6bi8hno-i

atrpato

Zac?o-

sparam-i YiUan-Yimano,

aM

nimroju,

madam

giimt^dsbuo-i 8;)cnak

maiDOg g6nag mainog.
1.

H&ydto pavan
azir,

dt*n6

angun pe^^ako aegb

:

Busbanoih

ajt^ar

va-tar}gth

afshano miyanako-i ko/a 2 6 visbuc/akib yeb?Ant.
rff-Of
aii«iuOaiAn.
*

'

Perhaps for

K. omits ^

;

xliv

E,

W. West's

Edition of

-^-K^)^**

^

it^-ny ••o**^^

^^e)

^1

'^(^)^-C

^-ny

'-k^)^

.MW^^-^

-^v*

^)

W^

"*oo»

•i?*)^

i)^s^

-I'ls^oo

)y^r

2.

Auharmazrf ben roslianoih va-Aharmano

Mm tarigih
3.

;

va- Auha?-inaz(i
aitoih-i

aitoih-i

Aharman madano-c-i
Auharmazdf
la

val patkar akas,

Aharmano min

roshanoih-i

akas yehvAnto.

Aharmano

hen torn

tarigih vaZ marfo, fro-tano kustaiio harnai sagitimto, tane-i anda^ishnigo
lala

vaZ

madam

j^atAnto,

afash tai-l-i roshanoih
rai tukhshifZo

irdzo khaditilnto

va-gvic?o-g6harih-i

aubash

aegh aubash yebamt(\nec?o,
4.

afash ham-anguno paf^ash hen

kamkari-aito.

Va-cigAno pavan-ic
lakhvar dashtano-i

taranoham-tano, irdzo vaZ vimond

ma/;i^o,Auha?'maz(ii

Aharmano min nafsha
ram it unto.
5.

8hat?'o rai,

irdzo v&l ham-raoih mat/o, afash
torn

pavan avtzako gobishno-i yatuig starc?ako kar^o^ ofash lakhvar vdl

Paspanih min druj
1

raf,

mainogiha ben ddbarasto, maino-i
a

The MSS. have ^IJHO-

Tlie

MSS.

liave

)^-^f

Tub Selections of Zad-spakam, Cuapteu

I,

§§ 2

9.

xlv

asaman va-maya,va-2araig,va-aurvar,va-gos2}end,va-anshuta,va-atakhsh
br^hinic^o, afash

3,000 shnato daslito.

6.

Abarman-ic ten

toDi

afzar

hamai

girtZo

;

va-pavan sar-i 3,000 shuato lakhvar vai vimond yatunto,

pat-5st{Wo, vii-draifio

acgh

'^
:

Makhitunam
lak

lako,

makhituuam dAman-1
liavtiib,

luko

riii

sheiu yehabunt

niinib,

iniin

Sj^euag 31aiut)g

haiTis2)6
7.

pavan zag bara merencinam.''
Auha/inazf? pasukhoinicfo acgh
*'
:

La,

driij

!

harvispo karcMr

bav4ih."
8.

Va-tanc Abarmano

pat-istarf aOgli:

**Bara bacem harvisp6-i

abu-i ast-admand vaZ akharan-dostib-i lak, va-vai dostib-i li."
J).

Anhftrroazrf

pavan

raainAp:-!

kbin/oib khazitilnti) a^gb, zag-ico

»

The M8S. again

Inacrt

^^'

*

K.

*Itt>«

xlvi

E.

W» West's

Edition of

M^)W)
^S^ii^

-o2iiw** ^^ :j|U

-^y^

-^^

:^ ^^
Y^S\

1^

.-j^-K^^^^

)^)^

^
-oo»

^^5
Men)*

^^
j^y^

^f^\^\^

-u)

)^-J _)w

lie)

-^(^^^5-^

^-^

3*»5^^
?*iy^

^de)J^ 1^-0-**^** -^^)
)o»iej

->W-^

0^)P-^1
12
la

-^^u^

^i)*!)'

Jwwf>

^^^

^

^"Hy

-^^
yedo

-M^nw
burin-aAmand
bara vaZ

Aharman
aiyyarib

pato-ista(Zano tubanig

pavan

karc?ano,

zamanako-i kukhsbisbno.
bavibunasto,

10. Jlfasb

bara

ajasb vidana

md^h.

kbaditunto
la

aegh

Aharman 6 pavan
afash pavau

miyanjigib-i aec gusbanan
2

madam

yegavimunec?, va-zaman aito koZa

khupo bam-aiyyarih

rast

raymic?arib

aubasb ayavo

;

3 zamano vaMduuto-i koZa zaman-l 3 bazarako.

ll.Abarmano madam
amato

yegavimunac/o, va-AuharmazcZ kbaditunto aegb,
frostako karcZano la sbayecZo,

Abarmano
arai aito

bamai amato bavibunecZo lakhvar vaZ
vazlilnec?o,

nafsba bavibunasto-i tarigib
afar'jam patkar yebvAnecZo.
12.

ac^

zabar-i vesb

Ai&sh. akbar

min zamano vaMdiinto Ab<lnavar fmzo de6runfZ,
^{fyA)j

^

The MSS. have
is

^J^r^?-^

but

burin-aAmand

zamfinako-t

"appointed

time of,"
« »

a more probable reading.

Ihe MSB. have ^^9^Viy4'

May

be

ac, "also,

moreover," or Az, "the serpent demon of Greed" (compare
is

§ 26 )

or, possibly, aj,

" from"; but this last

rarely found, except in (fompounds.

The Selections of Zad-sparam, Chapter

I,

§§ 10

— 15. xlvii

j)P-u3^

a5 ^^^

^ -^^^e)

T^^!^^^

-^•-fy*')^

->nv-^e)

^ ^y^

)i^^'C) -v^eD^e)

ly^^^'^-o^)) ^-^-C

r^)^^)^

.

j^-ij^-^i

"^^^

rtfash

pavan AhAnavar 8 ayClinako kbubih numutZo

:

13.

FratAm
peo^a-

aegh ko/a mindavam zag fraruno-i Auharniazrf kam mindavam
ko, aegh amato zag frarun»i Auharmazt?,
alto-!

kam

pec?ako,

aegh mindavam

la

hen kam-i AuharmaztZ, ^zarigo min bun dahi-aito, vinag-i
14. DatZigar denci,

gvi^o gohar.

aegh mAii zag vaMdAnyen-i AAliarva-val(?

ma2^ kam ash mozd pafZadahishno khveshigo,
vaMd(\nyen

mAn

la

zag

muQ
;

Auharmaz^^ kam
kirfakogardn

fl^jash

puhar

pa(/afrah uafsb4-i

min

den4 numat-a!to
AdharmvLzd

mozd vinaskarano
15. Sac?igar

parfofrah va-marfikhiu^ayth-J

gano-i vabishto dAshahvo ojash.

numu(b aegh

vaM

afzayincv/o-1

vaZ daregiishan, vijan-aito pa?tiyarako-

aumandih zyash DumD(/o aegh aito cabautlDO

vaZ niyaztg cabuoun aiyyar

*

Tbc MSB. hate ^r

hil^man, " well-meditating.*

xlviii

E.

W. West's

Edition of

-X>^)3'^^e)

))0a

.^^^^

)^}H^^^)^

JJ5

^^?*

^1

)^>a

-x;^^^^

^)^)

j^-ny

-iiP-^e)

e^^i

^)

^5

^^
iT

i^e)H i>^
i^^i)H5

-^i^-o^)?* iy^^

M5^
19

-v^^^e)
.-.-oiiii

^^le)

^
ham-

-i)j^w^

.>-i>^

1^

->)^ooWej

yehvLiuislino

;

cigua

akas

dahisliDano
va/

vaZ

anakasagano,

aet/uno

t{ibanig khvastako-ano
uaf'shtf.

niy^zigo,

khvastakan

racZiha

yehabuuto-i

16.

Va-farhakhto dasto-i
arcZigo,

AubannazfZ damano
ciguu frasliakarofarih
1 7.

aevako vaZ tane

hen kokhsbishnigo

pavan dend 3 mindavam shayecZo yehvuntano.
denoih-i benafshc^^ astubanih-i

Aito fratum

rasto-

madam

gabra bAn-dasbtoih pavan zag

rastako naA-barbam,^ acgb
afasb

AflharmazcZ
;

hamak

sbapirih

asaritarib,

kam

kam-i visp-fraruno
aemccZo-i

Abarmanu
girano

visjio-i saritarib

asbapirih.

18. DafZigar,

mozd
bajako,

pafi?adabisbno-i

kirfako, girano

bim-i

min

pilbar pa^Zafrah-i

tukbsbic?an-i

pavan kirfako,
yebvAntan-i
naii

pabrekbtan-i
I

min
*'

vinas.

19. Sadigar,

bam-aiyyarib

NaA-barhAm,

good news, or glad tidings"; compare Pers. naA barheiu and

rahda.

