This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
The Benefits of Crafting Marketing Strategies based on research
The marketing research-based approach to crafting marketing programs serves the needs of marketing executive who no longer want to make plans based on: Market assumptions and incomplete informal feedback from the field and from other sources; What is known to have worked in the past, the circumstances of which may no longer apply to the present; or How a competitor previously succeeded in a similar situation, the key success factors of which may not hold true in this case. In short, being research-based eliminates the guesswork. Being marketing research-based in developing a marketing program reduces the risk of failure and gives the product a better chance of succeeding. There are several reasons for this. In a research-based marketing program: The marketing executive‘s knowledge about the target market segment is current and complete. Target market segment may include: Awareness of brands Product usage practices Purchase habits Product and brand attitudes Product needs and wants Satisfaction of those needs and wants The knowledge about the competition‘s marketing failures and successes is based on facts, not on guesses or hearsay. It is also comprehensive and not limited to what is merely observable in the field.
With market research, the marketing executive can now scientifically project the effectiveness of his strategies for the following activities: Product positioning Product concept Branding Packaging Advertising Pricing Distribution and sales Consumer and trade promotion
With research-based knowledge, marketing executives can make confident, reality-tested decisions.
Guidelines on Writing a Market Research Brief
Writing a brief can often be a very challenging and time consuming process –especially for first timers. However it is essential in order to get the best possible solution for your research needs. Below are some guidelines to help clients put together a great brief. A Great Brief: Possesses clarity Displays depth of thought Provides direction The bigger the scope of the project and the greater the importance of the outcome, the more time and energy you should invest in developing the brief. It is not about carrying out some research, but about achieving an outcome.
A brief should contain some, and ideally all, of the following information
1. Market and Strategic Overview
-This helps researchers understand where this project fits in the overall strategy, vision and values, and business objectives: Define the market and explain its dynamics Major players and key competitors Past and current activity Target markets Factors such as regulations, seasonality, distribution, pricing, communication, etc.
2. Background and Role of the Research
-This is the most important part of the brief because it specifies where the research fits in your marketing activity, and more specifically, the types of decisions and plans that will be made on the basis of the research: Reasons for the research Where does it fit into marketing programme development?
Suggested Approach & Research Target(s) Identify any preferences you might have: Are there any specific groups or subgroups you are interested in researching? 5.this is the objective of the marketing project the research is for. Be realistic about whether your objectives can be met within that timeframe. attitudes. Reporting Requirements Identify any requirements you might have: Topline or final report only Word report and/or PowerPoint Presentations and/or Workshops 6. perceptions. Is it to understand. Research objective . Objectives There are usually two types of objectives that need to be explained: Business objective . . usage expectations. it is the overall strategic objective.detailed objectives of what you need to know e. evaluate of explore (more qualitative objectives) or is it to measure. behaviour.Which business units will the research impact and who is involved? Identification of any constraints on the action you can take as a result of the research 3. record. Timing Specify any real constraints that exist.g. or ascertain (more quantitative objectives) 4.
It also means that covering old ground can be avoided.7. . as it helps define the scale of the project. 8. Existing research or other information Look for any other relevant research or information. Often this helps refine how the research is done. It also helps researchers to work on providing the best solution within your means. providing some financial guidelines to work within. Budget Any indication of budget is helpful. and this research builds on what is already known.
second mention. second mention. Brands ever used . Advertising recall: quality of awareness measure B. Product usage data 5. Where used and with what 11. Awareness data: brand and advertising 1. Advertising awareness: first mention. When used and for what purposes 9. How long the pack size lasts 8. Product category use or non-use 6. 2) Other versions Made only for a specific purpose Fewer questionnaire items(15 to 20) Cost much less Can be repeated two or four times during the year The core data comprise the following (traditional version) A. Who else in the household use the product category 10. variant and pack size used 7. Sources of first-mentioned brand awareness 3. and Market Opportunity Search Two designs of UAI study: 1) Traditional version Around 100 core questionnaire items Done every 2 or 3 years Sometimes done every year by others who has competitors with a frequent changing market.How to use the UAI (Usage-AttitudeImage) Study for Competitive Analysis. Brand awareness: first mention. and aided mention 2. Category form. and aided mention 4.
