You are on page 1of 30

TABLE OF CONTENT CONTENT Introduction General Information Presentation of Thesis/Dissertation Format for Writing Preliminaries Main Text Back

Matter Writing style and Editorial Issues Enumeration Quotation of Sources Reference Citation in Text Presentation of Tables Presentation of Figures Appendices Levels of Headings Formatting General Form of Reference List Expression of Numbers Reporting Inferential Statistics Language Expression PAGE

INTRODUCTION GENERAL INFORMATION PROJECT WORK, DISSERTATION and THESIS are part of university of Cape Coast requirements for the award of degree diplomas and certificates. They contain research findings which is contributions to knowledge. These reports must be properly written and presented. Certificate, Diploma and First Degree Students present Project Work. M.Ed/M.A/M.Sc students present Dissertation. M.Phil/Ph.D students present Thesis. Degrees, diplomas, and certificates will not be conferred until the approved conditions are met. PRESENTATION OF THESIS/DISSERTATION A thesis submitted for an M.Phil or a Ph.D degree must consist of the candidates own account of research. It may be work done is conjunction with the candidates Supervisor, provided that the candidate states clearly his/her share in the investigation and that this statement is testified by the Supervisor. Work done jointly with persons other than the candidates supervisors will be accepted ad thesis in special case only. The approval of the Faculty Board and of the Board of School of Graduate Studies and Research must be given. A thesis submitted for an M.Phil or a Ph.D degree must be suitable for publication as submitted. A thesis for a Ph.D degree must make significant and substantial contribution to knowledge in the subject and afford evidence of originality shown either in the discovery of new facts or by exercise of independent critical judgement.

A work submitted for a degree must meet the following page number requirements: Minimum 60 pages 120 pages 200 pages Maximum 80 pages 150 pages 250 pages

M.A/M.Ed M.Phil Ph.D

A project work submitted for first degree must have a minimum of 30 pages and a maximum of 50 pages including references. Appendices and preliminary pages are excluded from the number of pages indicated. A candidate shall not be permitted to submit a dissertation or thesis for which a degree has already been conferred in this or other university. However, a candidate shall not be precluded from incorporating work which has already been submitted for a degree in this or other university, provided that he shall indicate on his form of entry, and also in his dissertation or thesis any work which has been so incorporated. Supervisors would be appointed to assist students by the middle of the second semester of course work. In the case of project work, supervisors would be assigned to undergraduate students by the end of the second semester of the third year. There are 3 stages of the graduate work presentation. Stage I Stage II Stage III Present 3 signed soft copies to the department for assessment. Present one corrected soft copy for Faculty vetting. Present 3 or 4 Printed Hard Bound copies in the approved colours to the Board of School of Graduate Studies and Research.

Colours for various categories of thesis/Dissertation The following shall be the colours of the various categories:

i. ii. iii.

Ph.D M.Phil M.A/M.Sc/M.Ed

Red Navy Blue Green

THE FORMAT FOR WRITING Project work, Dissertation and Thesis shall consist of three categories of material, namely: The PRELIMINARIES or FRONT MATTER, the TEXT or the MAIN BODY OF THE REPORT, including REFERENCE MATERIAL, and the BACK MATTER (Appendices). The Preliminaries The preliminaries consist of the following: Front Page Spine Title Page Declaration Abstract Acknowledgements Dedication Table of Contents List of Tables List of Figures The preliminaries begin with the COVER and the SPINE. On the Cover, UNIVERSITY OF CAPE COAST must be printed at the top of the page (12 single spaces or 5.08cm from the top of the page). The TITLE OF THE REPORT is in the middle of the page and the authors FULL NAME and the YEAR of presentation printed at the bottom half of the page (four Blocks) (See sample A). On the SPINE (that is, in the case of Dissertation and Thesis only) is printed the DEGREE, the FULL NAME of the candidate and the YEAR of the presentation, in that order (three blocks). See sample B for