The Selections of ZAd-sparam, Chapter

I,

§§ 16—23. xlix

'')^^Y^
-fi<;^e)

-f^ ^)

W^
-^^

)?»<^^
^)

jA^
^-^^

^^lii))'

^Y

>^^

20

-i^n^

-^D
-^-^^^

•*ooVy^n^

4^

•^•^r'r'

'$)^y ^jr^)

''^rr'Jyr

--w-^ ^-^^^^ -t^ifO-^^

dam^n, ayoi'O lev&tdg
plruzih-i
20.
dir/o
:

va-min ham-aiyyarih

ham-sipahih

;

sipahih

madam dlishmano

yehvunccfo-i nafsh'? frashakar(^o.
torn tiM-

Pavan den« gobishno stario yehvunto lakhvar vaZ
stish

Aftbarma^rfdAm tano-aumandihabara vaZ
va-darfigar

yebabunto; fratiim
aftrvar,

/isamdn,

maya,
21.

sa^rigar

zamigo,

4- Am

va-5-i1m

gAs/)ond,

6-um

ansbfttA.

Atakbsb ten vis2?6yebvuDt6, pargandago
'kol^

kildmon pavan 6 gobarako-i

gobarak-ac darvand-t pavan
mizo-ai'-i

madam

yebabAnto and hddo; gAfto yegavimAne(/o, cand
pavan
tan^^ fro(/o

amat aevako

bankbetAnd.

22.

3,00O sbnato

dam tano-aAmand

va-an4f-raftAr yebvuntd;
23.

kbArsbcfio va-mdb starano yogavimnnAr?o bavr/d.

Bvn duburistan-f

'

LoTntdg,

**

nccompanylog."
»

Mss.

j^r.

Mss. ir^ttej*

mss.

iTOt^i--

1

E.

W. West's Edition

of

hanjishnigo pavan zamanako sar, Aiiharma^c?
aito-i

nigiric?o

aegh

:

*'

M4 sil(7o

mia yehabiintan-i dam amato apoishnigo-i ariibishnig hanjishnigo ?" 24. ^fash pavan aiyyarih-i spihar Zorvan dam frazohrehU

mdo;

va-Z6rvano atanko

yehvilncvZo,

aeghash

dam-i

AiiharmazcZ

rubako kardo bara min rflbakoih-i Aharmano dam,

ma

bun-gashtano^,
25.

aevako vaZ tane, vizayishnigo2 pa(/irako istishnigo biV/o hav^d.

^fash far'jam-nikiriha afzar-1-i min benafsh*^ gohar-i tarigih, mAnash
virunako-i Zorvanigo pacZash paf/vastako, posto ayuinako-i zag

dago

siyah va-atiV-astar-gAn, irdzo vaZ
26. i^fash

Aharmano

bur(^o.

pavan frcSzo-burishnih gufto aegh: "Pavan valashano za^

^

" Original evolutions,*'
pp.
5,

meaning AHhArm&zd and

Aharmand, see

S.

B.

E.

Vol.

XXIV.,

135, 146, 234.

" Detrimental ";

compare Pers. gazSy.

THE SELECTIONS OF ZAD-SPARAM. CHAP,

I,

§§ 23

28.

li

)^

-"19

-'D^Ci^^^

-oi^

5-^<f-^

-^5^)0

-ly^Wi

ly^Tcv

ai'akih-i

A20,

liaiia-i

lak bara
sar-i

duklito-i

khiirZo,

pavan dcDO frcWo
istcfZo
iii-

yeraitunt'fi^o; va-yiV/ pjivan

9000 shnato, cigun gufto

pishto,
27.

madam

karrfano vidana,

madam

va^Jidunto, la far'jamiuic^o.

Pavan ham vidana Aluiniian min ham Zorvano bara val
vaZ

kAdmon, barA

star-pa by ago''

yatimto; band-i
fporfo

asmano pavan
bisht,
niriig

skarpAhyago visha'fo-t nuniiWo, }ud
))6nddarZo-i*

vaZ tanbaigih

n»shanano va-taraiio,
par/ash.

r;ivak-t

An/i^o mAnash

tajisbno-i

koZA
va/

2-An

28.

idfash

tarigih lcvat4
Anjjfuu

nafsb(i dnsbtano
torn

hvn

asmano

yAityunto.

AsmAii

vaZ

btsbto,

ao^b

andarunog eako pavan
ypbamtun«^</o.

asmi\iio

cand Sacvakoat^ djvar star-pabyag bara

1

K omike >

MgS.
:

J»f.

^

A mU-dpelltng

of )»»o P^T^^o.

Perhtps "oomtnuiiication of"

or

p<»»..,ilily

hAu-crnfihtan-!, "orifrfnal ©volution of.'*

M8B.
7

.«t

I^V.

lii

E.

w. west's edition of

CHAPTER

II.

^

-^-C

i)0(^

i^^V -^

)rr'

-^

-Ky-^yr)

)^r^ y^^^

^

CHAPTER
1.

II.

Madam

6en yatimto-i

Aharmano

pcv/ako aegh, birakh Fravarc?ino,
vaZ vtmoud-i asraano ma(7o.
2.

vaZ dam pavan deno angiin yom AOharmazi/ pavan nimroj, fmzo Asman venecZo va-goharih rai augun
lar'2ct/o
3.
;

bara tarscv/o cigim mesh miu gurg
sojishnigo pacZash

Aharmano

t<^yislinigo

madam
afash

yatunto.
tarigih

Akha?- vaZ

may a

ma^/o-i

aziv
;

2amigo
va-pavan

nivar(/o,

miyaiio-i

2;am]go

akumbo

min

surako-ae

mijak-ae madam bunZo gvifZo madam yatunto, cigun miir hamak madam yiitunco^o va-hamako ^amigo
;

»

MSS.

(s^^Sii.

2

Compare Pers. kunbWao,

*'

to leap."

THE SELECTIONS OF ZAD-SPARAM, CHAP.

II,

§§

1

7.

liil

.••

)vij)^i

MHx>o i)y)^y '>^

m

)f )n)or

^) -'•o-^

1)0(2

-^^

-\5W0a

1W5W

'i^-f

-^11^

^1

^

^

e^

ii?>)iro

^e)i

-*»^iy

5^(\

^^-^

"^^V^kj-^o t^ -oo»

-"-TyAjy^

1^-^

^

iv-ny^e)
4.

)>oa

7

.-.

^4^

i^os
yatilato

t^^jj

i)H2>^

l>eu

yegavimilnar/o.

Zag vuZarg aOgb madam

benafslui

aito, riis-i vaZ

dushahvo miin pavau zag-i dubarinend sbcdimo drevau-

dano.
0.

Akhar

v&l aurvar mAdo, cigim aevako

bun yehvuntf, mi)n&»h
;

b&lat

cand

p<a-ae, va-anazg va-apostako va-tar shtrin

rtfash

vispo

san/ako zor-i aurvarano hen cibar daslitauo ])avau nazdigih-I mijAnako-i
/::aiuigo bfl'/o
;

va-pavan ham-vidaua bara khvisbko.
marZo-i aevak-darfo, cigAnash balai cigun

6.

Akhar
afdsh

vai t6rag

Gaiyokraarr^o
isiudo
;

pavan

bar-i

maya-i

Daitih

miyanako-i

;;amig

min

Gaiyukmareio
bar-l
;

rakhigih
Daitih

cand

bala!-i

nafsh^
pa^/mano
rigOn

ychvuntano,
rakhi;^

min-ic

maya-i

pavau
ri>shauo

ham

yehviintu
7.
C\f^\in

va-noke6
paitiyarako
'

npcdo

bi'u/o

mdh.
I

madam
MB8.
tt(M ^.

mac/o

AAharma^r/

MBS.

Ji)f.

liv

E.

w. west's edition of

'jm)^

i)Oe^i)C^

o^V^)C-v

ii

->nv»-^

)^)6

^ -v^e)

8

•>))H^y

i^^-^o^

_)^:^ ^^^

-^

^^^

^^)ui>|^ _)^y^

V

-"-^)^)^

mang-i
pesh-i

baiig-ic

karituni-aito

pavan

vashtamuntan

yehabOnci,

va-

amd bang
;

miishtano, aegli
nizar va-vimar

min zanishno-i
yehvunto,

va.<:akoan

ashaiakih

kara

yehviinerfo

pavaa

dashiii

kharako

aufdif/o tavratano,
8.

Pesh min irdzo ma</ano-i
Zaratiikhsht
balai-i

vaZ Gaiy6kmar(^o-i

adino cigun

3-0

ae^-i

yehvunto,

roshano yehvunto ciguu

khurshec^o, A\iha.rma.zd

min khv^^ brahinccZo pavan gab?a kerpo-i
buloud,

15

salako-i
;

roshano-j

Gaiy6kmarc?o

afash klwdfi

Yat-ahA-vairyoki-l
irdzQ

yehvdnto,

<<fash madam she(ZruneG?o vaZ madam aubash de6runefl?-ic daranai cand madam yema/eZuni-aito. 9. Amato min khvde afash <'ashm madam dashto, ash khadituuto

1

BK

-XJ^**^))

K

JO^'^^H, out i-^j)

ill

Band,

iii.,

18.

