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Muhammad Aswar Faiqoh

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Orientalists Quranic Studies In The 9th-15th Century

Jewish and Christian study about the Quran has appeared from beginning. It can seem from polemical debate between them for centuries. But, this condition became a scientific-objective studies of quran for later. That attempts began in modern era by two figures, Joseph Scaliger and Thomas Epernius. The jewish and christian works which deal exclusively of the Quran only a few although there was literature about rejection to islam. The polemics about islam which usually debated both them such as the unity of god, the authenticity of jewish-christian gospel and the evidence of Muhammads prophethood.
The Christian-Arabic Studies

In the 3rd/9th century, the treatise written by a Christian about quran with the title Rislat _Abdal-Mas_ al-Kind il _Abdallh al-Hshim . But, before Al-Kindis Risala there was a work with the title Refutation of the Quran written by a Nestorian author, Abu Nuh al-Anbari, although is little known. In the Al-Kindis Risalah, there is information that the more content of quran is influented by Sergius who had wished to imitate the gospel. This information is used later as a evidence that al-Quran is unautehentic. This treatise has been most influent in the West. In the beginning, it was a Arabic text and than under the motion of Cluniac Abbot Petter the Venerable, it was translated into Latin with title Epistulasaraceni et rescriptum Christian and known with Corpus Toletanum . And for the later, it used as a source-basic knowledge of islam by authors like Dionysius Chartusianus , Nicholas of Cusa, etc. The other Christian authors with their work are:
Safi Abu AL Fadail bin al Assal who was a Coptic scholer and then he focuses

himself to studies al-Quran.

Yuhanna al Hawshabi who wrote a book with title Munaqadat al Qur'an (the

contradiction in the Qur'an).

Petrus bin Dumit Makhruf who wrote a work with title Miftah al-Bia Mkrtic al Kasih with two his work with title al Nasikh wa al Mansukh fi al Qur'an

and Shid al Injil wa Kidh al Qur'an.

The Eastern work in Greek "Heresy of the Ishmaelites written by John from Damascus. In this work, he shows

the several suras from Quran. From that suras, he gives permission to polygamy with up to 4 wives and permission of the separation. He also argues that Muhammad is immoral because he married with his adoptive son, zaynab bt Jahsh.
The Niketas work about rejection to quran. Niketa, Byzantine author, shows that

quran is unreasonable, unsystematically, its work is weak, contradiction, and unsuitable with values of religion book.
The Western work in Latin Liber Apologeticus Martyrum by Eulogius from Cordoba: about critical of

Muhammads adulterous behavior.

Dialogi in Quibus Impiae Judaeorum Opiniones ... Confutantur, by Peter Alphonsi:

He tries to demonstrates his work with several verses of quran which are translated correctly.
The work about Latin paraphrase of the Quran by Robert of Ketton and Peter of

Summa totius haeresis saracenorum, Contra sectam saracenorum , and Epistula de

translatione sua. by Peter of Venerable. He argues that the Quran is a compilation from Jewishs fable and heretical gossip.
Annotationes by a mozarabic Christian. This work is used as source of quran and

Islamic studies.

The 2nd complete translation of the quran by Mark from Toledo. There is 75 suras of

Quran, literal translation, he argues that Quran was exist at the instigation of Abu Bakar to Collected the material of Quran.

After the Crusades, at the instigation of Raymund of Pennaforte (d. 1275), the Arabic language academies had been built in Spain and North Africa that implicated of attempts from Dominican and Franciscan to convert the muslims. One of a graduated student from it is Raymond Martin (d. 1284), has written books with name Puqio fi dei aduersus Mauros et Indaeos and Explanatio simboli apostolorum; that spoke about the resources of Arabic text, including al-Quran; same case with Quadruplex reprobation that lefting many problems. Raymond Lull (d. 1316) has written Disputatio Raymundi christiani et Hamar saraceni in 1307. The Archbishop of Jean, Pedro Pascual (d. 1300) has written an essay with title Sobre la seta Mahometana. Willian of Tripoli, a Dominican from Shiria, has written Notitia de Machometo et de libro legis qui dicitur Alcoran et de continentia eius et quid dicat de fi de Domini nostri Iesu Christi that wrapping about the contents and creation of al-Quran. One of the most influence works on the al-Quran in medieval century had been written by a Florentin Dominican, Ri(c)oldo da Monte Croce (d. 1320), worked as a preacher in the Middle East about 1288 up to 1300. His essay named Contra legem sarracenorum is based in upon excellent knowledge of the Arabic Quranic text. Ricoldos work that can recognize as a classic is summary from all the Christian objections of Quran; the Quran is nothing, only mixed stories of Christian heresies that had already been denounced by erlier cruch. In 1385, Ricoldos work had been translated to the Greek by Demetris Kydones (d. 1398), a Byzantine scholar. From the translation of Kydones, Bartholomeus Picenus de Monte translated it again in to Latin language that first printing in Seville with title Improbatio Alkorani (with a Spanish tranlation Reprobacion del Alcoran in 1501), as well as in Toledo at 1502 and Venice at 1607 with the different title, named Propugnaculum fi dei. From this text, Martin Luther (d. 1546) wrote Verlegung des Alcoran Brudez Richardi. Theodor Bibliander overprinted Kydoness work well in Greece language at 1543.

The Influence of the Turkish wars

The consequence of the conquest of Constantinople in 1453, a key roll was hold by a German cardinal Nicholas Cusanus (d. 1464) that have a relationship with the Spanish theologian and lather cardinal, John of Segovia (d. 1458), in finally got the information about Corpus Toletanum. With the providing of Nicholas, the Carthusian monk Dionysius Rijkel (d. 1471), originally from Netherlands, who accompanied him on his trips from 1451 and after, wrote an article named Alchoranumet sectam Machametican the he used to against and defiance al-Quan which printed in 1533. It fully accorded of the verses formation in alQuran. At the council of Basel, John of Segovia wrote a treatise named De mittendo gladiodivini spiritus in cordova Saracenorum and at time he mithdrew from all church political activity, and busied himself with study of Islam. He emphasized the importence of knowing al-Quran for fruitful debate with the Muslims that promoted togetherness ini peace. After moving in monastery of Aiton in Savoi, he succesly persaude a Muslim jurist Isa Dha Jabir to move from his home town, Segovia, to Aiton. There they worked four month to print a new Quran edition that comprising Castilian translation ton the Arabic text. In 1460 up to 1461 Nicholas Cusa composed the book to examine the Quran. It is dedicated Popi Pius II (r. 1458-1464). He concentrated in Christianity and Islam that both of them have many homogoniety and from it he would stress Christianity and Islam. He completely depends on Corpus Toletanum. As a consequence, he rather use philosopical arguments which interpreted the text overestimated. Alfonso de Spina (d. 1491), a Spanish Fransiscan, wrote Fortalitium fidei in umiversos Christiane religionis hostes printed in Strasbourg before 1471. One chapter of it explain the exclusivity of Islam, with a section about Muhammads occupy in Islam. This work is one of the important sources about Islamic Theology. From the beginning of sixteenth century, Juan Anders from Aragones wrote a book named Libro nueuamente imprimido que secta mahomatica y del alcoran and was translated into many languages (Italian, French, Latin, Dutch, English, German). In interpriting of alQuran, he reference to Zamakhsyari and Ibn Atiyya. For the rest, he uses the popular prophetic biography kitab al-Syifa fi tarif huquq al-Mustasfa of Iyad bin Musa. The anti-quranic books were has printed in Spain do not appear to have any effect outside Spain.