If found brand in the store where last shopped 24. Rating of selected brands on each product attribute The classification data comprise the following (traditional version) Data are collected on respondent demographics Age Sex Civil status Number of children Educational attainment Household size Total monthly household income . Product and brand image data 29. Quantity of category purchase 21. Brands on hand C. If not found. Brand last used 13. Brand had in mind during the last buying trip 23. Purchase Data 16. Where the last category purchase was made 17. What looked for. Brand used most often 15. what expected in product category 27. Price paid for last purchase 22. Where category purchases are often/usually made 18. Importance rating of product category attributes. Brand used previous and last 14.12. looked for brand in another store. or other(specify) 25. What liked in brand last bought E. what did: bought any brand available. Frequency of category buying 19. Attitude Data 26. What else bought with the product category in the last purchase D. What not like in brand last bought 28. postponed buying till brand had in mind became available. product values 30. Category pack size last bought 20.
category usage and purchase practices. as well as by its socio-demographics and psychographics. and category and brand images.E. category and brand attitudes. . Home ownership Household possessions Economic class Data are collected on respondent sociographics (some companies) Religion practiced Leisure activities Parental and family background Community and social association membership Reference persons Media habits The UAI data can be used for many applications: To search for market and competitive opportunities that an existing or a new product can advantageously explore and maximize To determine the brand‘s marketing health relative to competition. and to identify its correct marketing problems and the solutions to these To segment or to partition a total market for a product category. and then to describe and profile the different identified market segments by each segment‘s brand awareness. Internal environment includes all those divisions of the company whose activities have a direct bearing on implementing the marketing program.T. Political and regulatory environment Economic environment Social environment Technological environment External environment include the consumer market responsible for the product‘s sales performance and the competitive environment which contains the other brands that are trying to reach the same consumer market. Environment Analysis for Opportunity Search Macro environmental is classified by the acronym P.S.
which define possible ―new use‖ opportunities.o o Manufacturing division. Eg. 3) Market Size Opportunities Three UAI data are useful in deriving estimates of the unit market size for a given product pack size.on whose selling efforts and activities rely the trade and outlet placement and availability of the product. The pertinent UAI data for each pack size are as follows: Percent product category and pack size user Number of days the pack size will last Average price paid for the last purchase of the pack size The unit market size estimation per pack size Unit market size = Target market segment population x % product category/pack size users x (365 days/days the pack size lasts) . In this question.on whose production capabilities and performance depend what and how much marketing can actually market. while the respondents answering ―no‖ measures the product category‘s size of market penetration opportunity. which point to possible ―more usage‖ opportunities. 2) Product Life Recycling and Extension Opportunities The UAI core data that can define the windows of opportunities are the following: Data on what occasions the product is used and for what purposes. Distribution and sales division. 1) Market Penetration Opportunities To measure the market penetration of a product. we use the use the UAI core data on product category use or non-use. the respondents answering ―yes‖ measures the product category‘s size of market penetration. Data on what other purposes the product has. ―Do you use mouthwash or not?‖. Data on who else in the household uses the product. which bring out ―new user‖ opportunities.
Formula for brand-used-most-often when there are multiple answers Market Share of brand = No. Any UAI statistic that sums up to 100% suggests a share measure. of counts of brand/ No. of counts of all brands’ packages To determine a brand’s competitive status using the relative share of market index RSOM(Leader Brand) = Market share of leader brand/ market share of follower brand Market leader champion status RSOM(Follower Brand) or = Market Share of Follower Brand/ Market Share of Leader Brand . When this is obtained. adding the resultant brand last used ratio to those of the rest of the other brands will equal 100%.Purchase Frequency Number of segment buyers Frequency of purchase Spending amount x x Total Market size = Opportunities for Improving the Competitive Status of the Brand Three UAI questionnaire items that offer three different measures of a brand‘s market share: The ―brand-last-used‖ item The ―brand-used-most-often‖ item The ―brands-on-hand-check‖ item The brand-last-used question must only get one answer from each respondent.