• s

TavratSno, for tartavaao, compare Pers. t4irlaban, • trembling."

Or 3

nk\, « 3 reeds "

= 14

feet (see S.

B. E. XVIII., pp. 48, n. 5

;

142, n. 1.)

*

So MSS., but better omit l^lJt^

or transpose iuto ^)^n)^3•

»

MSS. transpose

into

^^r.

but eee Bund,

iii.,

19.

«

Corrected from fljK3)r*«

THE SELECTIONS OF ZAD-SPAKAM, CHAP.

II,

§§ 8

— 11

;

III,

§

1.

\y

')Yoxi^ nv^)**

)^y)0 -^1^^ iw*e3^-Hy«

^y^^^^^

>'i)yjyi)

^)

>^£)M

n^^

-^-^) i>^9erO'^ ^-x;^^'^ Me) i-^^^oo'o* -^ii^-f lo

^ J1?H5^^ )^M^\

.

J^JJ

^^^^^-^ ^VD0-X3

1?H3Ca>^^

-u^yAj^iy^

'1"1 'l"i"l

T .t. T- T .f

T 'i"l' 1

»

T

t .T. t

t T .l..t..t '1 "I'l" 1 1 1

I.

i

CHAPTER
^soow
gi'hiino

III.

-^J^^ :!>^r
tarigo

^)
biu^o

^^))*o
cigiln

^^^
IMya
;

yoe^

V) rwcy)

amat

pavau haniuk zamig mar,
'

gt'zdAmbo, vazag, va-kabed giluako klirastarauo

;

caharpuano aviirlg

dyuinako andaruno khasauu*
ma<^''

aDgi\ii-ista</o
la

hav^md

;

bam 2amigo

ma(2o-

hilmanako caod so^an* tekh
pat/ash yehvAnto.
10.

mund zyash

la

dubarishno-i khraf-

starnn
dvat/ib-i

Maciano-i apakhtarigo pavan hamtipakbtarau
;

apakhtarig va-mab va-4-auo 5-;m

kabed

tar-

kerpano pavau rihar va-gcs-i Azo Dabako bin vabamih-i Auiran-ai'
tojishno
II.
di'isbto:

sbkifto burio karitiinisbno dregvadduo-i
va/

min ashavan.

^fdum

bara

atakbsb mac^o,

va-tarigo diW Aen gumikhto.

CllAITKK ilU
1
.

Va-Gosh-aiirvft, c\g(in beimfKha y ehvADrf ruban-i torag-i acvak-da(io,
'

Kor )r^f^i» khrafatarAno.
.'il»o

«

**

RrptUcK "(ice the oW«r PcrelaD
s
I'crti.

clictiouaritt«).

K givcH
*

ir-^'*

a.s

an
;

altcritativi*.

iUnwl-duiid,

S^wi, "

n»c.ilc"

MSS. ««•

Ivi

E.

w. west's edition of

CHAPTER

IV.

amat torag bara vidordo, mio
ic

t6?*a

biriino

yatimto,

cigun rubtin-

min

vic/ort/ano

tano,

pavan zag huinanako
Aazarakanako

gar'zishno-i

vang

vaZ

AuharmazrZ burf/o

cigiin zag-i
2.

sipah,

amat

pavan

akvayov

madam

gar'zend.

Va-AuharraazcZ min pesh-i Gaiyokbu(/an gumikhtako
3.

mar(io paspaninynn

avirtav tubano

damano

rai,

min zamig madam

vaZ

asmano

A'azlAnto.

Ahsh. Goshaurvan min

akhar gar';2ano hamai

vazlilnto,

afash Vang burc^o aeghato sardarih-i
?

pavan damano pavan miin bara shedgimi -en

CHAPTER
1.

IV.

Bena

bflf/o

balisto shalitaih-i

Aharmanq,

m4

levata

vis;?

THE SELECTIONS OP ZAD-SPARAM, CHAP.

Ill,

§

2

—3

;

IV, §§ 1

3.

lyli

^

-K^^

-j^-f

r"^
Me)

•^)j^r)^w*
)iv
i;*ye)

^)
^i

-^

^W)

-v^ 'iW
^)(^it^^**
'

Ho^oo

)V^a^ 1;^

-'^^W—y*
)rx^
tit

iVOejy iT^ --^iro^

1^

-^

)^'^^^

rr"

)^W)

•-^)*

^y ^^^H

3

-^

^

'^"^^

""^'

^^^

1^11^00

tj5

^^

)yA»^i>

Vo*5-v

-^f^

--Oi^P^e)

1^^

i-^i])

'-^
bun-i

zavaro'

zyaeh biVo barn vai Ahukoinishno-i daman ma</o
va^
frorfo

;

afasli

asinano cand 3 aevako-ac-i

rAno,

pavan bandage

girifto

dndih vakhdiinto, uugun aegh bamako tarigo ba/a min roshauotb,

met

benafsh^ yebvAuto, hen yatuntan-i bamaestar, d Ashman /lenkiikhsbishnoiha-i vaZ
da(/ako.
2.

Va-den4

aito

par/irako

frashakarrfanh,

ma

mabisto-i
niri'ik

driij,

aniat ^en yatunto, ai'ang ko/a afzar,

min bam bun va-

dcn« yom, hvn kbvr/pishno-i frashakajv/iinb, *zag araat dusb-

mano-i pavan bin yatuntan bandag va-lakhvar yakbsenunl-aito.
o.

Mi) alio den^i koZa

kilkbsbisbno

gAnirzako

ruyinisbnibA-i

Abarmano, acghum "biinyago nmdo
>

pirAzih,

mdm

shkddo asmauo

Av. tAvaro.

Some won seemM
I

mk<*ing here.

MBS. 4 IS

Probably ahkAfto

•*

split";

BK,

IfOJ^-nj,

K

irciJ^-V-

Iviii

E.

w. west's edition of

i^wf

:j^

^-^^J

--"-ft^y**

^-^^1^5

-o-^^

5^

-^

iJvooi

va-a}iukini<;?o

pa van torn va-tar, afam vakhdunto pavan drupushtoih
maya, afam sufto 5;amiko
viiiasi(2o

;

afam

ahukini(7.o

pavan tartgih, afam

khiishinirfo aurvar,

afam

msivgimdo

tora,

afam vimarinicZo Gaiyok;

marrfo,

afam pa^irako

vardishuano^ nivarrZo taran va- apakhtarano
la

afam vakhduntan vashtano

mand

aish hen razm.

min Auharmazd, va''

r^amigo bara acvako gabra niim acvatagiha,
4.

ma

shayecfo karc?ano

?

i4fash

madam
5.

shcdruuedo

Asto-i-vidaf^'O, levafca

1000

aiizvar.a-

noyasgano-i benafsha liavad, vimArih-i gfinako gunako, aegbash

viinari

nend

marginend.

GaiyokmaivZo azsbAno

la

vindiVZo,

va-cdrako

jnd vijir yehvunto-i barinogar Zorvano pavan bun-i hen yatuntan-i

^

Probably for JD'OttJI vardishnSno, " those revolving "

;

apparently the signs of

the zodiao.

*

BK.

inserts

j|.,

but these two strckes merely

fill

up the end of a

line in

K,

THE SELECTIONS OF ZAD-SPARAM, CHAPTKR lY, §§ 4—8.

lix

)^e)

^1^^

lie)

-"^y^r' 1)0(2^

-jtC)^

^^11^

^^^

^^eJi

no

Aharman, acgh
zag-i

'*
:

Madam

vaZ 30 ziinustaii'

Gaiyokman/o

vacl

ttg

vft-

khaya bojishno

Mzo

brahinam.'*

G.

i4faslipavan

s/;iliar

yclivunrf

pef?akih

pavan bakhsliishno-i niin kirfako bajakgnnmo gumt^rishn

rayinislinano, afshano

pavan zag rim vad hanju?ako-i 30-o

shiiato lu

ayafto
7.

carajc.

'Md pavan
zivandagib

biin

angiin

banl ycbabiim^, ntgh

Auharmazrf
bara
loca(/o
])alist

starako

lera^fo

dam,
nii
;

la

nafsba-goliAriba,

hvu
d:\m.

band-i
8.

rosbanano yobvuntan

va-Kcvan
pnvaii

margib
nafsb^/

Ko/a
bav</d,
an-!

2,

pavan

biin-i

dam,

ycliviinto

ngun Aubarmarrf pavan
karttunt-alto,

Galacang pavan
aito

lAbl

yntuntan,

Jivan-ic

md zhdk

zyash

»

For

rfM(

cimMtan.

M8S. ifTOf^.

