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5.3.1 SOLUTIONS OF TWO-DIMENSIONAL PROBLEMS BY THE USE OF POLYNOMIALS

The equation given by

polynomials. (a) Polynomial of the First Degree Let f1 = a1 x + b1 y Now, the corresponding stresses are

2 2 + x 2 y 2

(5.13)

2f1 sx = =0 y 2

sy = t xy

2f1 =0 x 2

2f1 = =0 xy

Therefore, this stress function gives a stress free body. (b) Polynomial of the Second Degree Let f 2 =

a2 2 c x + b2 xy + 2 y 2 2 2

sx =

sy = t xy

2f 2 = c2 y 2

2f 2 = a2 x 2 2f == - b2 xy

This shows that the above stress components do not depend upon the co-ordinates x and y, i.e., they are constant throughout the body representing a constant stress field. Thus, the

1

Applied Elasticity for Engineers T.G.Sitharam & L.GovindaRaju

Module5/Lesson3

stress function f 2 represents a state of uniform tensions (or compressions) in two perpendicular directions accompanied with uniform shear, as shown in the Figure 5.3 below.

Figure 5.3 Constant Stress field (c) Polynomial of the Third Degree Let f 3 =

a3 3 b3 2 c d x + x y + 3 xy 2 + 3 y 3 6 2 2 6

sx =

sy= t xy

2f 3 = c3 x + d 3 y y 2

2f 3 = a 3 x + b3 y x 2 2f 3 = = - b3 x - c3 y xy

This stress function gives a linearly varying stress field. It should be noted that the magnitudes of the coefficients a 3 , b3 , c3 and d 3 are chosen freely since the expression for

This corresponds to pure bending on the face perpendicular to the x-axis. \ At y = -h, s x = -d 3 h

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Applied Elasticity for Engineers T.G.Sitharam & L.GovindaRaju

Module5/Lesson3

and At y = +h, s x = + d 3 h The variation of s x with y is linear as shown in the Figure 5.4.

sx =0

s y = b3 y t xy = -b3 x

The stresses represented by the above stress field will vary as shown in the Figure 5.5.

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Applied Elasticity for Engineers T.G.Sitharam & L.GovindaRaju

Module5/Lesson3

In the Figure 5.5, the stress s y is constant with x (i.e. constant along the span L of the beam), but varies with y at a particular section. At y = +h, s y = b3 h (i.e., tensile), while at y = -h, s y = -b3 h (i.e. compressive). s x is zero throughout. Shear stress t xy is zero at x = 0 and is equal to - b3 L at x = L. At any other section, the shear stress is proportional to x. (d) Polynomial of the Fourth Degree Let f 4 =

a 4 4 b4 3 c d e x + x y + 4 x 2 y 2 + 4 xy 3 + 4 y 4 12 6 2 6 12

s x = c 4 x 2 + d 4 xy + e4 y 2

s y = a 4 x 2 + b4 xy + c 4 y 2

b d t xy = - 4 x 2 - 2c4 xy - 4 y 2 2 2

Now, taking all coefficients except d 4 equal to zero, we find

s x = d 4 xy, s y = 0, t xy = -

d4 2 y 2

4

Applied Elasticity for Engineers T.G.Sitharam & L.GovindaRaju

Module5/Lesson3

Assuming d 4 positive, the forces acting on the beam are shown in the Figure 5.6.

On the longitudinal sides, y = h are uniformly distributed shearing forces. At the ends, the shearing forces are distributed according to a parabolic distribution. The shearing forces acting on the boundary of the beam reduce to the couple.

This couple balances the couple produced by the normal forces along the side x = L of the beam. (e) Polynomial of the Fifth Degree

Let j5 =

a5 5 b5 4 c d e f x + x y + 5 x3 y 2 + 5 x 2 y 3 + 5 xy 4 + 5 y 5 20 12 6 6 12 20

sx =

xy

5

Applied Elasticity for Engineers T.G.Sitharam & L.GovindaRaju

Module5/Lesson3

Here the coefficients a 5 , b5 , c5 , d 5 are arbitrary, and in adjusting them we obtain solutions for various loading conditions of the beam. Now, if all coefficients, except d 5 , equal to zero, we find

2 s x = d5 x 2 y - y3 3 1 s y = d5 y 3 3 t xy = -d 5 xy 2

Case (i) The normal forces are uniformly distributed along the longitudinal sides of the beam. Case (ii) Along the side x = L, the normal forces consist of two parts, one following a linear law and the other following the law of a cubic parabola. The shearing forces are proportional to x on the longitudinal sides of the beam and follow a parabolic law along the side x = L. The distribution of the stresses for the Case (i) and Case (ii) are shown in the Figure 5.7.

