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February 7th 2013 Dear diary It was first meeting of phonology lecture, with same lecturer in pronunciation I think

we know that she is our beloved lecturer, mam maemuna muhayyang , before she explained her material she wanted us to write diaries like in the first semester, you know?? In pronunciation lecture , but mom explained that in this semester diaries, mam wanted we just write what we understand from the lecture, mam doesnt need praise any more in our diary so mam started to show us the syllabus of phonology and then as like as usually mam showed us some slides presentation you know what?? Learning phonology teach me how to pronounced the world. First, Definition of Phonology: Richards, et al (1985) defined phonology is the study or description of the distinctive sound units of a language (phoneme). It is also the study of word-to-word relations in sentences, that is how sound patterns are affected by the combination of words, for example, /du:/do and /yu:/you may combine /du:y/. Ladetoged (1989) defined phonology is the description of the system and patterns of sounds that occur in a language. It involves studying a language to determine its distinctive sound and to establish a set of rules that describe the set of changes that take place in these sounds when they occur in different relationship with other sounds. Second, the Relationship between Phonology & Phonetics: Phonology and phonetics are inseparable, they are mutual dependent. They discuss about the sounds of the language; phonology deals with the sound patterns, while phonetics deals with the sound variations of the language. Phonetics is the study of sounds used in speech. It deals with the form of sounds, how they are produced, heard, and how they can be described. Phonetics describes the concrete, physical dimension of sounds, such as whether they are voice or voiceless and their places and manners of articulation. The Areas of Phonetics 1. Articulatory Phonetics deals with the way in which speech sounds are produced. 2. 2. Acoustic Phonetics deals with the transmission of speech sounds through the air (sound waves). It examines the length, frequency, and pitch of sounds. 3. Auditory Phonetics deals with how speech sounds are perceived by the listener. Three, Articulatory Phonetics: Vocal Tract Speech sound is created by airflow through the vocal tract. It is a tube where air passes. If this tube is open, the airflow creates a sound. The vocal tract is divided into the oral tract within the mouth and the pharynx, and the nasal tracts within the nose. The parts of oral tract that can be used to form sounds are called articulators.

Pharynx It is part of the throat which extends from above the vocal cords up to the soft palate at the back of the mouth. It is like large chamber and in the production of speech sounds its shape and volume can be changed in various ways: Soft Palate (Velum) It is a muscular flap that can be raised to press against the back wall of the pharynx and shut off the nasal tract, preventing air from going out through the nose. Hard Palate It is a thin horizontal bony plate of the skull, located in the front part of roof of the mouth. Alveolar Ridge It is located behind the upper teeth where there is a small protuberance that we can feel with the tip of the tongue. . Tongue Tongue can be moved into many different places and different shapes. There are three different parts of the tongue; tip, blade, front, root or back. The tip and blade lie under the alveolar ridge; the tip is the most forward part of all and the blade between the tip and the front. The front lies under the hard palate. It can be flat on the bottom of the mouth or it can be raised to touch the hard palate. The back of the tongue lies under the soft palate when the tongue is at rest. Teeth Teeth are categorized into upper and lower teeth. The upper teeth are more important than lower ones as there are many sounds articulated by the upper teeth.\ Lips Lips are divided into lower and upper lips. Can you imagine??? How if we have not mouth, we are dumb, or we have a harelip?? We have not tongue? Of course we cant speak; we cant communicate each other. So however our mouths shape, our lips, whatever our tooths composition, our tongue is long or short, but we can still speak. So lets thanks to the Allah, because we have complete organ speech,, we have articulatory phonetics and the more important is we can communicated with other people in the world. Dont only look the beautiful thing always, but looked at the bad or worse thing too, so we can always say thanks in our live.

February 14th 2013

Dear diary

Second meeting of phonology lecture ehmm we were going to talk about English vowels. As usually mam do in every meeting mam showed us some presentation slides Jackson (1985) described three parameters of English vowels: 1. The height of the tongue (the openness of the mouth); Close, Half-close, Open 2. The position of the tongue; * Front * Central * Back 3. The shape of the lips; * rounded * spread Jackson (1985) classified vowels into two categories: 1. Pure vowels (Simple vowels) During the articulation, they are made with the mouth taking up single position. * Rounded and unrounded * Long and short * Low and high * Front and back 2. Diphthongs The configuration of the mouth changes in the course of articulation. 1. Pure vowels 1.1. The rounded vowels When you pronounce a rounded vowel, the lips are rounded as in the following: /u: / in good, boot /u/ in look, book /: / in bought, taught