Dissertation and Thesis only. The information on the COVER and SPINE should be in BLOCK or Capital letters. Sample A COVER PAGE






The next page is the INSIDE COVER or the TITLE page. This page consists of five blocks of words. The fourth block of words (submission information) should not be written in block letters but initial capitals of major words (see sample C). The first Block

is the UNIVERSITY OF CAPE COAST set off at the topic and placed 5.08cm or 2 inches from the top of the page and centred between the margins. This first block is followed by the TITLE. The third block is the FULL NAME of the candidate. Titles such as Mr. Mrs., Reverend, etc. are not acceptable. DEPARTMENT and the FACULTY of the The next block indicates the UNIVERSITY to which the

Project/Thesis/Dissertation is SUBMITTED as well as the purpose for which the work is required. The fifth block states the MONTH and the YEAR (on one horizontal line) in which the work is presented (see sample C). The title page is page number one (in ROMAN NUMERALS) of the PRELIMINARIES but is NOT numbered or written in the report. Sample C INSIDE COVER


BY JOHN SULE MENSAH Thesis submitted to the Institute of Educational Planning and Administration of the Faculty of Education, University of Cape Coast, in partial fulfillment of the requirements for award of Master of Philosophy Degree in Educational Administration


The Declaration page follows the title page and is numbered Roman Numeral ii, with title DECLARATION, see sample D for Project Work and Dissertation and sample E for Thesis. Sample D DECLARATION (For all M.A/M.Sc/M.Ed Dissertation and Project Work)

DECLARATION Candidates Declaration I hereby declare that this Dissertation/Project Work is the result of my own original research and that no part of it has been presented for another degree in this university or elsewhere. Candidates Signature:.. Name: John Sule Mensah Supervisors Declaration I hereby declare that the preparation and presentation of the Dissertation/Project Work were supervised in accordance with the guidelines on supervision of Dissertation/Project Work laid down by the University of Cape Coast. Candidates Signature:.. Name: John Sule Mensah ii Date: Date:

Please, note that name of candidate and supervisor/supervisors should be typed.

Sample E DECLARATION (For all M.Phil and Ph.D Thesis)

DECLARATION Candidates Declaration I hereby declare that this Dissertation/Project Work is the result of my own original research and that no part of it has been presented for another degree in this university or elsewhere. Candidates Signature:.. Name: John Sule Mensah Supervisors Declaration We hereby declare that the preparation and presentation of the thesis were supervised in accordance with the guidelines on supervision of thesis laid down by the University of Cape Coast. Principal Supervisors Signature: Date: Date:

Name:.. Co-supervisors Signature:. Name: John Sule Mensah ii Date:.

Please, note that name of candidate and supervisor/supervisors should be typed. ABSTRACT The abstract is a brief summary that tells the reader what the report is about and what the main conclusions are. It should not exceed two hundred and fifty (250) words

(approximately one page). It should be developed in well-structured paragraphs. Note that an abstract should not, other than exceptional circumstances, contain symbols and many technical terms. The abstract page is numbered iii (page three in lower case Roman Numerals) in the report. citations. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This section provides the student with the opportunity to express gratitude to those who directly assisted the student to successfully complete the Thesis/Dissertation/Project Work for which no compensation was paid. These may be mentors, supervisors, organizations, official, chiefs, and colleagues, among others. The acknowledgements page must be placed immediately after the abstract page. It is highly unconventional to acknowledge God or Allah or any other supernatural powers in documents of this nature. DEDICATION A student may dedicate the work to a person or group although this is not a requirement. words. For example: To My Family. In memory of My Father. TABLE OF CONTENTS The title TABLE OF CONTENTS (not just CONTENTS) should be typed in BLOCK or upper case and made bold. Sub-headings should appear in title heads (first letters capitalized as in the main text) and should not be numbered. The corresponding pages of all headings and sub-headings should be indicated. All chapter headings should be in UPPER CASE letters. It should be noted that the dedication page is not another acknowledgements page. It should contain at most two lines, consisting of just a few The abstract should not contain headings and