00 1. Product Category Category's different product forms or types Each form's or type's differing brands Share of Mind A brand‘s share of mind is the consumers‘ top-of-mind awareness for it. not ― What brand are you buying instead?‖ in order to give room to those who will switch not to another brand but to a product category or to a product type or form under a product category.61-0.16-0.60 0.01-0.00 More than 6.01-0. We measure a brand‘s share of mind as the percent of product category users who first mention the brand when asked open-endedly what brands come to their mind when thinking about the product category.15 Opportunities for Determining the Brand’s Correct Competitors At times when the product a consumer is supposed to buy is unavailable.99 0.Brand‘s competitive status will be based on this: Market leader or champion status o Formidable o Dominant o Strong o Vulnerable Challenger Status o Threatening o Serious Contender Status o Major o Minor More than 1.31-0.00 3.15 0.30 0.31-0.01-6.51-3.50 0.01-1.99 0.00 1. the question to be asked should be ―What are you buying instead?‖. .
or even purchase-can happen unless there is awareness. motivation. top of mind o Total unaided awareness o Total awareness 1. % grand total awareness = ( % total unaided awareness) + (% aided awareness) Share of mind vs share of market Brands Share Indicators % share of mind % share of market Brand A 4 6 Brand B 38 42 Brand C 46 37 Brand D 12 15 How to Make Market Segmentation Decisions Using the U. % total unaided awareness = (% first mention) + (% other mentions) 3. T .‖ STP S . Awareness is the start of any sequence of consumer response and behavior.I. % First mention = % share of mind 2.Brand Awareness No consumer response-be it attitude.the 3rd & final step refers to the marketer‘s act of positioning the product Growing segment is possible only if the consumer in that segment behave in either three ways: They increase buying frequency. & Psychographic Studies The Market Segmentation Process & Decision ―The market segmentation process is both a marketer behavior and a consumer behavior. Three awareness concepts o First mentioned.the first step referring to the act of segmenting the total market. image.the act of targeting a specific market segment from among the segments generated in the first step. P . .A.
Socio-demographic . user rate. religion & SEC. Geographic 2. Psychographic . occupation. educational attainment. product attitude or predisposition indicators. . Behavioral . Four Segmentation Variables 1. The starting point is to bring in priority consumer values throughout all the three steps in the STP process. Marketers ultimately want to generate ―differentially responsive‖ market partitions or segments. Psychographic 4. lifestyle measures & personality profiles. density and climate. STP formulation means that consideration of consumer values must come in at the first step. total monthly household income. The Market Partitioning Step consists of cutting up the total market into partitions that are more popularly known as target segments. New customers joined the segment concerned. This is now called as PPTP process.age. Behavioral Geographic . Socio-demographic 3. Second step is to profile the obtained or generated partitions and segments. usage purchase occasions. size.user status. city. family size.regions.family life cycle stages.They are buying more amount per purchase occasion. To generate a set of segments that are maximally differentiated from one another in their respective product usage purchase habits and priority values. gender. The first step is to partition the total market.
Socio-Economic Classes % of Total Population in Each Class according to: Socio-Eco Classes ACN TNS Class AB 5% 1% Class C 21% 9% Class D 52% 48% Class E 22% 42% Class A .‖ ―Socio-Economic classes are relatively homogeneous and enduring divisions of society.The Socio-Economic Classes as Market Partitioning Variables Two Definitions of the SEC ―Social class is the horizontal stratification of a population by means of factors related to the economic life of the society such as wealth.―rich class‖(upper-upper) Class B ―affluent class‖(lower-upper) Class upscale C -‖prosperous class‖(upper-middle) . interest.consumption level. and family background. which are hierarchically ordered and whose members share similar values. income. status. occupation. and behavior.
