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# ANALYSIS AND RESULT

1. Design a digital modulation signal for any 9-bit stream of data using a) ASK Modulation Coding for ASK Modulation

clc; clear all; close all; %GENERATE CARRIER SIGNAL Tb=1; fc=10; t=0:Tb/100:1; c=sqrt(2/Tb)*sin(2*pi*fc*t); %generate message signal N=8; m=rand(1,N); t1=0;t2=Tb for i=1:N t=[t1:.01:t2] if m(i)>0.5 m(i)=1; m_s=ones(1,length(t)); else m(i)=0; m_s=zeros(1,length(t)); end message(i,:)=m_s; %product of carrier and message ask_sig(i,:)=c.*m_s; t1=t1+(Tb+.01); t2=t2+(Tb+.01); %plot the message and ASK signal subplot(5,1,2);axis([0 N -2 2]);plot(t,message(i,:),'r'); title('message signal');xlabel('t--->');ylabel('m(t)');grid on hold on subplot(5,1,4);plot(t,ask_sig(i,:)); title('ASK signal');xlabel('t--->');ylabel('s(t)');grid on hold on end hold off %Plot the carrier signal and input binary data subplot(5,1,3);plot(t,c); title('carrier signal');xlabel('t--->');ylabel('c(t)');grid on subplot(5,1,1);stem(m); title('binary data bits');xlabel('n--->');ylabel('b(n)');grid on

## Figure 1: ASK Modulation Output Discussion

ASK (Amplitude shift keying) refers to a type of amplitude modulation that assigns bit values to discrete amplitude levels. The carrier signal is then modulated among the members of a set of discrete values to transmit information. From figure, ASK is a modulation process, which imparts to a sinusoid two or more discrete amplitude levels. These are related to the number of levels adopted by the digital message. For a binary message sequence there are two levels, one of which is typically zero. The data rate is a sub-multiple of the carrier frequency. Thus the modulated waveform consists of bursts of a sinusoid. When the bit 0, the ASK signal is none but when bit 1, the signal will produced.

## b) BPSK Modulation Coding for BPSK Modulation

clc; clear all; close all; %GENERATE CARRIER SIGNAL Tb=1; t=0:Tb/100:Tb; fc=2; c=sqrt(2/Tb)*sin(2*pi*fc*t); %generate message signal N=9; m=rand(1,N); t1=0;t2=Tb for i=1:N t=[t1:.01:t2] if m(i)>0.5 m(i)=1; m_s=ones(1,length(t)); else m(i)=0; m_s=-1*ones(1,length(t)); end message(i,:)=m_s; %product of carrier and message signal bpsk_sig(i,:)=c.*m_s; %Plot the message and BPSK modulated signal subplot(5,1,2);axis([0 N -2 2]);plot(t,message(i,:),'r'); title('message signal(POLAR form)');xlabel('t-->');ylabel('m(t)'); grid on; hold on; subplot(5,1,4);plot(t,bpsk_sig(i,:)); title('BPSK signal');xlabel('t--->');ylabel('s(t)'); grid on; hold on; t1=t1+1.01; t2=t2+1.01; end hold off %plot the input binary data and carrier signal subplot(5,1,1);stem(m); title('binary data bits');xlabel('n--->');ylabel('b(n)'); grid on; subplot(5,1,3);plot(t,c); title('carrier signal');xlabel('t--->');ylabel('c(t)'); grid on;

## Figure 2: BPSK Modulation Output

Discussion Binary phase shift keying (BPSK) shifts the carrier sine wave 180 for each change in binary state. BPSK is coherent as the phase transitions occur at the zero crossing points. It uses two opposite signal phases (0 and 180 degrees). The digital signal is broken up time wise into individual bits (binary digits). The state of each bit is determined according to the state of the preceding bit. If the phase of the wave does not change, then the signal state stays the same (0 or 1) if the phase of the wave changes by 180 degrees. If the phase reverses, then the signal state changes (from 0 to 1 or from 1 to 0). Because there are two possible wave phases, BPSK is sometimes called bi-phase modulation.

## c) QPSK Modulation Coding for QPSK Modulation

lear; clc; b = input('Enter the bit stream = '); n = length(b); t = 0:0.01:n; x = 1:1:(n+2)*100; for i = 1:n if (b(i) == 0) u(i) = -1; else u(i) = 1; end for j = i:0.1:i+1 bw(x(i*100:(i+1)*100)) = u(i); if (mod(i,2) == 0) bw_e(x(i*100:(i+1)*100)) = u(i); bw_e(x((i+1)*100:(i+2)*100)) = u(i); else bw_o(x(i*100:(i+1)*100)) = u(i); bw_o(x((i+1)*100:(i+2)*100)) = u(i); end if (mod(n,2)~= 0) bw_e(x(n*100:(n+1)*100)) = -1; bw_e(x((n+1)*100:(n+2)*100)) = -1; end end end bw = bw(100:end); bw_o = bw_o(100:(n+1)*100); bw_e = bw_e(200:(n+2)*100); cost = cos(2*pi*t); sint = sin(2*pi*t); x = bw_o.*cost; y = bw_e.*sint; z = x+y; subplot(3,2,1); plot(t,bw); xlabel('n ---->'); ylabel('Amplitude ---->'); title('Input Bit Stream'); grid on ; axis([0 n -2 +2]); subplot(3,2,5); plot(t,bw_o); xlabel('n ---->'); ylabel('Amplitude ---->'); title('Odd Sequence'); grid on ;

