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June 2013


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Having led the way with high-quality digital-only magazines for the global plastics industry, AMI is now also making its titles available free-ofcharge on the iPad, iPhone and a wide range of Android-based smartphones and tablet computers. The dedicated apps for Compounding World magazine are now ready to download from Apples App Store and iTunes or from the Google Play Store. Just search for AMI Plastics. Current and past copies are available free-of-charge and new issues will be added to the apps as soon as theyre published. If you are using Apples latest iOS 5 operating system, then the magazines will appear in your Newsstand and new editions will be added automatically if you sign up for our free subscription. The Compounding World app is sponsored by Leistritz, a leading supplier of twin-screw extruders.


CHECK OUT OUR OTHER FREE APPS: AMI has also launched free apps for its three other digital magazines Injection World, Pipe and Prole Extrusion and Film and Sheet Extrusion. Plus theres an additional AMI Conferences app featuring brochures for our forthcoming events. Simply search for AMI Plastics in iTunes, Apples App Store or the Google Play Store.

05 Industry news

The latest compounding industry news including international acquisitions and alliances, plus new investments and plant openings.

17 Building a stable future

Pat Toensmeier reports on how enhancements to performance and sustainability are expanding options in PVC stabilizers.

25 Compounding opens up biopolymer opportunities

Peter Mapleston reports on how additives suppliers and compounders are helping to take bioplastics into higher performance applications.

43 Withstanding the weather


Efforts are underway to speed up weatherability tests without compromising the relevance of their results. Pat Toensmeier reports.

53 Recycled PP proves up to scratch

Chris Smith looks at how Luxus worked closely with Milliken and Nissan to develop a high recycled content PP for Class A interior parts.

58 Meet the team

Learn more about the team of people who write, edit and design your monthly edition of Compounding World magazine.

61 New products: polymers and additives


70 Compounder of the month: Gabriel-Chemie 72 Dates for your diary

coming next issue

S Anti-microbials S Understanding and monitoring colour S Melt ltration
Click here to make sure you get your copy

contact us
Applied Market Information Ltd AMI House, 45-47 Stokes Croft, Bristol, BS1 3QP, United Kingdom Tel:+44 (0)117 924 9442 Fax:+44 (0)117 989 2128 Head of business publishing: Senior editor: Contributing editor: Designer: Advertisement manager: Andy Beevers Chris Smith Jennifer Markarian Nicola Crane Claire Bishop E-mail: E-mail: E-mail: E-mail: Direct tel: +44 (0)20 8686 8139

Copyright Applied Market Information. No part may be reproduced without the prior written permission of the publisher. June 2013 | COMPOUNDING WORLD 3


So.f.ter to open its rst US compounding plant

So.f.ter of Italy is to build a new compounding plant in Lebanon, Tennessee, USA. It is investing 8.8 million in the facility which will compound polypropylene, polyamide and thermoplastic elastomers. The initial 9,300 m2 plant on the 21 acre site will have a production capacity of 23,000 tonnes/year and it will employ around 50 people. So.f.ter says that its ultimate plan is for a 23,000 m2 facility with a capacity of more than 68,000 tonnes/year and over 150 employees. The plant, which is being constructed this year, will be So.f.ters rst production facility in the USA. Riccardo Meucci, the groups commercial director said: The US operation completes our presence in the Americas and complements our presence in Mexico and Brazil. Mark Rodden has been appointed managing director of the new US operation. He has more than 15 years of managerial experience in plastics compounding. Target markets for the new plant include the automotive, appliance, construction and electrical sectors. Headquartered in Forli, Italy, So.f.ter had a turnover of 250 million in 2012. It has expanded in Europe in recent years through the acquisition of Matrixx Europe in 2008 and P Group in 2011, and it now claims to be one of the three largest independent compounders in Europe. It opened its plants in Brazil and Mexico in 2005 and 2006 respectively.

Clariant leads REACH registrations

Clariant has registered 255 different chemical substances under Phase 2 of the European Unions REACH chemicals legislation. They include 155 dossiers submitted as the lead registrant, representing 5.3% of all substances registered for the rst time in this second phase. During the rst phase, completed back in November 2010, Clariant registered a total of 152 chemicals used in quantities of more than 1,000 tonnes/ year. The second phase covers chemical substances that are produced or imported in EU countries in volumes from 100 to 1,000 tonnes/year.



Woodforce technology launched in America

Sonae Industries is now selling its Woodforce engineered wood bre reinforcements for plastics compounds in the North American market. It follows the signing of an extended licence agreement for the innovative technology with Crown Research Institute Scion of New Zealand. The rst Woodforce production plant is in Le Creusat, France, and it has a capacity of 130,000 tonnes/ year. The densied wood bres are supplied in easy-to-handle dice-like cubes that minimise dust content and simplify

feeding into extruders. The cubes contain real bres with a high aspect ratio for reinforcing plastics, as opposed to wood our that acts as a ller, according to

Christophe Chambonnet, global manager for Woodforce. The company says that a 30% loading of Woodforce in PP gives increases in tensile and exural modulus that are

comparable to those achieved with 20% glass bres. Tensile and exural strength are also increased to about 80% of the values achieved with glass. The density of wood bres is less than that of glass bres (around 1.4 compared to 2.4) leading to lighter products, while Woodforce also offers environmental benets. G Christophe Chambonnet will give a presentation on the Woodforce technology at the forthcoming Compounding World Forum 2013. Details at



Milliken les clarier lawsuits

Milliken has announced that it has led several lawsuits to protect the intellectual property (IP) of its Millad clarifying agents. The company said that it is taking action against several Asian companies that it believes have infringed one or more of its patents through the sale of competitive 3,4 DMDBS products. Our customers need to be aware of this IP infringement, said Wim Van de Velde, global Millad product line manager at Milliken. Our actions reect Millikens corporate policy to vigorously protect and defend the intellectual property underlying its innovative products. The 3,4 DMDBS chemistry is used in third generation clariers. Some patents Milliken says it will vigorously protect its clarifying agent patents regarding this chemistry expired in May of this year. However, Milliken says that it still owns patents covering 3,4- DMDBS in a variety of end-use applications and blend solutions, as well as owning several issued and pending patents around the aesthetic enhancement package in clariers and nucleators. In a special feature on clarifying agents in last months Compounding World (see, we reported that RiKA International, a subsidiary of New Japan Chemical, was planning to launch a clarier for PP based on 3,4 DMDBS.


Sabic opens Jubail plants

Sabic Specialty Chemicals has opened its new compounding plants for engineering thermoplastics and polypropylene at Jubail in Saudi Arabia. The new facilities will serve customers in the Middle East, Africa, Turkey and India.

RTP launches sheet business

RTP, the global thermoplastics compounder, has launched a new Engineered Sheet Products division. It has installed three sheet extrusion lines in a standalone 10,000 ft2 (930 m2) facility in Winona, Minnesota, USA, which is also home to its headquarters. It is manufacturing sheet materials up to 0.25 (6.4 mm) thick and 56 (1.4 m) wide, based on a range of resins including ABS, PMMA, PEEK, PETG, PC and PP. Using its in-house compounding expertise, it can provide sheet materials with combinations of special properties including anti-static, ame-retardant, light-diffusing, bre-reinforced and glow-in-the-dark.



Albermarle forms Chinese ATH joint venture

Albemarle of the USA and Senze Meilu of China have signed an agreement to establish a joint venture in Lvliang, Shanxi, China. It will build and operate a 50,000 tonnes/year plant to manufacture Martinal ne precipitated alumina trihydrate (ATH) ame retardants based on Albemarles proprietary technology. This is principally used in wire and cable applications.

Production at the new facility is expected to begin in mid-2015. Albemarle will be the majority stakeholder and will market Martinal on behalf of the joint venture in the high-growth Asia-Pacic and Indian markets. Senze has world-scale bauxite and alumina production capabilities ensuring that the plant will be back integrated into the raw materials required for efcient ATH production.

Troy DeSoto, Albemarles global vice president for ame retardants said: This venture will advance our position in the fastest growing segments of the wire and cable markets in Asia and India, and will complement Albemarles existing world scale production facility in Bergheim, Germany. Fine precipitated alumina trihydrate is an environmentally-friendly, mineralbased ame retardant and

smoke suppressant used in a variety of polyolen resins. The largest, fastest growing application for the product is in low-smoke wire and cable applications within the energy sector. The additive can also be used in PVC, thermosets, engineering thermoplastics, and rubber in a variety of electrical, construction and transportation applications.



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Ferro backs dibenzoate plasticizers

Ferro is adding 28,000 tonnes of production capacity for dibenzoatebased plasticizers at its plant in Antwerp, Belgium. The new capacity for the non-phthalate, fast-fusing plasticizers is expected to come on stream in the second half of 2014. The project includes installation of technologies to produce benzoic acid, which will allow backwardintegration into this key raw material at the Antwerp facility. The dibenzoate product offerings will complement Ferros existing Santicizer family of benzyl phthalate plasticizers. Ferro operates a plasticizer application laboratory at its Mont-SaintGuibert facility in Belgium. The dibenzoate project will benet from this facility which helps Ferros customers to optimize their PVC formulations.

Coperion builds modular line in Shanghai for Hexpol

Coperion has added a new 2,000 m facility for assembling modular compounding lines at its production site in Shanghai, China. It says that it will help to meet the increasing demand for modular compounding systems in Asia. The rst modular compounding line to be built at the new facility has been delivered to a TPE compounding plant in Foshan, China, operated by the Hexpol Group of Sweden. This line is built around a ZSK 82 Mc twin-screw extruder with

from Coperions factory in Nanjing, China. Discussing the decision to select a modular line from Coperion, Hexpols president of technology, Carsten Rter said: Within an extraordinarily short period of time we received a highperformance production line in which the conveying and compounding systems came from one and the same manufacturer. Andreas Mssle, managing director of The modular line assembled at Coperions new facility before delivery to Hexpol Coperion is part of Hillenbrands Process Equipment Group. In addition to the modular production line, Hexpols Foshan plant has also installed a laboratory compounding line based on an STS 35 extruder Coperion Machinery & Systems (Shanghai) says that more orders for modular lines have been received since the rst one for Hexpol, adding: There is an enormous and widespread interest in modularized compounding systems, so we are sure that our new assembly facility will be fully loaded soon.

82 mm diameter screws. It has a maximum output of about 1,800 kg/hour. The handling systems for the raw and nished products were also designed and supplied by Coperion in Shanghai. The integrated gravimetric feeding systems are from K-Tron, which like



Solvay starts PEEK compounding in China

Solvay Specialty Polymers has started to compound its KetaSpire PEEK and AvaSpire PAEK high-performance plastics at its Changshu production site in China. The company invested 21 million in its Changshu compounding facility which started production last summer. Its production scope has now been extended to include PEEK and PAEK formulations for the transportation,

healthcare, electronics, oil/gas and semiconductor markets. This is an exciting milestone for us and represents a major commitment by Solvay to the local production and supply of these ultra polymers for the Chinese market and for the region in general, said Chris Wilson, senior vice-president of the ultraperformance materials business line.

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Schulman to acquire Network

A. Schulman has reached an agreement to purchase Network Polymers, the US compounder and distributor of engineering plastics, for approximately US$50 million. The transaction is anticipated to close within the next few months. Network Polymers operates a 72,000 ft2 (6,700 m2) manufacturing facility in Akron, Ohio, and employs approximately 70 people. It recorded revenues of US$65.3 million in 2012. The company produces a wide range of custom compounds and has particular expertise in ASA and ABS compounds which are marketed under the Centrex and Diamond Polymer brands. Network Polymers is an excellent t with our ongoing strategy as we continue to enhance our niche engineered plastics business in the US, said Joseph Gingo, chairman, president and CEO of Schulman. Network Polymers will provide greater penetration in key markets such as building and construction, agricultural products, and lawn and garden. G In a separate announcement, Schulman has said that it plans to restructure its operations and reduce its headcount in Europe due to the economic climate in the region. It is aiming to generate annual savings of approximately US$4 million through the new measures. The company has also announced that it intends to sell its rotational moulding compounds business in Australia. The business had revenues of US$25 million in 2012 and its sell-off is expected to be completed within six to 12 months.


Polykemi secures electronics deal

Swedish compounder Polykemi has signed a supply contract with SEWS-CE, a European subsidiary of the Japanese electronics company Sumitomo Wiring Systems (SWS). The contract covers the supply of PBT and PP based compounds for applications including cable connectors and fuse boxes used by leading German car manufacturers. This is an important step in our ongoing development work, both at Polykemi in Ystad [Sweden] and at our subsidiary in China, said Anders Grankvist of Polykemis sales department. We also have ongoing negotiations with SEWSCE for materials to be used in a number of other products.

Kingfa buys into Indian compounder

Chinese compounder Kingfa has acquired a majority stake in Hydro S&S Industries, a producer of reinforced PP compounds and TPEs based in India. Hydro S&S has its headquarters in Chennai and operates three plants located in Pudukottai, Puducherry and Jejuri. These have a total capacity of 29,000 tonnes/year, and primarily supply the automotive industry in India. Kingfa is the largest plastics compounder in China and one the largest in the world. It has a total capacity in excess of 1 million tonnes/year and supplies the automotive, appliance, consumer goods and electronics markets with technical compounds as well as masterbatches.


Silvergate adds new extruder

Silvergate, the UK masterbatch maker, has invested in a new Leistritz ZSE 27 Maxx twinscrew extruder for its plant in Wrexham, North Wales. The high-torque and high-volume extruder was selected for its large throughputs and reduced shear rates and melt temperatures. Tony Bestall, managing director of Silvergate, said: With 25% of our orders being produced on the same day that they are received, investing in technology is the key to our success. Our customers expect

the best product delivered in the fastest possible time. Our investment in equipment gives higher output and exibility, allowing us to achieve this and more.

Silvergate has increased its masterbatch capabilities with a new Leistritz ZSE 27 Maxx




Evonik adds to plasticizer production

Evonik has commissioned its new plant for the production of phthalate-free plasticizers for PVC compounds at its Marl Chemical Park in Germany. The 40,000 tonnes/ year plant is producing 1,2-cyclohexane dicarboxylic acid diisononyl ester, which will be sold under the Elatur CH brand name. It shares the same chemistry as BASFs established Hexamoll DINCH products. Evonik is also developing bio-based plasticizers that it plans to launch under the Elatur brand. Negotiations with cooperation partners are said to be at the nal stage. Dr Rainer Fretzen, head of Evoniks Performance Intermediates business line, said: The expansion of the portfolio with phthalate-free and bio-based plasticizers is an ideal addition to our existing Vestinol product family that has been tried and tested for decades.