application. the types of consumers involved. Positioning strategies can be conceived and developed in a variety of ways. the company should provide effective communication and distribution to market regarding the selected position.Class broad C-‖average class‖(lower-middle) Class D . or the characteristics of the product class. competition. It can be derived from the object attributes. All these attributes represent a different approach in .―below par class‖(upper-Lower) Class E -―poor class‖(lower-lower) SEC Defining Indicators Survey Interview Observation Data Criteria of Validity Discriminability criterion Temporal Stability Criterion Discriminability validity asks : ―To what extent are the SEC indicators able to discriminate or differentiate each of the four to six socio-eco classes from one another?‖ While Validity Criterion of temporal stability asks: ―Will the socio-eco classification made by an SEC indicator remain relatively the same and will the primary SEC defining indicator remain a primary SEC indicator over an extended period o time?‖ Temporal stability is the secondary significant validity criterion. Product Positioning A positioning strategy consists of 3 steps: to reveal possible competitive advantages to create a positioning. Later. to select the right competitive advantages and to choose a comprehensive positioning strategy.
there are brands that deliberately attempt to offer more in terms of service. (2) Pricing as a positioning strategy . positions first. as it is frustrating to have some good characteristics that are not communicated. At time even you would have noticed that a product is positioned along two or more product characteristics at the same time. For example if I say Imported items it basically tell or illustrate a variety of product characteristics such as durability. If you are introducing new uses of the product that will automatically expand the brand‘s market. some on power. certainly of higher quality.developing positioning strategies. features or performance. This strategy basically focuses upon the characteristics of the product or customer benefits. partly to cover higher costs and partly to let the consumers believe that the product is. Let‘s take an example of motorbikes some are emphasizing on fuel economy. If we look at this Price – quality approach it is important and is largely used in product positioning. You would have seen this in the case of toothpaste market. as most of us perceive that if a product is expensive will be a quality product where as product that is cheap is lower in quality. There are seven approaches to positioning strategies: (1) Using Product characteristics or Customer Benefits as a positioning strategy. Basically this type of positioning-by-use represents a second or third position for the brand. economy or reliability etc. such type of positioning is done deliberately to expand the brand‘s market. emphasizing durability and style for its cycle. As soon as look at the jeans of 350 Rupees you say that it is not good in quality.Quality Approach or Positioning by Price-Quality – Lets take an example and understand this approach just suppose you have to go and buy a pair of jeans. as soon as you enter in the shop you will find different price rage jeans in the showroom say price ranging from 350 rupees to 2000 rupees. looks and others stress on their durability. Why? Basically because of perception. most toothpaste insists on ‗freshness‘ and ‗cavity fighter‘ as the product characteristics. In many product categories. (3) Positioning strategy based on Use or Application – Let‘s understand this with the help of an example like Nescafe Coffee for many years positioned itself as a winter product and advertised mainly in winter but the introduction of cold coffee has developed a positioning strategy for the summer months also. Hero Cycles Ltd. . It is always tempting to try to position along several product characteristics. They charge more. even though all of them have the common objective of projecting a favorable image in the minds of the consumers or audience.
the firm either uses the same of similar positioning strategies as used by the competitors or the advertiser uses a new strategy taking the competitors‘ strategy as the base. In this case the expectation is that the model or personality will influence the product‘s image by reflecting the characteristics and image of the model or personality communicated as a product user.In today‘s world many advertisers are using deeply entrenched cultural symbols to differentiate their brands from that of competitors. In some cases. The essential task is to identify something that is very meaningful to people that other competitors are not using and associate this brand with that symbol. . Colgate changed its focus from family protection to kids ‘ teeth protection which was a positioning strategy adopted because of competition. (7) Positioning strategy based on Competitors . by this they are trying to show that we welcome guest and give them royal treatment with lot of respect and it also highlights Indian tradition. Using and popularizing trademarks generally follow this type of positioning. Air India uses maharaja as its logo. Let ‘s not forget that Johnson and Johnson repositioned its shampoo from one used for babies to one used by people who wash their hair frequently and therefore need a mild people who wash their hair frequently and therefore need a mild shampoo. (6) Positioning strategy based on Cultural Symbols . This repositioning resulted in a market share. Colgate when entered into the market focused on to family protection but when Pepsodent entered into the market with focus on 24 hour protection and basically for kids. freeze dried coffee needed to positions itself with respect to regular and instant coffee and similarly in case of dried milk makers came out with instant breakfast positioned as a breakfast substitute and virtually identical product positioned as a dietary meal substitute.In this type of positioning strategies. reference competitor(s) can be the dominant aspect of the positioning strategies of the firm. Makes of casual clothing like jeans have introduced ‗designer labels‘ to develop a fashion image.(4) Positioning strategy based on Product Process – Another positioning approach is to associate the product with its users or a class of users. (5) Positioning strategy based on Product Class .In some product class we have to make sure critical positioning decisions For example. A good example of this would be Colgate and Pepsodent. an implicit or explicit frame of reference is one or more competitors.