// in cost, lost /a/ in father, mother 1.2. The unrounded vowels When you pronounce an unrounded vowel, the lips are spread /i: / leave, feel /i/ kill, knit / / have, mat

1.3. Long and short vowels are phonemic in English. Vowel length is a matter of duration that is how long the vowel sound is sustained in its articulation. /i: / /i/ /u: / /u/ /: / // neat, weed nit, with good, boot look, book brought, thought box, hot

1.4. Low vowels occur when the jaw is relatively low during articulation. /a/ /i: / father, mother least, seat

1.5. Front vowel occurs when the vibration is felt toward the front of cavity or said in the area of the alveolar ridge. / / /e/ have, mad bed, net

1.6. Back vowel occurs when the vibration is felt toward the back of the cavity or said in the area of the velar. /u/ // foot, tooth cock, torn

At first I looked the slides, I felt I was in pronunciation lecture, but I when saw the slides one by one, it was like I swam this lecture deeper, because actually phonology is like pronunciation but it talk more specific, deeper and more detail, because phonology talk about the most basic thing in English. Upzzt in this meeting mam gave us drawing assignment, so mam divided us into groups, you know what?? Mam told us to draw mouth shape in pronouncing letter.

February 21th 2013 Dear diary

Late.. late.. late.. arghhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh it was terrible, I was late, you know what?? It the third meeting of phonology and it was the first day of quiz.. huffft and because of late I didnt do most of the quiz hufttt.. I dont want to late again. Forget it, in this meeting we studied about A. Front Vowel There are four vowels in the front area. 1. Two of them are in the close area; one is the close front spread vowel and another is called lowered and centralized close front spread vowel They are /i: / and / / 2. One vowel in the front area is between half-close and half-open (mid front spread vowel) It is /e/ 3. One vowel in the open area, but it is completely open (half-open) It is / /

The Descriptions of /i: / Pronunciation When we pronounce / i / , the front of the tongue is raised to a height slightly below and behind the close front position; the lips are spread or neutral; the tongue is tense, with the side rims making a firm contact with the upper molars. There is little space between the jaws. diphthongized. For preceding and following consonantal phonemes, please see tables telling the consonantal phonemes it precedes and follows.

spelling forms / i: / has the following spelling forms. ee e ea ie ei, ey i tree, cheese, canteen, seek, etc. complete, be, these, etc. leaf, reason, sea, eat, etc. piece, field, siege, etc. seize, key,receive, etc. machine, police, prestige, suite, etc.

The Descriptions of / /

Pronunciation When we pronounce / /, the crony of tongue is raised, but the raising is retracted from the true front position; the tongue is raised to a position a little above half close; the lips are spread or neutral , and the jaws are a little more apart the for / i /. spelling forms i y e ie a sit, fifth, with, rich, etc. city, rhythm, symbol, etc. Pretty, needed, wicket, except, careless, houses, etc. ladies, cities, etc. village, private, etc.

The Descriptions of /e/

pronunciation When we pronounce / e /, the front of the tongue is raised; it is raised to a point midway between half-close and half-open. The lips are spread or neutral and opening between the jaws is medium. spelling forms / e / has the following spelling forms: e ea a set, bed, wet, get, let, etc. dead, head, bread, deaf, etc. many, themes, etc.

The Descriptions of //

pronunciation When we pronounce / / the front of the tongue is raised; it is raised very slightly, to a point midway between half-open and open. The lips are spread or neutral. The jaw opening is medium to wide. There is some contraction of the throat which a peculiar quality to the sound. Spelling forms. / / has the following spelling forms: a ai sat, hand, lamp, rash, marry, back plait, plaid

B. Central Vowel There are three central vowels. Two of them are in the mid way between half-close and half open area. They are in mid central spread vowels They are /:/ and // Another one is in the open area It is / / The Descriptions of /: / pronunciations When we pronounce / : /, the middle of the tongue is raised that is to the part between the front and the back. It is raised to a point mid- way between half-close and half-open, or slightly higher. The lips are spread. There is little space between the jaws. spelling forms ir , yr er, err, ear bird, first, girl, myrtle her, serve, err, earth, heard

w + or word, world, work, worse our The Descriptions of / / Pronunciation We pronounce / /, the central part of the tongue is raised. It is raised to the half open position, or slightly less. The lips are spread. The spending of the jaws is medium. spelling forms a about, gentleman, breakfast, China, sofa journey, courtesy, scourge

ar er i o or oar our u ou ure ough re The Descriptions of / / pronunciation

particularly, forward, collar modern, manners, better horrible method, Europe effort, doctor cupboard colour column famous nature borough centre