Speakers announced for rst Compounding World Forum

The programme for the rst Compounding World Forum has been announced by the organisers, Applied Market Information (AMI) and G Paul Burke, VP of manufacturing at Teknor Apex, will cover the implementation of clean compounding operations to meet the needs of the medical market. G Jeffrey McCoy, manager of marketing and business development at A. Schulman, will give a paper on metal replacement with technical compounds. and value to medical compounds with novel reinforcements, llers and additives. The Compounding World Forum programme also includes senior representatives from AMI, BASF, Century Extrusion, Chroma, Coperion, Entek, ESK Ceramics, Imerys, KraussMaffei Berstorff, Leistritz, PlastiComp, Sciessent, SPI, Timcal, and Woodforce/Sonae. Technologies being covered include conductive G Anis Tebib, automotive marketing manager at Styron, will present advanced PP developments, including the rst all-plastic, mono-material automotive tailgate. G Jack Leahy, VP of manufacturing at Techmer PM, will share insights into his companys implementation of sustainable compounding initiatives. G Dr Larry Acquarulo, CEO of Foster Corporation, will discuss adding functionality compounds, antimicrobials, medical materials, functional llers, ame retardants, anti-counterfeiting additives, natural bres, and bioplastics. G To view the complete Compounding World Forum 2013 programme, visit For more information on attending, sponsoring or exhibiting at the event, contact Kelly Cressman at or call +1 610 478 0800.


Compounding World magazine. The international conference will feature 21 high-level presentations covering the business and technology of producing technical compounds based on engineering plastics, performance polyolens and thermoplastic elastomers. Taking place on 10-11 December in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA, the event will address business strategies and new materials technologies, as well as providing practical advice on getting the most from compounding lines. Examples include: G Roger Avakian, VP for scientic development at PolyOne, will discuss growing a protable formulating and compounding business in a dynamic global economy.


Australia completes phase out of lead in PVC

The Vinyl Council of Australia has reported that the signatories to its PVC Product Stewardship Program have completed the phase out of lead-based stabilizers in all product sectors. When the voluntary initiative was launched in 2002, the signatories were using more than 1,000 tonnes of lead in stabilizer compounds, according to Sophi Macmillan, chief executive of the Vinyl Council. By the end of 2012, the Program signatories had successfully switched from these stabilizers to alternatives that dont have the environmental and occupational health concerns lead compounds pose, she added.


100 %


news analysis

Clariant shifts European production eastwards

Clariant has just started construction of its new colour masterbatch plant in Konstantynw d zki, in the d z Special Economic Zone, Poland. Scheduled for completion in March 2014, it will double the companys masterbatch capacity in the country to around 4,000 tonnes/year. It is investing CHF11.3 million ( 9.2 million) in the new plant, which will replace its existing production facility located in nearby Zgierz. This was previously run as joint venture under the Colex brand until Clariant acquired full control of the operation at the end of 2011. The purpose-built plant will cover an area of approximately 6,800 m , with production

Clariants new masterbatch plant in Poland will double its capacity in the country

plant, plus surplus extruders are being brought in from western European facilities, including the Dbeln plant in Germany, which was closed down last year. The companys total number of compounding extruders across Europe wont increase as a result of the investment. Markus Mirgeler, head of Clariants Masterbatches business unit in Europe, explains the reasons behind the expansion in Poland: There is a growing market in Poland geared towards consumer goods and packaging, which is our main focus. Also the location provides good access back into

Germany and into Ukraine and the Baltic countries. Hans Bohnen, global head of Clariants Masterbatches business unit, says: We dont see Europe as a mature market. If you look at the growth aspirations of the plastics industry in the eastern part of Europe, then it is still attractive for us with 4 or 5% [annual growth] and if you include Russia, then it becomes even more attractive. So there is a clear commitment from us that we want to invest into eastern Europe. He adds: We are also upgrading our plant in Nizhnekamsk, Russia, and moving extruders from western Europe into that plant. All of this is part of our strategy to capture the growth in eastern Europe. Mirgeler explains that the new Polish facility will embrace lessons learned from Clariants 52 masterbatch production sites worldwide. We looked at the best practices we have around the

laboratories. So this will be a world-class facility very modern and cost optimised. Clariants blueprint for the lean manufacture of masterbatch known as the Clariant Production System has been developed globally over the past three years and it has now been implemented at most of the companys plants. It is still very much an on-going process, explains Bohnen. The beauty of the programme is that all of our 52 sites now speak the same language and have the same processes in place. If I identify a best practice in Chicago, for example, then I can immediately take this to the other 51 sites and they can implement it. Bohnen concludes: Thats where we have the leverage. Only a few of our competitors are globally active; most of them are local, or at best regional. We have global coverage and we can benet from the knowledge that we gain in 52 sites, 52 labs, 52 production areas and 52 customer service desks.

focused on relatively small batch production and fast delivery. It will initially house more than 10 compounding lines and there is room for future expansion. Masterbatch lines are being transferred from old Zgierz

Hans Bohnen: We can benet from the knowledge we have in 52 sites


Markus Mirgeler: This will be a world-class facility very modern and cost optimised

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PVC stabilizers | additives feature

Building a stable future

Compounders and suppliers are in a transitional period when it comes to the use of stabilizers for rigid and exible PVC. Many established stabilizers are under pressure for various reasons, among them environmental and health regulations, potential supply shortages and rising prices. Their replacements are generally effective at controlling thermal degradation, colour loss and other properties, and of course limiting exposure to hazardous materials. Nevertheless, work continues on ne-tuning these alternatives to minimize or eliminate trade-offs in their use. The choice of substitutes follows regional patterns. In the 27-member European Union (EU), as well as Norway, Switzerland and Turkey, lead-based stabilizers are on the way out for regulatory reasons. According to gures from ESPA (the European Stabiliser Producers Association), lead accounted for 17% of stabilizer consumption in this region in 2012, equivalent to 23,600 tonnes. By 2016, its use will be only 5%, or 8,000 tonnes, according to ESPA forecasts. These gures were presented by Ettore Nanni, the Associations president and CEO of Reagens, at AMIs PVC Formulation 2013 conference earlier this year. To demonstrate how rapidly demand has shifted, lead stabilizers were a 130,000 tonnes/year market in 15 European nations as recently as 2000. In its place, gains are being made by an assortment of calcium (Ca) based stabilizers. These accounted for 65% of 2012 consumption, or 91,600 tonnes, and will increase to 80%, or 130,000 tonnes, in 2016, according to ESPA. Two other key stabilizers, liquid mixed metals, mostly barium/zinc (Ba/Zn) and Ca/Zn, and tin (Sn) are declining more slowly in use. In 2012, liquids accounted

Pat Toensmeier reports on how enhancements to performance and sustainability are expanding options in the selection of PVC stabilizers
for 10% of stabilizer use, or 14,600 tonnes, while Sn was 8%, or 11,900 tonnes. In 2016, use of liquids and Sn will drop to, respectively, 9% and 6% of the market, or 14,000 tonnes for liquids and 10,000 tonnes for Sn. The only regions where lead maintains a signicant presence, according to gures from Baerlocher, are Asia, the Middle East, Africa and India, mostly in pipe and proles. Stabilizer consumption in South America generally follows patterns in Europe, with Ca-based chemistries holding a commanding share in pipe, proles and cable, according to gures from Reagens. Sn and liquid stabilizers have equal shares of the lm market, with Ca-based versions accounting for a smaller percentage. Lead is still used in some rigid applications, but at roughly half the level of Ca-based stabilizers in proles and less than one-third their share in pipe. In North America, organotin stabilizers have the dominant share in pipe and proles and a good part of the lm market. The cable market almost entirely uses Ca-based stabilizers, and applications are growing in pipe, proles and lm. But even this may change. At AMIs Proles 2013 conference in Philadelphia in June, Luis Cruz and Ben

additives feature | PVC stabilizers

European consumption of stabilizers in 2012 and predicted split for 2016


2016 Tin 6%

Liquid 10%

Tin 8%

Liquid 9% Lead 17%

Lead 5%

CA-based 65%
Source: ESPA based on EU27 countries plus Norway, Switzerland and Turkey

CA-based 80%

Labovitz of AM Stabilizers noted that while organotins are the dominant thermal stabilizers for rigid PVC in North America, the use of Ca/Zn and non-metallics are viable options. Environmental regulations either from or inspired by Europes REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restrictions of Chemicals) legislation may also drive replacement activity, owing in part to toxicity concerns, Cruz and Labovitz said. Regulation is, in fact, having an impact on Sn supply. Tin solder (used mostly in electronics) is the fastestgrowing and largest end-use market for the material, accounting for 52% of global demand as it replaces lead solder for environmental reasons, according to gures from Akcros Chemicals. But there is also the rising cost of Sn, which could price the metal out of some PVC applications, at least at conventional loadings and in typical constructions. On 9 May, for example, tin was trading at $20,750/tonne on the London Metal Exchange. This was a sizeable decline from $23,000/tonne on 9 April, but just over twice the price on 1 January 2007. In February 2011, tin peaked at around $33,000/tonne. Moreover, the mass fraction of tin in the Earths crust is low, which suggests that mining shortfalls are possible. As it is, most tin mining takes place in countries that could reduce supply for a variety of reasons, such as higher prices, political instability, or to give their own companies a cost advantage in global competition. There is also the ever-present threat of mine closures, as has happened in China, Bolivia and Indonesia. China has the largest share of tin production at 35%, Cruz and Labovitz noted, followed by Indonesia with 25%, Peru at 17%, Brazil with 6% and Bolivia 5%. Cruz and Labovitz stated in their presentation that Ca/Zn powders are a potential alternative to organotins in rigid PVC applications. The pair reported

that tests by AM Stabilizers show that Ca/Zn powders achieve thermal stability and colour hold (this last aided by use of a colour booster), but implied there is still work to be done in ne-tuning formulations. They observed that tin stabilizers set a very high standard for initial colour and that extreme temperatures and high shear in high-speed extrusion can degrade the powders. Disruption in the supply of conventional stabilizers or in their use could further open the door to an evolving class of materials organic stabilizers. These have been commercially available since around 2000, with initial development primarily in Asia and Europe. Their chief benet, according to producers, is that they contain no environmentally suspect materials and, with some reformulation of PVC compounds, are an effective alternative to conventional stabilizers with few some claim no trade-offs in performance and cost. Organics are also said to have greater resistance to high temperature and shear in processing than Ca/Zn stabilizers, primarily as a result of their ability to suppress PVC crosslinking, and they can reportedly be recycled multiple times with only minor effects on heat stability, since they dont typically interact with other stabilizers. Some suppliers have added organics to their stabilizer lines. One such is Galata Chemicals, which was formed in 2010 after the sale of Chemturas PVC additives business to Artek Aterian Holdings, a partnership between Artek Surn Chemicals of India and Aterian Investment Partners of New York City. Galata offers at least three organics for exible applications: Mark OBS 1360, Mark OBS 2302 and Mark OBS 2305. Another supplier is Baerlocher, whose Baeropan one-pack stabilizers for rigid and exible PVC include

Ca-organic formulations.

additives feature | PVC stabilizers

Teknor Apex will add PVC grades for rigid proles with an organic heat stabilizer this year

A compounder that plans to commercialize a line of rigid PVC grades with organic stabilizers this year is Teknor Apex. Michael Renzi, business development manager of the companys Vinyl Division, says that the organics are being used in place of Sn stabilizers. We have a robust line that is ready to launch, he remarks. Renzi, like most suppliers, declines to disclose the chemistry of the organic stabilizer. Scientic papers published in the past decade, however, have identied some materials that were evaluated as thermal stabilizers. Researchers ndings provide insight into these materials as well as how they work. One paper, published in 2007 by Peng Liu and others at the Guangzhou Institute of Chemistry in China, discussed materials known as hydroxylbenzylthioethers, which were found to be more effective than Ca/Zn soap and methyltin at heat stabilization, due to their prevention of polyene sequences in PVC, which cause thermal degradation. The materials have slightly lower glass-transition temperatures than conventional PVC, but stabilization was found to improve from the synergy of using them with epoxidized soybean oil. Another paper, published in 2011 by M.W. Sabaa and other researchers at Cairo University, examined the use of pyrazolodithiones, which are nitrogen-containing compounds, as stabilizers and co-stabilizers. The team found that these were effective owing to their ability to replace labile chlorine atoms on the polymer chains of PVC with the more stable moiety of the organic materials. William Starnes, a chemistry professor at the College of William and Mary in Virginia, developed an organic stabilizer technology, which is patented and available for licensing through the Edison Polymer Innovation of Ohio. Starnes worked with organic thiol compounds based on pentaerythritol and dipentaerythritol. Patent documents state that the material needs at least one sulphydryl group (and ideally multiple such groups) as well as at least one non-thiol-containing group. The stabilizer has dual functionality. At relatively high loadings, 30-35 parts by weight, the material is effective as a plasticizer as well as a thermal stabilizer. At low loadings, down to 3 parts by weight, the material is described as providing excellent heat stability in rigid and exible PVC. The future of organics is open to debate. Some

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additives feature | PVC stabilizers

suppliers say their short-term potential for use is limited, while others believe that over the long term they will become viable options. For now, much work is taking place on ways of optimizing the loadings and costs of conventional stabilizers. Akcros, for example, has developed three grades of butyl tin UV stabilizers that reportedly provide similar fusion time and rheology and equivalent weathering at lower cost than its category-leading Akcrostab T-5000B butyl tin grade. In a presentation at AMIs recent Proles 2013 conference in Philadelphia, Gary Sadowski, market development and technical service manager for Akcros, noted the rise of tin prices and said that the days when suppliers and compounders received long-term pricing contracts based on the Akcros presented three stabilizers with reduced tin content at the recent Proles conference amount of tin in stabilizers were over. He proposed the development of stabilizers with lower tin loadings, yet comparable performance, as the best way to hold the line on prices. Akcros has formulated three grades with substantially less tin than T-5003B, which is 26% butyl tin. They are: Akcrostab T-5322, with 22% tin (a 15.4% reduction); T-5314, 19% butyl tin (26.9% reduction); and T-5315, 15% butyl tin (42.3% reduction). Sadowski said the chemistries of the low-tin alternatives substantially meet the performance levels of T-5003B. For example, the drop-in fusion time and rheology of T-5322 at 0.75 phr was as low as 3:08 mtf compared with 3:00 mtf for T-5003B at 0.70 phr. The Brabender degradation time for both grades was within 16 seconds (11:26 for T-5003B at 0.70 phr and 11:10 for T-5322, also at 0.70 phr). And QUV weathering results at 5,000 hours were similar for T-5003B (0.70 phr), T-5314 (0.80 phr) and T-5315 (1.0 phr). Last September, at the Plastic Pipes XVI conference in Barcelona, Udo Anders of Baerlocher identied cost as a critical driver in the development of global PVC pipe applications. Among the proposals he cited to offset this was development of PVC grades with high ller content, extrusion of multilayer pipe with foam cores to reduce material use, and one-pack stabilizers tailored for these applications. High ller levels would, of course, affect processability, along with mechanical properties and

colour. To address trade-offs, Anders proposed that basic one-pack colourless stabilizers be used as a starting point to improve the production of these applications and help reduce cost. For multilayer pipe, with solid inner and outer layers and a foam core, a Ca-based stabilizer could maintain dark colours, with a colour booster added for light colours. There is no doubt that the market for PVC stabilizers will change in coming years signicantly in some regions, incrementally in others. Not only are there shifts in technologies, there are also ongoing changes in the ownership of stabilizer production assets. These include the formation of the previously mentioned Galata and AM Stabilizers, the latter was established when Mitsubishi and Adeka acquired the Halstab division from the Hammond Group last year. Another company that has been buying up stabilizer assets is the US-based PMC Group. Earlier this year it completed its second acquisition in less than 12 months of the stabilizers business of a major company. This involved the global methyl tin stabilizers (and solid lubricants) unit of Dow Chemical. The products, marketed as Advastab, reportedly include organic grades. Last October, PMC announced the acquisition of Arkemas organotin and organophosphine-based stabilizers (along with catalysts and ne chemicals) in the Americas and Europe. The PVC industry may often be regarded as a mature market, but theres clearly still plenty of action in the supply, technology and regulation of stabilizers.

