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The circuit below is a switchmode power supply that is one of my favorites. I have built many of these and they can tolerate an absolute hiding. (Some of you may believe switchmodes are faint hearted , well , some are! ) This unit would be ideal for converting power from say 24v to 12v in solar power installations. The number of series pass transistors you use will depend on your "current" requirements. , (sorry!). It uses an LM317 which is rated at 1.5 amps and has short circuit output protection. It can have an output input differential voltage of 60 volts, and has a voltage adjust terminal which allows an output voltage as low as 1.2 volts. Operation briefly - The LM317 operates as a regulator delivering the voltage required as set by it's adjust voltage resistor string to ground and the 240 ohm to o/p. When current is drawn from the output terminals of the supply the LM317 attempts to deliver the power which creates a voltage drop across the 30 ohm resistor on the 317s input leg. This biases the MJ2955 on which then biases on the bank of MJ15003's to feed power to the output via the toroidal inductor. Energy is stored in the inductor during this phase and released into the load via the free wheel diode when the transistors turn off. (This circuit will operate as a linear regulator as well by removing the inductor and diode). Regulation is maintained via the 240 ohm resistor on the output, this is the voltage "sense" input, and the wire should be connected directly to the output terminal of the supply. Ripple can be surpressed by monolithic caps across the output and using much C. I have built a number of these and can honestly say they have been absolute workhorses, and rarely have they blown up. (switching ripple may be a problem for some amateur radio gear however).
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html This is a traditional shunt regulator circuit using an LM723. they do a good job but once the battery is charged they sit there and get hot dissipating the power from your solar panel. and that of the voltage on pin 5 (non-inverting input) which is the sampled battery voltage (via 6K8 and 4K7 for 12v operation).Power supplies and Battery Chargers http://www.15v) and adjustable via the 1k trimpot. I recommend the next circuit below this one.87v). (parallel transistors as necessary). and ensure the shunt transistor can handle the load and is adequately heatsunk. For operation at 24 volts change the 6K8 for 18K.com/acselectronics/buildregs. pot midpoint = 5.7.freewebs. It can tolerate voltages up to 40v and is adjustable from 2 to 37 volts. This circuit works by comparing the voltage set at pin 4 (inverting input) which is derived from the internal reference (pin 6 . The 723 can output 150mA of current to control the external transistors. 2 of 9 20-03-2013 20:15 .
com/acselectronics/buildregs. Use enough fets to double the watt rating of the solar panels so it won't get hot . 10K for 12 volts or 47K. 3 of 9 20-03-2013 20:15 . The 1N5401 is there to protect the circuitry from a load that may generate back EMFs.freewebs. Look on the battery disconnect project or PWM DC controller project to how to parallel more FETs. This uses an LM358 op amp. This sort of regulator is good because you have the option of using this "diverted" power for something you may want instead of just warming the corner as with traditional shunt regulators. 10K for 24 volt operation. 20Kpot.html Below is another shunt regulator .Power supplies and Battery Chargers http://www. the LM358 can handle voltages up to 32 volts. This uses the inverting input as the reference voltage (7. (select appropiate links . ( if you wish put an additional 100 resistor and 30 volt zenner on the chip supply line). The FET gate is protected against overvoltage by a 16 volt zenner for operation on 24 volts. Again use a number of power fets in parallel to increase your power capability. An inductive load such as a motor has the potential to destroy components with this high induced back voltage."red" link set for 12 v). with a difference. 20Kpot. 10K.take the unused inputs to + and . (it's a dual op-amp with 1 package unused . When the battery sample voltage rises above the reference voltage the output (pin1 ) goes high and switches on the FET and allows power to be diverted to a "load".supply to ensure chip stability).5volts) and is compared against the battery voltage which is sampled by resistor strings .
Operation is possible for a 24 volt system using a 7812. The circuit below show the 12 volt operation. The output is used to turn on the FET in the negative lead of the solar panel and battery. not Q = low) which drives the output amplifier (inverter) high. while the control voltage is set to 6v8 volts. the battery and solar panel positives are tied together).freewebs. (switching takes place on the negative line. 7815 or 7818 regulator to supply the 555 and limit the applied gate voltage. The trigger and threshold inputs are connected to sample the battery voltage so the Threshold input sets the "off" voltage setpoint.Power supplies and Battery Chargers http://www. When the threshold input goes above 2/3 Vcc then the reverse takes place. Sampling pots are tied to a 6K8 resistor to the 24v battery terminals. (pin 3 = high).com/acselectronics/buildregs. Basically the trigger input if it goes below 1/3 of the applied Vcc the associated comparator goes high and sets the internal flip flops output (Q=high.html This next regulator uses the comparators within an LM555 timer chip. (pin 5). 4 of 9 20-03-2013 20:15 . and the Trigger input sets the "on" setpoint.
etc from a solar panel. Obviously the solar panel isn't running at it's most efficient and I can't vouch for the laptop if a cloud passes over.com/acselectronics/buildregs. "Laptops" .html Next is a series pass regulator for providing 12 volts to small appliances such as "getto blasters" . "small TV's " . Needless to say the solar panel has to be large enough to run the appliance and the series pass transistor and heatsink capable of dissipating the "headroom " energy of the panel array. 5 of 9 20-03-2013 20:15 .freewebs.Power supplies and Battery Chargers http://www. "Lights" .
They have built in smarts and indication so you know whats happening.freewebs.Power supplies and Battery Chargers http://www. again use as many series transistors in parallel for your current needs.html The next ccts are good for gel cells and the like.com/acselectronics/buildregs. They use an IC from Unitrode Corp. 6 of 9 20-03-2013 20:15 .
freewebs.html 7 of 9 20-03-2013 20:15 .com/acselectronics/buildregs.Power supplies and Battery Chargers http://www.
Power supplies and Battery Chargers http://www. It is suppose to deliver 200Ma . I have used this once.html This one is good for small current applications that require a positive and negative rail or perhaps a negative rail off some other supply you have . 18 to 36. whatever. It uses a LM555 to drive a couple of transistors that alternately charge up caps in series .freewebs.com/acselectronics/buildregs. . 9 to 18 volts . so doubling the voltage 12 to 24 . but I didn't require that higher power. 8 of 9 20-03-2013 20:15 .
freewebs.com/acselectronics/buildregs. turning off scr2 and charging will resume through scr1.html This is a simple. (If you have difficulty finding the scrs. If the battery voltage falls below the preset value the zenner diode will block. When the battery is low scr1 fires through R and the unlabeled 1amp silicon diode. This type of charger is probably best for battery charging as it charges in "pulses" as it uses unfiltered full wave power. use around a 15 amp 80 volt for scr1 and a 2 amp 80 volt for scr2 ). When the voltage reaches the desired level set by the 500 ohm pot the zenner fires turning on scr2. good "solid" battery charger for 12 volt lead acid batteries. to smooth it otherwise the scr's won't turn off ! ) Good luck Chris. Back to projects page! 9 of 9 20-03-2013 20:15 . ( Don't be tempted to hang an electro of it. This causes a voltage across both 27 ohm resistors and removes the firing voltage from scr1 which stops the charging. The design is a bit old and the pot may be difficult to source.Power supplies and Battery Chargers http://www.