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# Module5/Lesson3

## Module 5: Two Dimensional Problems in Cartesian Coordinate System

5.3.1 SOLUTIONS OF TWO-DIMENSIONAL PROBLEMS BY THE USE OF POLYNOMIALS
The equation given by

## 2f 2f 4f 4f 4f + = + 2 + =0 x 2 y 2 x 4 x 2 y 2 y 4 will be satisfied by expressing Airys function f ( x, y ) in the form of homogeneous

polynomials. (a) Polynomial of the First Degree Let f1 = a1 x + b1 y Now, the corresponding stresses are

2 2 + x 2 y 2

(5.13)

2f1 sx = =0 y 2

sy = t xy

2f1 =0 x 2

2f1 = =0 xy

Therefore, this stress function gives a stress free body. (b) Polynomial of the Second Degree Let f 2 =

a2 2 c x + b2 xy + 2 y 2 2 2

## The corresponding stresses are

sx =
sy = t xy

2f 2 = c2 y 2

2f 2 = a2 x 2 2f == - b2 xy

This shows that the above stress components do not depend upon the co-ordinates x and y, i.e., they are constant throughout the body representing a constant stress field. Thus, the

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stress function f 2 represents a state of uniform tensions (or compressions) in two perpendicular directions accompanied with uniform shear, as shown in the Figure 5.3 below.

## Figure 5.3 State of stresses

Figure 5.3 Constant Stress field (c) Polynomial of the Third Degree Let f 3 =

a3 3 b3 2 c d x + x y + 3 xy 2 + 3 y 3 6 2 2 6

## The corresponding stresses are

sx =
sy= t xy

2f 3 = c3 x + d 3 y y 2

2f 3 = a 3 x + b3 y x 2 2f 3 = = - b3 x - c3 y xy

This stress function gives a linearly varying stress field. It should be noted that the magnitudes of the coefficients a 3 , b3 , c3 and d 3 are chosen freely since the expression for

## Now, if a 3 = b3 = c3 = 0 except d 3 , we get from the stress components

This corresponds to pure bending on the face perpendicular to the x-axis. \ At y = -h, s x = -d 3 h

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and At y = +h, s x = + d 3 h The variation of s x with y is linear as shown in the Figure 5.4.

sx =0

## Similarly, if all the coefficients except b3 are zero, then we get

s y = b3 y t xy = -b3 x
The stresses represented by the above stress field will vary as shown in the Figure 5.5.

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## Figure 5.5 Variation of Stresses

In the Figure 5.5, the stress s y is constant with x (i.e. constant along the span L of the beam), but varies with y at a particular section. At y = +h, s y = b3 h (i.e., tensile), while at y = -h, s y = -b3 h (i.e. compressive). s x is zero throughout. Shear stress t xy is zero at x = 0 and is equal to - b3 L at x = L. At any other section, the shear stress is proportional to x. (d) Polynomial of the Fourth Degree Let f 4 =

a 4 4 b4 3 c d e x + x y + 4 x 2 y 2 + 4 xy 3 + 4 y 4 12 6 2 6 12

## The corresponding stresses are given by

s x = c 4 x 2 + d 4 xy + e4 y 2

s y = a 4 x 2 + b4 xy + c 4 y 2
b d t xy = - 4 x 2 - 2c4 xy - 4 y 2 2 2
Now, taking all coefficients except d 4 equal to zero, we find

s x = d 4 xy, s y = 0, t xy = -

d4 2 y 2

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Assuming d 4 positive, the forces acting on the beam are shown in the Figure 5.6.

## Figure 5.6 Stresses acting on the beam

On the longitudinal sides, y = h are uniformly distributed shearing forces. At the ends, the shearing forces are distributed according to a parabolic distribution. The shearing forces acting on the boundary of the beam reduce to the couple.

## d4h2 L 1 d4h2 Therefore, M = 2h 2hL 2 3 2 2 Or M = d 4 h 3 L 3

This couple balances the couple produced by the normal forces along the side x = L of the beam. (e) Polynomial of the Fifth Degree

Let j5 =

a5 5 b5 4 c d e f x + x y + 5 x3 y 2 + 5 x 2 y 3 + 5 xy 4 + 5 y 5 20 12 6 6 12 20

## 2f 5 c 5 3 1 = x + d 5 x 2 y - (2c5 + 3a5 ) xy 2 - (b5 + 2d 5 ) y 3 2 3 3 y 2 f d s y = 25 = a5 x 3 + b5 x 2 y + c5 xy 2 + 5 y 3 3 x 2f 5 1 1 t xy = = - b5 x 3 - c 5 x 2 y - d 5 xy 2 + (2c 5 + 3a 5 ) y 3

sx =

xy

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Here the coefficients a 5 , b5 , c5 , d 5 are arbitrary, and in adjusting them we obtain solutions for various loading conditions of the beam. Now, if all coefficients, except d 5 , equal to zero, we find

