# ECE421

:
Introduction to Power Systems

Homework # 04
Due Session 21 (October 14th)

Session 21
Fall 2013
Page 1 of 23

Homework #04
1. Problem 3.48 in Glover, Sarma and Overbye
2. Problem 3.49 in Glover, Sarma and Overbye
3. Problem 3.53 in Glover, Sarma and Overbye
4. Problem 3.58 in Glover, Sarma and Overbye
5. Problem 3.59 in Glover, Sarma and Ovebye
6. Problem 3.60 in Glover, Sarma and Ovebye
7. Problem 3.61 in Glover, Sarma and Ovebye

General Definitions

a ≔ 1 ∠ 120°

≔1

Turns ≔ 1

ECE421:
Introduction to Power Systems

Homework # 04
Due Session 21 (October 14th)

Session 21
Fall 2013
Page 2 of 23

Problem 01.
1. Problem 3.48 in Glover, Sarma and Overbye
With the same transformer banks as in Problem 3.47, Figure 3.41 shows the one-line diagram of
a generator, a step-up transformer bank, a transmission line, a step-down transformer bank,
and an impedance load. The generator terminal voltage is 15 kV (line-to-line).
(a) Draw the per-phase equivalent circuit, accounting for phase shifts for positive sequence
operation.
(b) By choosing the line-to-neutral generator terminal voltage as the reference, determine the
magnitudes of the generator current, transmission-line current, load current, and line-to-line
load voltage. Also, find the three-phase complex power delivered to the load.

ECE421:
Introduction to Power Systems

Homework # 04
Due Session 21 (October 14th)

ZLine ≔ ((100j))

XT1_Sph_LV ≔ 0.24j
XT1_Sph_LV
XT1_LV ≔ ――――
3

XT1_LV = 0.08i

XT2_Sph_LV ≔ 0.24j
XT2_Sph_LV
XT2_LV ≔ ――――
3

XT2_LV = 0.08i

Session 21
Fall 2013
Page 3 of 23

ECE421:
Introduction to Power Systems

Homework # 04
Due Session 21 (October 14th)

Session 21
Fall 2013
Page 4 of 23

(a) Draw the per-phase equivalent circuit, accounting for phase shifts for positive sequence
operation.

(b) By choosing the line-to-neutral generator terminal voltage as the reference, determine the
magnitudes of the generator current, transmission-line current, load current, and line-to-line
load voltage. Also, find the three-phase complex power delivered to the load.

⎛ 15
Vg_T ≔ ⎜――
∠ 0°⎟
⎜⎝ ‾‾
3
⎟⎠

Vg_T = ((8.66025 ∠ 0°))

ZRight_LV = ((5 + 1.08j))
2

ZRight_HV ≔ ZRight_LV ⋅ ⎝10 ⋅ ‾‾
3⎠

ZRight_HV = ((1500 + 324j))

ZMiddle_HV ≔ ZLine + ZRight_HV

ZMiddle_HV = ((1500 + 424j))

⎞2

1
ZMiddle_LV ≔ ZMiddle_HV ⋅ ⎜―――

⎜⎝ 10 ⋅ ‾‾
3 ⎟⎠

ZMiddle_LV = ((5 + 1.41333j))

ZLeft_LV ≔ ZMiddle_LV + XT1_LV

ZLeft_LV = ((5 + 1.49333i))

Vg_T
Ig_T ≔ ―――
ZLeft_LV

Ig_T = ((1659.61158 ∠ −16.62913°))
||Ig_T|| = ⎛⎝1.65961 ⋅ 10 3 ⎞⎠
_______________________/

ECE421:
Introduction to Power Systems

1
ILine ≔ Ig_T ⋅ ―――
⋅ ((1 ∠ 30°))
‾‾
10 ⋅ 3

Homework # 04
Due Session 21 (October 14th)

ILine = ((95.81772 ∠ 13.37087°))
||ILine|| = 95.81772
_______________________/

3 ⋅ ((1 ∠ −30°))
ILoad ≔ ILine ⋅ 10 ⋅ ‾‾

ILoad = ⎛⎝1.65961 ⋅ 10 3 ∠ −16.62913°⎞⎠
_______________________/

VLoad = ⎛⎝8.46239 ⋅ 10 3 ∠ −5.3192°⎞⎠
3
_______________________/

________________________________/

Session 21
Fall 2013
Page 5 of 23

ECE421:
Introduction to Power Systems

Homework # 04
Due Session 21 (October 14th)