When we pronounce / /, the middle of the tongue is raised just above the fully open position, no contact being made between the tongue and the upper molar. The lips are spread. The jaws are wide apart. spelling forms u o ou oo oe C. Back Vowels There are five back vowels. 1. Two of them are in the close area: /u/ and /u:/ 2. There is one vowel between half-close and half-open /:/ sun , cut, dull son, come, among, one, done, month, colour, monkey, mother, nothing, Monday, onion, London, oven country, southern, couple, young blood, flood does

3. The other are in the open area /:/ and / / The Descriptions of /u/ pronunciation When we pronounce / u /, the back of the tongue is raised but the raising is advanced from the true back position. The tongue is raised to a position a little above half-close. The lips are fairly closely rounded, but are held rather slackly and only slightly protruded. The opening between the jaws is medium. spelling forms. u o oo ou put, full, sugar, cushion, butcher wolf, woman, bosom good, wood, wool, book could, should, would, courier

The Descriptions of /u:/ pronunciation When we pronounce / u /, the back of the tongue is raised. It is raised nearly to the close position. The lips are closely rounded, but there is little protrusion. There is little space between the jaws. spelling forms / u / has the following form: oo o ou u ew, ue, ui, oe food , soon, moon, spoon do, who, move, lose group, soup, wound, through rude, June, Susan chew, blue, juice, shoe

The Descriptions of / : / pronunciation When we pronounce / : /, the back of the tongue is raised. It is raised nearly to the half open position. The lips are between open and rounding, the jaws are fairly wide apart. spelling forms or or , horse, sword, born

aw ou,au a

saw, lawn, jaw, yawn bought, ought, daughter, fault, cause all, talk, salt, war, quart

ore, oor,oar,our before, more, door, floor, oar, board, court, four The Descriptions of /:/ pronunciation When we pronounce / : /, the back of the tongue is raised; the raising is advanced from the true back position. The tongue is very low in the mouth, at the fully open position. The lips are neutral. The jaws are fairly wide apart. spelling forms a ar ear er alau father, pass, after, bath, tomato, branch part, car, march heart, hearth clerk, sergeant calm, palm, half (1 is silent) aunt, laugh

The Descriptions of // pronunciation When we pronounce / o /, the back of the tongue is in the fully open position, no contact being made between the tongue and the upper molar. The lips are slightly rounded, but not pushed forward the jaws are fairly wide apart. spelling forms o a ou, ow au dock, dog holiday, sorry, gone was, what, swan, want, watch, quality cough, trough, knowledge because, sausage, laurel, cauliflower, Australia

Mam told us to prepare our self in facing quiz next week and no late again

February 28th 2013 Dear diary It was the fourth meeting of this lecture quiz again and no late after quiz mam explained about

The Phonetic Features 1. Anterior: the sounds which are anterior have an obstruction in the front part of the mouth. From the alveolar ridge forward, They are /p/, /b/, /t/, /d/, /v/, //, //, /s/, z/, /m/, /n/, /l/. 2. High: this feature and the following two describe the height of the tongue and the part of it which is raised. The neutral position of the tongue is in /e/ sound. Above /e/ position is called high. The high sounds are /i:/, /i/, /u:/, /u/, /k/, /g/, /t/, /d/, //, //, //, /j/, /w/ 3. Low: Below /e/ position is called low: the low sounds are //, / :/, / :/, / /, /h/. 4. Back: if the back part of the tongue behind the neutral position for /e/ is raised, the sound is + back. The back sounds are //, //, /u:/, /u/, /:/, //, /k/, /g/, / /, /w/. 5. Nasal: the air is released through the nasal passage instead of through the mouth. They are: /m/, /n/, //. 6. Continuant: The sounds which are continuant have the construction in the vocal tract which is not great that it blocks the passage of air through the mouth. The sounds can be prolonged. They are: /f/,/v/, //, //, /s/, /z/, //, //, r/, /l/, /h/, /j/, /w/, and all sounds which are + vocalic. 7. Tense: tense sounds are those which are clearly distinct, and the muscles are held in the position for producing the sound longer than for other sounds. The sounds which are + tense are: /i:/, u:/, /:/, /:/, /:/, and the diphthong /ei/. 8. Voice: when the vocal cords are in the neutral position, they are close enough to allow vibration when a sound is produced. The sounds which are in this position or near this position are all vocalic sounds plus /b/, /d/, /g/, /d/, /v/, //, /z/, //, /m/, /n/, //, /r/, /l/, /j/, /w/. 9. Strident: sounds which are acoustically noisier are + strident. Those are: /t /, /d /, /f/, /v/, /s/, /z/, //, //. 1. Places of Articulation The students are expected to gain the following things: 1. to recognize the places of articulation 2. To identify the English sounds (consonants) of their articulation places 3. To exemplify the initial, middle, and final positions of those sounds

