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Module5/Lesson3

Module 5: Two Dimensional Problems in Cartesian Coordinate System


5.3.1 SOLUTIONS OF TWO-DIMENSIONAL PROBLEMS BY THE USE OF POLYNOMIALS
The equation given by

2f 2f 4f 4f 4f + = + 2 + =0 x 2 y 2 x 4 x 2 y 2 y 4 will be satisfied by expressing Airys function f ( x, y ) in the form of homogeneous


polynomials. (a) Polynomial of the First Degree Let f1 = a1 x + b1 y Now, the corresponding stresses are

2 2 + x 2 y 2

(5.13)

2f1 sx = =0 y 2

sy = t xy

2f1 =0 x 2

2f1 = =0 xy

Therefore, this stress function gives a stress free body. (b) Polynomial of the Second Degree Let f 2 =

a2 2 c x + b2 xy + 2 y 2 2 2

The corresponding stresses are

sx =
sy = t xy

2f 2 = c2 y 2

2f 2 = a2 x 2 2f == - b2 xy

This shows that the above stress components do not depend upon the co-ordinates x and y, i.e., they are constant throughout the body representing a constant stress field. Thus, the

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stress function f 2 represents a state of uniform tensions (or compressions) in two perpendicular directions accompanied with uniform shear, as shown in the Figure 5.3 below.

Figure 5.3 State of stresses

Figure 5.3 Constant Stress field (c) Polynomial of the Third Degree Let f 3 =

a3 3 b3 2 c d x + x y + 3 xy 2 + 3 y 3 6 2 2 6

The corresponding stresses are

sx =
sy= t xy

2f 3 = c3 x + d 3 y y 2

2f 3 = a 3 x + b3 y x 2 2f 3 = = - b3 x - c3 y xy

This stress function gives a linearly varying stress field. It should be noted that the magnitudes of the coefficients a 3 , b3 , c3 and d 3 are chosen freely since the expression for

f 3 is satisfied irrespective of values of these coefficients. s x = d3 y s y = 0 and t xy = 0

Now, if a 3 = b3 = c3 = 0 except d 3 , we get from the stress components

This corresponds to pure bending on the face perpendicular to the x-axis. \ At y = -h, s x = -d 3 h

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and At y = +h, s x = + d 3 h The variation of s x with y is linear as shown in the Figure 5.4.

Figure 5.4 Variation of Stresses

sx =0

Similarly, if all the coefficients except b3 are zero, then we get

s y = b3 y t xy = -b3 x
The stresses represented by the above stress field will vary as shown in the Figure 5.5.

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Figure 5.5 Variation of Stresses

In the Figure 5.5, the stress s y is constant with x (i.e. constant along the span L of the beam), but varies with y at a particular section. At y = +h, s y = b3 h (i.e., tensile), while at y = -h, s y = -b3 h (i.e. compressive). s x is zero throughout. Shear stress t xy is zero at x = 0 and is equal to - b3 L at x = L. At any other section, the shear stress is proportional to x. (d) Polynomial of the Fourth Degree Let f 4 =

a 4 4 b4 3 c d e x + x y + 4 x 2 y 2 + 4 xy 3 + 4 y 4 12 6 2 6 12

The corresponding stresses are given by

s x = c 4 x 2 + d 4 xy + e4 y 2

s y = a 4 x 2 + b4 xy + c 4 y 2
b d t xy = - 4 x 2 - 2c4 xy - 4 y 2 2 2
Now, taking all coefficients except d 4 equal to zero, we find

s x = d 4 xy, s y = 0, t xy = -

d4 2 y 2

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Assuming d 4 positive, the forces acting on the beam are shown in the Figure 5.6.

Figure 5.6 Stresses acting on the beam

On the longitudinal sides, y = h are uniformly distributed shearing forces. At the ends, the shearing forces are distributed according to a parabolic distribution. The shearing forces acting on the boundary of the beam reduce to the couple.

d4h2 L 1 d4h2 Therefore, M = 2h 2hL 2 3 2 2 Or M = d 4 h 3 L 3


This couple balances the couple produced by the normal forces along the side x = L of the beam. (e) Polynomial of the Fifth Degree

Let j5 =

a5 5 b5 4 c d e f x + x y + 5 x3 y 2 + 5 x 2 y 3 + 5 xy 4 + 5 y 5 20 12 6 6 12 20

The corresponding stress components are given by

2f 5 c 5 3 1 = x + d 5 x 2 y - (2c5 + 3a5 ) xy 2 - (b5 + 2d 5 ) y 3 2 3 3 y 2 f d s y = 25 = a5 x 3 + b5 x 2 y + c5 xy 2 + 5 y 3 3 x 2f 5 1 1 t xy = = - b5 x 3 - c 5 x 2 y - d 5 xy 2 + (2c 5 + 3a 5 ) y 3

sx =

xy

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Here the coefficients a 5 , b5 , c5 , d 5 are arbitrary, and in adjusting them we obtain solutions for various loading conditions of the beam. Now, if all coefficients, except d 5 , equal to zero, we find