Ix

E.

w. wr.srs edition of

1|

W>

1)^)*)

1^)*(5

V

-'l^

^1?*)^

:;^

«^^l)»-^

jo^ -j^

-«-^)

lie)

-»f>^)^

o?>-^ i))o»V

^)

i)e)

)r'y^

i)*o,^^

i^Wa ^1 V\

^)^soo

o)^i?^**

-^y^

lie)

i^V

zivandagih
azir zamig,

pacZasli khelkuni-aito
vtid

;

Kcvano pavan Tart^^uko pavan mas
va-margih paJasli pe^/aktar vukoZa 2 ba?'a balieto
la,

benafsh/^ zohari'
9.

pai/akhshabtar.

Ya-yehvuiito-i

Gaiyok-

rnan/o pavan nafsha zivandagih bara ka>Y/ano bucZo-i 30 sLnato

Kevano

10. Va-pavan zaggas amat lakhvar vaZ balist-i aito Taiv/^uko lu mar/o. Kevano pavan vaZ Tam^uko mat?o, Auharma^cZ pavan Vahig buJo,

zyash nafsh^2 nisbirak va-aparvcdh-i Kevano

madam

Aidiarma?:^

rai,

Gaiyokmarc/o pavan an-1 khalakoan-i!c yatuncZ vurt?^ va-madam
rako
astishno,

pafZi-

astishnoih-i

zag

ahukinishno-i

Ahurmauo madam

Auha?*mazfZ ddmano

deZ>rilnyeD.

1

For

J(5Ji»-5

zaliiih,

'

venom.
*

«

MSF,

ew^-\3l-

3

aiss. •^.

For

^

bftid,

"endured,

suff red."

;

Tfli:

SELECTIONS OF ZAD-SrAKAM, CHAPTEU IV, §

— V,

§

1>

Jxi

.

CHAPTER

V.

>A»^ij

^)^V

i)C(^

'^

M^t^)

^j^

^^

\Vi:}t)

i)^y^(^v-^

^

-o\

))0(2

1^^ •-'>») '^)) sfY^

'^^wy> vv^ie)^^ -D^ooe)^^
V.

^

CHAPTER
1.

Araat

ham

va-bain-patiyarigo'*, cigAuasli

dumaiio abAkini'/o,
,

jmHuosIi
ciguii

pavMn zag liam-ilrujaDt'/ano iiafsha
iisinuu

ralja-i;acl<2ili iiuim*i(/o

w\(l

andaruno

yatiinto,

adiau

inainog-i

asiuaiio aratcshtar

lulindnako-i arkand^
a8mt\i:o

inuii ayokslii^stino zrab

pa</mukbt6 yakbseuunwf

(wh pavan

bilr'jo au-i stafto''

drog-sakbiiu gAfto va/
bavf2ib-a<',

Abannauo
Id

acgb

:

" Kovau amat biw yatua(/
;"

ato

bikhvur

sbcd-

gunam
aito.
2.

ban\

nivarJ(/o'

vad

amat

AAba/
/o,

inarf/

piramAno asmano

akba/au dnipuabtib-l-i sakbttar baya uivari

Abbok-akasib karituui-

ylfaab asliokano

fravnbar-l aratvsbtarmio

piramimo zag druuivarcfo cfgfln vars

pii?«btib,

aspo-barako va-ncrako-ya<i4^ angun barn

>

M88.

Mj^,

»K

has

((
<*

aUivo

^^.

^

p^-r^

arghn

i.l.

iR

^nxXJ-^***

*

Or hAtn-paiUsArigo.

Compare

Pvr^, thiUftAn.

'

Comp.ire Sftna oi?r.

Ixii

E.

w. west's edition of

madam

rocsLw

;

humanakih-i zindano-panan

mun

niin

birimo zindaiio
la

uetrunend, va-duslimano min andarun neflimast Famanauo-i biruno

shedgunyen, yatunto.
3.

Pavan

liam-giluo-ae-i

Aliarmaco

kiiklislicfZo,

aegb lakbvar
afasb

va/ nafsbtt

bundago tarigih

vazldner/o, afasb

vic/arg ]A aydito;

gumano-medamaunisbuoiha bim-i min far'j-aumandib-i 9000- sbnato
sar,

va-yebvLintano-i frasbakar^o pavan cibar bani ausbmarfZo.
4.

Cigim

ycmaZcZuni-aito
vaZ

pavan

GAsano
bav^tnd

aegb:
vaZ

*

Ac^uno-c
vald
tano-i

zag

koZa-2

maioog

bam

mad
koZa-2 5

zag-i

fratum

dabisbno,

(aegb,

mainog
pavan

vaZ

GaiyokmanZo

ma^o
a

haw ad),

Mun-ic

zivaudagib

1

IIam-giino-a6-i, "fcuch

mamcr

thit;" K. tiMiispoica iuto^**y)i^j
years, the period then

I31v. JXJV'UiJ'-

8 It
l;c

may

be

CxlOGO (a6-hazar) = 6OO0

remaining

;

or

it

may

the whole of the 900O years agreed upon.
*

Quoted from Pahlavi Yasna

XXX,

4, in

§§

4— G.

THE SELECTIONS OF ZAD-SPARAM,
ue)

CIIAPTEli

V

3

VI,§l.lxiii

(^^

'-'r^DO-X)

)^)y^

-\)h 'Va

'^""^

-"^

^^^

-^^^f*

G^^

">)^)y^^

f^

-K^h -ts! *^^5

^^

Me) ^)y^ -^sy -\)^))iS^

.•.^5^-i^

A»P )^^^

1-^V*^>»

-^^^e) 1<^1)K0

,6/1

7

'I"'I"I"l"I''I"I"I"I"I"I'*J*'I"l"T*T'

CHAPTER

VI.

Auharm.i2</

pavau
*' j

buna

kar,

acgli

:

*'

Yadasli

zivaudngo

yakhseuunaui
hanA
kfir,

imrn-ic
:

pavan azivaudagih

Gonag-mamog pavan
va-mun-ic
ae(/iino

aegli

" Vadash bara ye.;tcliinanr';
afdi'im

zag aito vad vaZ zag-i

hiw abvaiio, (acgb, ausbilta-c-1 anirjg
G.

inadam

\.\l

yobamtuud).

Va-va(?otninih-i

drcvandano

rai

afakbshisbno^ bara khadituuto, at'</uno vaW-i abarubo pasbuin maiuu
ganih, Aubarraa2<i acmc./x)-i haniaigib.
7.

Va-denrt yebvAnto fratilm arHgo-i asmano Icvata Abarinan6.

CJIAPTEU
).

VI.

Va-d^An da^gar

vai inayu mu^/o, zag bam-dcuii-J' bin dilbaiist.
-»r
MCJ>

»

MS8. SfW-V'*

MSR. omit ^-^
it

MSc. *rij^r

^•
•n>KOiC''*0'

*

rcnnnci;.*'

In

the GAthA

ii r.iricil

by

diflercut

MSi.

ioto

*Mf^»»fy

or

-%3n5V«*0'5 •**>*«<'^c**^ni«°"'*>»l^^*"a'*'

For r«n». bmmln.!.

IxiV

E.

>V.

WEST

S

I.DITION

OF

y^y^)

^^ ^^
e)^L^
-^^'leiS

'\^)Y^

-jolii^o**

^^

^^

'^oo-?*i 3

Ji^oo)

^16 4 /J^iCy^

\^-Hy^^ ^^y
oe)-^ -^Vi?*

'-x^Hjit^-^^ej

lie)

i M6
->j)H5^

-**i^i

'Me)j^ ie)^*>

o^j^ -«i^ i^^
jo
-^i^^

lie)

y*»^^i

-\j^^

-^o>

MsOe^

-K)i>H:r

ISO)*

"^^Y

5)^yw

1^
{rmo

1)A»5^^^ 5

.-.JJJII^^
Tishtar
pavaii

^

V'S^e)^**
^t'rak
;

asp6-i

Galaceiig,

mun mayatunuiko
ycliabrinto
dfira

;

liam-^/tigc-i^

Akaritubi-aito

abar

yom hodo vazhmto
2.

no peJiiko cigun avla-ma^an-i
ycbvunto
!uiii
;

rubakih.

Galacaiig akbtar

aito akblar-i 4-uin bara rai,
aito.

ma

Tir birakb 4-iim birakh-i

sbnato
3.

Va-Tisbtar

ye^Zo

vaZ

aiyytirih

bavibursasto,

afasb

ojash
va-^id^o

Vobumano

va-II6m

pavan

parvanakih,

va-Bur'jo-i ai;ano
pacZniano-darb'-^

pavan ham-darih, va-Aiv/ai Fravartio pavan
hara-gari-aito
bavaiid.
4.

leval^

Pavan
;

3

gerp

vasbto-i

aito

gabra

gerpo, torn gerpo,

aspo gerpo^

va-ko/a

kerpo-ac pavan

10 Iclya
i

ten rosbanoib
taran*

vanjir/o,

afasb Klyii vtirrn pavan zanisbno5.

kbrafs-

madam

sbedgAnyen,

Srishknno

hMo
»

bav(2od gvic?o gvi(fo

>

MS6.