Session 21
Fall 2013
Page 6 of 23

Problem 02.
2. Problem 3.49 in Glover, Sarma and Overbye
Consider the single-line diagram of a power system shown in Figure 3.42 with equipment
ratings given below:
Generator G1:
Generator G2:
3Ph -Y T1:
3Ph Y- T2:

50 MVA, 13.2kV, x=0.15 pu
20 MVA, 13.8kV, x=0.15 pu
80 MVA, 13.2 /165 Y kV, X=0.1 pu
40 MVA, 165 Y/13.8  kV, X=0.1 pu
40 MVA, 0.8 PF lagging, operating at 150kV

Choose a base of 100 MVA for the system and 132-kV base in the transmission-line circuit. Let
the load be modeled as a parallel combination of resistance and inductance. Neglect
transformer phase shifts.
Draw a per-phase equivalent circuit of the system showing all impedances in per unit.

SG1_rat ≔ 50

VG1_rat ≔ 13.2

xG1_rat ≔ 0.15j

SG2_rat ≔ 50

VG2_rat ≔ 13.2

xG2_rat ≔ 0.15j

ST1_rat ≔ 80

VT1_HV_rat ≔ 165

xT1_rat ≔ 0.1j

VT1_LV_rat ≔ 13.2

ST2_rat ≔ 40

VT2_HV_rat ≔ 165
VT2_LV_rat ≔ 13.8

xT2_rat ≔ 0.1j

ECE421:
Introduction to Power Systems

SLoad_rat ≔ ((40 ∠ acos ((0.8))))

ZLine1_Ω ≔ ((50 + 200j))

SB ≔ 100
13.2
VB_G1 ≔ VB_HV ⋅ ―――
165
13.8
VB_G2 ≔ VB_HV ⋅ ―――
165

Session 21
Fall 2013

Homework # 04
Due Session 21 (October 14th)

ZLine2_Ω ≔ ((25 + 100j))

Page 7 of 23

ZLine3_Ω ≔ ((25 + 100j))

VB_HV ≔ 132

VB_HV 2
ZB_HV ≔ ―――
SB

ZB_HV = 174.24

VB_G1 = 10.56

VB_G1 2
ZB_G1 ≔ ―――
SB

ZB_G1 = 1.11514

VB_G2 = 11.04

VB_G2 2
ZB_G2 ≔ ―――
SB

ZB_G2 = 1.21882

Change of base
⎛ VG1_rat ⎞ 2 ⎛ SB ⎞
xG1 ≔ xG1_rat ⋅ ⎜―――
⎟ ⋅ ⎜―――

⎝ VB_G1 ⎠ ⎝ SG1_rat ⎠

xG1 = 0.46875j
___________________/

⎛ VG2_rat ⎞ 2 ⎛ SB ⎞
xG2 ≔ xG2_rat ⋅ ⎜―――
⎟ ⋅ ⎜―――

⎝ VB_G2 ⎠ ⎝ SG2_rat ⎠

xG2 = 0.42888j
___________________/

⎛ VT1_HV_rat ⎞ 2 ⎛ SB ⎞
xT1 ≔ xT1_rat ⋅ ⎜――――
⎟ ⋅ ⎜―――

⎝ VB_HV ⎠ ⎝ ST1_rat ⎠

xT1 = 0.19531i
___________________/

⎛ VT2_HV_rat ⎞ 2 ⎛ SB ⎞
xT2 ≔ xT2_rat ⋅ ⎜――――
⎟ ⋅ ⎜―――

⎝ VB_HV ⎠ ⎝ ST2_rat ⎠

xT2 = 0.39063i
___________________/

ZLine1_Ω
ZLine1 ≔ ―――
ZB_HV

ZLine1 = ((0.28696 + 1.14784i))
____________________________/

ZLine2_Ω
ZLine2 ≔ ―――
ZB_HV

ZLine2 = ((0.14348 + 0.57392i))
____________________________/

ZLine3_Ω
ZLine3 ≔ ―――
ZB_HV

ZLine3 = ((0.14348 + 0.57392i))
____________________________/

ECE421:
Introduction to Power Systems

Homework # 04
Due Session 21 (October 14th)

SB

VB_HV

Session 21
Fall 2013
Page 8 of 23

____________________________/

____________________________/

Draw a per-phase equivalent circuit of the system showing all impedances in per unit.