it is often used as a check to make sure all marketing materials produced convey the essence of how the product is differentiated and positioned against competitors. the seat belt manufacturer can market itself on the premise that it does not miss delivery times and that its products are free of flaws. It is the next step after you have determined how to differentiate your product or service. If other seat belt manufacturers are not meeting these desired goals. companies should constantly examine their products and services to better serve customers. who can then benefit from the technology previously only offered to pros. such as quality or price. "On-time delivery and flawless manufacturing. the next step is to determine how to position it in the marketplace. For example. if your company sells seat belts to automotive manufacturers. Product Positioning Positioning is how you provide your product or service brand identification as you go to market. Rather. though it does not have to. A positioning statement for the seat belt manufacturer might be. positioning and positioning statements go together one after the other. The product is positioned against those of competitors on the basis of timely delivery and excellence in manufacturing. They also require an innovative spirit coupled with careful analysis." This statement can. appear in all of the seat belt manufacturer's marketing materials. For example. In the seat belt example. This might be the creation of high-performance rackets for the average player. Product Differentiation Product differentiation is the incorporation of attributes. if you are a tennis racket manufacturer making high-performance rackets for the serious tennis player. into a product to encourage the intended customers to perceive it as different and desirable. you might consider opening up an entirely new market segment. The Importance of Imagination Successful differentiation and positioning strategies depend on an imaginative approach to the marketplace. All of the seat belt manufacturer's major marketing efforts should emphasize this positioning in the marketplace. The positioning statement then follows the positioning strategy. and will have differentiated your seat belts from those of your competitors. perhaps your unique value is never-fail. on-time delivery with no rejected belts. What worked and yielded profits last year may not work as well this year. you will have a unique advantage against your competition. . Once you have decided how best to differentiate your product based on customer needs and wants. Relationships among the Three Product differentiation. Product differentiation and positioning are key parts of a company's marketing strategy and are necessary to keep ahead of competition. This statement is used as a marketing tool by which to judge all marketing materials to see if they are in keeping with the strategies.Product Positioning and Differentiation Strategy In a competitive business world. Positioning Statement A positioning statement is a short sentence or phrase that conveys the essence of the differentiation and positioning strategies and is developed after these have been set.
it should start with the attitudes and the way consumers use products. e. or on image created by the company having no physical presence. Positioning will be successful only if it is based on good research. d. and must end with revealing how consumers react to a certain position. Positioning is a form of expression how a certain product or brand is perceived by customers. Establish a definition of positioning. b. Construct a credible position. i. Make positioning visible in all communications. It is a process which makes marketing functions easy. consumer needs to be detected. . Quantitatively test alternative positioning options. Ensure strong support by starting early. h.There are five basic points for brand strategies: a. The perceived position for a particular product by consumer can be based on the product‘s real and physical character. TEN MAJOR RULES IN PRODUCT POSITIONING a. On research. Positioning should be oriented to the consumer. Keep it simple. Excavate product benefits and market needs. f. It is not how products are presented or what is presented. Follow the market dynamics. g. Make it unique. b. e. c. Both macro and micro level marketing can be applied c. d.
Is your product positioning strategy: • Single-minded—does it convey one primary message at a time? • Meaningful—will it connect with the target audience? • Differentiating—does it contrast your strengths against the competition? • Important—is it pertinent and significant to the target audience? • Sustainable—will it resonate with the target audience well into the future? • Believable—will it ring true with the target audience? • Credible—can you clearly substantiate your claims? Perceptual Mapping .j. To be successful. product positioning must achieve three objectives: • Differentiate your product from the competition‘s • Address important customer buying criteria • Articulate key product (or company) characteristics Marketing messages and positioning have a lot in common During the process of generating product positioning strategies. Do not test the positioning statement itself. Positioning characteristics The goal of product positioning is to keep your product on t op of your customers‘ mind when they‘re considering a purchase. periodically review each one against the following list of characteristics.