'JAJO*.

2

Or, perliup,

gAiili.

Yasht VJIL 13,

IC, 18.

THK SFLECTJONS OF ZAD-SPAUAM, CnAPTKR VI, §§ 2—6.

IxV

:^ j^

^

m)

')^'\)e^

^

-o^

it^

\^oo^^

^^

m

ir-15

->^i)5i^

-^WKJ

^iri)

^^y

'^^})

)9^<;cej

j!i)y^

iS

']<;j^))jH^

3i»^e)^

)o»)e)

-»o^>»t^^

lie)

n^

,1)^

)o^
-Oi>*

Mse^f)*
i^oot^
nd)

io»)e)

-i^^v-iy^

->»^) ^^'K)(^

W)^)

-±1)

-x;-f

-oo» 'i^** io»ia ]^y)

-^oo^^w
ly^'s^'^

Ai?i) -oo» i^i5W^e) -'-^^ -oo» o^M^c-^ -^^
rabii tcshtu'

^1

mnu mayu madam
bavt^nd,

lihaiiji-aito

;

va-pavan zag

madam

bara

makbituni-hasto
lvliasanda<^i\no
G.

vispaiio

kbrufstanmo

ucsund'-^

bani inin

mun

hvn gibgo-j ^amigo hvn yazldnd bavtaub

Akba/- maiu6^-i va</6, pavan m^nZo Ayuinako, pavan ramigo
hi\do
;

pWako
Tigla

ro^bano biiloud liyuinako-i mftkvo-ac-5 darinu pavan
cigun kbayu amat tano bani jumbiiuv/o, tano pavjiu
^rdzo
raft'ir

ddsbto

;

bam-zobarib
filiarig

yebvAutv/o,
ii-dzo

zag

maluog-i

va/o

hin

vat/o-i

audarvayig

jumbnii/o, bamak :amigo avvacijasb bai-A vaf

kar(/akibi\

viWo

ii-dzo aito, (tfaab

mayA pavan mAsbto
zar;\b-?

kusti\uo-i

zamig ramitunto, afusb

Farakbfl-ka/Y/o ajash hddo,

*

For )xooT tashlo.
froljably for 3lX>-) kcsftnd,

without

pivfU

yl,

goc

Hang*i

/J!Moy

<m PafJari,

p. 105.
*

Tho M88. place

the fullowing

.^

before thiR rerU.

Bo K., with fD^^f al>oTc;

BK

iie^y-

Ixvi

K.

w. west's edition of

iC -»o^ «i5ii^

'^Yiy )^

x^ ')^^))^\ \

V

'•^)Y<y )')^(X

lie)

•i-*'^^

j-wj^^Ai^A*

^_^ ^le^it'y^

-^^

-^^yD*

io»

-*»i5i

-^

-^^

-O ne)
-^1^

i^e^)

)^^^

-^^

))[^^^

-^^^ j^)^xi^

y^io^e

j^S^

-»^*)0^e)

"-^V^t^ t^

is^ii>h5 ->i<;ee>o^

1^ ^o»
7.

J-KJ11

.5)^y^

)^)S^^

'ly^^^e)^^
;::amigo,

^-^i

9

Yakhsenuncv/ 3 acvako-i dena

afash icn ba?a yakh;

senunishno 1000 cashmako khanoig, and var karitilni-aito
khanig, inAnash
ailbash rejoi-aito.

1000 dvo
frdzo

maya min
8.

zarali,

min var madam yatuncJo
Dfii^

Va-koZu var
asubarih-ae-i

va-ko7a

dvo khani-ae rabaih
asp6-ae-i

Angun

cand

amafc

takigo, pavan

T^/dg^

piramuno hamai gardecZo

va-tajc(^o"'

pavan 40 yom
koZfi

barj, nydvvdo-i

yehvunc^/o IGOO- parasang-i akarih-P
paig.6
9.

parasang-e kamisto 20,000

Va-akha?' khrafstaruno-i yemitunto hav«nd, va-vish-t njash hen

»

MSS. JWAJ^So K.; BK.
niters each

*

T

into

^-

'Ihis

seems to indicate 1900 parasangs in 40
daily.

days,

which do hOt give an even number
2,

of parasangs

The K20 Bundahish,
read

XIIL,

has 1700 which slso give a fractional amount daily.

We should probably
6 the

16C0 parasangs, or 40 daily.

And

if

we

take _j»«=-*

bv-^

number

of hundreds

would

really bo six times

one = 6. The error in K. 20 has arisen from writing

rr

for

«
«

For *^^^»

akarig-5.

A

"source, feeder."

»

Av.

tae.

As the

foot

was about 10^

inches, this long paraeang

was 17,500 English

feet,

r

pearly 3^ miles.

The Selections of Zad-Sparam, Chaiter

VI, §§ 7

11. Ixvii

"Vo»

-*ooo

-K^r'^y

^^r^^

-^ :vj)^

-^

^o»

n

zamij^o ba/a gumikhto, zag vish

bara

makhituntan

rai

Tishtar
bara
10.

hi*n

/arah frcWio

vazlilnto;

afash

^paosh'^
partZ^

shcdu pac/irako

tjijirZo,

va-fnitAm

Arrfig stilbih

madam

Tishtar yehvilnto.
zor
angiln

^fash
Tishtar

madam

pati-shiJo^ vaZ ATdiarma^fZ-i

madam

bAn/o pavau khshnu va-niyayishno va-shem-burishnih bara maf2o,
va-zor unguu

madam

vaZ Tishtar caud lOaspu-i gushno, 10 aushtar-i

giishno, 10 torA-t gushno, 10 kofu

amat ramitund, va-10 r(\(Zo-i nuevfcuko*
1

amat pavan akvayov frdzo khv</hcnd.
raiilnuZo

1.

.

Ifash

baru stAbth bara
Ziirah.

^puosh shedi, afash lakhvar

dtlshto

min cashmakano-t

«

Pen.

bartl,

"

terror."
13, 16, 18.

*

BK. i^oi

f^^fS

»

Ya8ht VUI.,
Ihiti.ii,

M9S.

t^«riur,

which might in^an

•'

ainirlo- tr.uiuHj,'

but the «irigiiud

i.-^

Av. nAvftya,
»

*•

navigable."

Ya!.ht

Vin.,21,22.

Av.

paltitish.

Ixviii

E.

W. West's

Edition of

\Y^i^\S

V ^
i^oo^-^i

(g)

13

.%<5^)

H3-f

iW^r
)>*0(2^fj»

-*"n^)
i^ji^hs

He)

i^oo^-^**) J-X)*»^i

^^oo^^

j)H5e)^^e3

i)e)

-*-o**^

^ane:-^)

>-\))*»o»

j-jqj^^^^

.Mt4)*^ 5^ ^(^i-ie)^i

m^^^

:j^ ^)

)wo*»^

j-oi^-o '^^^^
^11

-vo»

-j^nro

iy*»^*»i

ly^ei-v

-^^^j 14

MV^i^y^^e)

'-v^

->iv^i^

^) 1^)*)^^

1^)

^-Hy

«A^e^^

12.

-4fash

pavan jam va-gumb-i pacZinunigo,

mun

fravuhar-ir
shikifttar

dashto khveshkiirih, cand vesh dasto

maya hakht^ va-cand
srishkan-i

pavan zanishno
va-torag
rocsha,

madam'
mas

vanininif/
13.

cand

gabra

rocshft

va-kas,

Va-ien zag

auar

va-vurano

yehviinto tojishno patkavisbno-i Tisbtar va-afcakbsb-i VAzisbto pavan

hamesturin-i ylpuosh; vispo-vijir atakbsb-i Vazjsbto pavan atakbsbano
vazar bara makbitunto, vispo-vijir 6cn kebarano.
14.

10
;

yom

shapAno vArano yebvimto, afasb partly shaditunib-i
vacZo rAninit/ovaZ kanArako-i zarAb-i

kbrafstaran

akhar

Farakbu-kardo,
karituni-aito

va-vaZ 3 bara kbelkuni-basto, aftisb 3 zarab ojasb

bfif/o,

J

So MSS., bat
'•

it

should probably be
TJshtar "

^0*

avar,

"a

cloud," (see § 13), and not

arar* madam,
Part4i-,

upon, down."

made the cloud

rain."