The heading TABLE OF CONTENTS is typed on the tenth single space below the top of the paper and it is centred between the margins. The words CHAPTER and Page head their respective columns, flush to the left and right margins. Two spaces are recommended for all indentations in the TABLE OF CONTENTS. should not be included in the Table of Contents). DEDICATION THIS WORD IS DEDICATED TO MY FRIEND, BROTHER AND PARTNER, MR. DEDON MOMO KROMAH WHO INITIATED AND SUPPORTED ME THROUGH THE PROGRAMME. TABLE OF CONTENTS Page DEDICATION: DEDICATION: i ii iii iv v ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS: LIST OF TABLES: LIST OF FIGURES: CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION Background to the Study Statement of the Problem Purpose of the Study Research Questions/Objectives/Hypothesis/Assumption (where applicable) Significance of the Study Delimitation Limitations Definition of Terms (if any) Organization of the rest of the Study In the Table of Contents only Levels 1, 2 and 3 headings should be included. (Paragraph headings

2. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Introduction Theoretical framework/conceptual base of study Review goes from broad to focused Break review into sections to cover the important aspects Summary of major findings of the literature review (i.e. the state of the art) 3. METHODOLOGY Research Design Population Sample and Sampling Procedure Instruments Data Collection Procedure Data Analysis 4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION (provide appropriate subheadings) 5. SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS (provide appropriate subheadings) References Appendices A B C LIST OF TABLES After the Table of Contents, the next separate section typed on a page or pages is the List of Tables. The heading LIST OF TABLES is placed on the tenth single line from the top of the paper and it is centred between the margins. The words Table and Page head their respective columns and flush with margins on the left and right.

LIST OF FIGURES The next separate page or pages in the Preliminaries is the List of Figures. The setting is the same as LIST OF TABLES. MAIN TEXT The main text consists of the following: CHAPTER 1 CHAPTER 2 CHAPTER 3 CHAPTER 4 CHAPTER 5 REFERENCES APPENDIX/APPENDICES CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION This chapter explains what the problem is and why it is important to study. following sub-headings are used in the chapter: Background to the Study Statement of the Problem Purpose of the Study Research Questions/Objectives/Hypothesis/Assumption (where applicable) Significance of the Study Delimitation of the Study Limitations of the Study Specify limitations of your study in terms of: Internal validity research design shortcomings External validity how generalizable are the findings? Measurement issues how reliable and valid are the instruments used? Statistical problems did the data meet statistical assumptions? Did the sample size limit the power of the statistics? The INTRODUCTION REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE METHODOLOGY RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Definition of Terms (if any) Organization of the rest of the Study CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE This chapter provides support for the study. The following sub-headings are used in the chapter Background to the Problem Theoretical framework/conceptual base of the study The rest of the chapter is broken into sections to cover the important aspects of the review which starts with the Theoretical Framework and Conceptual Base of the study and other relevant sub-headings. The opening paragraph of the chapter should consist of the purpose of the study and the list of the major sub-headings covered. Empirical Review goes from broad to focus. Break review into sections to cover the important aspects. Provide a summary of major findings of the literature review (i.e. the state of the art). NOTE: The literature review is not simply a collection of notes from books or journals. You should digest what you read and write from your head. If you pool together notes from different sources, the material becomes disjointed. CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY This chapter explains how the study was conducted. The opening paragraph should include the statement of the purpose of the study. The following sub-headings are used in this chapter: Research Design, Population, Sample and Sampling Procedure, Instrument, Data Collection and Data Analysis Procedure. The