---Middle-aged. Decision-Tree Analysis Decision-tree analysis uses cross-tabulations to examine results of a particular survey question based on sub-segments of the survey population. ---Second American Bank is most preferred by lower-income. rather than city residents or lower income individuals.Perceptual mapping is a tool used to discover how consumers differentiate products or organizations. The distance between the points represents the degree of relationship between the variables. This bank was the city's only financial institution not to renege on payments during the Great Depression. If Federal Trust were interested in attracting new customers. The perceptual map on the following page was developed using data from a market research study. Verbatim comments collected during the survey interview indicated that the bank is perceived as doing the most to finance mortgages in the inner city. However. non-white. Relationships are visually portrayed by the relative position of points on a two-dimensional map. middle-income adults. the most logical segments to target would be the females and younger adults. urban residents. the output of a question that asks. Points that cluster together reveal characteristics that are closely related. while younger females prefer Guardian Bank. largely because their office locations are targeted for this market. ---First Security is most favored by older. The verbatim responses did not provide clear-cut explanations for these preferences. The following example is derived from actual research. ---Federal Trust is most associated with upper-income suburban residents. For example. "What brand of automobile do you own?" can be . white males tend to favor National Trust. the names have been changed to protect confidential information.
problems. focus groups have been used to obtain insights into target audience perceptions.analyzed by looking only at the results for individuals in one particular income category. The analysis must identify as many potentially important combinations as is practical. needs. US Department of Health and Human Services 1980). Marketing and media studies have shown that the focus group discussion is a cost‐effective technique for eliciting views and opinions of prospective clients. In agriculture. Determining the specific categories of cross-tabulations that reveal differences among respondents can be very complex. This process. say those who have a household income of $25. the focus group discussion has become extremely popular because it provides a fast way to learn from the target audience (Debus 1988. This qualitative research technique was originally developed to give marketing researchers a better understanding of the data from quantitative consumer surveys." The research measured interest level in various training opportunities by using a 5-point scale where "1" indicated "not at all interested" and "5" indicated "very interested". can be partitioned.000 or less. semi‐structured data gathering method in which a purposively selected set of participants gather to discuss issues and concerns based on a list of key themes drawn up by the researcher/facilitator (Kumar 1987). As an indispensable tool for marketing researchers (Krueger 1988). "Applying Internet Technology To Business Marketing. The example below illustrates the type of business most likely to be responsive to a training program called. if conducted manually. and reasons for certain practices. customers and end‐users. USING THE FGD (FOCUS GROUP DISCUSSION) Focus Group Discussion The focus group discussion (FGD) is a rapid assessment. a statistical test is necessary to reasonably ensure that the data conveys real insight rather than just a reflection of sampling variability. . beliefs. Thousands of combinations can be generated even with a small survey. After the relationships have been isolated.
It serves as a road map that guides the facilitator in covering the list of topics and keeping the discussion on track. Let‘s talk about reporting of the BPH/virus disease outbreak that hit the Mekong Delta recently … How are outbreaks reported?2 • What is the flow of outbreak information from the field upwards? • And usually how long will this take to reach province directors? • How do provincial directors act on reports of outbreaks? . Example To understand how extension and plant protection officials make decisions in response of pest outbreaks. Specify the objectives and information needs of the focus group discussion. 2. Example a) Reporting of pest outbreaks b) Management procedure for dealing with pest outbreaks c) Worries and concerns about the BPH/virus outbreak 3. Example 1.Focus group discussion guide To keep the session on track while allowing respondents to talk freely and spontaneously. Break down the major topics into discussion points or themes.the facilitator uses a discussion guide that lists the main topics or themes to be covered in the session. Prepare probe questions. It should focus only on relevant research issues. The following steps are suggested for developing the focus group discussion guide: 1. The number of items in the guide is generally kept to a minimum to leave enough time for in‐depth discussion. The sequence of topics in the guide usually moves from general to specific (see Box 1 for sample FGD guide).