More information
The proceedings from this years PVC Formulation conference can be purchased at The next PVC Formulation event is being held in Dsseldorf, Germany, on 24-26 February 2014. Details at: Click on the links for more information:


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Bioplastics compounding | materials feature

Peter Mapleston reports on how additives suppliers and compounders are helping to take bioplastics into higher performance applications in durable goods

Compounding opens up opportunities for biopolymers

Biopolymers derived from plants such as corn/maize and potatoes can have benecial environmental credentials, but for applications beyond relatively simple packaging, they can be let down by mechanical and thermal properties that are less than stellar. Most unmodied polylactic acids, PLA polymers for example, are brittle and easily break during processing or in nal use. Polymer makers and compounders are making great efforts to attend to these deciencies, with some very impressive results. They are modifying the polymers themselves, and also working on alloys and blends, sometimes with other biopolymers, sometimes with more traditional fossil-based plastics. As a result, applications are opening up, not only in products where biodegradability is a key requirement, but also in more durable applications where users are more interested in carbon footprints, and where biodegradability may actually not be wanted at all. Creative compounding with PLA has resulted in increasing performance levels, which sometimes even exceed the properties exhibited by PP, PS or ABS, for example. Thats according to Corbion, the lactide and PLA producer previously known as Purac (its parent company CSM announced earlier this month that it is combing Purac and Caravan Ingredients under the new

Corbion brand). It recently launched a number of tailored PLA blends that are specically compounded to meet key performance criteria for specic target applications. Corbion cites the optical purity of its D and L Lactide monomers. These lactides, marketed under the brand name Puralact, are said to result in blends of stereochemically pure PLA homopolymers, which can be compounded in different ways and tailored to the required properties of the nal article. The resulting new PLA blends which can reach operating temperatures of up to 120C were launched to open up new markets for bioplastic products, including consumer electronic housings, high-heat packaging, automotive interior panels, apparel and many more. Corbion offers blends for injection moulding and extrusion, but says its focus remains on the originating PLLA and PDLA homopolymer resins, available for compounders wishing to offer their own formulations. Example properties that can be achieved with Corbions biobased homopolymer resins are detailed in Table 1 (see next page). NatureWorks, the biggest manufacturer of PLA, is taking various routes to improve the properties of the polymer. Frank Diodato, global segment lead for

Bioplastics producers are shifting attention to reducing the carbon footprint of durable goods



materials feature | Bioplastics compounding


Corbion PLA sample grades Blend A Homo PLA: general purpose Blend B Homo PLA: improved modulus
1.27 no 190-220 70-100 yes 4000 42 17 120 6

Blend C Homo PLA: impact modied

1.25 no 190-220 70-100 yes 3500 35 60 95 23

Physical Processing

Density Clarity Melt temp. Mould temp. Pre-drying

g/cm3 yes/no C C yes/no MPa MPa % C kJ/m


1.24 yes 190-220 25 yes 3300 48 3 55 3

1.24 no 190-220 80-100 yes 3000 45 5 105 5


Tensile modulus Tensile strength Strain at break

Heat Impact

HDT B, 0.45 MPa, atwise Charpy notched, 23C

Table 1: Examples of properties that can be achieved with Corbions biobased homopolymer resins. These are developmental grades and all data is preliminary. Corbion does not produce these PLA blends commercially

durables, says that the company has made some exciting advances in recent months in improving the thermal and mechanical properties of opaque and transparent materials. Most commercial grades of PLA, while they can be made to crystallize, do so only very slowly. However, a NatureWorks grade launched earlier this month Ingeo HP crystallizes much more easily (three to ve times faster) and more completely, giving it a higher deection temperature under load. This is because Ingeo HP has a lower content of D isomers. To date, Ingeo grades have had at least 1.5% of D isomers, but Ingeo HP has just 0.3%. In general terms, the more L isomer there is in PLA, the better is its crystallisation behaviour. But another general rule is that the higher the L isomer content, the higher the production cost. But the price delta with Ingeo HP should be modest, Diodato says. Ingeo HP also contains a nucleating agent to promote crystallization, as well as an impact modier. Biocontent is at least 90%. Diodato also notes that overall system costs can be reduced in many cases using Ingeo HP, since it has much better mechanical properties than the low-end engineering thermoplastics that it is intended to replace (stiffness as much as 60% greater, for example), so thin-walling should be possible. One of the implications of these differences is that injection moulding cycle times can be reduced, since parts can be ejected from the mould earlier than with conventional grades. Diodato adds that there has also been interest from producers of extruded proles. Compounders using Ingeo HP should be able to produce more competitive materials with higher productivity and wider processing windows. Formulations will be simpler and more cost effective, and they will have higher bio-content, Diodato claims. On the clear plastics front, NatureWorks announced

late last year that it had formed a global marketing cooperation with Altuglas International, a subsidiary of Arkema group that specializes in acrylic resins. Altuglas will produce a range of newly formulated high performance alloys based on PMMA and Ingeo PLA. The new materials will be marketed as Altuglas Rnew (or Plexiglas Rnew in the Americas). The primary target market is durable goods applications requiring high performance, durability and clarity. Diodato points out that PLA and PMMA have almost identical refractive indices, which is why the alloys have very high clarity. Its not quite at the same level as PMMA, but it is still very good, he says. He adds that impact- and chemical-resistance, as well as ow, benet from synergistic effects between the two polymers. A clear impact-modied acrylic has a notched Izod impact strength of around 0.59 J/cm, but with these new alloys the gure is at least double that, he says. Still not as good as polycarbonate, but on the way. NatureWorks has also formed a joint venture with BioAmber, a market leader in the commercialization of bio-succinic acid. The JV, AmberWorks, is intended to bring new high-performance bio-based polymer compositions to market. BioAmber owns PLA/PBS compounding intellectual property. NatureWorks will commercialize a new family of compounded Ingeo resin grades, and is already offering samples of developmental thermoforming and injection-moulding grades for food service ware applications. The new product range enables NatureWorks to broaden its existing product portfolio, allowing for bio-based product solutions in applications that were previously difcult to address, said Marc Verbruggen, president and CEO of NatureWorks, at the time of the launch. The properties of PLA and PBS are complementary and making Ingeo compounds using both materials will result in a broad and attractive



materials feature | Bioplastics compounding

Standard impact modiers are not compostable, but PHAs are, Engle notes. Because PHA has a low glass transition temperature, we can bring some softness as well as toughness to PLA, which will help it get into the lm market. Metabolix is working with customers on developments of blends of PLA and PHA for various applications, including coatings as well as lm. Engle expects rst sales this year.

Absorbing the impact

Impact properties of PLA can be improved in other ways. DuPont says that adding 1 to 5% of its Biomax Strong to PLA makes it much tougher, opening up the possibility of using thinner, lighter PLA packaging, and NatureWorks says that compounds of PLA and PBS have the potential to span a range of mechanical properties property prole for a number of different applications. The properties of PLA can also be improved by modication with polyhydroxyalkanoates, or PHAs, of which poly3-hydroxybutyrate, PHB, is the most well-known. These are aliphatic polyesters that can be produced by many types of microorganisms. Metabolix is the leader in PHA production technology. We have the capability of producing different polymer structures, says Robert Engle, the companys vice president, business and commercial development for biopolymers. We can go from PHB homopolymer up to a range of copolymer structures. This gives us a lot of freedom to do different things. Engle says some Metabolix customers have used its Mirel materials to raise PLAs deection temperature under load. If you have a thermoforming application and the sealing temperature is too close to the softening point, then you get stability issues, he notes. PHA, which has a higher melting point than PLA, can increase the difference between the two temperatures, and reduce scrap rates. PHA can also improve impact resistance in PLA. increasing productivity in making thermoformed packages by allowing easier and cleaner trimming from the forming web. The addition of 2 to 5% Biomax Strong can also save up to 30% on power consumption in PLA extrusion. Biomax Strong is a petroleum-based ethylene copolymer, but DuPont says that it helps the adoption of PLA packaging by improving properties without sacricing product clarity. Carol VanZoeren, technology manager at DuPont Packaging and Industrial Polymers, says that the company is seeing increased interest in its modiers, to achieve performance with a compound that has a reduced environmental footprint, compared to the conventional alternative. HallStar has developed Hallgreen renewable esters for use in PLA, PHA, starch-based and other biopolymers. Kimberly Stefanisin, senior scientist at the company, says that they improve processing by reducing melt viscosity and temperature, as well as reducing energy consumption. They also reduce brittleness, improve impact resistance, and improve extruder ow rates and throughputs. The latest addition to the range, Hallgreen R-8010, is a high molecular weight polymeric ester that imparts excellent exibility to PLA compounds for calendared

New production sites for Metabolix

Metabolix intends to set up at least one PHA manufacturing facility with the nominal capacity of 10,000 tonnes per year. It says that it has been working with two potential partners to supply the material - the company earlier had a partnership with agricultural company Archer Daniels Midland, ADM, but that has since been dissolved. We have been looking for a site where

installation can be done quickly, where a lot of the equipment is already in place, says Robert Engle, the companys vice president, business and commercial development for biopolymers. We have been scouring the world for sites that made sense. We picked a couple of sites, and have been working on both of these. The plan has been to have demonstration material available around the middle of

this year, and to be commercial later this year. The partners are Tianjin GreenBio Materials (GreenBio) in China, and Antibiticos in Spain. Both sites have assets already in place to carry out PHA fermentation, to which needs to be added downstream equipment to recover the polymer.


AMIs Directory

New 2013


6th edition

AMIs Directory


Address Listing AMIs Directory of Plastics Processing in Poland

AMIs Directory of Plastics Processing in Poland

Injection moulders

3E SP. Z O.O.

Type: Custom, Proprietary Products Polymers processed: PS, ABS, LDPE, HDPE, PP, PMMA, PC, ASA. Polymer throughput: Less than 50 tonnes Markets served: Automotive, Electrical, Alarm Cases. Services offered: Pad Printing, Silk Screen Printing Number of machines: 4 Minimum lock: 120 Maximum lock: 268 Minimum shot: 5 Maximum shot: 600

Polymers, products & machinery

Type: Custom Polymers processed: PVC Polymer throughput: No Polymer consumption available Markets served: Electrical, Sockets and Plugs.

Type: Custom, Proprietary Products Polymers processed: ABS, PC, Elastomers. Polymer throughput: Between 1001 - 1500 tonnes Markets served: Telectron Services offered: Assembly Number of machines: 13 Minimum lock: 270 Maximum lock: 850 Maximum shot: 2500


Type: Custom Polymers processed: PS, HDPE, PP, PA Polymer throughput: Between 251 - 500 tonnes Markets served: Automotive, Very Small Car Components (Fuel & Air Ducts; Filters & Valves). Services offered: U/S Welding, Friction Welding, Assembly Number of machines: 15 Minimum lock: 60 Maximum lock: 200 Minimum shot: 15 Maximum shot: 427

3E SP. Z O.O.
ul. Okrna 1B 19-300 Ek Tel: 087 620 1630 Fax: 087 620 1630 E-mail: Website: Contact: Mr. Z. Hodyk, Plant Manager Parent company: Privately Owned Processes operated: Injection moulding


ul. Nowa Biaa 37 09-411 Biaa k/Pocka Tel: 024 364 0012 Fax: 024 364 0011 E-mail: Website: Contact: Mr. A. Rozalski, General Manager Parent company: A. Schulman Inc., OH Processes operated: Compounding


Type: In House Polymers processed: PS, ABS, LDPE, HDPE, PP, PVC, PA Polymer throughput: Less than 50 tonnes Markets served: Automotive, Car Components. Services offered: Tool Design, Tool Manufacture, Pad Printing, Assembly, Machining Number of machines: 6 Minimum lock: 25 Maximum lock: 90 Maximum shot: 500


Type: Custom Polymers processed: LDPE, HDPE, PP Polymer throughput: Between 251 - 500 tonnes Markets served: Medical/Pharmaceutical, Caps and Closures, Medication Measuring Spoons. Services offered: Printing on Closures.


ul. Aleja Jana Pawa II 94 Supno 05-250 Radzymin Tel: 022 786 6149/763 2820 Fax: 022 786 5357 E-mail: Website: Contact: Mr. W. Gobiowski, Chairman Parent company: Privately Owned ISO registration: ISO 9001v2000 Processes operated: Sheet extrusion


ul. Poznaska 132 62-052 Komorniki Tel: 061 810 7785 Fax: 061 810 8276 E-mail: Website: Contact: Mr. S. Zielaskowski, Owner Parent company: Privately Owned ISO registration: ISO 9001v2008 Processes operated: Injection moulding


Type: Proprietary Products Polymers processed: PS, LDPE, HDPE, PP, PET Polymer throughput: Between 101 - 250 tonnes Markets served: Household, Chopping Boards; Brushes. Number of machines: 20

Addresses & contacts



ul. Przemysowa 22 44-190 Knurw Tel: 032 335 7900/10 Fax: 032 335 7905 E-mail: Website: Contact: Mr. M. lczka, Co-owner Parent company: Privately Owned ISO registration: ISO 9001. Processes operated: Profile extrusion


ul. Klonowa 3 05-806 Komorw k/ Warszawy Tel: 022 759 1140 Fax: 022 759 1140 E-mail: Website: Contact: Mr. A. Bieluszko, Owner Parent company: Privately Owned Processes operated: Injection moulding

Type: Custom Polymers processed: PS, LDPE, PP Polymer throughput: Less than 50 tonnes Markets served: Household, Clothes Hangers. Services offered: Hot Foil Stamping Number of machines: 10 Maximum lock: 20 Minimum shot: 30 Maximum shot: 200


Type: Custom, In House Polymers processed: LDPE, HDPE, PP Polymer throughput: Less than 50 tonnes Markets served: Household, Furniture Components; Components for Candle Lamps. Number of machines: 3 Minimum lock: 100 Maximum lock: 160 Minimum shot: 80 Maximum shot: 240