2 s x = d5 x 2 y - y3 3 1 s y = d5 y 3 3 t xy = -d 5 xy 2
Case (i) The normal forces are uniformly distributed along the longitudinal sides of the beam. Case (ii) Along the side x = L, the normal forces consist of two parts, one following a linear law and the other following the law of a cubic parabola. The shearing forces are proportional to x on the longitudinal sides of the beam and follow a parabolic law along the side x = L. The distribution of the stresses for the Case (i) and Case (ii) are shown in the Figure 5.7.

Case (i)

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Case (ii)
Figure 5.7 Distribution of forces on the beam

## 5.3.2 BENDING OF A NARROW CANTILEVER BEAM SUBJECTED TO END LOAD

Consider a cantilever beam of narrow rectangular cross-section carrying a load P at the end as shown in Figure 5.8.

## Figure 5.8 Cantilever subjected to an end load

The above problems may be considered as a case of plane stress provided that the thickness of the beam t is small relative to the depth 2h.

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Boundary Conditions

(t ) (s )

xy At y = h y At y = h

=0 =0
(5.14)

These conditions express the fact that the top and bottom edges of the beam are not loaded. Further, the applied load P must be equal to the resultant of the shearing forces distributed across the free end. Therefore, P = -

t
-h

+h

xy

2b dy

(5.14a)

By Inverse Method As the bending moment varies linearly with x, and s x at any section depends upon y, it is reasonable to assume a general expression of the form

2f s x = 2 = c1 xy (5.14b) y where c1 = constant. Integrating the above twice with respect to y, we get 1 f = c1 xy 3 + yf1 ( x) + f 2 ( x) (5.14c) 6 where f1(x) and f2(x) are functions of x to be determined. Introducing the f thus obtained
into Equation (5.12), we have

d 4 f1 d 4 f 2 + =0 dx 4 dx 4

(5.14d)

Since the second term is independent of y, there exists a solution for all x and y provided that

d 4 f1 d 4 f2 = 0 and =0 dx 4 dx 4
Integrating the above, we get

## f1(x) = c2x3+c3x2+c4x+c5 f2(x) = c6x3+c7x2+c8x+c9

where c2, c3., c9 are constants of integration. Therefore, (5.14c) becomes

f=

1 c1 xy 3 + (c 2 x 3 + c3 x 2 + c 4 x + c5 ) y + c6 x 3 + c7 x 2 + c8 x + c9 6

Now, by definition,

sy =

2f = 6(c 2 y + c6 )x + 2(c3 y + c7 ) x 2

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## 2f 1 2 2 txy = - xy = - 2 c1 y - 3c2 x - 2c3 x - c4

Now, applying boundary conditions to (5.14e), we get

(5.14e)

c2 = c3 = c6 = c7 = 0 and c4 = +h h

1 2 c1h 2

Also, - t xy 2b dy = c1 2b ( y 2 - h 2 )dy = P -h -h

1 2

P Solving, c1 = - 3P = - 3
3

I 4b h 3 where I = 4 bh is the moment of inertia of the cross-section about the neutral axis.
From Equations (5.14b) and (5.14e), together with the values of constants, the stresses are found to be

-P 2 Pxy sx =- (h - y 2 ) , s y = 0, t xy = 2I I
The distribution of these stresses at sections away from the ends is shown in Figure 5.8 b By Semi-Inverse Method Beginning with bending moment Mz = Px, we may assume a stress field similar to the case of pure bending:

Px s x = - y I

t xy = t xy ( x, y ) s y = s z = t xz = t yz = 0

(5.14f)

The equations of compatibility are satisfied by these equations. On the basis of equation (5.14f), the equations of equilibrium lead to

t xy s x t xy + = 0, =0 x y x

(5.14g)

From the second expression above, txy depends only upon y. The first equation of (5.14g) together with equation (5.14f) gives

dt xy dy

Py I

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or txy =

## Here c is determined on the basis of (txy)y=h = 0 Therefore, c = Hence, txy = Or

Py 2 +c 2I

Ph 2 2I

Py 2 Ph 2 2I 2I P 2 txy = (h - y 2 ) 2I

The above expression satisfies equation (5.14a) and is identical with the result previously obtained.

