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Maldives National University

Immunization and Vaccination


Abdullah Kamal

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Table of Contents
INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................................................ 1 STATUS OF IMMUNIZATION IN SOUTH EAST ASIA ......................................................................... 1 STATUS OF IMMUNIZATION IN MALDIVES ....................................................................................... 1 BARRIERS ASSOCIATED WITH VACCINATION ................................................................................. 2 CONCLUSION ............................................................................................................................................. 2 REFERENCE .................................................................................................................................................... 2

INTRODUCTION Immunization is the process by which a person or an animal is being protected by against a disease whereas vaccination is defined as the injection of a killed or weakened infectious organism to prevent from diseases. (Immunization: The basics, 2012). WHO and UNICEF plays important role for immunization. According to (Smith, 2013), world health Organization is working hard to support for the need to increase immunization coverage. UNICEF supplies vaccines to 40% of worlds children. In 2004 they provide 2.8 billion doses of vaccines for more than 100 countries by forming partnerships to support for immunization to have a control in infectious diseases. (Progress for Children - Unicef's Role in Global immunization, 2013) STATUS OF IMMUNIZATION IN SOUTH EAST ASIA According to (Smith, 2013) In South East Asia, it is identified that 28.6 million children were vaccinated in 11 countries of South-East Asia but still 9.5 million children unimmunized. Statistics show that coverage of measles containing vaccines in the South-East Region increased from 61% to 79% from 2000 to 2011 and concerns were raised regarding achievement of millennium objective. As far as Nepal is concerned, in Western Nepal the vaccines coverage rate was higher than the national figure which was 84.5%. STATUS OF IMMUNIZATION IN MALDIVES Maldives has achieved higher coverage (95%) of immunization programs throughout the country eliminating the chances of infectious diseases through government backup. (Health Care status in Maldives., 2011). Furthermore international bodies believe that the immunization service delivery functions well, including vaccine distribution and cold chain management. (Maldives immunization program review conducted, 2013).

BARRIERS ASSOCIATED WITH VACCINATION However, barriers like the system barriers such as the supply and distribution of vaccines, patient and parent barriers and Public Perceptions of Vaccine Safety. For instance, some have fear and absence of knowledge about vaccination and lack of proper transportation as well. Additionally the cost, inconvenient consulting hours do matter here and peoples perception of side effects after vaccination. (Kimmel, Burns, Wolfe, & Zimmerman, 2007). CONCLUSION It is understood that immunization is essential for the health of people. It is found that the WHO and UNICEF also work to cover global population for vaccination. In South East Asia, lots of works are being carried out to cover large population. It is remarkable that the Maldivian immunization coverage was higher although there are certain barriers like peoples perception and factors like cost and transportation.

REFERENCE
(2011). Health Care status in Maldives. Male'. Maldives. Immunization: The basics. (2012, July 6). Retrieved October 01, 2013, from www.cdc.gov: http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/vac-gen/imz-basics.html Kimmel, Burns, Wolfe, & Zimmerman. (2007). Addressing immunization barriers, benefits and Risks. The Journal of family practice, S61-S61. Maldives immunization program review conducted. (2013). Retrieved October 02, 2013, from www.searo.who.int: http://www.searo.who.int/maldives/mediacentre/epi/en/index.html Progress for Children - Unicef's Role in Global immunization. (2013). Retrieved October 01, 2013, from www.unicef.org: http://www.unicef.org/media/files/PFCUNICEFrole.pdf Sanju, D. (2013). Survey on immunizatio status in Western Nepal. Kathmandu: Kathmandu Research centre. Smith, M. G. (2013). Equity is critical to protecting children against vaccine preventable diseases. Retrieved October 02, 2013, from www.searo.who.int: http://www.searo.who.int/mediacentre/releases/2013/pr1556/en/index.html