Type: Custom, Proprietary Products Polymers processed: PS, ABS, PP, PA, PC, PET Polymer throughput: Between 101 - 250 tonnes Markets served: Electrical, Electrical Connectors Services offered: Assembly Number of machines: 11 Minimum lock: 60 Maximum lock: 160 Maximum shot: 200


ul. 1 Maja 14a 78-400 Szczecinek Tel: 094 374 0114 Fax: E-mail: Website: Contact: , Parent company: Privately Owned Processes operated: Injection moulding


ul. Skona 16 Batorowo 62-080 Tarnowo Podgrne Tel: 061 665 0300/308/314/315 Fax: 061 665 0317 E-mail: Website: Contact: Mr. R. Jakubiak, Managing Director Parent company: A Kayser Automotive GmbH, Germany ISO registration: ISO 9001v2000 Processes operated: Injection moulding


Available as a fully searchable database


Over the past decade polymer consumption has grown on average by 4% per year in Poland Make sure you know all about this dynamic industry

Companies included: Injection moulders Blow moulders Rotational moulders PE lm extruders Sheet extruders Cable extruders Pipe extruders Prole extruders Tube and hose extruders Compounders and masterbatch producers

6th edition

AMIs Directory



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Bioplastics compounding | materials feature

goods and longer term durable goods applications. Hallgreen R-9010 is a monomeric ester that imparts even more exibility, roughly three times the elongation of the R-8010. This product is really geared more towards non-FDA, single-use, disposable/compostable items, Stefanisin says. Roquette Frres produces Gaalene graft copolymers of starch and mineral oil based polyolen chains. The biobased content for all the commercial grades of these resins is certied to be at least 50%. The range includes compoundable grades, as well as grades ready for injection moulding and lm extrusion, as well as foaming. Lon Mentink, product manager at Roquette Frres, says that the companys Gaalene resins can be formulated in the same way as fossil-based resins to improve their mechanical, thermal, re resistance or aesthetic properties. Compounds based on Gaalene are currently used in specic sectors, especially domestic, cosmetic, electrical and electronic applications. The company provides two examples: the Green Tefabloc thermoplastic elastomer range from CTS used in shoes soles; and MajEco thermoplastic specialties from Ad Majoris used for example in hangers or electrical parts. DuPonts BioMax Strong increases the toughness of PLA considerably

Compounders go green
With its reSound range of compounds, PolyOne says that it is following a philosophy of producing higher

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materials feature | Bioplastics compounding

compounds with Dutch company Xindao, which makes promotional goods and is intent on developing more sustainable products. The two companies have collaborated to develop an enclosure for a solarpowered cell phone battery charger in reSound, and also the hand grip for an umbrella that uses recycled PET for its fabric. Dartee says that for durable applications, PolyOne is not so much interested in biodegradability in fact, it is important that durable goods do not biodegrade but more in the sustainability of the system as a whole. He also points out that the company is very aware that bio-based plastics can be susceptible to fungal and bacterial growth on the surface: We screen for this phenomenon. Teknor Apex is another major compounder with a strong interest in developing compounds of biopolymers and engineering thermoplastics. Last year, it launched new PLA alloys targeted at manufacturers wanting to incorporate substantial amounts of bio-based content in their products without sacricing the essential mechanical and thermal properties provided by ETPs. The soles of these shoes are made in a TPE compound based on Roquettes Gaalene starch-based resins performance materials that are partly based on bio solutions. Marcel Dartee, global marketing director for sustainable solutions & biomaterials at PolyOne, says that it has been looking to create formulations containing at least 30% bio-based material. Then we can be condent of making a change in the carbon footprint and energy content of those products, he explains. We see these compounds as a step forward in using bio-based materials, taking advantage of the benets they offer while still meeting performance requirements, mostly for durable applications, in for example automotive, electrical, and consumer goods. So we are moving the performance spectrum away from applications such as single-use packaging items and agricultural lms. The reSound compounds are combinations of various bio-based polymers from different sources together with engineering thermoplastics such as polycarbonate (PC) and ABS. PolyOne is targeting materials such as PC/ABS blends, and Dartee says it can achieve similar performance levels. It is even capable of producing reSound compounds in halogen-free ame retardant formulations. Compounds are being developed on a bespoke basis. They can contain around 45 to 50% by weight of biopolymer, along with other additives and pigments. Dartee says that the compounds are the result of PolyOne pushing the understanding of the chemistry in compounding with biopolymers to its limits. PolyOne has developed two applications for reSound

The company says that its Terraloy BP 70010 and 70011 compounds, with biopolymer contents of 40% and 36% respectively, provide strength, stiffness, and deection temperature under load similar to or better than standard polycarbonate, ABS, and PC/ABS blends. Potential applications include injection moulded housings, handles, covers, and other components of electronic devices, medical equipment, and consumer products. Both of the Terraloy alloys surpass ABS in mechanical and thermal properties and provide substantially higher levels of stiffness than PC or PC/ABS blends, says Edwin Tam, manager of new strategic initiatives at Teknor Apex. The company says that it can formulate other Terraloy 70000 Series alloys on a custom basis. Teknor Apexs Bioplastics Division also produces hybrids that combine thermoplastic starch with commodity polymers such as polyolens or polystyrene, as well as biodegradable or compostable blends of bioplastics and PLA-based masterbatches that incorporate additives such as impact modier or melt strength enhancers.

Increasing the bio-content of PVC

PVC does not have a good reputation among environmentalists, even if it is much less dependent on fossil-based feedstocks than many rival thermoplastics. It will be interesting to see if bio-based property modiers can change the situation. Several companies are working in this area. Developments show that, not

materials feature | Bioplastics compounding

only can PVC compounds be made more bio-based, but their properties can be improved too. At Metabolix, Robert Engle says that most traditional impact modiers used in the market for PVC are based on a rubber core inside a methacrylate or acrylic shell that acts as a compatibilizer in the PVC. The rubber stays as a separate domain. Our materials act in a quite different way, in a single phase, he says. PHA copolymers can contain hard crystalline and soft rubbery segments, which cannot be separated from each other. Both phases have good miscibility with PVC. Depending on the PHA polymer structure, we can get different impact modication behaviour, says Engle.

PHA is suitable for use in rigid (transparent and opaque), and exible PVC compounds. Metabolix launched its rst grades for PVC modication at the end of 2012, and has work ongoing with customers developing PVC compounds. We are working with customers in qualifying products in applications, Engle says. We are at the outset of the development but we do have a lot of interest. Compounds should be coming on to the market this year in the US. A Metabolix team in Europe will soon start similar development work. PHA has an interesting side effect in PVC, in that it counters discoloration, Engle says. It should therefore

Modular extruders cater for biopolymers

The growing importance of compounding with biopolymers becomes clear when speaking with Dean Elliott, laboratory manager at equipment company Entek Extruders. He says that biopolymer processing makes up approximately one third of its twin-screw compounding extrusion trials, with new materials and formulations arriving weekly. In 2006, it did none at all. And its not as if Entek was late to the party: it was actually an early participant in biopolymer processing. Plantic Technologies [a producer of starch-based materials] came to Entek in 2003 for assistance in developing proprietary material formulas, Elliott says. Entek now categorizes biopolymers into three key areas: reactive bio-based materials (starch-based materials and plasticizers); bioresin materials (PLA, PHA, PSM); and bio-based blends (bioresins or starches blended with thermoplastics). Each of these categories has its own processing challenges and requires different co-rotating twin-screw extruder congurations for successful processing, Elliott says. Successful processing of many types of biopolymers requires maximized residence time for optimum end product quality, while maintaining limited shear rates to control extrudate temperature. This can often be done by utilizing long extruders (eg 52:1 L/D). At elevated extrudate temperatures,

Entek says that around one third of its lab trials are for bioplastic formulation

foaming at the die can be an issue. Together with optimized screw design, an additional method to reduce extrudate temperature without jeopardizing increased residence time or product quality (especially when processing reactive families/starches) is to adjust the levels of moisture introduction in conjunction with the number of vents and the level of vacuum draw at the vents. When properly adjusted, not only is the extrudate temperature reduced, but the temperature at which foaming occurs increases. Another manufacturer of compounding lines, Coperion says that its ZSK extruders, with their modular process sections, are just as suitable for

compounding biopolymers as they are for classical plastics. Not that it is simple though, and numerous factors have to be taken into consideration, according to the company. The conguration and length of the process section, including the screw geometry, need to be determined, while vacuum pumps for drawing off steam and other volatile components from the melt must be congured. Die plates can be optimised by the company based on simulations and ow calculations, while the design of the pelletizing system depends on the water sensitivity of the biodegradable products.


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Bioplastics compounding | materials feature

be possible to make PVC compounds for outdoor use with less UV stabilizer than normal. With PHA, it is possible to create a clear PVC for external use with no UV stability problems, Engle claims. Metabolix materials can be used at addition rates of up to around 20% in PVC without affecting clarity. PHA copolymers could also be very useful in plasticization as they reduce Tg, says Engles colleague, senior polymer scientist Yelena Kann. So a rubbery PHA copolymer can increase exibility as well as enhance impact resistance. The incorporation of PHA could, if not completely replace the monomeric plasticizer, reduce its loading very signicantly, Kann says. This would improve resistance to migration, extraction and volatilization.
20130503-.pdf 2 2013/5/21 09:27:31

bioplasticizers, reFlex 100 and reFlex 300, based on a single chemistry platform. They were developed in collaboration with Archer Daniels Midland (ADM), with which it has been collaborating since 2008. It sees opportunities to replace existing plasticizers in selected applications, including PVC plastisols for ooring and similar publications. The plasticizers are based on soybean oil, and they can be used on their own or as co-plasticizers with DINCH, commonly used in plastisols. PolyOne has commercial applications in the US and also in Europe. Last year, Georgia Gulf (now part of Axiall) and Galata Chemicals began a collaborative effort to develop a line of exible biobased phthalatefree PVC compounds containing Drapex Alpha, a primary plasticizer produced from renewable feedstocks by Galata Chemicals. The compounds are said to be ideal for wire and cable, medical

This Xindao solar charger for cell phones is made with a PolyOne reSound biopolymerETP compound

PolyOne has two grades of reFlex

materials feature | Bioplastics compounding

Teknor Apex says target markets for Terraloy BP 70010 and 70011 compounds include electronic devices, such as barcode scanners

the performance attributes of trimellitates, according to Steven McKeown, president and COO of Galata Chemicals.

More information
Dean Elliot, lab manager at Entek, will discuss the compounding of biobased plastics and natural bres at the Compounding World Forum 2013, which takes place in Philadelphia, PA, USA, on 10-11 December. In addition, Jack Leahy, vice president of manufacturing at Techmer PM, will present a paper outlining a protable path to sustainable compounding. More details at AMIs third Green Polymer Chemistry conference is taking place on 18-20 March 2014 in Cologne, Germany. For more information on participating in this event as a speaker, sponsor or attendee, please contact Dr Sally Humphreys:, tel: +44 117 924 9442.

Click on the links for more information:

uses and a range of general-purpose customer needs. At the time of the launch, the two companies said PVC compounds containing the new plasticizer exhibit improved extraction resistance, substantially reduced amounts of volatile organic compounds, and enhanced processability. Galata Chemicals launched the Drapex Alpha range just over a year ago. The latest addition is Alpha 200C, designed for use in white and clear PVC compounds as well as specialty applications requiring


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The international conference on business strategies and new technologies for compounders

December 10-11, 2013

Hilton Philadelphia City Avenue, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
Images courtesy of: Coperion, Foster Corporation, PolyOne, Renault, and Teknor Apex

SPECIAL OFFER: Save $200 if you register before November 1, 2013

Organized by: Applied Market Information LLC & Compounding World Sponsored by:

Tuesday, December 10, 2013 8:00 9:00 Registration and welcome coffee Opening announcements


December 10-11, 2013 Hilton Philadelphia City Avenue, Philadelphia, PA, USA
Applied Market Information and Compounding World magazine are pleased to announce the Compounding World Forum, taking place December 10-11, 2013 at the Hilton Philadelphia City Avenue, in Philadelphia, PA, USA. This new conference features a high-level program brought together by the editorial team of Compounding World, exploring and developing many of the magazines most popular themes in a live event. It will provide an excellent opportunity for discussion and networking between the international panel of speakers and delegates. The conference will cover business strategies and new materials technologies, as well as providing practical advice on getting the most from compounding lines. The primary focus will be on the production of technical compounds based on engineering thermoplastics, performance polyolens and thermoplastic elastomers. Key end-use markets that will be addressed include the automotive, medical, electrical/electronic and consumer goods sectors. A wide range of polymer and additives technologies will be covered including electrically and thermally conductive compounds, antimicrobial formulations, llers and reinforcements, ame retardants, bio-based materials, and anti-counterfeiting techniques. Strategic business and production issues will also be addressed, including growing a compounding business in a global marketplace, improving sustainability, clean compounding for medical markets, and responding to emerging regulations. In addition, leading experts will discuss how to get the very best from compounding lines with a wide range of practical tips and advice.