## 5.3.3 PURE BENDING OF A BEAM

Consider a rectangular beam, length L, width 2b, depth 2h, subjected to a pure couple M along its length as shown in the Figure 5.9

## Figure 5.9 Beam under pure bending

Consider a second order polynomial such that its any term gives only a constant state of stress. Therefore

f = a2

c y2 x2 + b2 xy + 2 2 2

By definition,

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sx=

2f 2f 2f , s = , t = xy y xy y 2 x 2

## \ Differentiating the function, we get 2f 2f 2f sx = 2 = c2, sy = 2 = a2 and txy = - xy = -b2 y x

Considering the plane stress case,

sz = txz = tyz = 0

2b

+a

-a

## s x ydy = bending moment = constant

y2 -h c2 ydy = 2bc2 x 2 = 0 -h
+h +h

\2bx

Therefore, this clearly does not fit the problem of pure bending. Now, consider a third-order equation

f=

## txy = -b3x - c3y

From (b) and boundary condition (a) above,

## 0 = a3x b3a for any value of x \ a3 = b3 = 0

From (c) and the above boundary condition (b), 0 = -b3x c3a for any value of x therefore c3 = 0 hence, s x = d3y

sy =0 txy = 0
Obviously, Biharmonic equation is also satisfied.

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i.e.,

4f 4f 4f + 2 + =0 x 4 x 2 y 2 y 4

## Now, bending moment = M = 2b i.e. M = 2b

s ydy d y dy
-h +h x 2 -h 3

+h

= 2bd3

+h

-h

y 2 dy
+h

y3 = 2bd3 3 -h h3 M = 4bd3 3
Or d3 = 3M 4bh 3

M d3 = I M Therefore, s x = y I

4 h 3b where I = 3

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## Figure 5.10 Beam subjected to Uniform load

Consider a beam of rectangular cross-section having unit width, supported at the ends and subjected to a uniformly distributed load of intensity q as shown in the Figure 5.10. It is to be noted that the bending moment is maximum at position x = 0 and decreases with change in x in either positive or negative directions. This is possible only if the stress function contains even functions of x. Also, it should be noted that s y various from zero at

y = -c to a maximum value of -q at y = +c. Hence the stress function must contain odd functions of y.
Now, consider a polynomial of second degree with

b2 = c 2 = 0
\f 2 = a2 2 x 2

## a polynomial of third degree with a 3 = c3 = 0

\f 3 =

b3 2 d x y + 3 y3 2 6

## and a polynomial of fifth degree with a 5 = b5 = c5 = e5 = 0

d5 2 3 d5 5 x y y 6 30 \f = f 2 + f 3 + f 5 \f 5 =
or f =

2 Q f5 = - d5 3

d d d a 2 2 b3 2 x + x y + 3 y3 + 5 x2 y3 - 5 y5 2 2 6 6 30

(1)

Now, by definition,

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2f 2 = d3 y + d5 x 2 y - y 3 2 3 y d 2f s y = 2 = a 2 + b3 y + 5 y 3 3 x

sx =

## (2) (3) (4)

t xy = -b3 x - d 5 xy 2
The following boundary conditions must be satisfied. (i) t xy y = c = 0 (ii) (iii) (iv) (v)

( ) (s ) (s )
+c -c +c

y y =+ c y y =- c

=0 = -q

(s )

x x = L

dy = 0 dy = qL ydy = 0

-c

(t ) (s )

xy x = L

+c

(vi)

x x= L

-c

The first three conditions when substituted in equations (3) and (4) give

- b3 - d 5 c 2 = 0
a 2 + b3 c + a 2 - b3 c d5 3 c =0 3 d5 3 c = -q 3

q a2 = - , 2
+c

b3 =

3q , 4c

d5 = -

3q 4c 3

## Now, from condition (vi), we have

-c

2 y + d 5 x 2 y - y 3 ydy = 0 3

Simplifying,

2 d 3 = -d 5 L2 - h 2 5

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3q L2 2 - 4h h 2 5
3q L2 2 3q 2 2 - y - 3 x2 y - y3 4h h 5 4h 3

\s x =

q q 3q s y = - + y - 3 y3 4h 2 4h
3q 3q t xy = - x + 3 xy 2 4h 4h
3 Now, I = 1 (2h ) = 8h = 2 h 3 3

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12

## where I = Moment of inertia of the unit width beam.

q 2 q y3 h2 y 2 \s x = (L - x )y + 2I I 3 5
3 2 q y s y = - - h 2 y + h 3 3 2 I 3

q t xy = - x(h 2 - y 2 ) 2I

## 5.3.5 NUMERICAL EXAMPLES

Example 5.1 Show that for a simply supported beam, length 2L, depth 2a and unit width, loaded by a concentrated load W at the centre, the stress function satisfying the loading condition is f =