ECE421:
Introduction to Power Systems

Session 21
Fall 2013

Homework # 04
Due Session 21 (October 14th)

Page 9 of 23

Problem 03.
3. Problem 3.53 in Glover, Sarma and Overbye
The ratings of a three-phase, three-winding transformer are:
Primary:
Secondary:
Tertiary:

Y connected, 66 kV, 15 MVA
Y connected, 13.2 kV, 10 MVA
 connected, 2.3 kV, 5 MVA

Neglecting resistances and exciting current, the leakage reactances are:
XPS= 0.07 per unit on a 15-MVA; 66-kV base
XPT= 0.09 per unit on a 15-MVA; 66-kV base
XST= 0.08 per unit on a 10-MVA; 13.2-kV base
Determine the per-unit reactances of the per-phase equivalent circuit using a base of 15 MVA
and 66 kV for the primary.

SB ≔ 15

VB_P ≔ 66

VB_S ≔ 13.2

XPS_rat ≔ 0.07

XPT_rat ≔ 0.09

XST_rat ≔ 0.08

SB
XPS ≔ XPS_rat ⋅ ⎜―――⎟
⎝ 15

XPS = 0.07

SB
XPT ≔ XPT_rat ⋅ ⎜―――⎟
⎝ 15

XPT = 0.09

SB
XST ≔ XST_rat ⋅ ⎜―――⎟
⎝ 10

XST = 0.12

VB_S ≔ 2.3

1
XP ≔ ―⎛⎝XPS + XPT − XST⎞⎠
2

1
XS ≔ ―⎛⎝XPS − XPT + XST⎞⎠
2

1
XT ≔ ―⎛⎝−XPS + XPT + XST⎞⎠
2

XP = 0.02
_____________/

XS = 0.05
_____________/

XT = 0.07
_____________/

ECE421:
Introduction to Power Systems

Homework # 04
Due Session 21 (October 14th)

Session 21
Fall 2013
Page 10 of 23

4. Problem 3.58 in Glover, Sarma and Overbye
A single-phase two-winding transformer rated 90 MVA, 80/120 kV is to be connected as an
autotransformer rated 80/200 kV. Assume that the transformer is ideal.
(a) Draw a schematic diagram of the ideal transformer connected as an autotransformer,
showing the voltages, currents, and dot notation for polarity.
(b) Determine the permissible kVA rating of the autotransformer if the winding currents and
voltages are not to exceed the rated values as a two-winding transformer.
How much of the kVA rating is transferred by magnetic induction?

90
IPrim ≔ ―――
80

90
ISec ≔ ―――
120

ITot ≔ IPrim + ISec

IPrim = 1125

ISec = 750

ITot = 1875

VPrim ≔ 80

VSec ≔ 120

VTot ≔ VPrim + VSec = 200

(a) Draw a schematic diagram of the ideal transformer connected as an autotransformer,
showing the voltages, currents, and dot notation for polarity.

ECE421:
Introduction to Power Systems

Homework # 04
Due Session 21 (October 14th)

Session 21
Fall 2013
Page 11 of 23

(b) Determine the permissible kVA rating of the autotransformer if the winding currents and
voltages are not to exceed the rated values as a two-winding transformer.

SAuto ≔ VPrim ⋅ ITot

SAuto = 150000
VTot ⋅ ISec = 150000
______________________/

How much of the kVA rating is transferred by magnetic induction?

STrans_Ind ≔ VPrim ⋅ IPrim

STrans_Ind = 90000
______________________/

ECE421:
Introduction to Power Systems

Homework # 04
Due Session 21 (October 14th)

Session 21
Fall 2013
Page 12 of 23

Problem 05.
5. Problem 3.59 in Glover, Sarma and Overbye
The two parallel lines in Example 3.13 supply a balanced load with a load current of 1.0 /30
degrees per unit. Determine the real and reactive power supplied to the load bus from each
parallel line with (a) no regulating transformer, (b) the voltage-magnitude regulating
transformer in Example 3.13(a), and (c) the phase-angle-regulating transformer in Example
3.13(b). Assume that the voltage at bus abc is adjusted so that the voltage at bus a'b'c'
remains constant at 1.0/ 0 per unit. Also assume positive sequence.
Comment on the e¤ects of the regulating transformers.

