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Disclosure to Promote the Right To Information
Whereas the Parliament of India has set out to provide a practical regime of right to information for citizens to secure access to information under the control of public authorities, in order to promote transparency and accountability in the working of every public authority, and whereas the attached publication of the Bureau of Indian Standards is of particular interest to the public, particularly disadvantaged communities and those engaged in the pursuit of education and knowledge, the attached public safety standard is made available to promote the timely dissemination of this information in an accurate manner to the public. “जान1 का अ+धकार, जी1 का अ+धकार”
“The Right to Information, The Right to Live”
Mazdoor Kisan Shakti Sangathan
“प0रा1 को छोड न' 5 तरफ”
“Step Out From the Old to the New”
IS 9698 (1995): Lining of Canals with Polyethylene Film Code of Practice [WRD 13: Canals and Cross Drainage Works]
“Invent a New India Using Knowledge”
“!ान $ एक न' भारत का +नम-ण”
Satyanarayan Gangaram Pitroda
“!ान एक ऐसा खजाना > जो कभी च0राया नहB जा सकता ह” ै
“Knowledge is such a treasure which cannot be stolen”
916 : 006. NEW DELHI 110002 October 1995 Price Group 3 .76 0 BIS 1995 BUREAU MANAK OF INDIAN 9 BAHADUR STANDARDS SHAH ZAFAR MAYfiG BHAVAN.IS 9698 : 1995 ( Reaffirmed 2001 ) Indian Standard LINING OF CANALS WITH POLYETHYLENE FILM CODE OF PRACTICE (First Revision) UDC 626.823.
Further. Lining of canals is considered an important feature of irrigation projects as it not only minimizes the loss of water due to seepage but also results in achieving considerable economy in the use of cultivable land which would otherwise be prone to water logging due to rise in water table. as membranes for lining. RVD 13 FOREWORD This Indian Standard ( First Revision ) was adopted by the Bureau of Indian Standards. For the purpose of deciding whether a particular requirement oftlris standard is complied with. besides elaborating the method of lining.Irrigation Canals and Canal Linings Sectional Committee. therefore. which may in certain cases offset completely the extra cost of lining. can be usefully employed for the extension and improvement of irrigation facilities. after the draft finalized by the Irrigation Canals and Canal Linings Sectional Committee. observed or calculated. Lining of water courses in the areas irrigated by tube-wells assumes special significance as the pumped water supplied is relatively more costly. are both now being covered in this revision. thelining ensures stability of channel sections thereby reducing the maintenance cost. Guidance with regard to the selection of canal lining for any particular canal is given in IS 10430 : 1982 ‘Criteria for design of lined canals and guidelines for selection of lining’. Based on further experience gained in the past 15 years-this revision has been prepared. The number of significant places retained inthe rounded off value should be the same as that of the specified value in this standard. The benefits that accrue from lining~of canals justify the initial capital cost and. lining of canals permits the adoption of high velocities resulting in proportionate savings of the crosssectional areas of the channel and land width required. having once decided to adopt the use of polyethylene film in any particular canal. Judicious selection of serviceable and economical lining at the first instance and subsequently proper execution of the work while laying the canal lining reflects considerably in achieving overall economy in the project. Considerable experience is available in the country~with regard to the use of polyethylene film as lining. had been approved by the River Valley Division Council. this standard would give necessary guidance for providing such lining. . Also. The experience pooled from various organizations and extensive investigations have helped in the formulation of this standard. the title of the standard has been suitably modified. Tbis standard was first published in 1980. The major modifications made are in respect of adopting HDPE as a membrane also. Further. However. expressing the result of a test or analysis. the water thus saved. In view of the fact that use of HDPE and LDPE films. the final value. with corresponding saving in the cost of excavation and masonry works. there is now better appreciation of the need for lining of canals. shall be rounded off in accordance with IS 2 : 1960 ‘Rules for rounding off numerical values ( revised )‘.