## b 2 xy + cxy the positive direction of y being upwards, and x = 0 at midspan. 6

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## Figure 5.11 Simply supported beam

Treat the concentrated load as a shear stress suitably distributed to suit this function, and so
+a

that

-a

## W dy = - on each half-length of the beam. Show that the stresses are 2

3W s x = - xy 3 4 a

sy =0

t xy

3W = - 8a

y 2 1 - a 2

Solution: The stress components obtained from the stress function are

sx =

2f = bxy y 2

2f sy = 2 =0 x

t xy

by 2 2f == - 2 +c xy

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## Boundary conditions are (i) (ii) (iii)

s y = 0 for y = a t xy = 0 for y = a
- t xy dy =
-a +a +a

W for x = L 2

(iv)

-a

s s

+a

(v) Now,

-a

## Condition (i) This condition is satisfied since s y = 0 Condition (ii)

ba 2 0 = - 2 +c 2 ba \c = 2
Condition (iii)

W b = - a 2 - y 2 dy 2 2 -a b 3 2a 3 =- 2a 2 3 \ 2a 3b W = - 3 2
3W 3 4a 3W 8a

+a

or b = -

## and c = - Condition (iv)

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+a

-a

- 4a
+a

3W xydy = 0 3

Condition (v)

M = s x ydy 3W = - 3 xy 2 dy 4a -a Wx \M = 2
Hence stress components are
-a +a

3W s x = - 3 xy 4a sy =0

3W y 2 3 W t xy = 4a 3 2 -8 a 2 3W y \t xy = - 1 2 8a a
Example 5.2 Given the stress function f =

## H -1 x z tan . Determine whether stress function f is p z

admissible. If so determine the stresses. Solution: For the stress function f to be admissible, it has to satisfy bihormonic equation. Bihormonic equation is given by

Now,

4f 4f 4f + 2 + =0 x 4 x 2 z 2 z 4 f H xz x = - 2 + tan -1 2 z p x + z z

(i)

2f H 1 = 2 z p x2 + z 2

[2 xz
)

- xz 2 - x 3 - xz 2 - x 3

2f x3 2 H = 2 2 z 2 p x +z

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Also,

3f H 8 x 3 z = 2 2 3 z 3 p x +z 4f H 8 x 5 - 40 x 3 z 2 = 2 2 4 z 4 p x + z 3 3 2 4 f 2 H 3x z - x = - 2 2 3 z 2 x p x +z

4f H 64 x 3 z 2 - 24 xz 4 - 8 x 5 = 4 z 2 x 2 p x2 + z 2

Similarly,

f H z 2 = x p x 2 + z 2 2 2f 2 H xz = 2 2 2 2 x p x +z 3 2 2 f 2 H 2 3x - z = z 2 2 3 x 3 p x +z

( (

) )

4f H 24 xz 4 - 24 x 3 z 2 = 2 2 4 x 4 p x z

## Substituting the above values in (i), we get

4 1 p x2 + z 2

[24 xz

- 24 x 3 z 2 + 64 x 3 z 2 - 24 xz 4 - 8 x 5 + 8 x 5 - 40 x 3 z 2 = 0

Hence, the given stress function is admissible. Therefore, the stresses are

and

2 2 2 f x 24 s y = 2 = - 2 2 2 x p x +z 2 2f 24 x z t xy = = - 2 2 2 xz p x + z

sx =

2f x3 24 = 2 2 z 2 p x +z

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## Example 5.3 Given the stress function: f = -

F 2 xz (3d - 2 z ) . 3 d

Determine the stress components and sketch their variations in a region included in z = 0, z = d, x = 0, on the side x positive. Solution: The given stress function may be written as

## 3F 2F f = - 2 xz 2 + 3 xz 3 d d 2 f 6 Fx 12 F \ 2 = - 2 + 3 xz z d d 2 f and =0 x 2 2f 6 Fz 6 F also = - 2 + 3 z 2 xz d d 6 Fx 12 F Hence s x = - 2 + 3 xz d d sz =0 2j 6 Fz 6 F t xz = = - 2 + 3 z 2 xz d d

VARIATION OF STRESSES AT CERTAIN BOUNDARY POINTS (a) Variation of x

## (i) (ii) (iii)

From (i), it is clear that s x varies linearly with x, and at a given section it varies linearly with z. \ At x = 0 and z = d, s x = 0