" darting, spurting." MSS. o'^I^O-

The Selections of ZAd-Spakam,
{^6}) 1-^e)

Cbai'Tek VI,§§ 12

17. Ixix

)WCs^)

^

15

...n^

)ffji^^)

"\^^^5)

'ai^e)

•^^^y^i-w

^o»)a

^^*»
)Yiy-^

lie)

ifiv^i

J)5^i9

))^

>^)'))Yif^^>

16

^^^^ -A

^<^

')^)^)^

Jy^^^-^

i-^^ie)

-K)^

^W

--^^JO-^o

J^oo^K"

^^)^

5^

-5^(2^ io»ie)J^ -iy-^)^»y

Puit?g'

va-KiuninWo- vii-Gehimo-biln.^
in;iyA-l
siir
jittx),

15.

Min

viilasbano
piwf/ash

Puitigo

l>enafslu/
ril'iish

Tiiilnasb

pur aviikar*

yclivumVo;

biind-i j)Or

va-avakar pat/vast vaZ mab, afasb baindi van»!ishno,

)»avan l&la ydtuntano irodo vazliintjin, an-i
16.

mab

pa^/asb

j)tkiakoi-aito.

Va-F\irakbi\-kanZo

pavan kustako-i

niinrojo pavan Albilr'z irdzo

yegaviinunc'rfo, afasb PAitigo
var-i Satavcs,
ziirAb

bani-samano ycgaviinAno(/o, afasb miyano
17.

man

ban<l vaZ Sataves, inAn kAstako-i 'nimrojo.
va-miib,

Va-

6cn

kbvcsbkArih,

miln varfiisbno-i koZa Ainmo, ben
;

afzAyisbno va-kaliisbuo
mi\h

pftr

avakAr havad

gajak dilnbag min levino-i

2

Mzo

tijend,

ben Sataves milntsbto

yakhsenund

;

aevsko

-no

PAtig in Bd. XIII, 7-10

;

Av.
*

PAItlka.

^

r^4^

KwnrtWf. iWr/.T.U

s

jtjf^oo,

ibid,

Compare Sana,

avo-kr.

»

BK.

^-10,

K

^-foi.

'MSS.^-

Ixx

E, AV. West's Edition of

i^Mw

'^ny -^-^ J
18

^

Me)

-^w
j)^

^re) i^kJ
i^ve)

^i^ -^-^

^

-o-^^^i

.*\^)^ )^))r^

->^

m \^
->-\Ae)^

-^^

^^i5K)*^^

^1

t^

?*^

-V
^1

•>)^^^

f

V>o^^

))^5W^

i^i9)»o*^e)

tj5

-»o««o-^

))6

)rw

)^^ jy^_y
lala

^^^

•iw))*^^

t^«^V
avakur.

V
18.

)^y

%

-Hj))

ahang, aevako frod-ahung

;

pavan zag-i lala-ahang yehvune^Zo pur,
Va-Sataves var

pavan zag-i frocZo-ahang yehvuncc?o
aito benafsha
istavarih-i

va-pahliiko-]

zarah-i
sur,

Farakhil-ka/Yfo,
vaZ

md

ayoshdnsarih

rnin dariydvo-i

amat hen

Farakhii-ka/rZo hamai
;

vazliinecio,

pavan

viV/o-i

rabu-i bulaiid-lj lakh var makhituuec^o

vad

zag-i

roshano pavan dagyuih ben vaZ Farakhu-karr/o cashmakano-i

Aredvisur vazlunec?o. 19. G\ido min den« 4/ zarah-i kas.
20.
rucZo-i

ilfash akhar, tajinicfomiu Albilr'zo,

min apakhtar kanarako,

2

va^-Arvandaito va-Diglito
val^
riic?o

(tajo-i vaZ^ riido
;

vaZfrtV yehvunr^an)

va-Veh
1

vaZ khur avla-macZau yehvilnto

pavan 2 srubosakhto
;

So MSB. but Bd. XIII, 13 has SlPC, compare Pers. AhanjWan

the two dots are

easily corrupted into a circumflex.
"

The MSS. have

3)n(0»j

by some old transposition of letters.
*

«

The MSS. have 4f'

The ocean and the three seas mentioned
For
f) val«.

in §

14,

*

Va means " both "

here.

^

Tub Selections of Zad-Spakam, Chaptkr VI,§§

18

22,

Ixxi

bam vaZ zarah vazlAnto. 21. Akhar min ham AlbAr^o bani y;UriiirfhaV'(nd deu/f
;

valashano 18
20

rii(/o-i

rabu

min

rA(?o, milnsliano bAii klian

pavan

Albur*£o,

hin aramigo

hodo vazlund
barii

va-6cn

Khvaniras'-

yehamtund.
22.

Akhar
pavan

2 rashin-i

zarAh
1;\

vaZ

^amigo
vA'/o

sharitiini-hasto-i

karituni-aito

Cccasto
bar-c

(var-i

sarniuko
Titiiro-i

yakhsenunct/o,
pinV/gar),

muDash

yetibunerfo
koZii

GushnasjxVi

va-dacZigar
va-naf.sh«

Sovar

mAn

stararih

baj-a

kAstano ramitunyen,

suragvar roshano pAko
cashni
a5to,

yakhsenuiuVo,
koZa

mA
bora

andd^ako
riinanoih
vaZ

humanako-i
bara
1

iniin
;

dan/ih
zofarih

va-koW
lii

va/

kustAno ramitunaZo
tO-

afasb

bun

The M8S. have

»

BK.

Inserts -n)*-^'n3Jr

c

<ip

khvfiehkArih, K. iuserta •^j^-^-VJKy ttkhtAshkArili.

»

Tb«ll88. have

l\ for

y

'

^J'">S-

'1<^**

M88. Ifoiio^

M88. "^y

Ixxii

F.

W, West's

Edition of

CHAPTER

VII.

-x^o»

o^Ve)

-vo»

)m^y

^^

*)j^^^)

)fH^^y

^

)Y^Yf^

la

ayr/roi-aito,

n\d bin yal zarah vazlime Zo

;

afash pavan

nazdigih

yetibimec^o aturo-i sudigo macZo Bur'sino Mit?'6.

2

>.

Va-dena yehabunto da^igar

ardfigo-i leval4

muya.

*r*i* v'I"l"l**I"I"I"l*i"*l"I"I"I'*l*

CHAPTER
1,

VII.
mari, zyash pac?ira.ko

Va-cigiin

sa(/.igar

vaZ

zamigo

ham

2ainigo

bani

nivarrfo,

cigiin

pavan shkastano zivagini(Zan-i ^amig,
avano'^f

madam

rustan-i

Albur'z-i

zamlg kanarako-i

koftino-i
2.

miyano
J.fa8h

gar(2akih-i

zamigo

madam yMunedo
afash

pavau mar-i 2244.

zamigo pa^ash va^-ham-band va-nivarishnig, afash aurvarano madam
royishno

vakhshishno,

gospendano ajash parvarisbno, afash

anshiitaano ajash rabu
1

silo?o-i

aiyyarih yehvunto.

MSS-

1)0.

2

Possibly for ^ro*

avkrlg, but doubtful.

^

Va means

**

both " here.

;

The Selfctions op Zad.Spar\m, Citaiteu

VI, §

23-vil,

§

n

Ixxiii

i»i

i)iy

-O^

-'^'V^ -o-^^

'\^^ ')^-Ky^y)

-^

"*0£U^ ))6

3,

Angiln ptv/uko aogh, pesh min
goliar-i kofo ben

fiibijarfo

va/

dnm inor^no,

pavau 1000 shmito

^amig

yeliabilntu yegiiYiniAmWo,

naincisht ciguii paitiyarako bara ^ainigo ma(/o,
nislito,

pavau vazandago bani

vaZ

madam ^amigo madam yatilnto cigiln dirakhto hilmanako, tako madam vakbshWo, afagh lishako \i\l azh\ 4. Kishako-i kofiaio
bartl

aevako vaZ tane
afash
basto,
ras

vi(?ari-ba8t,

pavau ham-baudih bara

uivi\ri-aito,

vidarg-i

maya

;

az\r va/ madaui,

pa^Zasb bani yobabuni-

argbasi)
uiiu

maya

])a(/a8b

uuguu
vaZ
dil,

In'iniauak

tajrud rigAu kbiluo
uibau-i
gvi</

bvn rakan,
5.

bamak tauo
bav4d.

zubar-i

vakbsennud.

Va-pavan 600* sbnat-ic k&dmOn bjimuko kofjm-i
G.

miu Albur'zo

far*jumig hddo

Albur*20 vad 800 sbuat

bamai' rusto

>

Thin

60<> in

more

likely thftn the 18 in Ind. Bd. VIII,

5

;

XII,

1

;

eltbough thiH 18

is confirnu-fl •

by IrAn. Bd. IX, XIX.

KK. omiU ImmAi

Ixxiv

E.

W. West's Edition of

c^'A^y
^) nej

))oa

-^o-T

ie)i^

j^'^V
v/e)

^>^
in

^
-X5ii^

7

.-.i^v )^^*»
)^i5

^^ -^o*

1)*'^-'^

msc-xjj^i^

i5**ro

i^ii i^KJ

^^e)

-1)^^

iC 'i>-Hy

*-"^

>^«t ^>^^

^^^

pavan 200 shnato vud

\a,l

star

puhyago, pavan 200

slinato

vad

vaZ mall piihyag, va-200 slinat vad vaZ khiirshefZo pfdiyag,

200 shiiato

vad vaZ asnian

rilsto.