Research Design Describe the type of study and design (e.g. survey, experimental, action research etc.) Explain rationale for the design Indicate the strengths and weaknesses of the design Population Definition/Description of Population Sample and Sampling Procedure Sample size determination and how sample was selected Give rationale for the selection procedure and the sample size Provide background characteristics of the sample, for example, age, gender, educational/professional qualification (if applicable). Was a pre or pilot test conducted (how and when)? Instruments Describe how instrument was developed Describe the strengths and weaknesses of the instrument used Show how content and construct validity was determined Indicate how reliable the instrument is (provide reliability coefficient) Specify how item format was determined Describe pilot testing of instrument if a new instrument was constructed Data Collection Procedure Describe pilot study (if done) Describe how the main data was collected step by step Indicate when data was collected and how long it took Indicate who collected the data Data Analysis Describe the scales of measuring tools used Indicate how scoring was done Indicate and justify the statistical tools used for hypothesis/research question Explain how the analysis was done for each research hypothesis/research question

CHAPTER 4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION State the purpose of the stud and summarise statistical tools and procedure used in the study. Present the results with their discussion by research question hypotheses. The discussion should include the interpretation of the findings reference to the literature/previous finings. Evaluate each finding and examine implications with respect to the current theoretical position on the issue as well as educational practice. State and discuss other findings (if any). CHAPTER 5 SUMMARY Give an overview of the research problem and methodology Provide a summary of the findings (key findings) CONCLUSION This section is based on the results and findings and not a restatement of the results of the study or a summary of the discussion. The researcher states precisely his/her resulting position regarding the


The researcher indicates whether the findings confirmed on

disconfirmed the hypotheses or questions. The researcher indicates his/her overall opinion regarding the study. What is new? What has the study brought to the fore? What is the general feeling concerning the results and findings of the study? Indicate whether the original problem is better understood, or resolved as a result of the study. RECOMMENDATIONS Make recommendations based on the key findings of the study. The recommendation must be made to specific persons/bodies/organizations. Give suggestions for future research.

REFERENCES The faculty of Education follows the APA referencing style (see page 32). BACK MATTER APPENDICES Appendices constitute the Back Matter and follows immediately after the references in the Main Text. WRITING STYLE AND EDITORIAL ISSUES ENUMERATION The rules for enumerating elements in a series are as follows: 1. Within a paragraph or sentence, identify elements in a series by lowercase letters in parentheses (not underlined). Use commas to separate three or more elements that do not have internal commas. Use semi-colons to separate three or more elements that have internal commas. Example 1: No internal commas The components of the post-training briefing were (a) extent to which trainee had learned content, (b) identification of transfer barriers the trainee might encounter, and (c) identification of opportunities for using skills acquired. Example 2: Internal commas used In further analyses, two new groups were formed from the original groups according to reported levels of transfer (a) high-impact, for scores 3.0 and above; and (b) low-impact, for scores below 3.0. 2. Separate paragraphs in a series, such as a list of recommendations, are identified by Arabic numerals followed by a period but not enclosed in parentheses. Example: The following recommendations are offered: 1) Funds should be set aside for follow-up and continuing education.

2) Follow-up and continuing education programmes should be nationally coordinated to avoid duplication. 3) A national business information system should be developed. 4) Since the results of the study indicate that the WASSCE has little predictive effect, admission officers of the univeisty should therefore reconsider the use of WASSCE as the sole criterion for admission to the university. NOTE: Bullets are not to be used in the APA System. QUOTATION OF SOURCES If you quote material that is less than 40 words, integrate it into the sentence or paragraph. Type 1 You should indicate the author, year, and page. Here are some examples. Example 1: Author, year and page are at the end. The author stated that validity refers to the soundness of the interpretation and use of assessment results (Nitko, 2000, p.36). Example 2: Author, year and page appear before the quote. Nitko (2000, p.36) noted that validity is the soundness assessment results. Example 3: Author and year appear before the quotation and page appears at the end of the quotation. Nitko (2000) noted that validity is the soundness assessment results. p. 36. Type 2 It the quotation is 40 words or more, present it as a block and omit the quotation marks. Here are examples: Example 1: quote. Author, and year before the block, then the page at the end before the