ZLine_0.20 ≔ 0.20j ⋅

ZLine_0.25 ≔ 0.25j ⋅

ECE421:
Introduction to Power Systems

Homework # 04
Due Session 21 (October 14th)

Session 21
Fall 2013
Page 13 of 23

Determine the real and reactive power supplied to the load bus from each parallel line with
(a) no regulating transformer. Assume that the voltage at bus abc is adjusted so that the
voltage at bus a'b'c' remains constant at 1.0/ 0 per unit. Also assume positive sequence.

ILine_0.20 ≔ ―――――――
ZLine_0.20 + ZLine_0.25

ILine_0.20 = ((0.48113 − 0.27778i))

ILine_0.25 ≔ ―――――――
ZLine_0.20 + ZLine_0.25

ILine_0.25 = ((0.3849 − 0.22222i))

ILine_0.20

SLine_0.20 = ((0.48113 + 0.27778i))
SLine_0.20 = ((0.55556 ∠ 30°))

PLine_0.20 ≔ Re ⎛⎝SLine_0.20⎞⎠

PLine_0.20 = 0.48113

QLine_0.20 ≔ Im ⎛⎝SLine_0.20⎞⎠

QLine_0.20 = 0.27778

ILine_0.25

SLine_0.25 = ((0.3849 + 0.22222i))
SLine_0.25 = ((0.44444 ∠ 30°))

PLine_0.25 ≔ Re ⎛⎝SLine_0.25⎞⎠

PLine_0.25 = 0.3849
______________________/

QLine_0.25 ≔ Im ⎛⎝SLine_0.25⎞⎠

QLine_0.25 = 0.22222
______________________/

ECE421:
Introduction to Power Systems

Homework # 04
Due Session 21 (October 14th)

Session 21
Fall 2013
Page 14 of 23

Determine the real and reactive power supplied to the load bus from each parallel line with
(b) the voltage-magnitude regulating transformer in Example 3.13(a). Assume that the voltage
at bus abc is adjusted so that the voltage at bus a'b'c' remains constant at 1.0/ 0 per unit. Also
assume positive sequence.
Comment on the effects of the regulating transformers.

From page 133 in Duncan Glover's Book the admittance parameters of the equation
shown below are,
⎡ I1 ⎤ ⎡ Y11 Y12 ⎤ ⎡ V1 ⎤

⎥＝⎢
⎥⋅⎢ ⎥
⎣ −I2 ⎦ ⎣ Y21 Y22 ⎦ ⎣ V2 ⎦
Y11 ＝ YEq

Y12 ＝ −c ⋅ YEq

Y21 ＝ −c ⋅ YEq

Y22 ＝ ||c|| 2 ⋅ YEq

From page 138 in Duncan Glover's Book the admittance parameters are computed
as follows:
c ≔ 1.05 −1

c = 0.95238

The admitance parameters of the regulating transformer in series with line of 0.25j pu
are:
1
Y11Line_0.25 ≔ ―――
ZLine_0.25

Y11Line_0.25 = −4j

Y22Line_0.25 ≔ ||c|| 2 ⋅ Y11Line_0.25

Y22Line_0.25 = −3.62812j

Y12Line_0.25 ≔ −c ⋅ Y11Line_0.25

Y12Line_0.25 = 3.80952j

Y21Line_0.25 ≔ −‾
c ⋅ Y11Line_0.25

Y21Line_0.25 = 3.80952j

ECE421:
Introduction to Power Systems

Homework # 04
Due Session 21 (October 14th)

The admitance parameters of the line of 0.20j pu are:
1
Y11Line_0.20 ≔ ―――
ZLine_0.20