Case (i)

6

Applied Elasticity for Engineers T.G.Sitharam & L.GovindaRaju

Module5/Lesson3

Case (ii)

Figure 5.7 Distribution of forces on the beam

Consider a cantilever beam of narrow rectangular cross-section carrying a load P at the end as shown in Figure 5.8.

The above problems may be considered as a case of plane stress provided that the thickness of the beam t is small relative to the depth 2h.

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Applied Elasticity for Engineers T.G.Sitharam & L.GovindaRaju

Module5/Lesson3

Boundary Conditions

(t ) (s )

xy At y = h y At y = h

=0 =0

(5.14)

These conditions express the fact that the top and bottom edges of the beam are not loaded. Further, the applied load P must be equal to the resultant of the shearing forces distributed across the free end. Therefore, P = -

t

-h

+h

xy

2b dy

(5.14a)

By Inverse Method As the bending moment varies linearly with x, and s x at any section depends upon y, it is reasonable to assume a general expression of the form

2f s x = 2 = c1 xy (5.14b) y where c1 = constant. Integrating the above twice with respect to y, we get 1 f = c1 xy 3 + yf1 ( x) + f 2 ( x) (5.14c) 6 where f1(x) and f2(x) are functions of x to be determined. Introducing the f thus obtained

into Equation (5.12), we have

d 4 f1 d 4 f 2 + =0 dx 4 dx 4

(5.14d)

Since the second term is independent of y, there exists a solution for all x and y provided that

d 4 f1 d 4 f2 = 0 and =0 dx 4 dx 4

Integrating the above, we get

where c2, c3., c9 are constants of integration. Therefore, (5.14c) becomes

f=

1 c1 xy 3 + (c 2 x 3 + c3 x 2 + c 4 x + c5 ) y + c6 x 3 + c7 x 2 + c8 x + c9 6

Now, by definition,

sy =

2f = 6(c 2 y + c6 )x + 2(c3 y + c7 ) x 2

8

Applied Elasticity for Engineers T.G.Sitharam & L.GovindaRaju

Module5/Lesson3

Now, applying boundary conditions to (5.14e), we get

(5.14e)

c2 = c3 = c6 = c7 = 0 and c4 = +h h

1 2 c1h 2

Also, - t xy 2b dy = c1 2b ( y 2 - h 2 )dy = P -h -h

1 2

P Solving, c1 = - 3P = - 3

3

I 4b h 3 where I = 4 bh is the moment of inertia of the cross-section about the neutral axis.

From Equations (5.14b) and (5.14e), together with the values of constants, the stresses are found to be

-P 2 Pxy sx =- (h - y 2 ) , s y = 0, t xy = 2I I

The distribution of these stresses at sections away from the ends is shown in Figure 5.8 b By Semi-Inverse Method Beginning with bending moment Mz = Px, we may assume a stress field similar to the case of pure bending:

Px s x = - y I

t xy = t xy ( x, y ) s y = s z = t xz = t yz = 0

(5.14f)

The equations of compatibility are satisfied by these equations. On the basis of equation (5.14f), the equations of equilibrium lead to

t xy s x t xy + = 0, =0 x y x

(5.14g)

From the second expression above, txy depends only upon y. The first equation of (5.14g) together with equation (5.14f) gives

dt xy dy

Py I

9

Applied Elasticity for Engineers T.G.Sitharam & L.GovindaRaju

Module5/Lesson3

or txy =

Py 2 +c 2I

Ph 2 2I

Py 2 Ph 2 2I 2I P 2 txy = (h - y 2 ) 2I

The above expression satisfies equation (5.14a) and is identical with the result previously obtained.