Analyzing changes in the global compounding industry Mr. Andy Beevers, Publisher/Editor, Compounding World magazine, APPLIED MARKET INFORMATION Ltd., United Kingdom Growing a protable formulating and compounding business in a dynamic, global economy Mr. Roger Avakian, Vice President, Scientic Development, POLYONE CORPORATION, United States Implementing clean compounding to meet the needs of the medical market Mr. Paul Burke, Vice President of Manufacturing, TEKNOR APEX, United States



10:40-11:10 Coffee break sponsored by: 11:10 Metal replacement: Finding practical solutions with technical compounds Mr. Jeffrey McCoy, Manager, Marketing & Business Development, A. SCHULMAN INC., United States Responding to changing regulations in America and beyond Ms. Melissa Hockstad, Vice President - Science, Technology & Regulatory Affairs, SPI: THE PLASTICS INDUSTRY TRADE ASSOCIATION, United States


SESSION 2 ADDING VALUE TO TECHNICAL COMPOUNDS 12:10 Combating piracy with innovative anti-counterfeiting additives for thermoplastics Mr. Stuart Swain, Director of Sales and Marketing, CHROMA CORPORATION, United States

12:40-2:10 Lunch sponsored by: 2:10 Selection and application of antimicrobial additives in thermoplastic compounds Ms. Lise Moloney, Director Business Development, Healthcare, SCIESSENT, United States Pushing the limits of polypropylene developing the worlds rst all-plastic, mono-material automotive tailgate Mr. Anis Tebib, Marketing Manager Automotive, STYRON, Germany Flame retardancy of engineering plastics Dr. Martin Klatt, Senior Manager Research, BASF SE, Germany

CONFERENCE HOTLINE Contact: Ms. Kelly Cressman, Conference Coordinator Tel: +1 610 478 0800 Fax: +1 610 478 0900 Email:


FIVE GOOD REASONS WHY YOU SHOULD ATTEND: 1. Hear leading experts discuss key trends in technical compounding 2. Discover new additive and materials technologies 3. Learn practical tips for getting the most from compounding lines 4. Gain insights into global market trends and business strategies 5. Network with other professionals in the compounding industry

3:40-4:10 Coffee break SESSION 3 IMPROVING SUSTAINABILITY 4:10 A protable path to sustainable compounding Mr. Jack Leahy, Vice President of Manufacturing, TECHMER PM LLC, United States Engineered wood bers for a new generation of biocomposites Mr. Christophe Chambonnet, Global Manager, Woodforce, SONAE INDUSTRIA (WOODFORCE), Canada Compounding of bio-based plastics and natural bers Mr. Dean Elliott, Lab Manager, ENTEK EXTRUDERS, United States



5:40-7:00 Cocktail Reception

Wednesday, December 11, 2013 8:30 9:00 Welcome coffee Opening announcements

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Save $200
Register before November 1, 2013 and save $200
CONFERENCE VENUE Located on the East Coast of the United States, Philadelphia has a major international airport and is just hours away from New York and Washington DC. The city sights include historic buildings, museums, shopping malls and beautiful parks. Philadelphia offers its visitors a multicultural experience with many different types of dining and entertainment. SPONSORSHIP & EXHIBITION SPACE With an exhibition running alongside the conference as well as a range of sponsorship opportunities, there are ample ways to make sure your company stands out at the conference. All options have proven to be successful marketing tools and will effectively increase brand awareness. The table top package includes one complimentary delegate space and allows companies to display their products and services to a highly targeted audience. Sponsorships will guarantee your company logo will be included on all conference promotions and the event website. To book your table top or secure your sponsorship for the Compounding World Forum 2013 please contact the Conference Coordinator. ORGANISED BY: APPLIED MARKET INFORMATION LLC Applied Market Information LLC is the North American operation of Applied Market Information Ltd., Europes leading supplier of plastics consultancy and information services to the global plastics industry. AMI LLC can offer the full range of AMI services and products to North American clients.Together with our well-established European-based operations this means AMI is well placed to provide a truly global research capability to our clients. Based in Reading PA, Applied Market Information LLC can supply all of AMIs European directories and CDs and is developing a whole new range of products for the North American market. Its range of specialized services cover individual consulting services, multi-client reports, conferences and publishing. To nd out more about AMIs conference program or any of our other services and products visit our web site at: or call the AMI LLC ofce at: +1 610 478 0800 or email: COMPOUNDING WORLD MAGAZINE Compounding World is the monthly digital magazine for the global plastics compounding industry. Published by AMI, it is available free-of-charge online and via free apps for iPads, iPhones and Android-based devices.

SESSION 4 ADDING ELECTRICAL AND THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY 9:10 Adding electrical and thermal conductivity to plastics compounds Ing. Christine Van Bellingen, Product Manager, Carbon Black & Graphite for Polymers, TIMCAL GRAPHITE & CARBON, Belgium Advanced functional llers for thermally conductive compounds: Key technology for cost reduction in electronic thermal management Mr. Armin Kayser, Director of Business Development, ESK CERAMICS GmbH & Co KG, Germany


SESSION 5 REINFORCEMENTS AND FILLERS 10:10 Adding functionality and value to medical compounds with novel reinforcements, llers and additives Dr. Larry Acquarulo, CEO, FOSTER CORPORATION, United States

10:40-11:10 Coffee break 11:10 Integration of design, materials and manufacturing in long ber thermoplastic composites Dr. Raj Mathur, V.P. Technology & Business Development, PLASTICOMP INC., United States New mineral opportunities in polymers Dr. Saied Kochesfahani, Development Manager, Polymers, IMERYS, United States


SESSION 6 GETTING THE MOST FROM YOUR COMPOUNDING PLANT 12:10 Tips for optimizing twin-screw extrusion Mr. Bert Elliott, Engineering Manager, LEISTRITZ EXTRUDER CORP., United States

12:40-2:10 Lunch 2:10 Optimizing screw congurations for twin-screw compounding extruders Mr. Adam Dreiblatt, Director, Process Technology, CPM CENTURY EXTRUSION, United States System engineering: The global rise of turn-key compounding lines Mr. Matt Sieverding, General Manager, KRAUSSMAFFEI BERSTORFF NA, United States Taming hard-to-handle ingredients, and increasing loading levels Dr. Paul Andersen, Director, Process Technology, COPERION CORPORATION, United States Afternoon wrap up and questions Conference ends Conference bag sponsored by:



3:40 4:00

AMI reserves the right to alter the program without notice. The latest program including any new speakers or changes to schedules can be viewed on our website

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Date and location: December 10-11, 2013 Hilton Philadelphia City Avenue 4200 City Avenue Philadelphia, PA 19131, USA Tel: +1 215 879 4000 Image courtesy of: Hilton Philadelphia City Avenue HOTEL ACCOMMODATION The conference fee does not include lodging. We have negotiated a special rate of $150 per night for a single or double occupancy at the Hilton Philadelphia City Avenue. Please contact the hotels reservation department directly and be sure to mention the "AMIs Compounding World Forum 2013 conference" to qualify for the special room rate. The hotel rate is guaranteed for a limited number of rooms so do not delay in making your reservation for a room at the conference location. REGISTRATION FEE Register before November 1, 2013 for only $990. Thereafter the fee will be $1190. Registration includes all sessions, conference proceedings, the cocktail reception, luncheons, and break refreshments. GROUP RATES For companies wishing to register two or more delegates, group discounts are available. Please contact the Conference Coordinator for more details. SPONSOR THIS EVENT AND PROMOTE YOUR COMPANY AMI events are more than just arenas for listening and networking. They also represent highly targeted opportunities to enhance your image and promote your products and services to an international audience. Each event offers the following unique awareness building opportunities: sponsorship of the welcome cocktail reception, lunches, coffee breaks, and much more. For further information please contact the Conference Coordinator at +1 610 478 0800. EXHIBITION PACKAGE This package includes an exhibition space in the conference room where we will be hosting registration, the cocktail reception and coffee breaks, giving exhibitors maximum exposure. It also includes 1 free delegate place. Exhibitors may either use tables provided by the hotel or bring their own stand or display. A limited number of tables are available and are assigned on a first come, first serve basis. The cost of this package is $1990. Please note: When applicable, exhibitors are responsible for any electricity and/or handling fees involved with their booth. For further information please contact the Conference Coordinator. SOCIAL EVENTS The social events organized for AMIs Compounding World Forum 2013 conference will provide an ideal setting for delegates and speakers to mix business with pleasure. On the first evening, everyone is warmly invited to attend the welcome cocktail reception. SUBSTITUTIONS / CANCELLATIONS Delegates may be substituted at any time at no charge. We ask that you provide ample notification of substitution in order that materials can be prepared. Full refunds, less an administrative charge of $200 will only be made on cancellations received prior to November 1, 2013. We regret that we cannot make refunds on cancellations received after this date or for no-shows at the conference. Please note that refunds cannot be made on table top bookings.

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Compounding World Forum 2013 December 10-11, 2013 Hilton Philadelphia City Avenue Philadelphia, PA, USA Company: ______________________________________________ Address: _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ Tel:_______________________ Fax: _________________________ Company activity: _______________________________________

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Weathering resistance | materials feature

Efforts are underway to speed up weathering tests without compromising the accuracy of their results. Pat Toensmeier looks at how the industry is dealing with these evolving needs

Withstanding the weather

Work is advancing toward the development of weathering tests for pigmented polymers that will be more uniform in their results, realistic in their replication of environmental conditions and reliable in the correlation of indoor and outdoor data. The effort is mostly focused on laboratory tests, though some outdoor procedures attract concern as well. One factor behind these trends is the demand from end-users for speedier results. Time is money in manufacturing and distribution, and economic issues are a compelling reason to reduce test times. Other factors include the ongoing substitution of organic pigments for inorganics and heavy metals in polymer formulations, as well as consumer preferences for bright colours and special effects like pearlescents and metallics in markets such as automotive. All of these typically require broad weathering data, along with formulation tweaks to promote pigment dispersion, improved stabilizer packages to maintain colourfastness, and polymer substrates that prevent colour shifts and other breakdowns during use. ASTM, the international standards organisation, is acting to improve accuracy by adding a standard for indoor weather testing of vehicle coatings later this year that contains new rules for moisture content, which many experts maintain is underrepresented in current tests. The standard could signicantly upgrade laboratory capabilities. Other organisations such as ISO, the Society of Automotive Engineers, the Vinyl Siding Institute and the Synthetic Turf Council are reportedly reevaluating or updating some of their

test standards as well, with an eye towards reducing cycle times through the use of greater acceleration ratios. Even organisations that are not directly connected with standards can have a major inuence on weather test protocols. One such is FIFA, the international football federation. FIFAs regulations for synthetic turf include tests that are based on the ISO 4892-3 standard, which involves a relatively short 3,000 hours of accelerated uorescent light exposure. One technique for accelerating tests is increasing irradiance levels. This is hardly new laboratories have been doing it for years, outdoors with sunlightintensifying mirrors, as well as indoors with lamps and lters. Generating a ve-fold increase in accelerated testing, for example, yields 10 years of weather exposure in just two years. But there are limits to this approach, says Allen Zielnik, senior consultant for weathering science at Atlas Material Testing Technology. Many materials do not respond to accelerated testing in a linear fashion, he advises. As irradiance increases there will be temperature-control issues. Time under moisture and temperature are also different than in normal tests. This approach requires more rigorous study. Zielnik says that one approach to accelerated lab testing is to apply light with better spectral matching properties in other words, light that more accurately duplicates sunlight and does not resort to a brute force approach of applying severe wavelengths for the sake of accelerated testing. Labs that maintain a

materials feature | Weathering resistance

Researchers at Atlas pay special attention to indoor tests to ensure results correlate with outdoor data

high noon intensity of light this way can increase brightness two to three times and, with careful spectral monitoring, match the wavelength of sunlight and get accurate results while reducing test cycles. Atlas has developed optical lters for xenon arc lamps that reportedly provide a close full-spectrum match to sunlight. Called Right Light, the device, which uses quartz or a coated infrared material in an outer lter, promotes sample degradation that nearly matches that of end-use environments, the company maintains. As a result, irradiance levels can be increased to achieve greater test acceleration without distorting results. Zielnik also advises of the need to closely monitor the surface temperatures of samples, which are affected by irradiance levels and test conditions, and are typically higher than those that will be encountered during average product use. Some companies, meanwhile, are looking at the controlled addition of environmental contaminants during lab tests to replicate the effect of pollution on colours. The dark cycle, or night-time testing of colours, is also getting attention. One reason is evidence that some colour formulations recover or equilibrate at night from effects caused by sunlight, and learning more about this process could improve formulations. Another reason is more practical: eliminating it could reduce testing cycles. While no single procedure will emerge that meets every need, companies specializing in weathering tests and equipment, along with polymer and pigment producers and compounders, expect gains to be made place Arizona, south Florida or Southeast Asia tests can last anywhere from 12,000 to 17,000 hours, the latter representing two years of continuous, accelerated exposure. And herein lies the problem for some pigment suppliers and end-users. Lengthy testing costs money and delays product launches. The extra development costs can place price-sensitive products at a disadvantage when manufacturers compete against low-cost offshore goods. Test duration, however, is controversial since many experts do not believe that shorter tests yield accurate data. Signicant problems can arise when test times are shortened, says Larry Campbell, director of technology at compounder Americhem. Campbell, who helps develop pigments for synthetic turf (mostly made of linear low-density polyethylene), is concerned that a rush to reduce exposure time outdoors and in the laboratory by ratcheting up accelerated testing will fail to account for all conditions that affect colour performance. It comes down to what a company wants: predictive, relevant data, or speculative data, he remarks. When it comes to synthetic turf, Campbell notes that end-users usually expect outdoor installations and colours to last 10 years. FIFAs certication of the 3,000-hour ISO 4892-3 standard, which equates to 125 days of accelerated testing, is not a lot of time for testing, he says. In developing a suitable green for an articial turf installation, Campbell says that a specied hue could comprise ve pigments of varying intensity. Each needs to be carefully checked for weathering both on its own and as part of a blend, to assure it remains colourfast. He adds that some inuential organisations establish standards and dene testing cycles based on faulty information. There is often no correlation between the test they specify and the test they really need.

Atlas operates a massive outdoor test site in south Florida

in improving the reliability and accuracy of tests while reducing the time necessary to conduct them. Many weathering tests are designed to replicate 10 years of average product use. Depending on laboratory conditions or the intensity of sunlight where they take




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International conference on backsheets, encapsulants and other polymer materials in photovoltaic systems

September 10-11, 2013


Hilton Philadelphia City Avenue, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

SPECIAL OFFER: Save $200 if you register before August 2, 2013

Organized by: Applied Market Information LLC Media supporters:

Amanda Schaeffer Conference Coordinator Ph: +1 610 478 0800 Fx: +1 610 478 0900

Weathering resistance | materials feature

As an example, Campbell cites a weathering test for synthetic turf adopted by Lega Nazionale Dilettanti (LND), the National Amateur League of Italy, which governs that countrys amateur football activities. The LND requires that tests be conducted under ultraviolet (UV) light according to the ISO 4892-3 UVB-314 standard (also listed as EN 14836 by the British Standards Institution) for 2,500 hours. Campbell argues that the duration is too short for any meaningful weathering data to emerge, and points out that the specic lamp in use generates a UV light that is present 30 miles up in the stratosphere, but completely ltered out at sea level. They have specied a weathering test with a light that doesnt exist on Earth, he says. Test concerns are set against a changing and challenging market for plastics. The ongoing process of materials substitution, where plastics replace wood, glass, metal and concrete, and intra-polymer competition, in which one type of plastic replaces another, creates situations where property trade-offs may affect colour performance. End-users obviously want problem-free transitions and are thus increasingly asking for performance assurances they can pass along to their customers, usually in the form of extended product warranties. People understand the performance of conventional materials, but need warranties when it comes to new materials, says Roger Reinicker, technical fellow and applications specialist at BASF. This is driving efforts by Americhem colour samples undergo outdoor testing