Y11Line_0.20 = −5j

Y22Line_0.20 ≔ Y11Line_0.20

Y22Line_0.20 = −5j

Y12Line_0.20 ≔ −Y11Line_0.20

Y12Line_0.20 = 5j

Y21Line_0.20 ≔ −Y11Line_0.20

Y21Line_0.20 = 5j

Y11 ≔ Y11Line_0.25 + Y11Line_0.20

Y12 ≔ Y12Line_0.25 + Y12Line_0.20

Y21 ≔ Y21Line_0.25 + Y21Line_0.20

Y22 ≔ Y22Line_0.25 + Y22Line_0.20

Y11 = −9j

Y12 = 8.80952j

Y21 = 8.80952j

Y22 = −8.62812j

⎡ I1 ⎤ ⎡ Y11 Y12 ⎤ ⎡ V1 ⎤

⎥＝⎢
⎥⋅⎢

Solving for V1
V1 ≔ ――――――
Y21

V1 = ((1.04082 ∠ 5.41968°))

Session 21
Fall 2013
Page 15 of 23

ECE421:
Introduction to Power Systems

Homework # 04
Due Session 21 (October 14th)

ILine_0.20 ≔ ――――
ZLine_0.20

ILine_0.20 = ((0.52373 ∠ −20.1976°))

ILine_0.20

SLine_0.20_b = ((0.49153 + 0.18082j))

PLine_0.20_b ≔ Re ⎛⎝SLine_0.20_b⎞⎠

PLine_0.20_b = 0.49153
______________________/

QLine_0.20_b ≔ Im ⎛⎝SLine_0.20_b⎞⎠

QLine_0.20_b = 0.18082
______________________/

ILine_0.25 ≔ ――――
ZLine_0.25

ILine_0.25 = ((0.51666 ∠ −40.44026°))

Line_0.25 ⋅ c

SLine_0.25_b = ((0.3745 + 0.31918j))

PLine_0.25_b ≔ Re ⎛⎝SLine_0.25_b⎞⎠

PLine_0.25_b = 0.3745
______________________/

QLine_0.25_b ≔ Im ⎛⎝SLine_0.25_b⎞⎠

QLine_0.25_b = 0.31918
______________________/

or in a simpler way

SLine_0.25_b = 0.3745 + 0.31918j

PLine_0.25_b ≔ Re ⎛⎝SLine_0.25_b⎞⎠

PLine_0.25_b = 0.3745
______________________/

QLine_0.25_b ≔ Im ⎛⎝SLine_0.25_b⎞⎠

QLine_0.25_b = 0.31918
______________________/

Session 21
Fall 2013
Page 16 of 23

ECE421:
Introduction to Power Systems

Homework # 04
Due Session 21 (October 14th)

Session 21
Fall 2013
Page 17 of 23

Comment on the effects of the regulating transformers.

SLine_0.20_b = ((0.49153 + 0.18082j))

SLine_0.20 = ((0.48113 + 0.27778j))

SLine_0.25_b = ((0.3745 + 0.31918j))

SLine_0.25 = ((0.3849 + 0.22222j))

The real power flow in line of 0.20j pu increases a little when comparing to the
previous case (from 0.48 to 0.29pu). In contrast the reactive power flow reduces
significantly from 0.27 pu to 0.18 pu.
The real power flow in line of 0.25j pu changes a little too when comparing to the
previous case (from 0.38 to 0.37 pu) whereas the reactive power flow increases from
0.22 to 0.31 pu, that is to say an approximately increase of 41%.
Therefore the regulating transformer with an increased voltage magnitude will affect
mostly the reactive power flow.
Determine the real and reactive power supplied to the load bus from each parallel line with
(c) the phase-angle-regulating transformer in Example 3.13(b). Assume that the voltage at bus
abc is adjusted so that the voltage at bus a'b'c' remains constant at 1.0/ 0 per unit. Also
assume positive sequence.
Comment on the effects of the regulating transformers.

c ≔ ((1.0 ∠ −3°))

−1

c = ((1 ∠ 3°))

The admitance parameters of the regulating transformer in series with line of 0.25j pu
are:
1
Y11Line_0.25 ≔ ―――
ZLine_0.25

Y11Line_0.25 = −4j

Y22Line_0.25 ≔ ||c|| 2 ⋅ Y11Line_0.25

Y22Line_0.25 = −4j

Y12Line_0.25 ≔ −c ⋅ Y11Line_0.25

Y12Line_0.25 = ((−0.20934 + 3.99452j))