6 FL 2 d 6 FL 6 FL 12 F At x = L and z = +d, s x = - 2 + 3 Ld = 2 d d d 6 FL 12 F 18 FL At x = L and z = -d, s x = - 2 - 3 Ld = - 2 d d d The variation of s x is shown in the figure below
At x = L and z = 0, s x = -

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(b)

Variation of z

## s z is zero for all values of x.

(c) Variation of xz We have t xz =

6 Fz 6 F 2 - 3 . z 2 d d

From the above expression, it is clear that the variation of t xz is parabolic with z. However,

t xz is independent of x and is thus constant along the length, corresponding to a given value of z. \ At z = 0, t xz = 0 6 Fd 6 F At z = +d, t xz = 2 - 3 d 2 = 0 d d 6F 6F 12 F At z = -d, t xz = - 2 d - 3 ( - d 2 ) = - d d d
The variation of t xz is shown in figure below.

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## Figure 5.13 Variation of

xz

Example 5.4 Investigate what problem of plane stress is satisfied by the stress function

j=

3F 4d

xy 3 p 2 xy + y 2 3 d 2

applied to the region included in y = 0, y = d, x = 0 on the side x positive. Solution: The given stress function may be written as

1 Fxy 3 p 2 3F j = xy + y 3 4d 4 d 2
\ 2f =0 x 2

2j F 3 2 Fxy 2 p = - . 3 + = p - 1.5 3 xy 2 y 4 d 2 d
and

2f 3F 3 Fy 2 = xy 4d 4 d 3

## Hence the stress components are

2j F = p - 1.5 3 xy 2 y d 2 f sy = 2 =0 x

sx =

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t xy = -

2f 3 Fy 2 3F = xy 4 d 3 4d

(a) Variation of x

F s x = p - 1.5 3 xy d When x = 0 and y = 0 or d , s x = p (i.e., constant across the section) When x = L and y = 0, s x = p FL When x = L and y = +d, s x = p - 1.5 2 d FL When x = L and y = -d, s x = P + 1.5 2 d Thus, at x = L, the variation of s x is linear with y. The variation of s x is shown in the figure below.

## Figure 5.14 Variation of stress

(b) Variation of z

sy =

## \ s y is zero for all value of x and y

2f =0 x 2

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(c) Variation of xy

3 Fy 2 3 F t xy = 4 d3 -4 d Thus, t xy varies parabolically with z. However, it is independent of x, i.e., it's value is the same for all values of x. 3 F \ At y = 0, t xy = - 4 d 3 F 3 F At y = d , t xy = (d ) 2 - 3 =0 4 d 4 d

-3F 4d o X

d d L
Y
Figure 5.15 Variation of shear stress

-3F 4d txy

xy

The stress function therefore solves the problem of a cantilever beam subjected to point load F at its free end along with an axial stress of p. Example 5.5 Show that the following stress function satisfies the boundary condition in a beam of rectangular cross-section of width 2h and depth d under a total shear force W.

W f = - xy 2 (3d - 2 y ) 3 2hd
Solution: s x =

2f y 2

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Now,

f W =6 xyd - 6 xy 2 3 y 2hd

2f W [6 xd - 12 xy ] =2 y 2hd 3 W \ s x = - 3 [3 xd - 6 xy ] hd
2f sy = 2 =0 x 2f and t xy = xy W = 6 yd - 6 y 2 2hd 3 W = 3 yd - 3 y 2 3 hd

Also, 4f =

4 4 2 4 + + f = 0 4 y 4 x 2 y 2 x

Boundary conditions are (a) s y = 0 for y = 0 and d (b) t xy = 0 for y = 0 and d (c)
d

t
0

xy

0

(e)

s
0

## Now, Condition (a) This condition is satisfied since s y = 0 Condition (b)

W 3d 2 - 3d 2 = 0 3 hd

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## Hence satisfied. Condition (c)

W hd [3 yd - 3 y ]2hdy
d 2 3 0

2W 3 yd - 3 y 2 dy 3 d 0
d

2W 3 y 2 d = 3 - y3 d 2 0 3 2W 3d = 3 - d3 d 2

2W d 3 = 3 . 2 d =W
Hence satisfied. Condition (d)

W - hd [3xd - 6 xy ]2hdy
3 0

=-

2W 3 xyd - 3 xy 2 3 d

=0
Hence satisfied. Condition (e)

## W [3xd - 6 xy ]2h. ydy hd 3

d

2W 3 xdy 2 =- 3 - 2 xy 3 d 2 0

2W 3xd 3 =- 3 - 2 xd 3 d 2

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=-

2W d3

1 3 - 2 xd

= Wx
Hence satisfied

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