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materials feature | Weathering resistance

high-effect pigments. As with many companies, Sun Chemical uses a combination of both accelerated laboratory and natural weathering tests as standard protocols. Accelerated laboratory test data, though, is hard to reconcile with outdoor tests. Reinicker of BASF afrms that efforts to duplicate real-world conditions indoors are difcult. BASF conducted a three-year outdoor test that did not correlate well with the results of a xenon arc test. The xenon arc results came in as we thought they would, he explains, but did not reect the outdoor test data. Reinicker says that among the issues involved in correlating test results from the two are environmental pollutants. We need to think about how to introduce BASFs Heliogen pigment gives this turf a deep green, while its Uvinul stabilizer withstands UV damage materials suppliers to do better at predicting exactly what happens to colour when specifying different pigments and polymers for products, he adds. Which is another reason why weathering tests are being re-evaluated for accuracy and relevance. Weather testing has for some time been a straightforward exercise, with data derived primarily from indoor tests using xenon arc or uorescent light and outdoor exposure in sun-rich and subtropical climates. The trend now is to further support accelerated lab data with natural exposure results to assure end-users of colour quality, says Scott Heitzman, business development manager for plastics and global product manager for high-performance pigments at Sun Chemical. The cooperation and information exchange along the supply chain is the biggest change in assisting colour development and selection. Heitzman notes that broader application requirements mandate that end-users have access to a range of information about polymer and pigment formulations, stabilizer packages, thermal resistance and, of course, weathering data, to specify the bestperforming colours for products. This is especially true BASF formulates light stabilizers to maintain the colour and durability of stadium seating in critical markets such as automotive, where aesthetics play a big role in product appeal. While he believes that weathering tests and specications are solid and continue to evolve, he adds that the communication and interpretation of results need improvement. Colour problems, he adds, are usually attributed to pigments. But other factors need to be addressed, notably crazing, gloss retention, substrate yellowing and polymer failure. Heitzman says this requires a more balanced approach to the analysis of test data and consideration of all factors that could affect pigment performance in polymers. Sun Chemicals specialty is high-performance and

contaminants in a test chamber on a controlled basis to replicate the pollution to which outdoor colours are exposed. Another issue is nding lters that accurately reproduce all of the wavelengths and constituent components of sunlight in xenon arc lamps. The accurate mimicking of sunlight is critical to indoor testing, Reinicker explains. Also important is the ability to precisely evaluate heat build-up caused by total solar reectance, which is especially critical to colour integrity in vinyl siding, polymer-composite decking and articial turf. An evolving capability that companies are focusing on in lab testing, though, is moisture. Its not a new concern, of course moisture has long been a part of indoor tests. However, the imminent ASTM standard, currently in committee and tagged WK39045, is designed to accurately duplicate the environmental stress of subtropical thermal cycling caused by rain, humidity and sunlight on exterior colours specied for transportation vehicles. The protocol is titled: New practice for standard practice for xenon arc exposure test with enhanced light

materials feature | Weathering resistance


ability to degrade colours, owing to the rapid cycling of heat, humidity, rain and sunlight. A recent product development from Q-Lab is the Q-Sun Xe-2 rotating-rack xenon arc test chamber, which Fowler says replicates the impact of sun and rain on test samples. Its accelerated test capabilities include duplication of noontime summer sunlight on a 24/7 basis, and generating in days the impact of months or years of outdoor exposure. The unit has lters that meet the requirements of global xenon test standards; offers precision control of humidity, chamber air and black panel/black standard temperature; and can be A new ASTM standard will improve the testing of coatings for vehicles ranging from cars to aircraft and water exposure for transportation coatings. Put simply, ASTM states that it is a procedure for the use of a controlled xenon arc light and water apparatus equipped with one or more lamps and optical lters to simulate sunlight in the UV range, along with water absorption and stress cycles. This standard was developed to address the deciencies of historical tests used for transportation coatings, especially automotive coatings, according to a statement by ASTM. The vehicles covered will include trucks, railcars and aircraft, as well as passenger cars. Sean Fowler, technical marketing specialist for equipment supplier and test services provider Q-Lab, says that 40% of each 24-hour test cycle will be given over to the application of moisture in the new standard. Testing will reportedly begin with several hours of water spray and humidity before activation of the xenon arc light. The test seeks to reproduce summer weather conditions in south Florida a global benchmark that Fowler says are among the harshest anywhere in their Click on the links for more information: equipped with an optional water spray. While there is no deadline for the testing industry to develop the faster and more accurate weathering tests users want, it seems likely that incremental improvements will appear in the near term that go a long way toward meeting these needs. No matter how it happens, though, accurate data, even if it still means longer-than-expected testing cycles, is absolutely essential to product success. As Zielnik remarks: The time to nd out if there is a problem in colour selection is not when a product is in the market.


New materials weathering handbook

The 5th edition of the descriptions of the environmental and climatic conditions encountered and methods used to measure and simulate their effects; a survey of the data available on more than 50 specic polymers including the good and bad inuences of additives; and a survey of ndings on more than 40 specic product types. The last two sections are derived from a comprehensive analysis of the published literature (almost 3,000 references are cited throughout the book) and the author has not only extracted the most useful data on degradation routes and product durability but also indicated where research is still required. The effects of weathering range from cosmetic to catastrophic and this book provides a comprehensive and up-to-date guide for designers of products from automotive and aerospace equipment to construction materials, composites and sealants. You can order the book at:

Handbook of Material Weathering by George Wypych has just been published. Devoted almost entirely to polymer materials and products, this new edition is reportedly three times the size of the 1990 original, reecting the importance of the subject and the quantity of recent research ndings. The book features four main sections: an explanation of the science of weathering and its effect on materials;



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International conference on compounding of polyolens focusing on PP and PE materials and applications

10-12 September 2013

Hotel Nikko, Dsseldorf, Germany
Images courtesy of: Songwon International AG
* + 19% German VAT

SPECIAL OFFER: Save 100* if you register before 19th July 2013
Organised by: Applied Market Information Ltd. Sponsored by: Media supporters:

Giulia Esposito, Conference Organiser Ph: +44 117 924 9442 Fax: +44(0)117 311 1534

Automotive interiors | applications feature

Technical compounder Luxus worked closely with Milliken and Nissan to develop a high recycled content PP for Class A interior applications that cuts weight while improving scratch resistance. Chris Smith reports

Recycled PP proves up to scratch

Environmental performance now ranks high on the agenda for the major automotive manufacturers, many of which are seeking material options that can reduce vehicle weight or increase recycled content. The ideal option, however, would be to do both and that was the goal for UK-based technical compounder Luxus, which has developed - together with car maker RenaultNissan and chemical group Milliken - a new line of high recycled content, lightweight PP compounds that can replace current talc-lled grades in demanding interior applications without sacricing aesthetics. Development of the Luxus Hycolene range of high recycled content PP polymer compounds was detailed in a joint presentation given at last months VDI Automotive Engineering conference in Mannheim in Germany. The compounds, which use the Hyperform HPR-803i synthetic mineral reinforcing bre developed by Milliken, have been engineered to provide a weight saving of 10-12% per part while offering improved scratch resistance over current talc-lled PP alternatives. The Hycolene compounds have been developed in cooperation with the Renault-Nissan engineering team based at the Nissan Technical Centre Europe at Craneld in the UK, with the interior door trim mouldings for the current Nissan Qashqai model selected as the test programme. Nissans materials design and test (DKN) manager Mark Ellis explains that the rst appeal of the new compounds was the potential weight savings. Like all in the auto industry, weight reduction is very

important to us, particularly with our electric vehicle strategy where we are trying to offset the weight of the batteries and to extend the range. The best available means of doing that is weight reduction at the moment. But also, we are very environmentally focused and recycled plastic has been a continuing theme for us since the days of the Bluebird when we were applying recycled materials from Luxus and other UK recyclers for applications like wheel arch liners, underbody parts, says Ellis. When we design or develop any part on a vehicle we are set a weight target. That may be a percentage weight reduction on the previous model or a benchmark best in class. Every module or assembly on the vehicle has a weight target, as well as a cost target, and we work together with the design engineers to bring in new or alternative material technologies that will meet those targets. The technology we apply will vary from model to model and vehicle to vehicle. On something like a GTR Skyline variant we can spend a lot more money on weight reduction, which is why we apply carbon bre materials in a wide number of applications. If we are looking at a more standard passenger vehicle cost

Main image and below: The rear door liner of Nissans Qashqai car was used as the benchmark for the Hycolene test programme



applications feature | Automotive interiors

slightly because spiral ow tests showed the ow of the new material is as good as the old material but at a lower MFI. So the ow in the mould is like-for-like. And the impact strength is unchanged, says Burton. Moulding trials carried out at Tier One supplier R-Tek showed the new compound not only matches the current grade on paper, but also in processing terms. We have made a like-for-like product, says Burton. We took the material to R-Tek, who mould the door panels for Nissan in our current 16407 grade, and we put our new material onto the mould and it ran rst time without any change. The visual aspect did not change although we had gone from 25% talc to a much lower ller loading. 10N Erichsen scratch test results: Hycolene 16624 versus 16407 production Source: Luxus grade Replacement of a large proportion of the talc ller with the Milliken additive also paid a benet in terms of scratch resistance. It turned out that scratch resistance was much, much better. Because we had is a lot more in focus so the technology we apply for something like Qashqai or the Leaf electric vehicle is a completely different calculation and economic balance, he says. The Qashqai door panels are currently produced in a 25% talc lled PP compound (16407) supplied by Luxus. The companys technical manager Terry Burton says this meant it had tightly dened performance requirements against which to measure its Hycolene alternative. Using the Milliken Hyperform HPR-803i additive to displace some of the talc ller allowed it to achieve a 12% weight reduction per door trim (equivalent to an actual weight saving of 77g per part) and increase the recycled resin content from 40 to 49% for the Hycolene product (16624). The Hycolene 16624 grade matched or exceeded the key mechanical and impact performance of the current 16407 compound. We initially set out to match but what weve managed to do is increase the exural modulus and the HDT. We have also changed the melt ow index taken 15% of talc out of the compound you lose that whitening effect, says Burton. Luxus specialises in producing compounds with recycled polymers and has an established supply chain for both post-consumer and post-industrial recycled PP polymer. However, Burton says he believes the company is unique in Europe in being able to offer recycled compounds for Class A nish automotive interior components, which he attributes to its supply chain and in-house sorting and materials selection. The material we are looking for is the very best of what is available. We have companies that we have designated through our internal processes as approved PP automotive interior grade suppliers but even for those as soon as the material comes into our plant we start sorting. We look at colour, we check for odour, we FTIR test for contamination, he says. Unlike traditional virgin compounders, Luxus has to take into account the volume of recycled materials available. The volumes are there and we have been

What is Hyperform?
Millikens Hyperform HPR-803i is a synthetic mineral-based reinforcement bre with an approximate diameter of 0.5 microns and length of 20 microns. It has a density of 2.3 g/cm3, compared with 2.7 g/cm3 for talc and 2.6 g/cm3 for glass bre. According to data from Milliken, the additive can match the exural modulus of a 30% talc lled PP at a loading of just 12%. HDT performance of typical talc-lled PP grades can also be matched at lower loading levels using the Hyperform additive. Typical benets of replacing talc with the new additive include reduced density, improved balance of stiffness and impact performance, and an improvement in scratch resistance of the nal part.



International conference on blowing agents and foaming technology for polymer materials

19-21 November 2013

Marriott Hotel, Hamburg Germany
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applications feature | Automotive interiors

required, allowing car makers to handle limited run special editions if required. The Hycolene 16624 grade has met Nissans requirements in terms of visuals and dimensional criteria. The car maker is now undertaking further mechanical tests prior to making any commercialisation decisions. We are looking at both existing and future model applications, says Nissans Ellis. The latest trials show the dimensional differences are quite negligible on not very large panels so there is a potential weight saving on current models. But most likely it will be PP compound weight reduction and recycled content
Source: Luxus

introduced on new models where the tooling is specically designed to get the best from the new materials by reducing wall thickness. There is a slight performance improvement and that would allow us to slightly downsize the wall thickness to add another weight saving opportunity. Price will certainly be a factor that will come into play in any commercialisation decision. There is a slight price premium on this product because the Hyperform additive is more expensive than talc, says Luxuss Burton. But it is going to be grade dependent, I think. Like-for-like with virgin we are not going to be too dissimilar, but like-for-like with recycled we may be slightly more expensive. Each grade will have to be

Physical properties: Hycolene 16624 versus 16407 production grade

Source: Luxus

priced on its own merits. supplying in large volumes to Nissan for over 10 years. But there is a difference between virgin and recycled material in that recycled material is nite whereas virgin material is not. So some planning needs to take place before setting up a grade, says Burton. Colour also needs to be considered. Blacks, greys and browns can be managed easily with recycled materials. Bright colours are more challenging. Burton says the company is supplying a light grey recycled compound for Nissans Leaf electric vehicle. However, the weight saving benets of the Hycolene formulation can also be exploited in virgin PP compounds if Click on the links for more information: Burton says the compounder is now looking ahead to additional Hycolene grades, including a high impact version as well as different colour and shrinkage options. Luxus is also seeking opportunities to license the Hycolene compounding technology, with the Indian market a prime attraction. The company recently announced an agreement with local Indian polymer sourcing and distribution specialist KPL International.


AMI Strategy Seminars

These one-day seminars are given by an AMI director and provide invaluable insights into market trends and industry strategies. They are held in small groups and provide ample opportunities for questions and discussions.

15 October 2013: Cologne, Germany 9 December 2013: Dubai, UAE

Contact: Katy Cheng,, +44 117 924 9442

Promote your presence at the global plastics show using our global plastics magazines The great thing about the K show in Dsseldorf is that it attracts visitors from every corner of the world. Make sure that these international attendees know where to nd your booth among the 3,000 other exhibitors at this years show by advertising in our targeted magazines. These have a truly global readerships, both online and through our apps for the iPad/iPhone and Android devices (full details in our media packs use the relevant links). Take your pick from these 17 dedicated issues:
August: K 2013 rst look September: K 2013 preview October: K 2013 show issue November: News from K 2013 December: K 2013 review Click here to download the full media pack August: K 2013 rst look September: K 2013 preview October: K 2013 show issue November/December: K 2013 review Click here to download the full media pack July/August: K 2013 rst look September: K 2013 preview October: K 2013 show issue November/December: K 2013 review Click here to download the full media pack July/August: K 2013 rst look September: K 2013 preview October: K 2013 show issue November/December: K 2013 review Click here to download the full media pack

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Meet the experts behind AMI Magazines

AMI Plastics launched its marketfocused digital magazines for the global plastics industry nearly ve years ago. Our aim is to deliver the highest quality and most relevant technical information and industry analysis. In order to achieve this, we have assembled one of the most experienced and technically qualied teams in the plastics magazine sector. Technically qualied Unlike most plastics magazine editors and journalists, all of our editors have a relevant science or engineering degree. They also have extensive experience of covering the plastics industry, each having spent at least 20 years in this market. Expert support Our three editors are backed up by a highly experienced team of regular contributors, plus the expertise of the AMI Consulting team. No other plastics magazine has direct in-house access to this level of international industry knowledge and understanding. Meet us in Dsseldorf Our team will be at the K 2013 exhibition in Dsseldorf, Germany in October. Meet us on the AMI Magazine stand in the North Entrance (EN03).