6 PREPARATION OF SUBGRADE 6. etc. 6. a masonry toe wall of appropriate size should be constructed at two extremities of the bed With a view to providing an anchor for film laid-both on bed and sides ( see Fig. drainagechannels. river banks. shall be removed. Any weeds.2 Subgrade The specially prepared surface.2 KANKAR or any sharp angular material shall be removed to provide reascnably smooth subgrade.IS 9698 : 1995 Indian Standard LININGOFCANALSWITHPOLYETHYLENE FILM -CODEOFPRACTICE (First Revision) 1 SCOPE This standard covers aspects of lining of canals with polyethylene film. 6. 3.2 Hi h density polyethylene film shall conform to IS 108 B9 : 1984. roots and vegetation. 3 TERMINOLOGY 3. the following definitions shall apply. where the width of film available is sufficient to cover the canal section from one end to the other.0 For the purpose of this standard. For larger canals. 3. normally of soil.1 The subgrade should be prepared according to IS 3873 : 1993 to the required cross-section to accommodate the top cover. I).1 Beaching A protective covering of pro erly acked or built-in materials on the earthen sur Pace s P opes of irrigation canals. no toe wall is necessary and the polyethylene film lining should be laid continuously from one end to thcother. 5 NECESSARY INFORMATION For necessary information to be collected before commencing work reference should be made to IS10430:1982. to protect them from the action of water. on which film shall be laid. DESIGNED BED LEVEL . 3.3 Toe-Wall A shallow wall constructed below the bed or floor level toprovide footing for the sloped pitching on the face ofan embankment.1 The low density polyethylene film shall conform to IS 2508 : 1984 and should be of nominal thickness not less than 150 microns ( thickness to be designed based on type of subgrade and water depth ) and should be black in colour. 4 MATERIALS 4. 4.3 For smaller canals.A / POLYETHYLENE FILM \ ANY RIGIO LINING POLYETHYLENE FILM \\ \ MEN1 MORTAR 1151 \ 12 mm min SAND IHICW LAYER CEMENT MO FIG 1 TYPICAL LAYOUT OFA MASONRY TOE WALL 1 . that may damage the film. 2 REFERENCES The Indian Standards mentioned in Annex A are necessary adjuncts to this standard.
___. 7. The film sheets should be joined using the methods described in 7. 7. suitable antiweed treatment of the subgrade may be done to discourage weed growth under the film. below the designed level to the extent of cover thickness. a period of 24 h should be allowed for penetration of chemicals into the soil. 2 and filled up with the excavated material where earth cover is provided.1 Simple overlapping The method of simple overlapping is shown in Fig. 3. 6. Longitudinal joints should be avoided. 6.4 should be excavated and the film anchored as shown in Fig.4 Adjacent layers of film should be laid in such a manner that the width of an overlap shouldnot be less than 150 mm and the overlap should point downstream.1 The film should be laid over the prepared subgrade. 7. The weedicide should be selected with utmost care specially where the canal water is used for drinking/bathing purpose and should not be harmful.4. The suitability of a particular method would depend upon the prevailing site conditions. Stone or concrete coping may be provided to cover the 7. yet it may be adopted for small channels.1. In case it is necessary tocontinue the workon hotdaysaswell. should~be provided to take care of thermal variations during the day. Toe walls should be constructed at such a level that film when laid on~the bed is retained at design depth. at a distance of 400 mm away from the lip and 300 mm above the FSL shall be dug all along the canal length. film is likely to be affected by very high temperatures of about 45OC obtained in summer days.7 In the areas where there is positive evidence of termite infestation and where canal water isnot used for drinking and bathing purposes. it would be advisable to avoid laying of the film under such high temperatures. over the length of film required for spreading over the bed and the side slopes including anchorage.FULL SUPPL COMPACTED FIG 2 ILLUSTRATORYLAYOUT OF POLYETHYLENEFILM CANAL LINING 2 .IS 9698 : 1995 6. trench to avoid rainwater from filling the trench. depending upon the size of the canal.6 A layer of fine sand of thickness 12 mm to 25 mm should be provided over the subgrade (on bed only ) to facilitate working conditions over the film.1.2 Loose ends of the film sheet should be anchored with an allowance of 500 mm for anchoring in the toe wall. It is recommended that an extra length of 3. The simple overlap should not be less than 300 mm for earth cover and 150 mm for hard cover. 2 ). anti-termite treatment may be provided. As polyethylene 7. in strips preferably perpendicular to water flow depending upon the width of the film. Adequate space should be available at the toe wall for anchoring the film.5 percent.4. After completion of the spraying of weedicides and before taking up the next activity.1 Jointing of Films There are various methods of joining adjacent lengths of film sheet to avoid leakage along the joints. 6. to hold the loose end of film laid on side slopes ( see Fig.4 A trench 150 x 150 mm for canals having capacity up to 10 cumecs and minimum 250 x 250 mm for canals having capacity greater than 10 cumecs. Since the simple overlap is prone to leakage. workingshouldberestrictedto morning hours only.4. it is !east preferred.5 If the reaches are weed infected. A trench as given in 6. width of the bed and perimeter of the section.3 The film should be spread loosely over the subgrade so that it attains the contours of the subgrade and compensates for thermal variation during the day. 7 LAYING TECHNIQUE 7.