7.

Akhar Albur'^o ilparseno kofo meh, cigun
biiu

Avar -royishn-ic kofo karituni-aito, munash
sar pavan vaZ Pars vaZ Oinistano.
8.

pavan Sagistauo afash

Dend-c pccZak, acgh
va^Zo

:

—Akhar min varano-i raba-i pavan bfln-i
vaZ zarah,

dam, bara miisbtano-i
dag-ae-i azvuTy cigiln

maya

^amigo pavan

7

pdrako an-

ham-tano zamig, akhar min varano, pavan aeva^o
9.

va-va(Z6 ;<;ivako ;^ivako bara sedguni-aito.
raakoar- haraak

Parako-ae bara, cand ne-

2;amigo,
;

min miyanak, va-Sagistano-J hand piramun

pavan 6 parako
For

bara Sagistan hand pa^Zmrmo karituni-hasto-i keshvar,

^

3l)Hy

havand.

The Selections op

Zad-Spae.\m, Ciiaiter

vil, §

7— viil,

§ i.

ixxv

.•J-i>^

^

)^^>i>

>^^

)^))>*C

tT)*

12

CHAPTER

VIII.

^6
pavau zag cim pavaii kcsh aevako uiin tane
perfiiko yehviinto.

10.

Mijano Khvaniras-i miu Pars miyanako
humanJk.
11.

aito, va-zag 6 kcshvar avisar

Baliar-ac

min
;

zariih-i

Farukhil-kar^io

piramun zag

gash to, miyano zag G keslivar

zag kilstako-i uimroj zanih va-vcsbako

bara vakhduntu, zag-i apakhtarigo kuf-i bAr*20 bara rAsto, aegh vad,

aevako min tanc,
12.

gvitZo yehvilniiiid va-aperfiiko.'
safi^igar
T
«

Uend yehvAnw/o
.

anZigo

madam

zamfgo.

-T.T. T

T .T .1 .T

T. T .t. I- 9 -T-

CllAraER
1.

VIII.

Cigun cabarAm vaZ aArvar mndo, zyash pavan bam aAryar

pa<i!ra1[0 kAkbsbt-aito,

md

sag

aArvar barA
iriKjriv

kb(i8bko»
»

AmArda(2o,

»

MSS.

f^^^lll-

MSS.

M8S. iv^xir-

Ixxvi

E.

W. West's Edition of

owj^

jjM) -i^i^w^e)

-v^ Sfif-G 'p^ ^y^

-y)])

p^

-^0^

munash

aurvar stish dakhsLako
levat(i

madam vakhdunto,

afash

khiiiY(?o

bara kusto, afash
2.

Tishtarigo maya-i varanigo

ba?-a

gumiklito.

Akhar min varano liamako
sar(Zako-i

2;amigo vakhshishno-giin pec/aki-hasto,

va 10,000
vakhsliifZ

ma^^akvar

va-100,000
koZa

levatti

sar(Zako
;

ungun
zag

hav^nd cigun

min

gunako

ayuinako

afash

10,000
3.

8arc?ako

bara^ amzo-darislinih-i

10,000

vimarili

paf/rasto.

Akbar min zag 100,000 sarr/ako aurvar tokhm vakhdunto, min liamih-i tokhm vano-i harvisp-tokhm,
zarah-i

madam
miyiino-i sar(/ako

Farakhii-ka?^o,

ba?'d

yehabunto, munash hamuk
4.

aurvarano

ajash

bamai

vakbshcnd.

^fash

Seno

miiruvo

1

MSS,

jriir-

«

This cipher usually means 1,000, but see Bd. IX,

4.

8

BK

inserts

J^^*but see
13d.

*

MSS'

JJJ^.

°

For

))0

pavan.

8

MSS.

^j

IX,

4.

^

MSS.

3k3-H:-)-

The Selections of Zad-Sparam, Chapter VTT

I, §

2— ix, §

i.

ixxvii

^.^yAj^iyi jIj^jO)^

.

t^^^V

ji)^))*5 oy**-^-^

"^^^

CHAPTER
h^y

IX.
^)

^

i)e)

"V^

'j;^-^

^^^y

il^_)^

iH5«

^

us;'iyishno piu/a.sh

yakhsenuncc?o

;

amatash hen fnUo

{'ra.\ducdOf

adinosh

tOkhm-i khilshko vaZ mayi^ avsanef/o, pavan varano lakhvar vaZ
vArrmi-aito.
5.

zamig

ilfash

pavan nazdigih zag vaao bara yehabilnto Hom-i spcJo,
zarmuno,
zivandaggar-i

haiTiL'stArih-i

mun/aknn,

onosliakgar-i

zivandagan.

V

T)end yohvunto tnsAm an/ig

madam
T T T »

ailrvarnno.
«.

ill '1

I-t..T. T

>

T .T.T
i

T

T.T.

l"l

1 "l"! 'l"i

'I' 1

1' I*

CnAPTER
1.

IX.
zyasli

CigAn

5- Am vaZ

gospend

mario,

pavan

ham
baru

gos/^end
vir£orr/o,

pa^/irako kukhshicZo,

va-ham cigua
ciharako-i
XXS'II, 2

t6n\g-i acvakdtVZo-t

min
t

zag

clgunfb

aunrarig

ddshto,

55*

sarjako-i
67.

So in Bd. X, 1| XIV,

1

;

;

bat hero the MSS. hare

JT/^Y^

;

Ixxviii

E.

W. West's Edition

of

a5

j)^)o>^-^o»

)^^^)

-^^r^

f

Vy*»

-^i)) 2

...

iy»^ej

••^^1 '^V^

')^r -^-^

-^^'^^V

^^y

M\t>o

-^e)

::^

jurrfai

va-12 sart/ako-i

aiirvar-i

beshaz min anam anilm vakhshif/o hav^nd
ben Damdat?©

cigAn venaDd acvak aevako aegh min kaf^ar andam,
pe(Zako.
2.

Va

koZa aurvar

min andam-e vakhshirfo

afzayinec^o-i

zag

andam, cigun

zag-i gufto

aegh; tama toni vaZ zamig mazg

ba?'a fash

da^Zo, akha?- ]urda,c

]aU

rilsto,

galolag^ va-shamag, alun^ va-mashuko''
rai,

cigun shamag, mazg ciharako

benafsha mas

aito-i

afzayinako-i

mazg.

3.

Va-zag-ic yemaZeZuni-aito aegh min khuno gao^uko mas

(cigun as benafsh^

khuno
4.

aito) aito-i aurvarigo-i vaZ durest ciharih-i

khuno

aiyyartar.

Va-zag-i yema/eZuni-aito aegh min vinigo maish^
va-gunako-i shamagah yehvunto, tane

mun donako
vinig
1 '

karituni-aito,

rai.

5.

Va-zag-ic-i yemaZeZuni-aito aegh
"

min sushan

sij9andano°

Perhaps for Pers. ghallah.
'Pers. mashft, or

Pcrs. alnm, or arzan.

mashang.

*

MSS.

-»^.

*

Pcrs.

mash.

•^

MSS

j)*c'COV

-HJW, but

some herbs

(like rue) arc

meant, as shown by the context.

The
yo*-^

Selections op Zad-sparam, Chapter IX, §§ 2

9. Ixxix

'^y^

.•.-*»^

-^j^)

^-K^}o

)ro)^y)

-w-^-^

A^0» -^

"l)H3«i*)

V^^OO i^J^I

^

ne)

^o» M^v^e)

:^

-v-C j-oi^v

i)e)

^i?>

^

t^-^^

beshazinw/,

va-g6sj;endAuo sushig vimarih

rai.

6.

Den4, miyun-i

dil

buno, avishan-i VoliAmano bani ara^-istishnih-i zag-i
va-zag-i min shatakano va-asagano
7.

Akomanu gand,

rai ajash.

Akhar,

tokhm

roshanih,

hvn

zor

min

tokhm

madam

vakhdAnto-i tonv biVio,

ajash

de^rAnyeii,

roshauih vol mah y/fzaio

avaspanlo

;

pavan gas pa^Zash tamw zag tokhm pavan roshanoih-S mah
ba7i\ vir&ato,

bara palurfo, afash pavan kabod ciharakoihA

afash janvar-

aAmond
vad
\aI

bari\

ka/v/o.

8.

Min

tanui (rdzo vaZ AirAn-vcju bn\hini<fo,
;

fratQm 2 ton\ yAkhtako, va-zogar va-neke6

akhar atnirig san/akoiha

bundagih-i
nkrae

282

sarrfak

;

va-ramigo
havdnd.

caud 2 parasang
9.

darandk-i

pwTAko

yehvAnto

Ct'harpaano

pavao
*

2ain)g

(rdzo

sagitAntd
CompAre

havdnd,
Per*. AbI.