Places of Articulation 1. Bilabial It is made with the two lips. there are four sounds produced in this place:/p/,/b/,/m/, and /w/ pen, paper, cup baby, rubber, cab mine, lamp, home white, always, forward 2. Labiodental It is produced between lower lip and upper front teeth. The sounds are /f/ and /v/ Feel, offer, laugh Van, lover, save 3. Dental Dental consonant is articulated with the tip or blade of the tongue and upper front teeth The sounds produced are // and // Thank, something, month Those, brother, smooth 4. Alveolar Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tip or blade of the tongue and the alveolar ridge. The sounds produced are /t/, /d/, /s/,/z/, /n/, and /l/. Ten, butter, kite Deed, rider, road Smell, twister, place Zoo, lazy, is Night, money, none Lip, seller, heel 5. Palato-Alveolar It is articulated with the blade of the tongue and the back of alveolar ridge.

The sounds produced are //, //, /t/, /d/, and /r/ She, wishes, finishes Garage, measure Cheap, teacher, watch Job, ages, language Read, borrow, and narrow 6. Palatal It is articulated with front of the tongue and hard palate. The sound is /j/ Young, beauty, tune 7. Velar It is articulated with back of the tongue and soft palate. The sounds produced are /k/, /g/, and // Cave, secret, leak Game, again, dig Ink, finger, wrong 8. Glottal It is articulated with the open vocal cords. The sound produced is /h/ heel, behind, hard This meeting I feel more grateful in Allah, because of Allahs grace,. I can speak and alive normally

March 14th 2013 Dear diary It was the fifth meeting of this lecture, but mom just come to tell us that she cant teach us, so she told Mr. ullah to give us the quiz

the quiz is about phonetic feauters and place of articulation. the class was very noise, my friend was laugh because of mr. ullah. he always joking to us. but we still to finished our quiz, after several time, the time is over, so we prepared to come back.

March 14th 2013 Dear diary It was the sixth meeting, as like as usual mam showed us some slides, in this meeting we studied about manner of articulation, . There were 6 kind of manner of articulation, the first one is plosive, alveolar plosive, velar plosive, and the second one is nasal. They have types and element their self. Such as bilabial plosive, alveolar plosive, bilabial nasal, alveolar nasal, and their own examples.

Manners of Articulation The type of closure or narrowing at the point of articulation. There are six kinds of manner of articulation: 1. Plosive 2. Nasal 3. Fricative 4. Affricative 5. Lateral 6. Approximant/glide

1. PLOSIVE Complete closure of the articulators involved so that the airstream cannot escape through the mouth. There are three types of plosive:

1. Bilabial plosive (/p/ and /b/) 2. Alveolar plosive (/t/ and /d/) 3. Velar plosive (/k/ and /g/) 1.1. Bilabial Plosive (/p/ and /b/) The lower lips are pressed together and the soft palate are raised, so the breath cannot escape through either the nose or mouth for a short time. In short, the sounds cannot be prolonged. o Descriptions of /p/

pronunciation

When we pronounce / p /, the air passage is completely blocked by closing the lips and raising the soft palate. When the lips are open, the air suddenly escapes from the mouth with an exclusive sound. There is not any vibration in the cords. When it is followed by a strongly stressed vowel, / p / is regularly aspirated. spelling forms p, pp o pen , spoon, stop, happy, opportunity.

Descriptions of /b/

pronunciation

When we pronounce / b/, we do it like when we pronounce /p /, except that in / b / there is a vibration in the vocal cords. spelling forms b, bb big, banana, rubber, labor, rib, ebb, bulb.