Consider a rectangular beam, length L, width 2b, depth 2h, subjected to a pure couple M along its length as shown in the Figure 5.9

Consider a second order polynomial such that its any term gives only a constant state of stress. Therefore

f = a2

c y2 x2 + b2 xy + 2 2 2

By definition,

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Applied Elasticity for Engineers T.G.Sitharam & L.GovindaRaju

Module5/Lesson3

sx=

2f 2f 2f , s = , t = xy y xy y 2 x 2

Considering the plane stress case,

sz = txz = tyz = 0

2b

+a

-a

y2 -h c2 ydy = 2bc2 x 2 = 0 -h

+h +h

\2bx

Therefore, this clearly does not fit the problem of pure bending. Now, consider a third-order equation

f=

From (b) and boundary condition (a) above,

From (c) and the above boundary condition (b), 0 = -b3x c3a for any value of x therefore c3 = 0 hence, s x = d3y

sy =0 txy = 0

Obviously, Biharmonic equation is also satisfied.

11

Applied Elasticity for Engineers T.G.Sitharam & L.GovindaRaju

Module5/Lesson3

i.e.,

4f 4f 4f + 2 + =0 x 4 x 2 y 2 y 4

s ydy d y dy

-h +h x 2 -h 3

+h

= 2bd3

+h

-h

y 2 dy

+h

y3 = 2bd3 3 -h h3 M = 4bd3 3

Or d3 = 3M 4bh 3

M d3 = I M Therefore, s x = y I

4 h 3b where I = 3

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Applied Elasticity for Engineers T.G.Sitharam & L.GovindaRaju

Module5/Lesson3

Consider a beam of rectangular cross-section having unit width, supported at the ends and subjected to a uniformly distributed load of intensity q as shown in the Figure 5.10. It is to be noted that the bending moment is maximum at position x = 0 and decreases with change in x in either positive or negative directions. This is possible only if the stress function contains even functions of x. Also, it should be noted that s y various from zero at

y = -c to a maximum value of -q at y = +c. Hence the stress function must contain odd functions of y.

Now, consider a polynomial of second degree with

b2 = c 2 = 0

\f 2 = a2 2 x 2

\f 3 =

b3 2 d x y + 3 y3 2 6

d5 2 3 d5 5 x y y 6 30 \f = f 2 + f 3 + f 5 \f 5 =

or f =

2 Q f5 = - d5 3

d d d a 2 2 b3 2 x + x y + 3 y3 + 5 x2 y3 - 5 y5 2 2 6 6 30

(1)

Now, by definition,

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Applied Elasticity for Engineers T.G.Sitharam & L.GovindaRaju

Module5/Lesson3

2f 2 = d3 y + d5 x 2 y - y 3 2 3 y d 2f s y = 2 = a 2 + b3 y + 5 y 3 3 x

sx =

t xy = -b3 x - d 5 xy 2

The following boundary conditions must be satisfied. (i) t xy y = c = 0 (ii) (iii) (iv) (v)

( ) (s ) (s )

+c -c +c

y y =+ c y y =- c

=0 = -q

(s )

x x = L

dy = 0 dy = qL ydy = 0

-c

(t ) (s )

xy x = L

+c

(vi)

x x= L

-c

The first three conditions when substituted in equations (3) and (4) give

- b3 - d 5 c 2 = 0

a 2 + b3 c + a 2 - b3 c d5 3 c =0 3 d5 3 c = -q 3

q a2 = - , 2

+c

b3 =

3q , 4c

d5 = -

3q 4c 3

-c

2 y + d 5 x 2 y - y 3 ydy = 0 3

Simplifying,

2 d 3 = -d 5 L2 - h 2 5

14

Applied Elasticity for Engineers T.G.Sitharam & L.GovindaRaju

Module5/Lesson3

3q L2 2 - 4h h 2 5

3q L2 2 3q 2 2 - y - 3 x2 y - y3 4h h 5 4h 3

\s x =

q q 3q s y = - + y - 3 y3 4h 2 4h

3q 3q t xy = - x + 3 xy 2 4h 4h

3 Now, I = 1 (2h ) = 8h = 2 h 3 3

12

12

q 2 q y3 h2 y 2 \s x = (L - x )y + 2I I 3 5

3 2 q y s y = - - h 2 y + h 3 3 2 I 3

q t xy = - x(h 2 - y 2 ) 2I

Example 5.1 Show that for a simply supported beam, length 2L, depth 2a and unit width, loaded by a concentrated load W at the centre, the stress function satisfying the loading condition is f =

15

Applied Elasticity for Engineers T.G.Sitharam & L.GovindaRaju

Module5/Lesson3

Treat the concentrated load as a shear stress suitably distributed to suit this function, and so