Y21Line_0.25 ≔ −c ⋅ Y11Line_0.25

Y21Line_0.25 = ((−0.20934 + 3.99452j))

ECE421:
Introduction to Power Systems

Homework # 04
Due Session 21 (October 14th)

The admitance parameters of the line of 0.20j pu are:
1
Y11Line_0.20 ≔ ―――
ZLine_0.20

Y11Line_0.20 = −5j

Y22Line_0.20 ≔ Y11Line_0.20

Y22Line_0.20 = −5j

Y12Line_0.20 ≔ −Y11Line_0.20

Y12Line_0.20 = 5j

Y21Line_0.20 ≔ −Y11Line_0.20

Y21Line_0.20 = 5j

Y11 ≔ Y11Line_0.25 + Y11Line_0.20

Y12 ≔ Y12Line_0.25 + Y12Line_0.20

Y21 ≔ Y21Line_0.25 + Y21Line_0.20

Y22 ≔ Y22Line_0.25 + Y22Line_0.20

Y11 = −9j

Y12 = −0.20934 + 8.99452j

Y21 = −0.20934 + 8.99452j

Y22 = −9j

⎡ I1 ⎤ ⎡ Y11 Y12 ⎤ ⎡ V1 ⎤

⎥＝⎢
⎥⋅⎢

Solving for V1

V1 ≔ ――――――
Y21

V1 = ((1.06029 ∠ 3.87542°))

Session 21
Fall 2013
Page 18 of 23

ECE421:
Introduction to Power Systems

Homework # 04
Due Session 21 (October 14th)

ILine_0.20 ≔ ――――
ZLine_0.20

ILine_0.20 = ((0.46054 ∠ −38.92064°))

ILine_0.20

SLine_0.20_b = ((0.35831 + 0.28933j))

PLine_0.20_b ≔ Re ⎛⎝SLine_0.20_b⎞⎠

PLine_0.20_b = 0.35831
______________________/

QLine_0.20_b ≔ Im ⎛⎝SLine_0.20_b⎞⎠

QLine_0.20_b = 0.28933
______________________/

SLine_0.25_b = 0.50771 + 0.21067j

PLine_0.25_b ≔ Re ⎛⎝SLine_0.25_b⎞⎠

PLine_0.25_b = 0.50771
______________________/
QLine_0.25_b = 0.21067
______________________/

QLine_0.25_b ≔ Im ⎛⎝SLine_0.25_b⎞⎠

Session 21
Fall 2013
Page 19 of 23

Comment on the effects of the regulating transformers.

SLine_0.20_b = ((0.35831 + 0.28933j))

SLine_0.20 = ((0.48113 + 0.27778j))

SLine_0.25_b = ((0.50771 + 0.21067j))

SLine_0.25 = ((0.3849 + 0.22222j))

The reactive power flow in line of 0.20j pu increases a little when comparing to the
previous case (from 0.27 to 0.28pu). In contrast the real power flow reduces
significantly from 0.48 pu to 0.35 pu.
The reactive power flow in line of 0.25j pu changes a little too when comparing to the
previous case (from 0.22 to 0.21 pu) whereas the real power flow increases from 0.38
to 0.50 pu.
Therefore the regulating transformer with an increased phase angle will affect mostly
the real power flow.

ECE421:
Introduction to Power Systems

Homework # 04
Due Session 21 (October 14th)

Session 21
Fall 2013
Page 20 of 23

Problem 06.
6. Problem 3.60 in Glover, Sarma and Overbye
PowerWorld Simulator case Problem 3.60 duplicates Example 3.13 except that a resistance term of 0.06
per unit has been added to the transformer and 0.05 per unit to the transmission line. Since the system
is no longer lossless, a field showing the real power losses has also been added to the one-line. With
the LTC tap fixed at 1.05, plot the real power losses as the phase shift angle is varied from -10 to +10
degrees. What value of phase shift minimizes the system losses?
.