2 s x = d5 x 2 y - y3 3 1 s y = d5 y 3 3 t xy = -d 5 xy 2
Case (i) The normal forces are uniformly distributed along the longitudinal sides of the beam. Case (ii) Along the side x = L, the normal forces consist of two parts, one following a linear law and the other following the law of a cubic parabola. The shearing forces are proportional to x on the longitudinal sides of the beam and follow a parabolic law along the side x = L. The distribution of the stresses for the Case (i) and Case (ii) are shown in the Figure 5.7.

Case (i)

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Case (ii)
Figure 5.7 Distribution of forces on the beam

5.3.2 BENDING OF A NARROW CANTILEVER BEAM SUBJECTED TO END LOAD


Consider a cantilever beam of narrow rectangular cross-section carrying a load P at the end as shown in Figure 5.8.

Figure 5.8 Cantilever subjected to an end load

The above problems may be considered as a case of plane stress provided that the thickness of the beam t is small relative to the depth 2h.

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Boundary Conditions

(t ) (s )

xy At y = h y At y = h

=0 =0
(5.14)

These conditions express the fact that the top and bottom edges of the beam are not loaded. Further, the applied load P must be equal to the resultant of the shearing forces distributed across the free end. Therefore, P = -

t
-h

+h

xy

2b dy

(5.14a)

By Inverse Method As the bending moment varies linearly with x, and s x at any section depends upon y, it is reasonable to assume a general expression of the form

2f s x = 2 = c1 xy (5.14b) y where c1 = constant. Integrating the above twice with respect to y, we get 1 f = c1 xy 3 + yf1 ( x) + f 2 ( x) (5.14c) 6 where f1(x) and f2(x) are functions of x to be determined. Introducing the f thus obtained
into Equation (5.12), we have

d 4 f1 d 4 f 2 + =0 dx 4 dx 4

(5.14d)

Since the second term is independent of y, there exists a solution for all x and y provided that

d 4 f1 d 4 f2 = 0 and =0 dx 4 dx 4
Integrating the above, we get

f1(x) = c2x3+c3x2+c4x+c5 f2(x) = c6x3+c7x2+c8x+c9


where c2, c3., c9 are constants of integration. Therefore, (5.14c) becomes

f=

1 c1 xy 3 + (c 2 x 3 + c3 x 2 + c 4 x + c5 ) y + c6 x 3 + c7 x 2 + c8 x + c9 6

Now, by definition,

sy =

2f = 6(c 2 y + c6 )x + 2(c3 y + c7 ) x 2

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2f 1 2 2 txy = - xy = - 2 c1 y - 3c2 x - 2c3 x - c4


Now, applying boundary conditions to (5.14e), we get

(5.14e)

c2 = c3 = c6 = c7 = 0 and c4 = +h h

1 2 c1h 2

Also, - t xy 2b dy = c1 2b ( y 2 - h 2 )dy = P -h -h

1 2

P Solving, c1 = - 3P = - 3
3

I 4b h 3 where I = 4 bh is the moment of inertia of the cross-section about the neutral axis.
From Equations (5.14b) and (5.14e), together with the values of constants, the stresses are found to be

-P 2 Pxy sx =- (h - y 2 ) , s y = 0, t xy = 2I I
The distribution of these stresses at sections away from the ends is shown in Figure 5.8 b By Semi-Inverse Method Beginning with bending moment Mz = Px, we may assume a stress field similar to the case of pure bending:

Px s x = - y I

t xy = t xy ( x, y ) s y = s z = t xz = t yz = 0

(5.14f)

The equations of compatibility are satisfied by these equations. On the basis of equation (5.14f), the equations of equilibrium lead to

t xy s x t xy + = 0, =0 x y x

(5.14g)

From the second expression above, txy depends only upon y. The first equation of (5.14g) together with equation (5.14f) gives

dt xy dy

Py I

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or txy =

Here c is determined on the basis of (txy)y=h = 0 Therefore, c = Hence, txy = Or

Py 2 +c 2I

Ph 2 2I

Py 2 Ph 2 2I 2I P 2 txy = (h - y 2 ) 2I

The above expression satisfies equation (5.14a) and is identical with the result previously obtained.