Lean (1997) stated that A responsible use of test-scores requires that the test user be able to justify the inferences drawn by having a cogent rationale for using the test-score for the purpose at hand for selecting desk-test over other available assessment procedures (p.4). Quotation within Quotation When there is a quotation within the major quotation the secondary quotation has single quotation marks. Quotation Type 1. When the words are less than 40

The author stated, The placebo effect disappeared when behaviours were studied in this manner (Miele, 1993, p.276). Quotation Type 2 Miele (1993) found that the placebo effect, which had been behaviours were studied in this manner (p. 276). Quotation Type 3 In the block format (40 or more words) the secondary quotation has double quotation marks. Miele (1993) found the following The placebo effect, which had been verified in previous studies, disappeared when behaviours were studied in this manner. Furthermore, the behaviours were never exhibited again [italics added], even when real [sic] drugs were administered. Earlier studies (e.g. Abdullah, 1984; Fox, 1979) were clearly premature in attributing the results to a placebo effect (p. 276).

REFERENCE CITATIONS IN TEXT 1) Work by one author Rogers (1994) compared In a recent study of reaction time, (Rogers, 1994) 2) Work y multiple authors When a work has two authors, always cite both names every time the reference occurs. When the work has three, four, or five authors, cite all authors the first time the reference occurs; in subsequent citations, include only the surname of the first author followed by et al. and the year if it is the first citation within a paragraph. In subsequent citations within the same paragraph, omit the year. When there are six or more authors, cite only the surname of the first author followed by et al. and the year for the first and subsequent citations. 3) Citing group as authors (e.g. association, government agency) Ministry of Education (1997). First citation in text For example (Ministry of Education [MOE] 1997) authorised Example 2 In a recent report on Quality Education, Ministry of Education [MOE] (1997) authorised In subsequent citations in text, note that only the abbreviations should be written, except in situations where the abbreviations are not well known. E.g. (MOE, 1997) 4) For works with no authors, cite in text the first few words of the reference list entry (usually the title) and the year. 5) List two or more works by different authors who are cited within the same parentheses in alphabetical order by the first authors surname. citations by semi-colons. Separate the

Example Several other researchers (Aldrich, 1979; Covin & Slevin, 1991; Gibb, 1988; MohanNeill, 1995) have highlighted the influence of environmental factors in small enterprise and organizational development. 6) In text citation of work discussed in a secondary source. Ideally you should read and cite only primary sources (or the original article, book, etc.). However, given our situation you may not have access to the primary source. How do you cite such references? In the text, name the original source and give the citation for the secondary source (the source you actually read). Example: You read Bowman-Upton and Sextons book, and in the book they make reference to some observations made by Hofer and Schendel (published in 1978). In the text Hofer and Schendel (as cited in Bowman-Upton & Sexton, 1991) have observed that Presentation of tables Tables should appear with their numbers, their captions (titles) and page numbers. Tables are supposed to be on the same page or not far away from the discussion of the Table. If a Table spills over to the next page, there should be an indication such as (Table 1 continued). Tables are not to be drawn with vertical and horizontal lines forming cells. However, two horizontal lines may be needed for the top and bottom parts of the Table. Allow sufficient space between columns and rows as a substitute for rules. All tables should be numbered consecutively with Arabic numerals in the order in which they are first mentioned in the text. If a table is not mentioned at all in the text, it should not appear anywhere in the thesis or report.