Notice: / b/ is silent in limb, thumb, comb, etc. and in debt, subtle, doubt.

1.2 Alveolar Plosive (/t/ and /d/) The tongue tip is firmly against the middle of alveolar ridge. The soft palate is raised, so the breath cannot escape through either the nose or mouth but it is trapped for a short time. The sounds cannot be prolonged. o Descriptions of /t/

pronunciation

When we pronounce / t /, the air passage is completely blocked by raising the soft palate and raising the tip of the tongue to touch the teeth ridge. When the tongue is removed from the teeth ridge the air suddenly escapes from the mouth with an explosive sound. There is no vibration in the vocal cords. It is regularly aspirated before a strongly stressed vowel. spelling forms t, tt time, wait, waited, admitted

th

themes, Thomas

ed in verbal past tenses and participles after voiceless consonants other than / t / jumped, looked, laughed, guessed, pushed, etc. o Descriptions of /d/

pronunciation

When we pronounce / d /, it is articulated like / t /, except that the breath force is weaker and vocal cords vibrate. spelling forms d, dd do, dog, leader, order, middle, bid, mad, sudden, admit

1.3 Velar Plosive (/k/ and /g/) The back of the tongue is pressed in the area of soft palate. The soft palate is raised and the breath is trapped for a short time. The sounds cannot be prolonged. o Descriptions of /k/

pronunciation When we pronounce the phoneme / k /, the air passage is completely blocked by raising the soft palate and raising the back of the tongue to touch the palate. When the tongue is lowered from the soft palate the air escapes through the mouth with an explosive sound. There is no vibration in the vocal cords.

spelling forms k, c, cc+o,u qu, ch o kind, accord, accuse, secret, skin conquer, stomach, chemist, anchor

Descriptions of /g/

pronunciation

When we pronounce / g /, it is articulated like /g /, except that the breath force is weaker and the vocal cords vibrate. spelling forms g, gg go, geese, girl, dogma, begged, struggle.

gh, gu ghost, guard 2. Nasal (Nasal Stop) It is produced with a lowered velum in the mouth, allowing the air to escape freely through the nose. There are three types of nasal

1. Bilabial nasal (/m/) The mouth is blocked by closing the two lips. The soft palate is down, so the air escapes through the nose. Descriptions of /m/ pronunciation

When we pronounce / m /, the mouth passage is completely blocked by closing the lips, but the soft palate is lowered so that the air can pass through the nose. The tongue is held in a neutral position. The vocal cords vibrate. spelling forms meal, mat, march, lamb,

m, mm, sometimes with mb, mn harmed, autumn

2. Alveolar nasal (/n/) It is produced by pressing the tongue tip against the alveolar ridge. The soft palate is down, so the air escapes through the nose.

Descriptions of /n/ When we pronounce / n /, the mouth passage is completely blocked by raising the tip of the tongue to touch the teeth ridge. The soft palate is lowered so that the air can pass through the nose. Nose the vocal cords vibrate. spelling forms n, nn, or kn, gn, pn neat, knit, gnaw, knot, gnaw, name, know, manner, dinner, many, pneumonia, 3. Velar nasal (//) The mouth is blocked by the back of the tongue and against the lowered soft palate, so the air escapes through the nose.

Descriptions of // pronunciation When we pronounce / /, the passage is completely blocked by raising the back of the tongue to touch the soft palate, the soft palate is lowered so that the air can pass through the nose. There is vibration in the vocal cords. spelling forms ng, or n followed by a letter indicating a velar consonant, sing, tongue, sink, uncle, anxious, singer, finger, anger.

Thursday 21th 2013 Dear diary It was the seventh meeting of this lecture, in this meeting nothing material we just presenting our assignment, but unfortunately i didnt get a chance, because of limited time.

Thursday 28th 2013 Dear diary It was a nervous day!!!! it was mid test day I can answer the question and I was sure it will be alright. I hoped I can got high score, so for make it real the once way is I must believe and self-confident that I will got high score. April 4th 2013 Dear diary It was the ninth meeting of this lecture, quiz again after doing the quiz mam started to continue the last material 3. FRICATIVE Type of closure or narrowing: the two organs approximate to such extent that the air stream passes through them with friction. Sounds with this manner of articulation can be prolonged as long as the breath holds out.