Andy Beevers Andy Beevers is head of business publishing at AMI, responsible for launching and managing the digital magazines business. He is also editor of Compounding World magazine. Andy graduated in Chemical Engineering from the University of Birmingham in the UK and subsequently trained as a journalist. He has more than 25 years of editorial and publishing experience in the international plastics sector. He was editor-in chief of European Plastics News and Asian Plastics and went on to be publishing director for these titles plus Plastics & Rubber Weekly and Andy has also launched, managed and chaired many international conferences in the plastics arena. Andy has attended all eight K shows since 1989. Chris Smith Chris Smith is editor of Injection World magazine and he also oversees our special projects including magazines on Pipeline Coating, Wind Turbine Blade Manufacture and Rigid Plastics Packaging. Chris has a degree in Materials Science and worked in the polymer industry for several years before moving into magazine publishing. For the past 20 years he has been writing about plastics technology, including stints as technology editor on Plastics & Rubber Weekly and as editor of European Plastics News. He also has extensive experience of launching, managing and chairing international plastics industry conferences. Chris has been to six K exhibitions. Lou Reade Lou Reade is editor of our two plastics extrusion titles: Film and Sheet Extrusion plus Pipe and Prole Extrusion. After graduating in Chemistry, he trained as a business-to-business journalist. He has since built up more than 20 years of technical journalism experience, including eight years as technology editor and editor-in-chief of European Plastics News magazine. In addition, Lou has worked as a journalist and editor on industry magazines covering design engineering and the laboratory equipment market. Lou will be attending his sixth K show this year. Claire Bishop Claire Bishop manages the advertisement sales for all of our magazines. She has held this role since the magazines were launched and has developed our large and loyal customer base of global advertisers. She is a highly experienced media sales specialist with more than 10 years working in this eld. Claire has worked with major business-to-business publishing companies, including Emap, and with the UKs market-leading Daily Mail newspaper. She has particular experience in advertisement sales in the industrial and construction markets. Claire is looking forward to her second K show. Nicola Crane Nicola Crane is responsible for the design of all of our magazines, preparing them for distribution on-line and via our free apps for the iPad/iPhone and Android devices She is a very experienced magazine designer, working on a wide range of business-to-business and consumer titles over the past 26 years.


AMIs magazines also benet from the input of AMI Consultings industry and market experts. This team of consultants provides strategic advice for a wide range of clients around the world, as well as publishing detailed multi-client and single-client reports. The team includes:
Andrew Reynolds, research director: areas of expertise include masterbatch, polyethylene markets and lm applications. John Nash, head of strategic research: areas of expertise include polypropylene resin and compound markets, articial grass yarns and roong membranes. Noru Tsalic, senior vice president: areas of expertise include pipe applications, pipe coating, cables and construction markets. Sylvia Tabero, research consultant: areas of expertise include injection moulding, telectronics, automotive, and technical compounds. Martyna Zimakiewicz, packaging consultant: areas of expertise include caps and closures, bottles, thin-wall packaging and plastic labels. Karla Vittova, research analyst: areas of expertise include agricultural lms, heavy-duty sacks, polymer distribution and Central European markets.

Shu-Lan Cheng, research analyst: areas of expertise include BOPP lms and the plastics markets in China and Asia. Vitas Sabaliauskas, research analyst: areas of expertise include ame retardant additives, pipe coating, insulation and Russian markets. Carole Kluth, senior project manager: areas of expertise include BOPP lms, exible packaging and polymer markets in Europe.

In addition to our UK-based magazine team we have a number of regular contributors to our magazines. These highly experienced writers and industry experts are based in Europe and the USA.
Jennifer Markarian: Based in the USA, Jennifer Markarian is a chemical engineering graduate and a highly experienced technical writer covering the plastics, pharmaceuticals and chemicals sectors. She also has industry experience, working for seven years with Mobil Chemicals polyethylene group as a development and technical service engineer. Peter Mapleston: Based in Italy, Peter Mapleston is a very experienced plastics industry journalist and editor. He has a degree in polymer science and technology from the University of Manchester in the UK. Peter spent 17 years with Modern Plastics magazine, becoming its senior editor covering the full range of materials and processing technologies. John Goff: Based in the UK, John Goff is a well respected expert and author on injection moulding technology with more than 35 years of industry experience. He was a senior lecturer at the University of London, and process engineering manager at Demag. He is now managing director of G&A Moulding Technology, a global consultancy. Pat Toensmeier: Based in the USA, Pat Toensmeier is a highly experienced plastics industry writer and editor. He was with Modern Plastics magazine for 17 years, including eight years as its editor-in-chief. He has also written for Plastics Technology, Plastics Engineering, Defense Technology International and Modern Mold and Tooling magazines.

Medical Grade Polymers 2013

International business and technical conference on design, materials and manufacturing of medical devices

Photo courtesy of HTP-Meds, LLC.

September 17-18, 2013


Crowne Plaza Boston/Woburn, Woburn, Massachusetts, USA

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Polymers and additives | products


Foster adds new compounds for catheters

Foster Corporation has launched ProPell thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) and polyether block amide (PEBA) compounds for the improved manufacturing and handling of medical catheters. The company says that these new compounds dramatically reduce tackiness and friction in soft and exible polymers while maintaining other physical properties of the unmodied polymers. Soft grades of TPU and PEBA polymers, with hardness properties ranging from 80 Shore A to 35 Shore D, are commonly used in medical catheters that require exibility to navigate vascular pathways without causing trauma. However, the inherent high friction and tackiness of these polymers can cause handling problems during catheter tube extrusion and packaging since the parts stick to each other. Catheters made from these materials can also be difcult for physicians to handle and push through vascular pathways. ProPell low-friction compounds use a proprietary, non-migratory additive that Fosters new ProPell compounds reduce tackiness and friction in catheters enhances the surface of parts without substantially altering the physical properties of the polymer. Tests show that parts produced from ProPell TPU have a dry coefcient of friction of 0.05, representing a 66% reduction compared to the unmodied TPU polymer with a hardness of 80 Shore A. The results are even more pronounced in PEBA polymers with a hardness of 35 Shore D. Parts made from ProPell PEBA have dry coefcient of frictions 84% lower than the unmodied polymer.




New yellow pigment from BASF

BASF launched a new red-shade yellow pigment, Paliotol Yellow K 1750, at last months Chinaplas. It is based on a new patented chemistry and offers a cost-effective alternative to heavy metal and diarylide pigments Paliotol Yellow K 1750 can be used with polyolens and PVC grades for injection or blow-moulding. The pigment can be used for indoor consumer goods such as toys and packaging. BASF says that it offers high colour strength, opacity and excellent heat stability, plus it does not bleed in water.

Vistamaxx boosts PP bottle

LH Plus of Malaysia is using ExxonMobils Vistamaxx propylene-based elastomer (PBE) to improve the impact strength of its new sports drinks bottles made from random copolymer polypropylene (RCP). LH Plus had encountered some product testing failures during drop tests with lled bottles made from 100% RCP. It therefore examined options that would overcome the problem, while maintaining the clarity of the bottles and not requiring modication of the tooling. Drex-Chem, a local distributor of ExxonMobil materials recommended Vistamaxx and helped with the selection of the most suitable grade and loading level for this particular application. LH Plus picked a 5% loading of Vistamaxx 3000 for bottles larger than 590 ml, which met the impact drop test requirements of the customer, a US-based brand owner. Vistamaxx PBE is easy to process, says Callum Chen, CEO of LH Plus. We dry-blend the Vistamaxx PBE with the RCP before we injection mould and then blow mould the bottles. There has been no change to our tooling or moulding process and we are manufacturing an excellent product. LH Plus is using Vistamaxx to boost the impact resistance of this PP bottle



products | Polymers and additives


Momentive increases thermal conductivity

Momentive Performance Materials has launched CoolFX hybrid boron nitride llers to increase the thermal conductivity of thermoplastics while maintaining electrical insulation and dielectric properties. The hybrid llers have been developed to offer easier processing and more consistent feeding compared to traditional boron nitride llers. Momentive says that because they can achieve high thermal conductivities at lower loadings, its CoolFX additives can also be a more cost-effective solution for thermal management applications. An additional benet is that compounds with increased thermal conductivity have faster in-mould cooling, and can therefore be moulded with shorter cycle times. Target applications for Target applications for CoolFX include LED lighting systems Momentives CoolFX llers include: LED lighting; consumer electronic devices; aerospace and automotive cooling systems;, motor and battery housings; temperature sensors; and heat exchangers. Momentive produces more than 70 standard and custom grades of boron nitride powders and hybrid llers to meet a wide range of application requirements and has more than 50 years of expertise in the synthesis and renement of such materials.



Compounders combat counterfeiters

Counterfeiting protection continues to draw the attention of masterbatch and compound producers, with new product introductions from Grafe and GabrielChemie, while compounder Luxus is hoping to use security additives to combat product theft in the UK. Germanys Grafe Group has launched a patented additive masterbatch for product marking that can be detected both qualitatively and quantitatively using X-Ray uorescence. Initially targeted at textile bres, the masterbatch contains active ingredients that are said to be unaffected by normal PP, PA and PET processing. It can be used as a

standalone product protection tool at dosages of around 1%, or can be combined with a colour. Meanwhile, Austrias Gabriel-Chemie recently

individual security code in the form of pigments that can be veried using a special detector unit. Gabriel-Chemie says that the security pigments are inert, inorganic and highly temperature resistant. Marker technologies are also being investigated as a tool to combat theft. UK-based recycling and compounding specialist Luxus is developing a new compound for client Allied Bakeries that uses traceable additive technologies to help tackle the theft of bread baskets. Luxus has been providing a

of the bakers major costs. We are currently trialling the development of new technically advanced additives for Allied Bakeries as an anti-fraud measure for bread basket theft, says Luxus sales manager James Ballantyne. The new additives will be used for the manufacture of traceable bread baskets to both deter and aid detection of theft. The addition of these unique additives will ensure that they are less desirable to secondary materials markets and are easier to detect, while maintaining the same high quality performance, he says.

launched an additive masterbatch designed to combat counterfeiting of thermoplastic products. Maxithen ProTec4 contains an

closed-loop recycling service for Allied Bakeries end-of-life bread baskets for several years, during which time it has become clear that theft is one




International industry conference on silage, mulch, greenhouse and tunnel lms used in agriculture


16-18 September 2013

Hotel Meli Castilla, Madrid, Spain
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products | Polymers and additives

Addivant commercialises renewable compatibilizers

The compatibilizers can improve adhesion between bioplastics and natural bres, such as rice husks Addivant, the former antioxidant and UV stabilizer business of Chemtura, has commercialised its rst polymer modiers derived from renewable resources. Polybond 6009 and 6029 act as coupling agents or compatibilizers in formulations where high renewable content raw materials are desired. The company says that there is an increased focus on reinforcing biopolymers with natural bres, such as wood, rice husks, ax, hemp and others. Its new Polybond polymer modiers can be used to increase the mechanical and physical properties of such composites by improving the chemical coupling of the polar and non-polar components. Polybond 6009 and 6029 do not use petroleum-based feedstocks and they both contain greater than 95% renewable content raw materials. Addivant says that the coupling agents can also be used as a tie layer in multi-layer extruded applications where a high renewable content is desired.



GSDI helps HCR take the heat

GSDI, a subsidiary of PolyOne, has launched Silcosperse 500 dispersions to enhance the heat resistance of High Consistency Silicone Rubber (HCR) in high-temperature applications. Described as a unique, non-rare earth alternative to traditional heat stabilizers, Silcosperse 500 dispersions increase the heat stability of HCR formulations to withstand temperatures up to 500F (260C). This opens up a wide range of market applications in the automotive, aerospace and appliances industries. Examples include seals, covers, insulators, gaskets and O-rings. PolyOne says that independent test results demonstrate no compromise in processability and thermal performance when compared to traditional rare earth element-based technologies. In addition, Silcosperse 500 is formulated for faster weigh-up and integration during manufacturing to deliver operating efciencies. The additive is supplied as a millable dispersion gum to eliminate the problems associated with messy,



Polyscope terpolymer raises the temperature for ETPs

Polyscope has launched new terpolymers consisting of styrene, maleic anhydride and N-phenylmaleimide. The two new grades, Xiran IZ1018M and IZ0721M, are designed to create styrenic engineering plastics with high temperature resistance and low volatile residuals. The new grades exhibit a glass transition temperature (Tg) of 175C or higher and can be exposed to higher processing temperatures with excellent miscibility in styrenic polymers like ABS. In order to produce these products, Polyscope has upgraded its continuous polymerization process at Geleen in the Netherlands. This enables the production of terpolymers with high thermal stability and excellent adhesion properties due to the presence of the maleic anhydride groups. The company says that this results in the optimal balance between thermal improvement, mechanical properties and cost performance. Polyscopes Xiran IZ terpolymers create styrenic ETPs with high temperature resistance

hard-to-handle alternatives. It is available in quantities as low as 10 lb (4.5 kg) for smaller volume, niche applications and inventory optimisation.






Trends and technical developments in the international ame retardant industry

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12-14 November 2013

Maritim Hotel, Cologne, Germany
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products | Polymers and additives

Hexpol reduces TPE compression set

The Hexpol TPE group, which brings together Elasto and Mller Kunststoffe, has developed a range of thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) compounds that have been engineered to deliver low compression set values. The new Dryex CS grades are based on SEBS and meet food packaging regulations. Compression set is the measure of permanent deformation remaining when an applied force is removed. A TPE sample is compressed to a specic deformation, for a specied time and at a specic temperature. The compression set value is the percentage of Hexpols Dryex CS TPEs have low compression set values and can be used in food packaging the sample that fails to recover to its original height and is an important performance indicator for applications such as seals, exible connectors and gaskets. For a 40 shore A hardness TPE, typical compression set values are 65 to 70%, but with the Dryex CS range this is reduced to 40% (tests carrried out for 22 hours at 100C). Dryex CS TPE compounds are also compliant with FDA and 10/2011 EC food contact regulations, with improved organoleptic performance, making them suitable for a variety of food packaging applications. The range includes hardnesses from 40 to 90 shore A with a service temperature range from -40 to 100C. Dryex CS compounds are suitable for injection moulding and extrusion, plus they adhere to PP and PE for two-component applications. The compounds are easy to colour with transparent grades available.





Axiall adds bio-based compounds

Axiall, which was formed by the merger of Georgia Gulf and PPGs commodity chemicals business, has launched its new Aspire exible PVC compounds which feature bio-based plasticizers. They meet the USDAs BioPreferred Program requirements with more than 25% renewable content. Aspire phthalate-free, bio-based vinyl compounds are claimed to offer improved performance at a price that is equal to traditional exible PVC formulations. The compounds use organic stabilizers and have low VOC emissions.

Devan wins award for bre masterbatch breakthrough

Devan Chemicals has developed a functional masterbatch for polypropylene bres that allows textiles to be dyed and printed using conventional processes. Part of its @2spin range, the masterbatch technology was awarded the Techtextil Innovation Prize for New Materials at the Techtextil exhibition held earlier this month in Frankfurt, Germany. It is not usually possible to dye PP bres using conventional dyeing methods applied to other synthetic bres such as polyester or polyamide. This is due to the absence of reactive groups and the hydrophobic characteristics of PP. For this reason, PP bres are typically pigmented in the mass during the extrusion process, which makes sense for large production runs but is less viable for short runs. Devans new @2spin masterbatch overcomes this limitation by modifying the PP bres to allow uniform dyeing. The Belgium-based company says that good washing and light fastness properties are achieved if high quality dyes are used, and that there are no negative side effects on the bres physical properties. It is not revealing the chemistry used in the masterbatch, but it has led a patent application for the new technology.