How do provincial directors act on reports of outbreaks? 5. Are reports of outbreaks from the field communicated upwards to the central offices or contained within the province? 6. Box 1. What is PPD‘s management procedure for dealing with a pest outbreak? What about the People‘s Committee? • During the BPH/virus outbreak last season. What is the flow of outbreak information from the field upwards? 3. what do you think was expected of you as an extension official? As a People‘s Committee vice chairman? • What steps did PPD take to manage the BPH/virus problem last season? What about the People‘s Committee in the area? • What virus disease management options were preferred and recommended by PPD? (Chemical. Review the guide and eliminate any irrelevant questions. what do you think was expected of you as an extension official? As a People‘s Committee vice chairman? . etc. Sample FGD Guide Rice Planthopper Outbreaks 1. How are outbreaks reported? 2. During the BPH/virus outbreak last season.• Are reports of outbreaks from the field communicated upwards to the central offices or contained within the province? 2. And usually how long will this take to reach province directors? 4.) Why was that option chosen? 4. What is PPD‘s management procedure for dealing with a pest outbreak? What about the People‘s Committee? 7. escape strategy.
How to conduct a focus group discussion Facilitator Krueger warns that some questions may appear to be open‐ended but are really closed‐ended because they include phrases such as ―satisfied‖. How was the budget allocation decided in PPD? 14. What extension mechanisms were used to communicate to farmers about virus disease control? Asking questions during focus groups.) Why was that option chosen? 10. Dichotomous questions are ones that can be answered by a ―yes‖ or ―no‖ or other similar two‐alternative items. What were your worries about the BPH/virus outbreak? 11. or ―how much‖. Krueger (1988) gives some tips on how to handle open‐ended and dichotomous questions in these discussions: Open‐ended questions are most appropriate at the start of the discussion because they allow participants to answer from different angles. How much was the budget allocation for virus disease control? How was this amount determined? What was the basis for the budget allocation? 13. Who decides the budget allocation for pest outbreaks? 15. etc. open‐ended questions give the participants opportunities to express their thoughts and feelings based on their specific situations. They also tend to elicit vague responses that do not lead to an understanding of the key issues being discussed (Moulton and Roberts 1993). What virus disease management options were preferred and recommended by PPD? (Chemical. what extent‖. escape strategy. they usually do not trigger the desired group discussion. The quality of questions asked in a focus group can make a large difference in the kind of information obtained. As the possible responses are not preconceived. What were your worries about the disease management option you have chosen and recommended to farmers? 12. ―to . What steps did PPD take to manage the BPH/virus problem last season? What about the People‘s Committee in the area? 9.8. As yes‐no questions are dead‐ends.
not necessarily to the moderator. not agreeing or disagreeing with what is said. Once this is done. • genuine interest in people • sensitivity to men and women • politeness • empathy • respect for participants Steps in conducting the session Before the focus group discussion begins. 5. During the discussion. crops grown. The discussion is structured around the key themes using the probe questions prepared in advance. Use a variety of moderating tactics to facilitate the group. 4. 4 5. and notputting words in the participants‘ mouths. farm size. it is important that this person havethese qualities: • familiarity with the discussion topic • ability to speak the language spoken of the area • cultural sensitivity. the purpose and scope of the discussion are explained. this sequence of steps is carried out: 1. Participants are asked to give their names and short background information about themselves. including not acting as a judge. and other pertinent information. does not looking down on respondents. . 2. Among these tactics that the moderator can use include: • Stimulate the participants to talk to each other. the facilitator should obtain the background information of participants such as their age. The type of information to collect depends on the FGD topic. all participants are given the opportunity to participate. a teacher. After a brief introduction.In selecting a person to moderate a focus group.