The fricative consonants are:

1. Labio-dental fricative /f and v/ Descriptions of /f/ pronunciation When we pronounce / f / the lower lip is pressed against the upper teeth and causing the air to force its way between them. The soft palate is raised. There is no vibration in the vocal cords. spelling forms f, ff, ph, gh feet, fit, father, fool, fail, photo, affair, offer, defend, leaf, fry, laugh, cough, stuff, strife, fly, Descriptions of /v/ pronunciation When we pronounce / v /, the lower lip is pressed against the upper teeth and causing the air to force its way between them. There is vibration in vocal cords. spelling forms v, f, ph villa, veil, of, nephew. 2. Dental fricative / and /

Descriptions of / / pronunciation When we pronounce / /, the tip of the tongue is held closely to the upper teeth and allowing the air to stream through the narrow passage thus formed. The soft palate is raised. There is vibration in vocal cords.

spelling form th think, thank, method, month, south

Descriptions of / / pronunciation When we pronounce / /, it is articulated like / /. Except that there is a vibration in the vocal cords.

spelling form th there, this, then, soothe, clothe,

3. Alveolar fricative /s and z/ Descriptions of /s/ pronunciation / s / is articulated between the blade or tip and blade of the tongue and the teeth ridge. The air passage at the point of articulation is extremely narrow. The soft plate is raised. The teeth are close together. The lips are spread. There is no vibration in the vocal cords. spelling forms s, ss, c, sc, x (ks) cease, pieces, losses, essay, exes, concert, escape, scenery, scarce, helps

Descriptions of /z/ pronunciation / z / is articulated like / s / except that the vocal cords vibrate

ooze,

spelling forms s, ss, z, zz, x (gz) zeal, zest, easy, hesitate, bazaar, thousand, palsy, fees, is, says, was,

4. Palato alveolar fricative / and / Descriptions of / / pronunciation / / is articulated between the tip and the blade of the tongue and the back teeth ridge, and the main body of the tongue is raised at the same time in the direction of the hard palate. The air passage at the point of articulation is wider than for / s /, but the main body of the tongue is closer to the palate. The soft palate is raised. The teeth are fairly close together. The lips are protruded. There is no vibration in the vocal cords. spelling forms sh, ch, sch, s or ss before u, -ti-, -si-, I -, ee sheet, shed, special, ocean, shop, sugar, charade, assure, schedule, nation, mansion, machine, conscience, Asia, Descriptions of / / pronunciation / / is articulated like / /, except that there is a vibration in the vocal cords. spelling forms si, s, z, before u, and, in French loan words, final ge gigue, vision, measure, seizure, beige, pleasure, leisure, usual, confusion, decision, prestige,

5. Glottal fricative /h/.

Descriptions of /h/ pronunciation we pronounce / h /, the mouth is held in position for the vowel immediately while air is emitted t, through the wide open glottis, producing audible friction, the soft palate is raised and there is no vibration in the vocal cords.

spelling forms h, wh how, hat, who, whom, heat, hate, high, hallo, ahead, behave, behind, perhaps, anyhow.

3. Affricative type of closure begins like the stop and the opening is relatively slow plus a movement through the fricative position. That is why the affricative cannot be prolonged. They are palato-alveolar affricative/t, d/ Descriptions of /t/ pronunciation When we pronounce / t /, the air passage is completely blocked by raising the soft palate and raising the tip of the tongue to touch the back of the teeth ridge, when the tongue is removed from the teeth the air escapes through the mouth, the lips are usually protruded, there is no vibration in the vocal cords. spelling forms ch, tch, t+ ure, t+eous, and t+ion when t is preceded by # s- chain, watch, nature, righteous, question, cheese, chin, charge Descriptions of /d/ pronunciation When we pronounce / d /, it is articulated like / t /, except the breath The vocal cords vibrate. spelling forms j, g, dg, sometimes gg, gj, de, dj, ch jam, jest, jar, gem, gin, midget, suggest, adjacent, grandeur, soldier, Norwich, ledger, margin, urgent, agenda, major. 5. Lateral type of closure: partial a partial closure is made at some point in the mouth, the air stream is being allowed, and the air escapes on one or both sides of contact (the air flows around the sides of the tongue. force is weaker.