AMIs database:


Germany is without a doubt the powerhouse of the European injection moulding industry. In depth knowledge of this industry can be yours with AMIs new comprehensive guides and database.

3D-PLASTIC HANS KINTRA GmbH Einruhrstr. 92 41199 Mnchengladbach Contact: Herr H. Kintra, Geschftsfhrer A & T KUNSTSTOFF GmbH Wittenburger Str. 1 19209 Renzow Contact: Herr G. Augustin, Kaufm. Geschftsfhrer A-FORM AG Gewerbegebiet Nord 7 09456 Mildenau Contact: Herr P. Parczyk, Vorstand A-Z AUSRSTUNG UND ZUBEHR GmbH & Co. KG Ruhrall 1/3 45525 Hattingen Contact: Herr O. Venschott, Geschftsfhrer A. FOLLMANN GmbH Lindenstr. 14 54518 Niersbach-Greverath Contact: Herr A. Follmann, Geschftsfhrer A. KAYSER AUTOMOTIVE SYSTEMS GmbH Hullerser Landstr. 43 37574 Einbeck Contact: Herr H. Borth, Geschftsfhrer A. RSLER GmbH Wiesenauel 40 51491 Overath Contact: Herr G. Rsler, Inhaber A. U. K. MLLER GmbH & Co. KG Dresdner Strasse 162 40595 Dsseldorf Contact: Prof. Dr. D. Riedel, Geschftsfhrer ABEL GmbH & Co. KG Gewerbegebiet Ihne 7 58540 Meinerzhagen Contact: Herr R. Abel, Geschftsfhrer ACCUMA DEUTSCHLAND GmbH Drausendorfer Str. 1 02763 Zittau Contact: Herr A. Rberg, Verkauf

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3D-PLASTIC HANS KINTRA GmbH Tel: 02166 43033 - Fax: 02166 41051 Email: Website: A & T KUNSTSTOFF GmbH Tel: 038874 23434 - Fax: 038874 23323 Email: Website: A-FORM AG Tel: 03733 55 09 0 - Fax: 03733 55 09 20 Email: Website: A-Z AUSRSTUNG UND ZUBEHR GmbH & Co. KG Tel: 02324 92020 - Fax: 02324 920299 Email: Website: A. FOLLMANN GmbH Tel: 06508 476 - Fax: 06508 596 Email: Website: A. KAYSER AUTOMOTIVE SYSTEMS GmbH Tel: 05561 7902 0 - Fax: 05561 7902 2090 Email: Website: A. RSLER GmbH Tel: 02206 2369 - Fax: 02206 4023 Email: - Website: A. U. K. MLLER GmbH & Co. KG Tel: 0211 7391 0 - Fax: 0211 7391 281 Email: Website: ABEL GmbH & Co. KG Tel: 02358 315 - Fax: 02358 8541 Email: Website: ACCUMA DEUTSCHLAND GmbH Tel: 03583 5166 0 - Fax: 03583 5166 22 Email: Website: ACLA-WERKE GmbH Tel: 0221 69998 0 - Fax: 0221 697121 Email: Website:

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Available as a fully searchable database


AMIs Verzeichnis DIE DEUTSCHE SPRITZGUSSINDUSTRIE Band 1: Norddeutschland


ket Information Ltd. treet RH dom

17 924 9442 17 989 2128


AMIs Guide to the Injection Moulding Industry in Germany Volume 1: North Germany


Applied Market Information Ltd. 6 Pritchard Street Bristol, BS2 8RH United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0) 117 924 9442 Fax: +44 (0) 117 989 2128 email:


AMIs Guide to the Injection Moulding Industry in Germany Volume 2: South Germany

Book format: The data is available in two seperate books, Volume 1 North Germany & Volume 2 South Germany

CD database format: The data from the two books is also combined into one fully searchable database

CD database functions include: Search and select records by name, country, polymer, market, number of machines, etc. Export addresses and contacts to an excel spreadsheet

Download the programmes for these forthcoming conferences

Simply click on the brochure cover or link to download a PDF of the full publication

Polyolen Additives
International conference on compounding of polyolens focusing on PP and PE materials and applications

Agricultural Film
International industry conference on silage, mulch, greenhouse and tunnel lms used in agriculture

10-12 September 2013

Hotel Nikko, Dsseldorf, Germany
Images courtesy of: Songwon International AG
* + 19% German VAT

SPECIAL OFFER: Save 100* if you register before 19th July 2013
Organised by: Applied Market Information Ltd. Sponsored by: Media supporters:

The sixth Polyolen Additives conference is being organised by AMI in Dsseldorf, Germany on 10-12 September. The programme covers the latest developments in a variety of additives for improving the properties, durability and appearance of PE and PP.

16-18 September 2013

Hotel Meli Castilla, Madrid, Spain
Images courtesy of: AB Rani Plast Oy, Hyplast and Sara Guerrini

Taking place on 16-18 September in Madrid, AMIs sixth Agricultural Films conference will bring together leading players in this dynamic and competitive market. Check out the programme which covers new technologies and strategies for success.

SPECIAL OFFER: Save 100 if you register before 2nd August 2013
Organised by: Applied Market Information Ltd. Sponsored by: Media supporter:

1 1534 or email to:

Click here to download

Fax back to: +44 (0) 117 311 1534 or Email to:

Click here to download

Medical Grade Polymers

Medical Grade Polymers 2013
Technical conference debating material selection, safety and manufacturing of medical devices

Polymer Foam
International conference on blowing agents and foaming technology for polymer materials

Photo courtesy of HTP-Meds, LLC.

September 17-18, 2013


Crowne Plaza Boston/Woburn, Woburn, Massachusetts, USA

AMIs next conference on Medical Grade Polymers takes place in Woburn/ Boston, Massachusetts, USA, on 17-18 September. Download the brochure, which has the full programme with its impressive selection of expert speakers.

AMI is holding the Polymer Foam 2013 conference in Hamburg, Germany, on 19-21 November. Download this brochure to see the line-up of speakers who will cover developments in blowing agents and foaming technology for polymers.

19-21 November 2013

Marriott Hotel, Hamburg Germany
Images courtesy of: Zotefoams PLC
* + 19% German VAT

SPECIAL OFFER: Save $200 if you register before August 9, 2013

Organized by: Applied Market Information LLC Media supporter:

SPECIAL OFFER: Save 100* if you register before 4th October 2013

Click here to download

Organised by: Applied Market Information Ltd.

Media supporters:

Fax back to: +44 (0) 117 311 1534 or Email:

Click here to download

Thin Wall Packaging

International conference on market trends and developments in plastics tubs, cups and tray packaging

Compounding World Forum

AMI and Compounding World magazine are holding the rst Compounding World Forum in Philadelphia on 10-11 December. It will cover technical compounding developments, including market trends, new additive technologies and getting the most from twin-screw extruders.

3-5 December 2013

Maritim Hotel, Cologne, Germany

AMIs eighth international conference on Thin Wall Packaging takes place on 3-5 December in Cologne, Germany. The programme includes speakers from throughout the supply chain for thermoformed and injection moulded packaging.

The international conference on business strategies and new technologies for compounders

December 10-11, 2013

Hilton Philadelphia City Avenue, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
Images courtesy of: Coperion, Foster Corporation, PolyOne, Renault, and Teknor Apex

Images courtesy of: Faech Plast AS, Micvac, Saentis Packaging AG and Silgan Plastic Food Containers

* + 19% German VAT

SPECIAL OFFER: Save 150* if you register before 1st November 2013
Organised by: Applied Market Information Ltd. Sponsored by: Media supporters:

SPECIAL OFFER: Save $200 if you register before November 1, 2013

11 1534 or Email:

Click here to download

Organized by: Applied Market Information LLC & Compounding World

Sponsored by:

Click here to download

To see our full line-up of more than 25 plastics industry events over the next 12 months, please visit

This months free brochure downloads

Simply click on the brochure cover or link to download a PDF of the full publication

PlasMec: PVC mixing/cooling

This brochure covers PlasMecs HEC High Efciency Horizontal Cooler for the production of rigid or plasticized PVC dry-blend. Available in sizes up to 8,000 litres, it delivers high levels of efciency, throughput and quality.

Buss: Kneader for cable compounds

BUSS Kneader Series MX High-end compounding technology for high-grade cable compounds

This eight-page brochure from Buss focuses on the companys MX Kneaders and their use in the production of high-grade cable compounds, including HFFR products. The Kneaders feature quantec four-ight screw technology.

Click here to download

13394_216_Buss_MX_final_12.1.indd 1 16.01.12 09:39


Click here to download

Entek: extrusion solutions

Extrusion Solutions for Compounding

Reduction Engineering: pelletizers

This brochure covers Reduction Engineerings T200 Series strand pelletizers. They are designed to reduce maintenance and cleaning times disassembly procedures that would typically take 30 minutes now take just 2 minutes.

This brochure focuses on Enteks extrusion solutions for compounding. It covers the companys E-Max twin-screw extruders, its ability to offer complete turn-key systems, and its comprehensive spare parts service.
Strand Pelletizer T200 Series Granulador de Hebra SerieT200

Click here to download

Click here to download

Steer: EPZ screw elements

This 20-page brochure from Steer Engineering features its wide range of screw elements including many innovative designs developed by the company. It also covers replacement barrels and shafts.

Feddem: twin-screw extruders

Twin-Screw Extruder FED-MT

This eight-page brochure from Feddem showcases the German companys FED-MT range of twin-screw extruders. These exible machines can handle a wide range of tasks and are designed for quick changeovers.

FEDDEM GmbH & Co. KG Member of the Feddersen Group

Click here to download

Mosaikweg 19 53489 Sinzig Germany Phone: +49 2642 90781-30 Fax: +49 2642 90781-99

Click here to download

If you would like your brochure to be included on this page, please contact Claire Bishop. Tel: +44 (0)20 8686 8139

compounder of the month

Head ofce location: Date founded: CEO: Ownership: No. of employees: Sales 2012: Plant locations: Capacity 2012: Prole: Gumpoldskirchen, Austria 1950 Elisabeth Sommer, Rodolfo Santa Olalla Privately owned 460 (Gabriel-Chemie Group) 86 million Austria, Germany, UK, Hungary, the Czech Republic, Russia 30,000 tonnes With more than 60 years of experience, Gabriel-Chemie Group is one of Europes largest masterbatch makers. The company is currently building a new plant at Alabuga in the Russian Republic of Tatarstan. Initial capacity will be 4,000 tonnes/year, but in the nal construction phase this will be increased to 14,000 tonnes/year of white, black, colour and additive masterbatch. The company is already present in Russia via a plant in Dorokhovo, near Moscow. Gabriel-Chemies portfolio is organised into these business units: building & agriculture; cosmetics packaging; food & beverage packaging; packaging for industrial and consumer goods; home & lifestyle; and medical. The product range consists of Maxithen grades with polymer-specic carrier materials and Unimax products based on universal carriers. It includes a wide range of additive masterbatches, plus colour and combination products. An integrated database consisting of several thousand formulations is shared by the production sites, allowing short lead and delivery times.

Product line:

Product strengths:

Forthcoming features
The next issues of Compounding World magazine will have special reports on the following subjects: July Anti-microbials and biocides Screenchangers and melt ltration Understanding and monitoring colour August PVC plasticizers Functional llers First look at K 2013

Editorial submissions should be sent to Andy Beevers: For information on advertising in these issues, please contact Claire Bishop: Tel: +44 (0)20 8686 8139

Catch up on our recent issues for FREE

Simply click on the cover to see the full magazine, or download the issue in the relevant Apple or Android app
Compounding World May Compounding Worlds May issue has special features on: electrically-conductive additives and compounds; the latest wood-plastic composite technologies; and, developments in clariers, nucleating agents and processing aids. Plus it includes Chinaplas 2013 highlights. Click here to view Compounding World April The 50th edition of Compounding World reports on sustainable compounding in action, plus it examines market drivers and technology innovations for wire and cable applications. It also covers developments in antioxidants, and troubleshooting for pellet defects. Click here to view

Injection World June The June issue of Injection World is packed with information on the latest trends in caps and closures, in-mould labelling and polymer distribution. In addition, it has useful tips on hot-runner control, coldrunner design and colour measurement techniques. Click here to view

Injection World May Injection Worlds May edition is packed with information on the latest automotive applications, developments in process cooling, plus the latest in TPEs. It also has a guide on design for demoulding, and reports on the highlights of Chinaplas. Click here to view

Pipe and Prole May/June The May/June edition of Pipe and Prole Extrusion takes a close look at wood plastics composites, examines options for simulating plastic pipe extrusion, and explores the latest innovations in prole dies. It also reviews PVC additive developments. Click here to view

Film and Sheet June The June issue of Film and Sheet Extrusion is lled with features on the following: barrier materials for boosting shelf life; recent developments in bioplastics; sustainability trends in thermoforming; and the latest control and instrumentation systems. Click here to view

Take out your own FREE subscriptions to any of the magazines. Click on the logos below to simply register on-line.

dates for your diary

Global exhibition guide

3-6 September 5-7 September 10-12 September 25-26 September 4-6 October 16-23 October 19-22 November 20-23 November 5-8 December 12-16 December 2014 21-23 January 28-31 January 11-13 February 16-19 February 4-6 March 7-10 April Swiss Plastics, Lucerne, Switzerland Interplastica, Moscow, Russia Plastec West, Anaheim, CA, USA Saudi Plastics & Petrochem, Riyadh Plastics & Rubber Vietnam, Ho Chi Minh Plastivision Arabia, Sharjah, UAE Applas, Shanghai, China Plasti & Pack, Lahore, Pakistan Plastec Midwest, Chicago, USA Mediplas, Birmingham, UK PPP Africa, Nairobi, Kenya K 2013, Dsseldorf, Germany Yiwu Packaging, Printing & Plastics, China Plastics & Rubber Indonesia, Jakarta Plast Eurasia, Istanbul, Turkey Plastivision, Mumbai, India

AMI conferences
10-12 September 16-18 September 17-18 September 12-14 November 19-21 November 10-11 December 2014 28-30 January 18-20 February 24-26 February 11-13 March 18-20 March Thermoplastic Concentrates, Coral Springs, FL, USA Grass Yarn & Tufters Forum, Barcelona, Spain PVC Formulation, Dsseldorf, Germany Cables, Cologne, Germany Green Polymer Chemistry, Cologne, Germany Polyolen Additives Agricultural Film, Madrid, Spain Medical Grade Polymers Fire Resistance in Plastics, Cologne, Germany Polymer Foam, Hamburg, Germany Compounding World Forum, Philadelphia, PA, USA

For information on all these events and other conferences on lm, sheet, pipe and packaging applications, see


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