ANALYSIS AND RESULT

1. Design a digital modulation signal for any 9-bit stream of data using a) ASK Modulation  Coding for ASK Modulation

clc; clear all; close all; %GENERATE CARRIER SIGNAL Tb=1; fc=10; t=0:Tb/100:1; c=sqrt(2/Tb)*sin(2*pi*fc*t); %generate message signal N=8; m=rand(1,N); t1=0;t2=Tb for i=1:N t=[t1:.01:t2] if m(i)>0.5 m(i)=1; m_s=ones(1,length(t)); else m(i)=0; m_s=zeros(1,length(t)); end message(i,:)=m_s; %product of carrier and message ask_sig(i,:)=c.*m_s; t1=t1+(Tb+.01); t2=t2+(Tb+.01); %plot the message and ASK signal subplot(5,1,2);axis([0 N -2 2]);plot(t,message(i,:),'r'); title('message signal');xlabel('t--->');ylabel('m(t)');grid on hold on subplot(5,1,4);plot(t,ask_sig(i,:)); title('ASK signal');xlabel('t--->');ylabel('s(t)');grid on hold on end hold off %Plot the carrier signal and input binary data subplot(5,1,3);plot(t,c); title('carrier signal');xlabel('t--->');ylabel('c(t)');grid on subplot(5,1,1);stem(m); title('binary data bits');xlabel('n--->');ylabel('b(n)');grid on

 Output for ASK Modulation

Figure 1: ASK Modulation Output  Discussion

ASK (Amplitude shift keying) refers to a type of amplitude modulation that assigns bit values to discrete amplitude levels. The carrier signal is then modulated among the members of a set of discrete values to transmit information. From figure, ASK is a modulation process, which imparts to a sinusoid two or more discrete amplitude levels. These are related to the number of levels adopted by the digital message. For a binary message sequence there are two levels, one of which is typically zero. The data rate is a sub-multiple of the carrier frequency. Thus the modulated waveform consists of bursts of a sinusoid. When the bit 0, the ASK signal is none but when bit 1, the signal will produced.

t2=Tb for i=1:N t=[t1:.'r'). m_s=-1*ones(1.stem(m). close all.4).bpsk_sig(i.1.axis([0 N -2 2]). m=rand(1. title('BPSK signal').length(t)).length(t)).*m_s.xlabel('n--->').plot(t. . title('message signal(POLAR form)'). grid on.1. %product of carrier and message signal bpsk_sig(i.xlabel('t--->').ylabel('m(t)'). fc=2. %generate message signal N=9.3).01.plot(t.2).1).:)=m_s.xlabel('t-->'). %GENERATE CARRIER SIGNAL Tb=1.5 m(i)=1.:). hold on. c=sqrt(2/Tb)*sin(2*pi*fc*t). m_s=ones(1. else m(i)=0.01. t2=t2+1. t1=0.c).1.ylabel('b(n)').plot(t. grid on. subplot(5. hold on.:)=c.ylabel('s(t)'). subplot(5. title('carrier signal'). t1=t1+1. clear all.message(i.N).01:t2] if m(i)>0.b) BPSK Modulation  Coding for BPSK Modulation clc. end message(i. grid on.xlabel('t--->').:)).ylabel('c(t)'). title('binary data bits'). t=0:Tb/100:Tb. %Plot the message and BPSK modulated signal subplot(5.1. grid on. end hold off %plot the input binary data and carrier signal subplot(5.

then the signal state changes (from 0 to 1 or from 1 to 0). . If the phase reverses. BPSK is sometimes called bi-phase modulation. If the phase of the wave does not change. Because there are two possible wave phases. Output for BPSK Modulation Figure 2: BPSK Modulation Output  Discussion Binary phase shift keying (BPSK) shifts the carrier sine wave 180° for each change in binary state. The state of each bit is determined according to the state of the preceding bit. The digital signal is broken up time wise into individual bits (binary digits). It uses two opposite signal phases (0 and 180 degrees). then the signal state stays the same (0 or 1) if the phase of the wave changes by 180 degrees. BPSK is coherent as the phase transitions occur at the zero crossing points.

ylabel('Amplitude ---->'). y = bw_e. xlabel('n ---->'). end if (mod(n. . bw_e = bw_e(200:(n+2)*100). if (mod(i. n = length(b). xlabel('n ---->').2.2) == 0) bw_e(x(i*100:(i+1)*100)) = u(i).c) QPSK Modulation  Coding for QPSK Modulation lear. x = 1:1:(n+2)*100.*sint. clc. end for j = i:0.1:i+1 bw(x(i*100:(i+1)*100)) = u(i). grid on . else bw_o(x(i*100:(i+1)*100)) = u(i).01:n.*cost. subplot(3.2. title('Input Bit Stream'). for i = 1:n if (b(i) == 0) u(i) = -1.bw).1). bw_o = bw_o(100:(n+1)*100). bw_o(x((i+1)*100:(i+2)*100)) = u(i). end end end bw = bw(100:end). b = input('Enter the bit stream = '). z = x+y. ylabel('Amplitude ---->'). x = bw_o. bw_e(x((i+1)*100:(i+2)*100)) = u(i). else u(i) = 1. subplot(3. plot(t. t = 0:0. axis([0 n -2 +2]). title('Odd Sequence'). cost = cos(2*pi*t). plot(t. grid on .bw_o). sint = sin(2*pi*t). bw_e(x((n+1)*100:(n+2)*100)) = -1.2)~= 0) bw_e(x(n*100:(n+1)*100)) = -1.5).

axis([0 n -2 +2]). title('Even Sequence'). grid on .axis([0 n -2 +2]). title('QPSK Modulated Wave').4).x).2.z). subplot(3. . title('Even Sequence BPSK Modulated Wave'). plot(t. plot(t.6). grid on .2.2. xlabel('n ---->').3).bw_e). xlabel('Time ---->'). grid on . plot(t.2. ylabel('Amplitude ---->'). subplot(3. ylabel('Amplitude ---->'). subplot(3. title('Odd Sequence BPSK Modulated Wave').y). plot(t. axis([0 n -2 +2]). subplot(3. axis([0 n -2 +2]). ylabel('Amplitude ---->'). xlabel('Time ---->'). ylabel('Amplitude ---->'). axis([0 n -2 +2]). grid on .2). xlabel('Time ---->').