⎡ −10° ⎤
⎢ −8° ⎥

⎢ −6° ⎥
⎢ −4° ⎥
⎢ −2° ⎥
⎢ −1° ⎥

−0.2°

θ ≔ ⎢ 0° ⎥
⎢ 0.2° ⎥
⎢ 1° ⎥
⎢ 2° ⎥

⎢ 4° ⎥
⎢ 6° ⎥
⎢ 8° ⎥
⎢⎣ 10° ⎥⎦

⎡ 24.917 ⎤
⎢ 22.002 ⎥

⎢ 19.711 ⎥
⎢ 18.049 ⎥
⎢ 17.016 ⎥
⎢ 16.736 ⎥

16.626

PLosses ≔ ⎢ 16.614 ⎥ ⋅
⎢ 16.609 ⎥
⎢ 16.65 ⎥
⎢ 16.843 ⎥

⎢ 17.703 ⎥
⎢ 19.192 ⎥
⎢ 21.309 ⎥
⎢⎣ 24.051 ⎥⎦

⎡ 100.288 ⎤
⎢ 88.67 ⎥

⎢ 79.611 ⎥
⎢ 73.123 ⎥
⎢ 69.211 ⎥
⎢ 68.223 ⎥

67.897

QLosses ≔ ⎢ 67.881 ⎥ ⋅
⎢ 67.890 ⎥
⎢ 68.184 ⎥
⎢ 69.133 ⎥

⎢ 72.968 ⎥
⎢ 79.378 ⎥
⎢ 88.358 ⎥
⎢⎣ 99.897 ⎥⎦

The system losses are minimized at near 0 degrees, P=16.609 MW and Q=67.89 MVAR

ECE421:
Introduction to Power Systems

Session 21
Fall 2013

Homework # 04
Due Session 21 (October 14th)

Page 21 of 23

25.1
24.25
23.4
22.55
21.7
20.85

PLosses ((

))

QLosses ((

))

20
19.15
18.3
17.45
16.6

-10

-8

-6

-4

-2

θ ((

0

))

2

4

6

8

10

100.5
97.5
94.5
91.5
88.5
85.5
82.5
79.5
76.5
73.5
70.5
67.5

-10

-8

-6

-4

-2

θ ((

0

))

2

4

6

8

10

ECE421:
Introduction to Power Systems

Homework # 04
Due Session 21 (October 14th)

Session 21
Fall 2013
Page 22 of 23

Problem 07.

6. Problem 3.61 in Glover, Sarma and Overbye
Repeat Problem 3.60, except keep the phase-shift angle fixed at 3.0 degrees, while varying
the LTC tap between 0.9 and 1.1. What tap value minimizes the real power losses?

⎡ 0.900 ⎤
⎢ 0.925 ⎥

⎢ 0.950 ⎥
⎢ 0.975 ⎥
⎢ 0.9875 ⎥
Tap ≔ ⎢ 1.000 ⎥

1.0125

⎢ 1.025 ⎥
⎢ 1.050 ⎥
⎢ 1.075 ⎥
⎢ 1.100 ⎥

⎡ 19.578 ⎤
⎢ 18.241 ⎥

⎢ 17.320 ⎥
⎢ 16.785 ⎥
⎢ 16.652 ⎥
PLosses ≔ ⎢ 16.604 ⎥ ⋅

16.638

⎢ 16.750 ⎥
⎢ 17.194 ⎥
⎢ 17.914 ⎥
⎢ 18.885 ⎥

⎡ 79.794 ⎤
⎢ 74.457 ⎥

⎢ 70.814 ⎥
⎢ 68.738 ⎥
⎢ 68.249 ⎥
QLosses ≔ ⎢ 68.106 ⎥ ⋅

68.296

⎢ 68.805 ⎥
⎢ 70.728 ⎥
⎢ 73.773 ⎥
⎢ 77.846 ⎥

The system losses are minimized at TAP=1, P=16.604 MW and Q=68.106 MVAR

ECE421:
Introduction to Power Systems

Session 21
Fall 2013

Homework # 04
Due Session 21 (October 14th)

Page 23 of 23

The system losses are minimized at near 0 degrees, P=16.609 MW and Q=67.89 MVAR

19.6
19.3
19
18.7
18.4
18.1

PLosses ((

))

QLosses ((

))

17.8
17.5
17.2
16.9
16.6

0.9

0.92

0.94

0.96

0.98

1

1.02

1.04

1.06

1.08

1.1

1.12

Tap

80
79
78
77
76
75
74
73
72
71
70
69
68

0.9

0.92

0.94

0.96

0.98

1

Tap

1.02

1.04

1.06

1.08

1.1

1.12