The lateral is /l/. Lateral /l/ is known as clear /l/ and dark /l/ Clear /l/ occurs before vowel and before /j/ leave, left, million, etc Dark /l/ is used before other consonants and final call, feel, help Descriptions of /l/ pronunciation When we pronounce / l /, the tip of the tongue touches the teeth ridge in such a way that there is a complete closure in the sides of the tongue. The soft palate is raised. There is a vibration in the vocal cords. spelling forms l, ll 6. Approximant Approximant is usually called semi-vowel or glide. It is produced with closing one articulator to another without a narrowing between them, so that turbulent air stream is not produced. In other words, the passage through the mouth is open at the mid-line. The semivowels are 1. Bilabial Approximant/w/ Descriptions of /w/ pronunciation When we pronounce / w /, the lips are closely rounded and the back of the tongue is raised considerably in the direction of the soft palate. The organs immediately glide from this position. The soft palate is raised. The vocal cords vibrate. spelling forms w, wh, or u after q, g weed, wet, wag, wood, which, quick, language, twelve, twice, queen, acquaint. 2. Palato-alveolar Approximant /r / Descriptions of /r/ pronunciation light, fill, leave, lock, look, late, loud, blow, silly, yellow, foolish

When we pronounce / r / the soft palate is being raised and the nasal resonator shut off, the tip the tongue is held near to the rear of the upper teeth ridge, the central part of the tongue is lowered. spelling forms r, rr, wr, rh red, carry, rhythm, raw, rag, mirror, dowry, arrive, arrow

3. Palatal Approximant /j/ Descriptions of /j/ pronunciation When we pronounce / j /, the speech organs start in position for a variety of / I /; the lips are spread and the front of the tongue is raised considerably in the direction of the hard palate; the organs immediately glide from this position. The soft palate is raised. The vocal cords vibrate. spelling forms y, i yes, yield, yard, yawn, year, spaniel.

April 11th 2013 Dear diary It was the tenth meeting of phonology, as usual we got quiz from the last material 1. LAX VOWELS Lax vowel is a term with no specific phonetics correlates used when dividing vowels into classes on phonological grounds. In English, the lax vowels are those that can occur in monosyllables closed by // such as sing, length, hang, etc. (Ladefoged,1985) Lax describes a speech sound which is produced with comparatively little movement of any parts of the vocal tract, for example the tongue. The vowels /i/ in hit and /u/ in put are lax vowels. 1. TENSE VOWELS Tense vowel is a term with no specific phonetics correlates used when diving vowels into classes on phonological grounds. In English, the lax vowels are those that can occur in stressed open syllables such as bee, bay, slow, buy, etc. Tense describes a speech sound which is produced with greater degree of movement and muscular tension in the vocal tract. The vowel /i:/ in seep /si:p/ is a tense vowel as the lips are spread and the tongue moves toward the roof of the mouth. Vowel Quality

It is features other than length which distinguish one vowel from another. It is determined by the shape of the mouth when the particular vowel is produced. The shape of the mouth varies according to the position of the tongue and the degree of lip rounding. The raise of the tongue front, central, and back

The length of tongue raise close, half-close, half-open, and open vowel

The tongue height high, mid, and low

The shape of the lips rounded and unrounded vowels

The types of Vowel Quality There five aspects of vowel quality: 1. Cardinal vowel The cardinal vowel /i/ is made with the front vowel of the tongue as high as possible in the mouth without touching the roof of the tongue (Front vowel) lowering the tongue gradually, three front vowels were established; /e, , and a/. The cardinal vowel //is made with the back of the tongue as low as possible in the mouth (Back vowel) Lowering the back of the tongue, three other cardinal vowels were established; / , :, and u/ these eight cardinal vowels are known as primary cardinal vowels. the five vowels: /i, e, , a, and / are unrounded vowels and /, :, and u/ are rounded vowels 2. Vowel Harmony It is a modification of the pronunciation of vowels in a word so that one agrees or harmonizes with one another. It is said to be vowel harmony in a language if the vowels are constrained so that all vowels in a single word must have some property or properties in a common. the vowels /i, ,, , u/, for example, cannot occur in a stressed syllable without a consonant at the end. 3. Wide and Narrow Vowels Wide vowels occur when the root of the tongue is drawn forward making the part of the vocal tract in the pharynx is considerably enlarged. Narrow vowels occurs when the root of the tongue is drawn back causing the pharynx is narrowed.