Table Titles Table titles should be brief but clear and explanatory. The format for the presentation of table titles is as follows: Table 1: Mean Mathematics Scores of Male and Female Participants in the Programme There should be no full stop after the table or table title. The title should be in initial capital and made bold. Anytime a table is cited, the table should be in initial capital. Citing and Discussing Tables Always mention the table before you presents the table itself. In the text, cite tables by their numbers. Example: As shown in Table 2, (avoid referring to table as the table below/above). Tell readers what to look for. Discuss only the highlights and do not attempt to comment on every item in the table. Shapes of Tables Type tables in double space and use the same type size as the rest of the text. Column headings in tables may also be double spaced. Turning tables sideways is an inconvenience to the reader. However if your table cannot fit across the page (portrait), you may turn the page sideways (Landscape). Then you may also, where necessary, run the table over several pages. You should not use single space or reduce the type size in typing the table. However, in exceptional cases, you may use single space or reduce the font size up to 10 so that the table could fit one page.

EXAMPLES OF SETTING OF TABLES IN THE TEXT Example 1 Table 1 Training Methods used During Staff Training Programme Training method Lectures Discussions Demonstration Audi visual, overhead project, etc. Case study Role play Total Example 2 Table 2 Participants Assessment of Training Materials Assessment Each of understanding Readability Subject matter Layout/illustration Mix of theory/practical PRESENTATION OF FIGURES Any illustration which is not a table is considered a figure. Examples of figures are graphs (e.g. line, bar, pie charts and scatter graphs); charts, drawings, and photographs. Captions for Figures Captions for figures are written below the figure. The captions should be single space if longer than one line. They should be self-explanatory. Example Figure 1: Staircase pattern of improvement in record-keeping practices. Good % 52.6 74.6 42.3 38.0 34.3 Average % 45.5 19.7 55.0 55.0 56.8 Poor % 1.9 5.7 2.7 7.0 8.9 Total % 100 100 100 100 100 No 167 61 60 10 1 4 303 % 55.2 20.1 19.8 3.3 .3 1.3 100.0

Numbering Figures Use Arabic numerals to number figures consecutively throughout the text. APPENDICES Number appendices consecutively with capital letters A, B, C and so on in the order in which they are first mentioned in the text. LEVELS OF HEADINGS You should follow APA guidelines in organizing your reports, articles, or theses. It helps to learn to follow the guidelines right from the beginning. The general structure is given below. You select those levels that fit your report. CENTRED UPPERCASE HEADING E.g. Chapter Heading and Chapter Title (Level 1) Centred Uppercase and Lowercase, Bold Heading (Level 2) Flush left, Upper case and Lower case, Bold (Level 3) Indented, lowercase paragraph heading ending with a period, Bold (Level 4) CHAPTER TITLES AND HEADINGS Each chapter must begin on a new page. The word CHAPTER and its number (in figure or words) is typed on the tenth single space from the top to the level of the paper and centred between the margins. For example, (CHAPTER 2) or (CHAPTER TWO). The title is typed in block capitals and centred between the margins. All headings should be single space if longer than one line. The first line of the chapter begins on the third single space below the title and indented five single spaces. FORMATTING Margins The standard margin should be two inches (5.08cm) on the left and one inch (2.54cm) on the right. The top and bottom spaces are automatically set by default on all

computers. On all title pages however, the chapter headings are typed three double spaces down fro the top page. On no account must the writing intrude into any fo these margins in the Preliminaries and the Text. Pagination All pages in a research report should be assigned a number. Numeral should appear on all pages except the title page. Two separate series of page numbers are used. The front matter uses the small Roman numeral which starts at the declaration page 2 (ii) and ends on the page before the first page of Chapter One and continues through the Appendix. All pages have the page numerals placed at the bottom in the center: Typing/Line Spacing i. ii. A bond paper (A-4) measuring 210 millimetres x 297 millimetres (8 x 11 or 22cm x 28cm) must be used for the Project Work/Thesis/Dissertation. Indentation for a paragraph is 5 spaces. dissertation. A font size of 12 is recommended throughout the Project iii. The same font and font size should be used through the project work, thesis or Work/Thesis/Dissertation. Justify both sides. A major portion of typing is double spacing. However there are instances where triple spacing or more should be used. Chapter designation, table and figure titles should be single spaced if longer that one line. References are single spaced within entries and double spaced between the entries.

