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One approach defines the type of network according to the geographic area it spans.Local area networks (LANs), for example, typically reach across a single home, whereas wide area networks (WANs), reach across cities, states, or even across the world. The Internet is the world's largest public WAN.
The increasing demand and use of computers in universities and research labs in the late 1960s generated the need to provide high-speed interconnections between computer systems. A 1970 report from the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory detailing the growth of their "Octopus" network gave a good indication of the situation. Cambridge Ring was developed at Cambridge University in 1974 but was never developed into a successful commercial product. Ethernet was developed at Xerox PARC in 1973–1975,and filed as U.S. Patent 4,063,220. In 1976, after the system was deployed at PARC, Metcalfe and Boggs published a seminal paper, "Ethernet: Distributed Packet-Switching For Local Computer Networks." ARCNET was developed by Datapoint Corporation in 1976 and announced in 1977. It had the first commercial installation in December 1977 at Chase Manhattan Bank in New York. Standards evolution The development and proliferation of personal computers using the CP/M operating system in the late 1970s, and later DOS-based systems starting in 1981, meant that many sites grew to dozens or even hundreds of computers. The initial driving force for networking was generally to share storage and printers, which were both expensive at the time. There was much enthusiasm for the concept and for several years, from about 1983 onward, computer industry pundits would regularly declare the coming year to be ―the year of the LAN‖. In practice, the concept was marred by proliferation of incompatible physical layer and network protocol implementations, and a plethora of methods of sharing resources. Typically, each vendor would have its own type of network card, cabling, protocol, and network operating system. A solution appeared with the
Unix computer workstations from vendors such as Sun Microsystems. During the same period. as the cabling required is minimal and it is well suited to mobile laptops and smart phones. and in 1984 StarLAN showed the potential of simple unshielded twisted pair by using Cat3—the same simple cable used for telephone systems. Cabling Early LAN cabling had always been based on various grades of coaxial cable. or ADSL modem for Internet access. Smaller LANs generally consist of one or more switches linked to each other. This led to the development of 10Base-T (and its successors) and structured cabling which is still the basis of most commercial LANs today. often at least one is connected to a router. but Banyan never gained a secure base. NeXT and Apollo were using TCP/IP based networking. AppleTalk. As cabling is not always possible. Technical aspects Network topology describes the layout pattern of interconnections between devices and network segments. and other protocols used by the early PC LANs. NBF. Hewlett-Packard. cable modem. the technologies developed in this area continue to be influential on the Internet and in both Linux and Apple Mac OS Xnetworking—and the TCP/IP protocol has now almost completely replaced IPX. However shielded twisted pair was used in IBM's Token Ring implementation. Microsoft and 3Com worked together to create a simple network operating system which formed the base of 3Com's 3+Share. In addition. the Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) has become the standard. Switched Ethernet has been for some time the most common Data Link Layerand Physical Layer implementation for local area networks. Intergraph. . fiber-optic cabling is increasingly used in commercial applications.but none of these were particularly successful. Although this market segment is now much reduced. Silicon Graphics. and a much more sophisticated operating system than most of its competitors. Netware dominated the personal computer LAN business from early after its introduction in 1983 until the mid 1990s when Microsoft introduced Windows NT Advanced Server and Windows for Workgroups. wireless Wi-Fi is now the most common technology in residential premises .advent of Novell NetWare which provided even-handed support for dozens of competing card/cable types. only Banyan Vines had comparable technical strengths. Of the competitors to NetWare. Microsoft's LAN Manager and IBM's LAN Server . At the higher layers.
and provides up-link services to wide area networks (or WAN) and the Internet. and sensors. Distributed-queue dual-bus. MANs can also depend on communications channels of moderate-to-high data rates. Laudon and Jane P. It is specified in the IEEE 802. define a metropolitan area network as: “ A Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) is a large computer network that spans a metropolitan area or campus. These technologies are in the process of being displaced by Ethernet-based connections (e.Larger LANs are characterized by their use of redundant links with switches using the spanning tree protocol to prevent loops. routers. They will often provide means for internetworking of local networks. radio. A MAN might be owned and operated by a single organization. ” It can also be used in cable television. but it usually will be used by many individuals and organizations. Larger LANs also contain a wide variety of network devices such as  switches.. MANs might also be owned and operated as public utilities. and the distance involved. LANs may have connections with other LANs via leased lines. Using DQDB. and SMDS. a LAN may also be classified as a metropolitan area network (MAN) or a wide area network (WAN). firewalls. ” Authors Kenneth C. Most companies rent or lease circuits from common carriers because laying long stretches of cable can be expensive. Laudon (2001) of Management Information Systems: Managing the Digital Firm 10th ed. networks can be up to 20 miles (30 km) long and operate at speeds of 34 to 155 Mbit/s. ranging from several blocks of buildings to entire cities. their ability to manage differing traffic types via quality of service (QoS). leased services. is the metropolitan area network standard for data communication. Its geographic scope falls between a WAN and LAN. MANs provide Internet connectivity for LANs in a metropolitan region. or infra-red laser links. load balancers. . Implementation Some technologies used for this purpose are Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM). Depending on how the connections are established and secured in a LAN.6 standard. DQDB. The IEEE 802-2002 standard describes a MAN as being:  “ A MAN is optimized for a larger geographical area than a LAN. A MAN usually interconnects a number oflocal area networks (LANs) using a high-capacity backbone technology. Metro Ethernet) in most areas. FDDI. A metropolitan area network (MAN) is a computer network that usually spans a city or a large campus. and to segregate traffic with VLANs. and connect them to wider area networks like the Internet. such as fiber-optical links. MAN links between local area networks have been built without cables using either microwave.g. or by tunneling across the Internet using virtual private network technologies.