+a

that

-a

3W s x = - xy 3 4 a

sy =0

t xy

3W = - 8a

y 2 1 - a 2

Solution: The stress components obtained from the stress function are

sx =

2f = bxy y 2

2f sy = 2 =0 x

t xy

by 2 2f == - 2 +c xy

16

Applied Elasticity for Engineers T.G.Sitharam & L.GovindaRaju

Module5/Lesson3

s y = 0 for y = a t xy = 0 for y = a

- t xy dy =

-a +a +a

W for x = L 2

(iv)

-a

s s

+a

(v) Now,

-a

ba 2 0 = - 2 +c 2 ba \c = 2

Condition (iii)

W b = - a 2 - y 2 dy 2 2 -a b 3 2a 3 =- 2a 2 3 \ 2a 3b W = - 3 2

3W 3 4a 3W 8a

+a

or b = -

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Applied Elasticity for Engineers T.G.Sitharam & L.GovindaRaju

Module5/Lesson3

+a

-a

- 4a

+a

3W xydy = 0 3

Condition (v)

M = s x ydy 3W = - 3 xy 2 dy 4a -a Wx \M = 2

Hence stress components are

-a +a

3W s x = - 3 xy 4a sy =0

3W y 2 3 W t xy = 4a 3 2 -8 a 2 3W y \t xy = - 1 2 8a a

Example 5.2 Given the stress function f =

admissible. If so determine the stresses. Solution: For the stress function f to be admissible, it has to satisfy bihormonic equation. Bihormonic equation is given by

Now,

4f 4f 4f + 2 + =0 x 4 x 2 z 2 z 4 f H xz x = - 2 + tan -1 2 z p x + z z

(i)

2f H 1 = 2 z p x2 + z 2

[2 xz

)

- xz 2 - x 3 - xz 2 - x 3

2f x3 2 H = 2 2 z 2 p x +z

18

Applied Elasticity for Engineers T.G.Sitharam & L.GovindaRaju

Module5/Lesson3

Also,

3f H 8 x 3 z = 2 2 3 z 3 p x +z 4f H 8 x 5 - 40 x 3 z 2 = 2 2 4 z 4 p x + z 3 3 2 4 f 2 H 3x z - x = - 2 2 3 z 2 x p x +z

4f H 64 x 3 z 2 - 24 xz 4 - 8 x 5 = 4 z 2 x 2 p x2 + z 2

Similarly,

f H z 2 = x p x 2 + z 2 2 2f 2 H xz = 2 2 2 2 x p x +z 3 2 2 f 2 H 2 3x - z = z 2 2 3 x 3 p x +z

( (

) )

4f H 24 xz 4 - 24 x 3 z 2 = 2 2 4 x 4 p x z

4 1 p x2 + z 2

[24 xz

- 24 x 3 z 2 + 64 x 3 z 2 - 24 xz 4 - 8 x 5 + 8 x 5 - 40 x 3 z 2 = 0

Hence, the given stress function is admissible. Therefore, the stresses are

and

2 2 2 f x 24 s y = 2 = - 2 2 2 x p x +z 2 2f 24 x z t xy = = - 2 2 2 xz p x + z

sx =

2f x3 24 = 2 2 z 2 p x +z

19

Applied Elasticity for Engineers T.G.Sitharam & L.GovindaRaju

Module5/Lesson3

F 2 xz (3d - 2 z ) . 3 d

Determine the stress components and sketch their variations in a region included in z = 0, z = d, x = 0, on the side x positive. Solution: The given stress function may be written as

VARIATION OF STRESSES AT CERTAIN BOUNDARY POINTS (a) Variation of x

From (i), it is clear that s x varies linearly with x, and at a given section it varies linearly with z. \ At x = 0 and z = d, s x = 0

6 FL 2 d 6 FL 6 FL 12 F At x = L and z = +d, s x = - 2 + 3 Ld = 2 d d d 6 FL 12 F 18 FL At x = L and z = -d, s x = - 2 - 3 Ld = - 2 d d d The variation of s x is shown in the figure below

At x = L and z = 0, s x = -

20

Applied Elasticity for Engineers T.G.Sitharam & L.GovindaRaju

Module5/Lesson3

(b)

Variation of z

(c) Variation of xz We have t xz =

6 Fz 6 F 2 - 3 . z 2 d d

From the above expression, it is clear that the variation of t xz is parabolic with z. However,

t xz is independent of x and is thus constant along the length, corresponding to a given value of z. \ At z = 0, t xz = 0 6 Fd 6 F At z = +d, t xz = 2 - 3 d 2 = 0 d d 6F 6F 12 F At z = -d, t xz = - 2 d - 3 ( - d 2 ) = - d d d

The variation of t xz is shown in figure below.

