# 1.

Digital modulation signal of data using

a) ASK modulation Enter the frequency of carrier=30 Enter the frequency of pulse=5

1

b) BPSK modulation 2 .

c) QPSK modulation 3 .

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Each symbol represents two binary bits of data. 5 . and 7π/4. We also can see that when the bit “0”. amplitude level of the carrier signal is switched according to the binary information. keeping the phase and frequency fixed.Compare and discuss the result For ASK modulation. that has a possible result two exit phases for the carrier with a single frequency. A QPSK modulated carrier four distinct changes in phase that are represented as symbols and can take on the values of π/4. the ASK signal is none but when bit “1”. the signal will produced . An exit phase represents a logical 1 and the other one a logical 0. the phase of the exit carries moves between two angles that lie 180 degree outside of phase. 3π/4. 5π/4. As the input digital signal changes the state. For BPSK modulation.

2. Analyze the system in figure below. 6 .

7 .

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for signal trajectory scope. Based on the results. there is no signal or output at quadrature amplitude.From the observation discuss your findings. there is two points which is at -1(bit 0) and 1(bit 1). it shows that there is signal at eye diagram scope for in-phase amplitude. 9 . However. It uses two opposite signal phases (0 and 180 degrees). For scatter plot scope.

3. 10 . Investigate the input and output of the system.

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The value of SNR that put in the parameter is 10.Analyze the results and give your comments The result shows that the output at the eye diagram scope. the SNR needs to be as high as possible. The higher the value of SNR. the better will be the signal strength. discrete time signal trajectory scope and discrete time scatter plot scope is not too smooth because there is noise. Theoretically. 12 .

4. Analyze the digital communication system Table below is the results after run the simulation with different SNR value. 13 .

SNR (db) 0 1 10 11 100 1000 -1 -10 -100 -1000 BER 0.3227 0.2747 0.002997 0 0 0 0.7742 0.7742 14 .3736 0.6414 0.

This cancels the speed advantages of sending two bits a time 15 . 3π/2). Recall that ASK uses the digital data’s 1s and 0s to switch a carrier between two amplitudes. For example. For Binary PSK (BPSK) the state of θ1 -θ0 = 180 °simplifies the modulator design. Recovery of the original data at the receiving end can be implemented using a simple envelope detector and filter. The value of bit error rate is 0 is when the value of SNR is above then 10. QPSK sends two bits of data at a time. the results for bit error rate versus SNR shows that when the value of SNR is higher. their bit error rate is 0. However. An alternative to these two methods is to use the data stream’s 1s and 0s to switch the carrier between two phases. their bit error rate value is 0. the more the value of SNR is better because the error that produce is 0. when the value of SNR is -1000db. one amplitude is zero for logic digital logic zero while is logic 1 represented by the actual amplitudes of some sine wave signal. (θ0 .7742. The ASK signal’s envelopes are the same shape as the data stream (although the lower envelope is inverted). We can see that when the SNR value is 1000db. ANALYSIS In amplitude Shift keying (ASK). The bit error rate is increasing when the value of SNR is below then 10. logic levels are represented by different amplitudes of signals. Converting the digital data from series of individual bits to a series of bitpairs necessarily halves the data’s bit-rate. FSK uses the 1s and 0s to switch a carrier between two frequencies. Usually. This is called Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK). Result shows the waveforms in ASK. their bit error rate value is become smaller. π radian between phases of PSK signals will be most appropriate from error-performance point of view.From the analysis discuss your results. Moreover. So. θ1 ) phase values can be chosen as (0. π) or (π/2. it is tempting to think that QPSK is twice as fast as BPSK but is not so. Based on the table.

This modulation is the most robust of all the PSKs since it takes the highest level of noise or distortion to make the demodulator reach an incorrect decision. BPSK (also sometimes called PRK. phase reversal keying. Usually. ASK uses a finite number of amplitudes. It does not particularly matter exactly where the constellation points are positioned. DISCUSSION Amplitude-shift keying (ASK) is a form of amplitude modulation that represents digital data as variations in the amplitude of a carrier wave. BER is a unitless performance measure.The bit error rate or bit error ratio (BER) is the number of bit errors divided by the total number of transferred bits during a studied time interval. thus recovering the original data. each amplitude encodes an equal number of bits. however. which is designed specifically for the symbol-set used by the modulator. The demodulator. Each pattern of bits forms the symbol that is represented by the particular amplitude. and in this result they are shown on the real axis. It uses two phases which are separated by 180° and so can also be termed 2-PSK. It is. determines the amplitude of the received signal and maps it back to the symbol it represents. or 2PSK) is the simplest form of phase shift keying (PSK). 16 . at 0° and 180°. . only able to modulate at 1 bit/symbol (as seen in the figure) and so is unsuitable for high data-rate applications. often expressed as a percentage. each assigned a unique pattern of binary digits.

However. 10. Additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) is a channel model in which the only impairment to communication is a linear addition of wideband or white noise with a constantspectral density (expressed as watts per hertz of bandwidth) and a Gaussian distribution of amplitude. During each symbol interval. In the ideal case. 17 . each containing two bits. the modulator shifts the carrier to one of four possible phases corresponding to the four possible values of the input symbol. interference. it produces simple and tractable mathematical models which are useful for gaining insight into the underlying behavior of a system before these other phenomena are considered. or 11. the data bits to be modulated are grouped into symbols. and each symbol can take on one of four possible values: 00.In QPSK. nonlinearity or dispersion. the phases are each 90 degrees apart. frequency selectivity. and these phases are usually selected such that the signal constellation matches the conﬁguration. 01. The model does not accountfor fading.