Usage of damaged film sheet is not recommended. After ascertaining the appropriateness of the temperature.1. in order to ensure a better joint....rl. 6./.. Soil particles creeping into thejoint while laying . Bitumen of grade 85/25 and 80/100 in the ratio of 2 : 1 may be heated at a temperature of around 100’ C. Hydrostatic pressure and the over-layer is sufficient to make the overlap practically water-tight.. In case of big holes..4.50°C ) during summers. Thereafter. SUB GRADE FIG 3 SIMPLEOVERLAP WATER I.. the joints may open up. The first type is the simple folded overlap as shown in Fig.. However. . the trench should be filled with excavated material orcement concrete and coping should be provided over it.. In this type of overlapping. p-T300 / I I.//. 4.1. In the second type.3 Jointing by hot bitumen of both the sheets and these should be folded as shown in Fig.. folded overlaps are embedded in a trench having a minimum width of 300 mm and depth of 150 mm as shown in Fig. under submerged conditions.4..IS 9698 : 1995 7.. 7 OVERLAPJOINT WITHPRESSUP~ TAPE 3 . Heated bitumen should be tested on a small piece of film sheet so that overheated bitumen may not damage the film.1. FLOW 75 mm ~oLY---l ----) r1.2Folded overlapping Two types of folded overlaps are generally used in practice. which should come directly over~the joint at regular intervals.. may also lead to leakage.. /- -WATER FLOW r-----100 ///. the fold should not be less than 75 mm...1.. WATER FLOW I. a thick coat of tested bitumen should be applied on a 100 mm area along the width Adjacent lengths of film maybe joined with suitable adhesive tapes as shown in Fig._-__ Mf fl ----- .~r. .M I I/N. However.4.. After overlapping. 7.I .. depending upon the width of the film. I. in areas where high temperatures exist ( 40°C . these should be covered with brick masonry profiles (Dhamalies ) at a suitable interval..~~~I~ FILM FIG 4 FOLDED OVERLAP _. 7. pieces of sheet should be pasted from both sides 7.rl. 5.4 Sealing by adhesive rapes The film sheet may be joined by a coat of bitumen..I~ mm! FILM -I 300 mm p---- FIG 5 FOLDEDJOINTS EMBEDDED IN A TRENCH TO FACILITATELINING FIG 6 JOINTING BY HOT BITUMEN PRESSURE TAPE FIG.. with passage of time . this method has been found convenient for repairing punctures in the film at site itself. mm OVERL.
5 Film should be spread on well prepared subgrade and should be held in position at two extremities of the bed by placing excavated earth on it. a 15 mm sand cushion of fine sand may be provided over the film sheet or cement slurry may be sprayed over the film before placing in-situ cement concrete asrigid cover. watered and compacted using light rollers or manual templates. However.1 Do keep the rolls in original packing prior to actual use of laying and ensure that the rolls are packed properly at the time of delivery. 8. 7.1. 7.8 Top Cover The top cover may be an earth layer of suitable thickness ( see 7. For every 50 micron increase in the film thickness. In-situ cement concrete.6 Don’t slide cover material like bricks. 7. It may be so arranged that earth from over-excavation of an adjacent section be used for covering the film sheet in the earlier section. by the time earth cover is provided in one section.6 m/s. NOTE methods.4. the adjacent section is ready to receive film lining.1. To avoid the risk of film sticking to the iron a poly-tetra-fluoroethylene (PTFE) impregnated glass cloth or teflon sheet or cellophane sheet should be placed between the film and the iron. it should be so placed that the aggregates do not puncture the film. The embankments may be then raised to designed level. 7. 7. To avoid any damage to the film.2 Do apply uniform pressure while thermal welding (heat-sealing) the film.2 The remainder of the earth cover should be spread in 150 mm layers. the time should be increased by one second.3 Don’t leave unpacked rolls exposed to the sun over prolonged periods or preferably. a layer of earth. etc. stone slab ( see IS 3873: 1993 ).7 Don’t use hooks for lifting the rolls.7.7 Excavated earth should be placed over the film sheet to build up the canal section. store them indoors. Side slopes not steeper than 1. 8. KANKAR or gravel of stone aggregates of size 40 to 50 mm may be spread over the cover prior to compacting. 8 DO’S AND DONT’S FOR POLYETHYLENE FILM FOR CANAL LINING 8.5: 1 are recommended.4 Don’t rough-handle or drag rolls.6 Extra length of film sheet should be placed in a trench at embankment top and covered with earth.. 