5.3.3 PURE BENDING OF A BEAM


Consider a rectangular beam, length L, width 2b, depth 2h, subjected to a pure couple M along its length as shown in the Figure 5.9

Figure 5.9 Beam under pure bending

Consider a second order polynomial such that its any term gives only a constant state of stress. Therefore

f = a2

c y2 x2 + b2 xy + 2 2 2

By definition,

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sx=

2f 2f 2f , s = , t = xy y xy y 2 x 2

\ Differentiating the function, we get 2f 2f 2f sx = 2 = c2, sy = 2 = a2 and txy = - xy = -b2 y x


Considering the plane stress case,

sz = txz = tyz = 0

Boundary Conditions (a) At y = h, s y = 0 (b) At y = h, txy = 0 (c) At x = any value,

2b

+a

-a

s x ydy = bending moment = constant


y2 -h c2 ydy = 2bc2 x 2 = 0 -h
+h +h

\2bx

Therefore, this clearly does not fit the problem of pure bending. Now, consider a third-order equation

a 3 x 3 b3 2 c xy 2 d 3 y 3 + x y+ 3 + 6 2 2 6 2 f Now, s x = = c3 x + d 3 y y 2 s y = a3x + b3y

f=

(a) (b) (c)

txy = -b3x - c3y


From (b) and boundary condition (a) above,

0 = a3x b3a for any value of x \ a3 = b3 = 0


From (c) and the above boundary condition (b), 0 = -b3x c3a for any value of x therefore c3 = 0 hence, s x = d3y

sy =0 txy = 0
Obviously, Biharmonic equation is also satisfied.

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i.e.,

4f 4f 4f + 2 + =0 x 4 x 2 y 2 y 4

Now, bending moment = M = 2b i.e. M = 2b

s ydy d y dy
-h +h x 2 -h 3

+h

= 2bd3

+h

-h

y 2 dy
+h

y3 = 2bd3 3 -h h3 M = 4bd3 3
Or d3 = 3M 4bh 3

M d3 = I M Therefore, s x = y I

4 h 3b where I = 3

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5.3.4 BENDING OF A SIMPLY SUPPORTED BEAM BY A DISTRIBUTED LOADING (UDL)

Figure 5.10 Beam subjected to Uniform load

Consider a beam of rectangular cross-section having unit width, supported at the ends and subjected to a uniformly distributed load of intensity q as shown in the Figure 5.10. It is to be noted that the bending moment is maximum at position x = 0 and decreases with change in x in either positive or negative directions. This is possible only if the stress function contains even functions of x. Also, it should be noted that s y various from zero at

y = -c to a maximum value of -q at y = +c. Hence the stress function must contain odd functions of y.
Now, consider a polynomial of second degree with

b2 = c 2 = 0
\f 2 = a2 2 x 2

a polynomial of third degree with a 3 = c3 = 0

\f 3 =

b3 2 d x y + 3 y3 2 6

and a polynomial of fifth degree with a 5 = b5 = c5 = e5 = 0

d5 2 3 d5 5 x y y 6 30 \f = f 2 + f 3 + f 5 \f 5 =
or f =

2 Q f5 = - d5 3

d d d a 2 2 b3 2 x + x y + 3 y3 + 5 x2 y3 - 5 y5 2 2 6 6 30

(1)

Now, by definition,

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2f 2 = d3 y + d5 x 2 y - y 3 2 3 y d 2f s y = 2 = a 2 + b3 y + 5 y 3 3 x

sx =

(2) (3) (4)

t xy = -b3 x - d 5 xy 2
The following boundary conditions must be satisfied. (i) t xy y = c = 0 (ii) (iii) (iv) (v)

( ) (s ) (s )
+c -c +c

y y =+ c y y =- c

=0 = -q

(s )

x x = L

dy = 0 dy = qL ydy = 0

-c

(t ) (s )

xy x = L

+c

(vi)

x x= L

-c

The first three conditions when substituted in equations (3) and (4) give

- b3 - d 5 c 2 = 0
a 2 + b3 c + a 2 - b3 c d5 3 c =0 3 d5 3 c = -q 3

which gives on solving

q a2 = - , 2
+c

b3 =

3q , 4c

d5 = -

3q 4c 3

Now, from condition (vi), we have

-c

2 y + d 5 x 2 y - y 3 ydy = 0 3

Simplifying,

2 d 3 = -d 5 L2 - h 2 5

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3q L2 2 - 4h h 2 5
3q L2 2 3q 2 2 - y - 3 x2 y - y3 4h h 5 4h 3

\s x =

q q 3q s y = - + y - 3 y3 4h 2 4h
3q 3q t xy = - x + 3 xy 2 4h 4h
3 Now, I = 1 (2h ) = 8h = 2 h 3 3

12

12

where I = Moment of inertia of the unit width beam.

q 2 q y3 h2 y 2 \s x = (L - x )y + 2I I 3 5
3 2 q y s y = - - h 2 y + h 3 3 2 I 3

q t xy = - x(h 2 - y 2 ) 2I

5.3.5 NUMERICAL EXAMPLES


Example 5.1 Show that for a simply supported beam, length 2L, depth 2a and unit width, loaded by a concentrated load W at the centre, the stress function satisfying the loading condition is f =

b 2 xy + cxy the positive direction of y being upwards, and x = 0 at midspan. 6

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Figure 5.11 Simply supported beam