21

Applied Elasticity for Engineers T.G.Sitharam & L.GovindaRaju

Module5/Lesson3

xz

Example 5.4 Investigate what problem of plane stress is satisfied by the stress function

j=

3F 4d

xy 3 p 2 xy + y 2 3 d 2

applied to the region included in y = 0, y = d, x = 0 on the side x positive. Solution: The given stress function may be written as

1 Fxy 3 p 2 3F j = xy + y 3 4d 4 d 2

\ 2f =0 x 2

2j F 3 2 Fxy 2 p = - . 3 + = p - 1.5 3 xy 2 y 4 d 2 d

and

2f 3F 3 Fy 2 = xy 4d 4 d 3

2j F = p - 1.5 3 xy 2 y d 2 f sy = 2 =0 x

sx =

22

Applied Elasticity for Engineers T.G.Sitharam & L.GovindaRaju

Module5/Lesson3

t xy = -

2f 3 Fy 2 3F = xy 4 d 3 4d

(a) Variation of x

F s x = p - 1.5 3 xy d When x = 0 and y = 0 or d , s x = p (i.e., constant across the section) When x = L and y = 0, s x = p FL When x = L and y = +d, s x = p - 1.5 2 d FL When x = L and y = -d, s x = P + 1.5 2 d Thus, at x = L, the variation of s x is linear with y. The variation of s x is shown in the figure below.

(b) Variation of z

sy =

2f =0 x 2

23

Applied Elasticity for Engineers T.G.Sitharam & L.GovindaRaju

Module5/Lesson3

(c) Variation of xy

3 Fy 2 3 F t xy = 4 d3 -4 d Thus, t xy varies parabolically with z. However, it is independent of x, i.e., it's value is the same for all values of x. 3 F \ At y = 0, t xy = - 4 d 3 F 3 F At y = d , t xy = (d ) 2 - 3 =0 4 d 4 d

-3F 4d o X

d d L

Y

Figure 5.15 Variation of shear stress

-3F 4d txy

xy

The stress function therefore solves the problem of a cantilever beam subjected to point load F at its free end along with an axial stress of p. Example 5.5 Show that the following stress function satisfies the boundary condition in a beam of rectangular cross-section of width 2h and depth d under a total shear force W.

W f = - xy 2 (3d - 2 y ) 3 2hd

Solution: s x =

2f y 2

24

Applied Elasticity for Engineers T.G.Sitharam & L.GovindaRaju

Module5/Lesson3

Now,

f W =6 xyd - 6 xy 2 3 y 2hd

2f W [6 xd - 12 xy ] =2 y 2hd 3 W \ s x = - 3 [3 xd - 6 xy ] hd

2f sy = 2 =0 x 2f and t xy = xy W = 6 yd - 6 y 2 2hd 3 W = 3 yd - 3 y 2 3 hd

Also, 4f =

4 4 2 4 + + f = 0 4 y 4 x 2 y 2 x

Boundary conditions are (a) s y = 0 for y = 0 and d (b) t xy = 0 for y = 0 and d (c)

d

t

0

xy

0

(e)

s

0

W 3d 2 - 3d 2 = 0 3 hd

25

Applied Elasticity for Engineers T.G.Sitharam & L.GovindaRaju

Module5/Lesson3

W hd [3 yd - 3 y ]2hdy

d 2 3 0

2W 3 yd - 3 y 2 dy 3 d 0

d

2W 3 y 2 d = 3 - y3 d 2 0 3 2W 3d = 3 - d3 d 2

2W d 3 = 3 . 2 d =W

Hence satisfied. Condition (d)

W - hd [3xd - 6 xy ]2hdy

3 0

=-

2W 3 xyd - 3 xy 2 3 d

=0

Hence satisfied. Condition (e)

d

2W 3 xdy 2 =- 3 - 2 xy 3 d 2 0

2W 3xd 3 =- 3 - 2 xd 3 d 2

26

Applied Elasticity for Engineers T.G.Sitharam & L.GovindaRaju

Module5/Lesson3

=-

2W d3

1 3 - 2 xd

= Wx

Hence satisfied

27

Applied Elasticity for Engineers T.G.Sitharam & L.GovindaRaju

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