8. The temperature of the iron should be adjusted and maintained at 150°C and pressed on the joint overlap for 4 s for a 150 micron film sheet.1 The film on the bed should be covered first.8.7. b) For a better bond between the smooth surface of film land rigid cover. as the film may get damaged in the process.5 Heat sealing The overlap joints may be heat sealed with a hot iron wasshown in Fig. using light rollers or manual ramming.1 Earth Cover a) Minimum thickness of cover over the film sheet should not be less than 300 mm in bed and 600 mm on the sides. Thus.6 In all types of joints the overlap should preferably be kept normal to the flow and should point downstream of the canal. 7. The earth layer should be compacted by using light rollers and manual templates. etc) may be provided over the film. 7. while two ends of film sheet are being loosely held over the embankment. 8. .8. 7.4. 8.8. cl If the cover material contains KANKAR or sharp angular material. of sieved earth ( free from KANKAR. they should walk barefooted. 8.IS 9698 : 1995 7.2 Rigid Cover a) scaling is the most effective of all the FIG 8 HEAT SEALING OF JOINTS 7. b) Side slopes should be designed in accordance with the stability requirements with lining in position. should be laid and compacted over the film. a cushion layer 75 mm thick. free from gravel or granular material. Heat rlow velocities greater than 0.5 Don’t let workers walk on the film wnile the lining operation is in progress to avoid puncturing the film. or bricks (see IS 3872 : 1966). earth cover should not be recommended for canals having 4 In case of rigid cover. 8. in case this is unavoidable. d) To prevent ‘beaching effect’ at the water line.1 ) or of precast concrete tiles. on the film to avoid damage and displacement.
IS 9698 : 1995 8. 9 SAFEW AGAINST KODENTS between two layers of hard surface lining in rodent infested areas so that rgdents may not attack and damage the film from outside the channel.8 Don’t drive nails into the film for holding. The film should be sandwiched ANNEXA (Clu1rse 2 ) LIST OF REFERRED INDIAN STANDARDS Title Low density polyethylene (first revision ) 3872: 1966 films IS No. Title Criteria for design of lined canals and guidelines for selection of lining ( Reaffirmed 1991 ) 10330 : 19x2 Code of practice for lining of camls with burnt clay tiles (Reaffimied 1995) Laying cement concrete/stone slab lining on ca~wls -Code of pactice (second revision ) 3873:1993 10889 : 1984 High density polyethylene ( Reaffimled 1991) films .
T. Pnnted at New India Fmntlng Press. Sector 34-A. RVD 13 ( 155 ) Amendments Amend No. GUWAHATI. No part of the prior permission in writing of BIS. if the review indicates that changes are needed. Campus. I. Users of Indian Standards should ascertain that they are in possession of the latest amendments or edition. Copyright BIS has the copyright of all its publications. PATNA. I. IV Cross Road. CHANDIGARH 160022 Southern : C. Andheri BOMBAY 400093 BHUBANESHWAR. MADRAS 600113 (East) 23502 16. 37 85 61 37 86 26. LUCKNOW.2350442 235 15 19. in the course of implementing the sizes. 37 86 62 1 60 38 20 43 25 Eastern : l/l4 C. I. THIRUVANANTHAPURAM. Amendments are issued to standards as the need arises on the basis of comments. 95 632 632 78 58 92 Western : Manakalaya. 331 13 75 Telegrams: Manaksanstha ( Common to all offices ) Telephone Regional Offices : Central : Manak Bhavan. BANGALORE. 9Bahadur Shah Zafar Marg. lndra . Standards are also reviewed periodically. 1986 to promote harmonious development of the activities of standardization. 7’. JAIPUR. a standard along with amendments is reaffirmed when such review indicates that no changes are needed. Maniktola CALCUTTA 700054 Northern : SC0 335-336. This Indian Standard has been developed from Dot No. Issued Since Publication Date of Issue Text Affected BUREAU Headquarters: OF INUlAN STANDARDS Manak Bhavan. V. Enquiries relating to BIS. Road.Bureau of Indian Standards BIS is a statutory institution established under the Bureau oflndian StandardsAct. 9 Bahadur NEW DELHI 110002 Shah Zafar Marg I 3310131 3311375 37 84 99. it is taken . GHAZIABAD.235’ 23 15 I 632 78 92 ?l. HYDERABAD. BHOPAL. Scheme VII M. FARIDABAD. such as symbols and copyright be addressed to the Director (Publications). Branches : AHMADABAD. marking and quality certification of goods and attending to connected matters in the country. E9 MIDC. Review of Indian Standards these publications may be reproduced in any form without preclude the free use. Marol. KANPUR. of necessary details. COIMBATORE. This does not standard. type or grade designations. New Delhi 110002 Telephones : 331 01 31.ip for revision. P. KhUrJa.
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