GENERAL FORM OF REFERENCE LIST a. All references cited in text must appear in the reference list b. Accepted abbreviations in reference list: chap. chapter n.d no date

ed. 2nd ed. Periodical:

edition second edition

ed. (Eds.)

editor editors

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (1994). Title of article. Title of Periodical, xx, 123-127. Journal article, one author Bekerian, D. A. (1993). In search of the typical eyewitness. American Psychologist, 48, 574-576. Journal article, two authors, journal paginated by issue Klimoski, R., & Plamer, S. (1993). The ADA and the hiri process in organizations. Consulting Psychology Journalist Practice and Research, 45(2), 10-36. Journal article in press Akoto, S. (in press). Quality education in Ghana. Journal Education. Zuckerman, M., & Kieffer, S.C. (in press). Race differences faceism: Does facial prominence imply dominance? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Internet article based on print source VandenBox, G., Knapp, S., & Doe, J. (2001). Role of reference elements in the selection of resources by psychology undergraduates (Electronic version). Journal of bibliographic research, 5, 117-123.

Internet article based on print source without page number ..will need to add date and URL VandenBos, G., Knapp, S., & Doe, J. (2001). Role of reference elements in the selection of resources by psychology undergraduates (Electronic version). Journal of bibliographic Research, 5. Retrieved October 2001, from

On-periodical documents on the Internet .. New Milford (CT) Area Healthy community 200, task Force on Teen and adolescent issues. (n.d.) Who has time for a family meal? You do! Retrieved October 5, 2000, from Unpublished paper presented at a meeting and symposium Unktree, C., & Brere, J. (1991, January). Early data on the trauma Symptom Checklist for Children (TSC-C). Paper presented at the meeting of the American Professional society on the Abuse of Children, San Diego, CA. Unpublished masters thesis Wilfley, D. E. (1989). Interpersonal analysis of bulimia: Normal-weight and obese. Unpublished doctorial dissertation, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast. On-periodical (e.g. books) One, J. D., & Foster, S. L. (1993). Dissertations and theses from start to finish: Psychology and related fields. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Book with edition Itchell, T. R., & Larson, J. R., Jr. (1987). People in organizations: An introduction to organizational behaviour (3rd ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. Book with Editor Robinson, D. N. (Ed.). (1992). Social discourse and moral judgement. San Diego, CA: Academic Press. Part of a non-periodical (e.g. book chapter) Ogah, J. K., & Etsey, Y. K. A. (1997). Students behaviour on campus. In Deku, P., Ankomah, Y. & Ocansey, F. (Eds.), Guidelines in writing thesis/dissertation, (pp. 123127). Kawanopado: Sika Publishing Company.

Daily newspaper article, author identified. Donkor, S. (2008, Dec.9). Four new female faces for parliament. Daily Graphic, (No. 168740) p.3. Daily newspaper article, no author Private schools urged to run SSS courses. 147679), pp.1, 3. Work discussed in a secondary source In reference list give the secondary source, not the primary source as you did not read the primary source. Seidenberg and McClellans study (as cited in Coltheart, Curts, Arkins, & Haller, 1993). Reference list entry: Coltheart, M. Curtis, B., Arkins, P., & Haller, M. (1993). Models of reading aloud: Dualroute and parallel-distributed-processing approaches. Psychological Review, 100, 589608. Magazine article Posner, M. I. (1993, October 29). Seeing the mind. Science, 262, 673-674. T.V Broadcast Christal, L. (Executive producer). (1993, Oct. 11). The MacNail Lehrer Hour [Television Broadcast]. New York and Washington D.C. Public Broadcasting Service. EXPRESSION OF NUMBERS These guidelines tell you when to write numbers in figures and when to write them in words. For example, you should never start a sentence with a number in figures. (1999, August 14). Daily Graphic (No.