buyers.. WANs are often built using leased lines.Several notable networks started as MANs. for example. in terms of the application of computer networking protocols and concepts. regional. MANs and other localised computer networking architectures. Many WANs are built for one particular organization and are private. and thus cannot transmit data over tens. Instead of using leased lines. or national boundaries). WANs necessarily do not just connect physically disparate LANs. a city) respectively. so that users and computers in one location can communicate with users and computers in other locations. or metropolitan area networks (MANs) which are usually limited to a room. A CAN. Leased lines can be very expensive. it may be best to view WANs as computer networking technologies used to transmit data over long distances. clients. provide connections from an organization's LAN to the Internet. WANs are used to connect LANs and other types of networks together. hundreds or even thousands of miles or kilometres.  and the Sohonet media network. or provide better functionality for users in the CAN. This could be to facilitate higher bandwidth applications. MAE-East. At each end of the leased line. In essence this mode of telecommunication allows a business to effectively carry out its daily  function regardless of location. local area networks (LANs). campus or specific metropolitan area (e. A Wide Area Network (WAN) is a telecommunication network that covers a broad area (i. Business and government entities utilize WANs to relay data among employees. building.e. or even the world. Network protocols including TCP/IP deliver transport . Others. Contents [hide] 1 Design options 2 Connection technology options 3 National area network 4 See also 5 References 6 External links Design options The textbook definition of a WAN is a computer network spanning regions. which connects different LANs within a campus.. This is in contrast with personal area networks (PANs). campus area networks (CANs). However. built by Internet service providers. such as the Internet peering points MAE-West. any network that links across metropolitan. This distinction stems from the fact that common LAN technologies operating at Layer 1/2 (such as the forms of Ethernet or Wifi) are often geared towards physically localised networks. and between different LANs. and suppliers from various geographical locations. WANs can also be built using less costly circuit switching or packet switching methods. may have a localised backbone of a WAN technology.g. a router connects the LAN on one side with a second router within the LAN on the other. countries.
and addressing functions.25 are still in use today (with upgrades) by Frame Relay. Academic research into wide area networks can be broken down into three areas: mathematical models. developed the world’s first wireless computer communication network.R. typically in the two meter amateur band. who commonly referred to this as packet radio. Bapst published a paper in the IEEE Proceedings reporting an experimental wireless local area network using diffused infrared communications. They added a voice band data communication modem.ALOHAnet. X. "In 1979. using low-cost ham-like radios. Later on. network emulation and network simulation. P. and is often considered to be the "grandfather" of Frame Relay as many of the underlying protocols and functions of X. with data rates below 9600-bit/s. The first generation of wireless data modems was developed in the early 1980s by amateur radio operators. The second generation of wireless modems was developed immediately after the FCC announcement in the experimental bands for non-military use of the spread spectrum technology. ATM and Frame relay are often used by service providers to deliver the links that are used in WANs. a professor at the University of Hawaii. MPLS. Performance improvements are sometimes delivered via wide area file services or WAN optimization. These efforts prompted significant industrial activities in the development of a new generation of wireless local area networks and it updated several old discussions in the portable and mobile radio industry.25 was an important early WAN protocol. The system included seven computers deployed over four islands to communicate with the central computer on the Oahu Island without using phone lines. a comparison between infrared and CDMA spread spectrum communications for wireless office information networks was published by Kaveh Pahlavan in IEEE Computer Networking Symposium which appeared later in the IEEE Communication Society Magazine. Kavehrad reported on an experimental wireless PBX system using code division multiple access. The third generation of wireless modem then aimed at compatibility with the existing LANs with data rates on the . History Norman Abramson. to an existing short distance radio system. These modems provided data rates on the order of hundreds of kbit/s. the efforts of Marcus led the FCC to announce experimental ISM bands for commercial application of spread spectrum technology. F. In 1984. in 1980. In May 1985. M. Ferrert reported on an experimental application of a single code spread spectrum radio for wireless terminal communications in the IEEE National Telecommunications Conference. Gfeller and U. Shortly thereafter. Protocols including Packet over SONET/SDH.