The high vowels /i / and /u:/ as in heed and whod, are wider than the high vowels /i/ and /u/ as in hid and hood. 4. Rhotacized Vowels Rhotacization is an auditory quality (r-coloring/retroflex) that can be produced in more than one way; sir, bird, cur, and etc. In a rhotacized vowel, there is a marked lowering of the frequency of the third formant; deer and bear. 5. Nasalization when the soft palate is lowered to let the part of airstream escape through the nose. Produce the vowel // in the following words and feel your lowering soft palate: man, mat, mad. Some consonants such as /w, j, r, l/ may be nasalized if they occur next to nasalized vowels.

April 18th 2013 Dear diary It was the eleventh meeting of phonology, as like as usual mom give us quiz and then mam gave us the material for this meeting, the material is Defeniton of syllable A syllable is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds. For example, the word water is composed of two syllables: wa and ter. A syllable is typically made up of a syllable nucleus (most often a vowel) with optional initial and final margins (typically, consonants)

A word that consists of a single syllable (like dog) is called a monosyllable, while a word consisting of two syllables (like puppy) is called a disyllable. A word consisting of three syllables (such as wolverine) is called a trisyllable. A word consisting of more than three syllables (such as rhinoceros) is called a polysyllable, although this term is often used to describe words of two syllables or more. ENGLISH SYLLABLE A syllable is a unit in a speech which is often longer than one sound and smaller than a whole word. For example, the word phonology consists of four syllables: pho-no-lo-gy Syllable is classified into two: 1. Open syllable: syllable ends in a vowel to, fry, blow 2. Closed syllable: syllable ends in a consonant bet, grasp, mock Stressed Syllables Syllables may be stressed or unstressed. Stressed syllables occur when a listener hears a stressed syllable or word as being louder or longer duration and/or produced with a higher pitch than other words or syllables. A syllable may be stressed because of: * the accent * the speaker wishes to emphasize the syllable Unstressed Syllables The unstressed syllables occur when a listener does not hear a stressed syllable or word as being louder or longer duration and/or produced with a lower pitch than other words or syllables. All English vowels can occur both stressed and unstressed syllables. English vowels can also be reduced. Reduced vowels reveal a change in a vowel to a centralized vowel when it is an unstressed position. For example, could /kud/ is often reduced /kd/ in a sentence. Type of Syllable 1. Closed Syllable A syllable with a single vowel followed by one or more consonants. (The vowel is closed in by the consonant). The vowel sound is generally short. Example:

Cab Dog In Dish Open Syllable

/kb/ /dg/ /n/ /d/

A syllable that ends with a single vowel. (The vowel is not closed in by a consonant; Its left open). The vowel sound is usually long. (Note: The letter y acts as a vowel). Example: No She Sky Go Silent-E Syllable A syllable with a single vowel followed by a consonant then the vowel e. The first vowel is usually long and the final e syllable is silent. Example: Bike Skate Note Close Ice /bak/ /sket/ /nut/ /kluz/ /as/ /nu/ /i/ /ska/ /gu/

April 25 2013 Dear diary It was the twelfth meeting for this lecture, as usual mam gave us a quiz and then continue her material, it was about unstressed and with a weak form such as to, a, and, etc. Weak form is the unstressed form of any word, such as but or as, that does not maintain its full form when it occurs in conversational speech. Mom maemuna also give us an assignment, the assignment was make mini drama, and text of our mini drama are A: Will you be at the meeting on Friday? (you is weak)

B: Yes. Will you be there? (you is strong) Can you help me carry this suitcase? (me is weak) Hey, wait for me! (me is strong) A: Is he there? (he is weak) B: Who? A: The boss. B: No. Everybody else is working, but hes gone home!(he is strong) A: She doesnt smoke or drink! (she is strong) B: Ah, thats what she told you! (she is weak). The next text is A: Look its him! (him is strong) B: Where? I cant see him. (him is weak) A: Do you know that woman? B: Her? No, I dont recognise her. (rst her is strong, second her is weak) A: Im afraid we cant stay any longer. (we is weak) B: What do you mean, we? Ive got plenty of time. (we is strong) A: They told us to go this way. (us is weak) B: Well, they didnt tell us! (us is strong) When I said, Give them a drink I didnt mean them, I meant the people. (rst them is weak, second themis strong)

May 9 2013 Dear diary No quiz, no material today, you know what?? Because we just came for watching together.

May 16 2013 Dear diary It the fourteenth meeting of phonology , no quiz in this meeting we studied about pitch, intonation and juncture. From this meeting I know English also has it music. From here I can improve my English skill with the true rule, I can practiced in my daily life with the true English style. There was intonation