It is a phase modulation technique that transmits two bits in four modulation states. Output for QPSK Modulation Figure 3: QPSK Modulation Output  Discussion QPSK is also known as quaternary PSK. the rate of change of the signal in QPSK allows the carrier wave to transmit two bits of information rather than one and effectively doubles the bandwidth. Phase of the carrier takes on one of four equally spaced values such as π/4. so two binary digits." of information can be transmitted within each time period. or “bits. of the carrier wave. four phases with each finite phase change representing unique digital data are possible. . 5π/4 and7π/4. In other words. 3π/4. or transmission capacity. or 4-QAM. 4-PSK. quadriphase PSK. QPSK transmits twice the data rate in a given bandwidth compared to BPSK at the same BER. In QPSK.

2. Analyze the system in Figure  Figure Figure 4: Block Diagram for System Communication Link for M-PSK Modulator Baseband using Matlab .

 Output from figure 1 Figure 5: Eye Diagram Output .

It uses two opposite signal phases (0 and 180 degrees). . The signal constellation of a signal being modulated in its signal space is display by plotting the graph between its in-phase component and quadrature component. we can see the performance characteristic of M-PSK Modulator Baseband with M=2. so there is no signal at the signal trajectory scope.Figure 6: Signal Trajectory Output Figure 7: Time Scatter Plot Output  Discussion From the output. There is no pulse shaping at the eye diagram because it is a balance characteristic with no interference or noise. If no interference happens and balance eye diagram. There is two points which is at -1(bit 0) and 1(bit 1). The eye diagram is obtained from the discrete-time eye diagram scope that displays the trace of a modulated signal that is used to analyze the modulation characteristics.

Investigate the input and output of the system in figure  Figure Figure 8: Block Diagram for System Communication Link for M-PSK Modulator Baseband using Matlab .3.

 Output from figure 2 Figure 9:Outputof Eye Diagram Scope Figure 10: Output of Signal Trajectory Scope .

Additive in AWGN means that the noise is superimposed onto the signal which will mask the signal and it limits the ability of the receiver to make its decision. The eye diagram is obtained from the discrete-time eye diagram scope that displays the multiple traces of a modulated signal that are used to analyze the modulation characteristics. The scatter diagram show there is different after added with channel. The variations experienced in the channel mean that occasionally the noise will be far more significant. we can see the performance characteristic of M-PSK Modulator Baseband with M=2 and added with AWGN channel. These are pulse shaping or the characteristics as channel distortion of the various signals. At these times the system will experience a large number of errors. Noise is an unwanted signal which is always present in the transmitted signal. It cannot be removed but by using various techniques it can be minimized.Figure 11: Output of Scatter Plot Scope  Discussion From the output. . The function of this block is to add White Gaussian noise to the modulated data.

4. Analyze the digital communication system in figure  Figure Figure 12: Block Diagram for System Communication Link with Error RateCalculation using Matlab .

3447 0.6084 0.7552 0.001998 0.2498 0.7552  Output from figure a) SNR 1000 dB . Table for Bit Error Rtae Versus Channel SNR Channel SNR 1000 100 10 1 -1 -10 -100 -1000 Bit Error Rate (BER) 0 0 0.

Figure 13: Output of SNR 1000 dB b) SNR 100 dB .

Figure14 : Output of SNR 100 dB c) SNR 10 dB .

Figure 15: Output of SNR 10 dB d) SNR 1dB .

Figure 16: Output of SNR 1dB e) SNR -1 dB .

Figure 17: Output of SNR -1 dB f) SNR -10 dB .

Figure 18: Output of SNR -10dB g) SNR -100 dB .

Figure 19: Output of SNR -100dB h) SNR -1000dB .

However. The bit error rate is increasing when the value of SNR is below then 10. when the value of SNR is -1000db. The value of bit error rate is 0 is when the value of SNR is above then 10. So. .Figure 20: Output of SNR -1000 dB  Discussion From the table and output graph. their bit error rate is 0. the higher the value of SNR is better because the error that produces is 0. SNR is still remains the same value which is zero for the SNR of 1000db. the results are analyzed when the value of SNR is higher.7742. In addition. their bit error rate value is become smaller for the bit error rate versus SNR that.

. BPSK (also sometimes called PRK. we have learned to manipulate and solve practical problem using MATLAB on communication link analysis. phase reversal keying. Next. or 2PSK) is the simplest form of phase shift keying (PSK). the data bits to be modulated are grouped into symbols. we have learned the application of communication link analysis using MATLAB simulink. amplitude-shift keying (ASK) is a form of amplitude modulation that represents digital data as variations in the amplitude of a carrier wave. CONCLUSION As a conclusion of this experiment. 01. In QPSK. White Gaussian noise (AWGN) is a channel model in which the only impairment to communication is a linear addition of wideband or white noise with a constant spectral. 10. and each symbol can take on one of four possible values: 00. It uses two phases which are separated by 180° and so can also be termed 2-PSK. Then. each containing two bits. or 11. we have successfully done our experiment and achieved the objectives. Finally.

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