Wireless LANs were being used in hospitals. but at the end of the 1990s these were replaced by standards. has so far not succeeded in the market. later on renamed as U-NII. An alternative ATM-like 5 GHz standardized technology.11g) "The first of the IEEE Workshops on Wireless LAN was held in 1991. bands also presented new opportunities. 802. primarily the various versions of IEEE 802.11 (in products using the Wi-Fi brand name). most newer routers including those manufactured by Apple Inc."  WLAN hardware was initially so expensive that it was only used as an alternative to cabled LAN in places where cabling was difficult or impossible. The focus of that first workshop was evaluation of the alternative technologies. can broadcast a wireless network on both wireless bands. Early development included industry-specific solutions and proprietary protocols.11 standard and variants and alternatives. Several companies developed the third generation products with data rates above 1 Mbit/s and a couple of products had already been announced by the time of the first IEEE Workshop on Wireless LANs.11g (2.11n which operates on both the 5Ghz and 2.11a (5 GHz) and 802. Chip sets aimed at wireless LAN implementations and applications.11 committee had just started its activities to develop a standard for wireless LANs.11. and the unlicensed PCS Unlicensed Personal Communications Services and the proposed SUPERNet. a variety of applications had been identified and addressed and technologies that enable these applications were well understood. such as the wireless LAN interoperability forum and the European HiperLAN specification had made rapid progress. the technology was relatively mature. it is even more unlikely that it will ever succeed. and with the release of the faster 54 Mbit/s 802. and even larger applications through internetworking. The IEEE 802. stock exchanges. At that time early wireless LAN products had just appeared in the market and the IEEE 802. this is called dualband. Since 2002 there has been newer standard added to 802. HiperLAN/2. a key enabling technology for rapid market growth.4 GHz) standards. and other in building and campus settings for nomadic access. By 1996."  54 Mbit/s WLAN PCI Card (802. .4Ghz bands at 300 Mbit/s. were emerging in the market.order of Mbit/s. ad-hoc networking. point-to-point LAN bridges.
This means that the computers can "talk" to each other and that every computer in the network can send information to the others. Linux and most other operating systems use TCP/IP for networking. for example to demonstrate computers in the store. but it uses TCP/IP now. Computers can be part of several different networks. but disbanded  at the end of 2002. Microsoft Windows. or convert received orders into shipping instructions. An "internetwork". This can be wired or wireless. Networks can also be parts of bigger networks. Usually. and may be called a corporate network in an office or business setting. The largest internetwork is called the Internet. To set up a network an appropriate media is required. Any connected machine at any level of the organization may be able to access the Internet.A HomeRF group was formed in 1997 to promote a technology aimed for residential use. Some basic types of computer networks include: A local area network (often called a LAN) connects two or more computers. Architecture Types of wireless LANs Roaming A computer network is a group of more computers connected to each electronically. Twisted-pair. display its catalogue through a web server. The local area network in a small business is usually connected to the corporate network of the larger company. sometimes called a Wide Area Network (because of the wide distance between networks) connects two or more smaller networks together.faster than a normal connection to the Internet. Apple Macintosh computers used Appletalk in the past. co-axial or fiber-optic are examples . this means that the speed of the connection is fast .
computers. micro-wave etc. Examples of metropolitan area networks of various sizes can be f Wide Area Network (WAN) A wide area network (WAN) is a geographically dispersed telecommunications network. star-topology.of cable and infra-red. but the term usually connotes the inclusion of public (shared user) networks. ring-topology. A wide area network may be privately owned or rented. tree-topology. Topologies generally used are bus-topology.com A metropolitan area network (MAN) is a network that interconnects users with computer resources in a geographic area or region larger than that covered by even a large local area network (LAN) but smaller than the area covered by a wide area network (WAN). media and peripherals are sufficient. The term is applied to the interconnection of networks in a city into a single larger network (which may then also offer efficient connection to a wide area network). gateway or router to connect different small or large networks. The term distinguishes a broader telecommunication structure from a local area network (LAN). The latter usage is also sometimes referred to as a campus network. And obviously a protocol must be maintained. edmunds@tanint. object-oriented topology etc. radio-wave. It is also used to mean the interconnection of several local area networks by bridging them with backbone lines. Among these star-topology and treetopology are most popular nowadays. But when you are working with a wider range you have use some additional devices like bridge. . are wireless media used for networking. blue-tooth. When you are working with a mere LAN. An intermediate form of network in terms of geography is a metropolitan area network (MAN). To set up a network you have to select an appropriate topology to arrange the hardware devices using the media.
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