axis([0 n -2 +2]); subplot(3,2,3); plot(t,bw_e); xlabel('n ---->'); ylabel('Amplitude ---->'); title('Even Sequence'); grid on ; axis([0 n -2 +2]); subplot(3,2,4); plot(t,x); xlabel('Time ---->'); ylabel('Amplitude ---->'); title('Odd Sequence BPSK Modulated Wave'); grid on ; axis([0 n -2 +2]); subplot(3,2,2); plot(t,y); xlabel('Time ---->'); ylabel('Amplitude ---->'); title('Even Sequence BPSK Modulated Wave'); grid on ; axis([0 n -2 +2]); subplot(3,2,6); plot(t,z); xlabel('Time ---->'); ylabel('Amplitude ---->'); title('QPSK Modulated Wave'); grid on ; axis([0 n -2 +2]);

## Figure 3: QPSK Modulation Output

Discussion QPSK is also known as quaternary PSK, quadriphase PSK, 4-PSK, or 4-QAM. It is a phase modulation technique that transmits two bits in four modulation states. Phase of the carrier takes on one of four equally spaced values such as /4, 3/4, 5/4 and7/4. In QPSK, four phases with each finite phase change representing unique digital data are possible, so two binary digits, or bits," of information can be transmitted within each time period. In other words, the rate of change of the signal in QPSK allows the carrier wave to transmit two bits of information rather than one and effectively doubles the bandwidth, or transmission capacity, of the carrier wave. QPSK transmits twice the data rate in a given bandwidth compared to BPSK at the same BER.

## 2. Analyze the system in Figure

Figure

Figure 4: Block Diagram for System Communication Link for M-PSK Modulator Baseband using Matlab

## Figure 7: Time Scatter Plot Output

Discussion From the output, we can see the performance characteristic of M-PSK Modulator Baseband with M=2. The eye diagram is obtained from the discrete-time eye diagram scope that displays the trace of a modulated signal that is used to analyze the modulation characteristics. There is no pulse shaping at the eye diagram because it is a balance characteristic with no interference or noise. If no interference happens and balance eye diagram, so there is no signal at the signal trajectory scope. The signal constellation of a signal being modulated in its signal space is display by plotting the graph between its in-phase component and quadrature component. There is two points which is at -1(bit 0) and 1(bit 1). It uses two opposite signal phases (0 and 180 degrees).

## 3. Investigate the input and output of the system in figure

Figure

Figure 8: Block Diagram for System Communication Link for M-PSK Modulator Baseband using Matlab

## Figure 11: Output of Scatter Plot Scope

Discussion From the output, we can see the performance characteristic of M-PSK Modulator Baseband with M=2 and added with AWGN channel. The function of this block is to add White Gaussian noise to the modulated data. Noise is an unwanted signal which is always present in the transmitted signal. It cannot be removed but by using various techniques it can be minimized. Additive in AWGN means that the noise is superimposed onto the signal which will mask the signal and it limits the ability of the receiver to make its decision. The eye diagram is obtained from the discrete-time eye diagram scope that displays the multiple traces of a modulated signal that are used to analyze the modulation characteristics. These are pulse shaping or the characteristics as channel distortion of the various signals. The scatter diagram show there is different after added with channel. The variations experienced in the channel mean that occasionally the noise will be far more significant. At these times the system will experience a large number of errors.

4.

## Analyze the digital communication system in figure

Figure

Figure 12: Block Diagram for System Communication Link with Error RateCalculation using Matlab

## Channel SNR 1000 100 10 1 -1 -10 -100 -1000

Bit Error Rate (BER) 0 0 0.001998 0.2498 0.3447 0.6084 0.7552 0.7552

b) SNR 100 dB

c) SNR 10 dB

d) SNR 1dB

e) SNR -1 dB

f) SNR -10 dB

g) SNR -100 dB

h) SNR -1000dB

## Figure 20: Output of SNR -1000 dB

Discussion

From the table and output graph, the results are analyzed when the value of SNR is higher, their bit error rate value is become smaller for the bit error rate versus SNR that. The value of bit error rate is 0 is when the value of SNR is above then 10. The bit error rate is increasing when the value of SNR is below then 10. In addition, SNR is still remains the same value which is zero for the SNR of 1000db. However, when the value of SNR is -1000db, their bit error rate is 0.7742. So, the higher the value of SNR is better because the error that produces is 0.

CONCLUSION

As a conclusion of this experiment, we have learned to manipulate and solve practical problem using MATLAB on communication link analysis. Next, we have learned the application of communication link analysis using MATLAB simulink. Then, amplitude-shift keying (ASK) is a form of amplitude modulation that represents digital data as variations in the amplitude of a carrier wave. BPSK (also sometimes called PRK, phase reversal keying, or 2PSK) is the simplest form of phase shift keying (PSK). It uses two phases which are separated by 180 and so can also be termed 2-PSK. In QPSK, the data bits to be modulated are grouped into symbols, each containing two bits, and each symbol can take on one of four possible values: 00, 01, 10, or 11. White Gaussian noise (AWGN) is a channel model in which the only impairment to communication is a linear addition of wideband or white noise with a constant
spectral. Finally, we have successfully done our experiment and achieved the objectives.