Each team member must have a copy of the FGD guide. and not to lecture or provide team members‘ interpretation of the local biophysical and social system. The team members agree on various task assignments including: a) facilitator/ interpreter .‖ ‐ Look in another direction ‐ Take advantage of a pause and suggest that the subject can be discussed in detail in another session • Pay close attention to what is said in order to encourage that behavior in other participants.. The FGD is an opportunity for the research team to listen and learn.. The list of themes to be discussed may be written on the board to serve as guide for FGD participants on the scope and progress of the discussion. Keep an open mind and listen more. • Use in‐depth probing without leading the participant. Familiarize yourself with local terminologies/names to avoid misunderstanding of what farmers say. 6. 7. c) logistics in‐charge. 3. Avoid questions that yield Yes or No answers. Avoid leading questions. • Discourage dominant participants through verbal and nonverbal cues. b) rapporteur. The following may be used when the situation permits: ‐ Call on other participants ‐ Politely intervene by saying. Guidelines in conducting focus group discussion (FGD) 1. a new variety you have developed which you think will solve farmers‘ problems).g. ―Maybe we can discuss that in another occasion. Do not push your own agenda (e. 4. 2. 5.• Encourage shy participants to speak. Examples: Don‘t you think that variety X is an excellent .
the focus group discussion team can use the time to break the ice by . An appropriate venue is a neutral place that is free from distractions and where participants can talk openly. Often. Don‘t forget to thank participants and local leaders after the conduct of the FGD. Group members should be representative of the intended target population. In rural areas where farm families may reside in distant villages. Logistical arrangements for FGD • Invitations ‐ Participants are contacted in advance. While waiting for other participants to arrive. The optimal number of participants is 8 ‐10. it is also wise to gather the views of certain groups in the target population. Participants are also reminded about the focus group discussion one day before the session. Remember that farmers‘ time is valuable to them. 10. at least one to two weeks before the session. • Transportation ‐ To ensure attendance. • Timing ‐ The timing of the meeting should be convenient to all participants. If a group is too small. the most readily available sites are school buildings. In the rural areas. Be sensitive to local norms and customs. • Seating arrangements ‐ A semicircular seating arrangement facilitates interaction among participants because it allows them to freely see and hear each other.variety? 8. A letter of invitation may be sent to each participant.5 9. transportation is usually arranged for the participants from their residence to the focus group venue. • Group composition ‐The choice of participants depends on the topic of the focus group. one person in the group may dominate it. participants could be asked to converge at a central location to facilitate pick‐up. then it may be difficult to control. • Venue ‐ Focus group discussions can be conducted in a place where 8 ‐ 10 persons can be seated and assured of some privacy. taking into consideration the prevailing practices in the area. the people who are included are those knowledgeable about the topic but at the same time. if it is too big. health and community centers and churches. Strive to complete the FGD within the time period that you mentioned to participants.
Situations may occur where the discussion needs to be tape‐recorded. the key findings are described. Develop a plan for analysis consisting of: • background of the research • objectives • methods • discussion details • focus group discussion guide 2. but facilitators should weigh the advantages and disadvantages. arrangement will facilitate identifying each one. To minimize boredom. Often. focus group discussions are generally not stretched beyond two hours. providing nametags to participants is useful because it enables facilitators to call on those who may be too shy to express their opinions. Analyze the content of the group discussion by • reviewing the notes from the focus group • listening again to the cassettes from the session (if tape recorded) • grouping research findings according to key themes .getting information about their backgrounds. • Refreshments ‐ When resources permit. Debus (1988) suggests some useful guidelines for analyzing data: 1. Writing the FGD report After conducting the focus group discussion.6 • Recording ‐ A trained rapporteur should capture the discussion in writing and note the participants‘ nonverbal expressions. a seating If the culture permits. analyzed and written up in a report (see Box 2 for sample FGD report) . • Name tags ‐ It is best to remember the names of the participants. serving refreshments after the session is a small gesture of appreciation to the participants for having taken time off their work to participate.
• identifying the different positions that emerged under each key theme • summarizing each of the different positions and assess the extent to which each position was held by participants • pulling out verbatim phrases that represent each position. . 2. Synthesize the group discussion by: • reviewing the notes of each discussion made by the moderator • identifying the recurrent ideas that came out during the discussion • interpreting these recurrent ideas based upon other findings that emerged in the groups.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.