Ta-mfthtgAn

bbn

mayii

Pcri. Bhatah.

Ixxx

E.

W. West's

Edition or

•jj^)0-)5)H3)'i

jjj-f'jo-i^^

-^-^ei^-^^^

\^^

'SY")>f)Ci

•15**^

i-wy^iyj

M^-X)!^^

'\^

«))^

M^D^Hs
havand
;

«^-C

1^

JiV

shnayifZo hav«nd,

murvan andarvako

vajif/o

2 2

pavan han-

gam-i khAsh-khvArih ham-doshagifZo
va-zerkhuiiishno.
10.
liasto

a«;-daliun ajash

bMo, va-apusih

Dokano, zyashan bakhshisLno angrm
3-i

:

— Fratiim,

khelkuni-

vaZ

aito,

ceharpaano-i

zamigo-rubislino,

mahigo-i mayA-

shnavishno, murv-i andarvago-vajislmo. 11. Akha?', vaZ 5 ayulnakano,
aito

ccharpayag-i

girfZo-sumbo,

va-doganako-siimbo,

panjo-cang,

va-murv, va-mahigo, mAnsban manisbto 5cn 5 dvako-i karituni-aito
«vig,
/li'ig

va-kbanig,

kbayinoig,

va-farakbiVraftar,

<7arag-ar'janig.

12

mahig,

va-koZa-ar^ stor, va-g6s/>»end,
;

va-dafZ, ya-kalba,

miiruv-i

Z;en

maya
1

yehvilnefZo

kbanoig

sbaraur,'^ va-miisbko

va-avarigohamako

MSS. XJ^JO'I-

2

Compare

Pcrs. khSyah, " egg.''

^^

3

Arab, sammiir, "the sable"; see §§ 13, 14. 21.

The Selections of Zad-spabam, Chapter IX,

§§ 10

— 14. Ixxxi

•%
i-^c

>)*lL)^)0-i5)^5n

^^-15^^)5

J^*»

^^^-^

-^^KJ

))^^K5

•^'OC-)5)^5f'

-^t^^

1^^

-O^^

-^))^)

^^OO)^ W(2
^'^(a;:)^

-^r^o*

'^^

i)-UiC)

-x^r^*

iiiuS

_>^*

srtriiko-mauishnuno

riibishnuuo;

khayiui^

haimog-giln
;

murvano;
kofii

farukhil-raftrir vif/o-i rai jasto

va-hamokiinan-ic

carag-ar'juuigauo

md

pavan ramako carako yakbsenuni-aito.
13.

J fash akhnr bara

vaZ btlbarano

khclkunto,
;

cigAn ginto-

sAmbiuano acvako, hami\ko aspo karituui-aito

va-dokanako-sumboiloo

kabed, cigun ausbtar va-to/ii, mesh va-buz, anirig dok&nako-sumboftn
;

5-oang kalba, khargosb, va-mAshko, samiir awlrig
14.

;

akbar muruv,

akhar tnahlg.

^fash akbar bard vaZ sarc/ako khclkunto, cigAn
2 saro^ako, tora 10 san/ako,
10,

aspo 8 san/ako, khainaru'
va-bOzo 5
1

mesh 5
8^

sarc/ako
8,

sarc^ako, kalbd

khargdsh

5,

samAr
17.

mQsbko

Or

it

may Htaod

for

*^

gam/A, "the OAmer'; teo^

Ixxxii

E.

W. West's

Edition of

.\

)GA^

-^^

Wy

j^w*^

murv
haman

110, va-maliig 10; aito
apcrfako

mun

khiikan

rai aushmiirr/o^
;

va-peJako
/)cn

hamiin kadmou, 282

sar^^ako

levat^

sarr/ako

san/ako-i 1000 ayuinako.
35.

Murvano pavan 8

ristako'^

bara

yeliabuiif/,

va-min zag-i

rabatarin vad zag-i kucakotar angCm bani valini(?6 cigim gabra iniin
jurfZae

bamai zerkbimefZo, va-fratum stavar-sang irdzo parkcncf/o,

va-akhar zag-i miyanako, akhar zag-i kuco.
16.

Va-rain

bam
6cii

sarc?akoiba
nipig-i

cigun pavan Dam-dacZo dokano

aiisbmArc^o,

afam
(dena

Tokbm-ausbmiirisbnih-i hangar^Zigo
aito-i
luiraai-aito,

nipisbto

marak ^

bangarfZigo-at')

madam
»

sarcZako-i

aspano,
Compare

fratAm

Ta^igo,

afsbano

rafZ

M6S. JoewChald.
raa/'d,

Pers. rishtah.

'

" lord," or m&l^, " full," both of which end with alrjih

;

the addition

of the Pahl. suffix k to a Semitic final alejjJi is incorrect, but not

uncommon.

The Selections of Zad-sparam, Chapter IX §§15— 22.

Ixxxiii

-^-^-T-^M^)

^ye)-w-\^oot^i

-«O5-0h5

mt^^^vi %^»5ej^

^hxj-^

-OO* -IS^It^^OCI
spelo zarrfo-gosh,
va-asp-!
kofo-i
di;ig,

W-^
va-darfigar

-^5^

)t^)

H^i^ ^fj
marfakvar
tora sy^to

IW
2,

^1^

Parsig, va-astar,
17.

va-khamar&, va-g6r
dashto,

ya-ai;tirigo.

Adshtfir

2-ki\nako-k6f6,
va-zarfZo,

18.

Ben

sartiako-t

va-hashgiin

sukliar

siyah

va-pesago,

va-g6vaz«no,
va-ararigo.

g&o-m^sh,
19.

Vtt-au8htur-ga6-palang,

va-tora-mahig,

Bkn
'

mesh

zag-t

dAmbo-aiimand va-zag-i ad{lmbo, va-m^sh-i tagal-i«
srubo-i
raba,
20.

Ta-kurushko-i, cigOnash kofo-khabayih,

va-pavan-ic

parklh

shayae/o,

bArako jehvunto-l
vartgo,'^
tibi,'.

Manfishcihar.
21.

Bkn

bft«o

kharbu?, 'Vdzigo,

pflzino.

Ben samar k&kam-t
22.

Bp^to, va-siyah samur, slnjfit'o, va-khaz, fa-avdrigo.

Mfishko-t

u^fako aevako b)sh mdsbko

(

mAn

b)sb z&har vashtam An^cio, afaah

Mas. 3^1^.
For

>

MSS. fi^o§heepfold.»'
ttrih.

^

9^

tag«l-ir;

oomptre Pdw. tughal, "
15.
'

KurlHhk

in B«l.
•«

XIV,

Compare Arab,

Pw*. barah

»

OhHld. tabya,

the ffawllr.

Pari, pftian.

Ixxxiv

E.

W. West's Edition of
-O-f"

tS K^-X^iiyd

-K))^jO

-^^

))e)

')^))^j^ -^

-X;^e)

W(^)

W
j^y^

^)')^^

^^ )rw^) )^ --^^

)'))r

-^')-K:f

iw

^^^sooi ^^ ^s^)^-^ iroV
i^ov

^) ^)

jj^

^ >a)a
))^

^s^o

)o»ie)

^

)9^^

^

^^

)sOM?*o

^

i^e)^

-i5)fc**

A^^ei))'
parfash
la

lie)

i-"V*^*»

-^

T

)^)))H5

t^j^i

24

yeraltunerfo, va-pavan zag-i

mas sMoih yehabAnt-hasto
damano kara yehamtun^c/o),

aeghbesh vashtaiQunac^o, bara

val zaharih-!

a^vako mushk-ae-i gAnako-i sfyah,

mnn
;

valflshano mftn gar'zako-f khdr
fc6n

ctgun gar'zako-i inako'

-i

kofoigo karituni-aito-!
ayAfto'"^

kustako-i dariy^ro
vaZ

yesh yehvdneno) irdzo gazldo
ramttunerfo,

ham

htm

val

khurishno

mun

vashtam&nerf, adinosh gar'^ako hen tano yehviinerfo,
jasto^

amat zag gar'zako zag hangam-i
pafl?ash

ham-bandaggano-i gar'isako
ba?*a yehvuneflk).

madam

mezedo,

va-iain

zag vimarih dakya

23.

Ben m^irvan

2 gvic?-ciharako barfl yehabdnto

min avMg,

va-

an-t aito seao-mtlrv va-shobako,^

mun

p{lm4 vun*-i kaka yakhsenuad,
bocfino.''

pavang6s]9endshirm
24.
I

in pistano

parvarend
arfl^igo

Va-dena
magh.

yehviinefl^o
'
»

5-Am

pavan gos^^end.
^

Pers.

*

Pera. ban, or bftn.

Compare Pers. y{lbidan. Compare Pers. bacagi^n.

Pers. shab&n.

E.

W. WEST,