Use figures in the following situations: a. All numbers 10 and above. Example: All children above 12 years. When there is a series of numbers, write all in figures, including those below 10. b. Numbers that immediately precede a unit of measurement, e.g. a 6-mg doze. c. Numbers that represent ratios, percentages, decimal quantities, statistical or mathematical functions. Examples: approximately 9%; about 3-1/2 times as large; in a ratio of 3:2 d. Numbers that represent time, dates, ages, sample size, population size, and specific number of subjects in an experiment. Examples: 4 weeks after the first interview; 2 hr. 30 min. e. Numbers that denote a specific place or level in a numbered series. Examples: JSSS 3; Form 2 Table 4; Chapter 2. f. All numbers in the abstract of a paper. Express numbers in words in the following situations: a. At the beginning of a sentence, title or heading. Example: One hundred and twenty respondents b. Numbers below 10 that do not represent measurements. Example: a two-tailed test. c. The number zero and one. d. Common fractions. Example: one third of the class. e. Universally accepted expressions. Example: The Ten Commandments.

Plurals of Numbers Add s or es to form plurals of numbers, whether they are in figures or words: Examples: In the 1950s; 40s and 60s; fours and fives. The Faculty of Education insists on the use of the APA style. All references are to be double spaced and the second line and subsequent lines are indented. (see page 28).

REPORTING INFERENTIAL STATISTICS When reporting inferential statistics provide sufficient information to the reader. However, do not show details of computations in the main body of the thesis. You may show details in the Appendices section. Examples of the information you should report are presented as follows: Table 3 Information Required in Reporting Inferential Statistics Test-statistic Information Required in Reporting t-test Mean, standard deviation, effect size, degrees of freedom. Example: For the auto kinetic movement illusion, as predicted, people highly hypnotizable (M=8.19, SD=7.12) reported perceiving the stationary light as moving significantly more often than did the other participants F-test (M=8.19, SD-4.25), t(60)=1.99, p=.03 (one-tailed), d=50. Degrees of freedom, computed F-ratio, MSE. Example: For immediate recognition, the omnibus test of the main effect of sentence format x2-test Correlation Coefficient Reporting Statistical Sample size, variance, covariance, correlation matrix. State alpha level (Type 1 error). Example: An alpha level of .05 was used for all statistical tests. was statistically significant, F(2, 177)=4.27, p=.03. Degrees of freedom, sample size x2(4, N=90) = 10.51, p=.05.

Significance LANGUAGE AND EXPRESSION 1. Provide advance organizers. Give overviews at the beginning of chapters Commit yourself to a units-sentences and two to five to indicate how each chapter is organized. structure and the development of ideas in a sequence. 2. Present your ideas in an orderly manner. Thought paragraphs must flow smoothly from the opening statement to the conclusion of the thought unit so that the reader can follow you without getting confused. If you

mix up ideas or shift your ideas abruptly you confuse the reader. continuity, use punctuation marks appropriately.

To achieve

Use transition words to help

maintain the flow of thought and to link up your ideas. Also, use well planned headings and subheadings to organize your materials. Make sure that what you write fits into the heading or subheading. 3. Avoid shifting topic, tense or person (or pronoun) abruptly. Be consistent in the use of verb tenses. Use the past tense to present or describe the results of your study (e.g. student performance increased from). Use the present tense to discuss the results (e.g. the results indicate that) Use past tense (e.g. Smith asserted that) or present perfect tense (Smith has argued) for the literature review. 4. Economy of expression. Be frugal with words. Avoid wordiness and redundant expressions. Be direct and avoid being evasive. Use short sentences as much as possible. A sentence that occupies more than three lines is likely to give you problems. Do not force favourite expressions found in a book or article into your writing. Overuse of such expressions can be boring. 5. Authorship voice. Use the first person pronoun (I, we) or the passive voice in the work. Avoid the use of the phrase the researcher Example. The researcher(s) conducted the survey should be written as I/We (meaning the author or authors) conducted the survey or the survey was conducted.