Treat the concentrated load as a shear stress suitably distributed to suit this function, and so
+a

that

-a

W dy = - on each half-length of the beam. Show that the stresses are 2

3W s x = - xy 3 4 a

sy =0

t xy

3W = - 8a

y 2 1 - a 2

Solution: The stress components obtained from the stress function are

sx =

2f = bxy y 2

2f sy = 2 =0 x

t xy

by 2 2f == - 2 +c xy

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Boundary conditions are (i) (ii) (iii)

s y = 0 for y = a t xy = 0 for y = a
- t xy dy =
-a +a +a

W for x = L 2

(iv)

-a

s s

dy = 0 for x = L ydy = 0 for x = L

+a

(v) Now,

-a

Condition (i) This condition is satisfied since s y = 0 Condition (ii)

ba 2 0 = - 2 +c 2 ba \c = 2
Condition (iii)

W b = - a 2 - y 2 dy 2 2 -a b 3 2a 3 =- 2a 2 3 \ 2a 3b W = - 3 2
3W 3 4a 3W 8a

+a

or b = -

and c = - Condition (iv)

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+a

-a

- 4a
+a

3W xydy = 0 3

Condition (v)

M = s x ydy 3W = - 3 xy 2 dy 4a -a Wx \M = 2
Hence stress components are
-a +a

3W s x = - 3 xy 4a sy =0

3W y 2 3 W t xy = 4a 3 2 -8 a 2 3W y \t xy = - 1 2 8a a
Example 5.2 Given the stress function f =

H -1 x z tan . Determine whether stress function f is p z

admissible. If so determine the stresses. Solution: For the stress function f to be admissible, it has to satisfy bihormonic equation. Bihormonic equation is given by

Now,

4f 4f 4f + 2 + =0 x 4 x 2 z 2 z 4 f H xz x = - 2 + tan -1 2 z p x + z z

(i)

2f H 1 = 2 z p x2 + z 2

[2 xz
)

- xz 2 - x 3 - xz 2 - x 3

2f x3 2 H = 2 2 z 2 p x +z

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Also,

3f H 8 x 3 z = 2 2 3 z 3 p x +z 4f H 8 x 5 - 40 x 3 z 2 = 2 2 4 z 4 p x + z 3 3 2 4 f 2 H 3x z - x = - 2 2 3 z 2 x p x +z

4f H 64 x 3 z 2 - 24 xz 4 - 8 x 5 = 4 z 2 x 2 p x2 + z 2

Similarly,

f H z 2 = x p x 2 + z 2 2 2f 2 H xz = 2 2 2 2 x p x +z 3 2 2 f 2 H 2 3x - z = z 2 2 3 x 3 p x +z

( (

) )

4f H 24 xz 4 - 24 x 3 z 2 = 2 2 4 x 4 p x z

Substituting the above values in (i), we get

4 1 p x2 + z 2

[24 xz

- 24 x 3 z 2 + 64 x 3 z 2 - 24 xz 4 - 8 x 5 + 8 x 5 - 40 x 3 z 2 = 0

Hence, the given stress function is admissible. Therefore, the stresses are

and

2 2 2 f x 24 s y = 2 = - 2 2 2 x p x +z 2 2f 24 x z t xy = = - 2 2 2 xz p x + z

sx =

2f x3 24 = 2 2 z 2 p x +z

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Example 5.3 Given the stress function: f = -

F 2 xz (3d - 2 z ) . 3 d

Determine the stress components and sketch their variations in a region included in z = 0, z = d, x = 0, on the side x positive. Solution: The given stress function may be written as

3F 2F f = - 2 xz 2 + 3 xz 3 d d 2 f 6 Fx 12 F \ 2 = - 2 + 3 xz z d d 2 f and =0 x 2 2f 6 Fz 6 F also = - 2 + 3 z 2 xz d d 6 Fx 12 F Hence s x = - 2 + 3 xz d d sz =0 2j 6 Fz 6 F t xz = = - 2 + 3 z 2 xz d d


VARIATION OF STRESSES AT CERTAIN BOUNDARY POINTS (a) Variation of x

(i) (ii) (iii)

From (i), it is clear that s x varies linearly with x, and at a given section it varies linearly with z. \ At x = 0 and z = d, s x = 0

6 FL 2 d 6 FL 6 FL 12 F At x = L and z = +d, s x = - 2 + 3 Ld = 2 d d d 6 FL 12 F 18 FL At x = L and z = -d, s x = - 2 - 3 Ld = - 2 d d d The variation of s x is shown in the figure below
At x = L and z = 0, s x = -

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Figure 5.12 Variation of

(b)

Variation of z

s z is zero for all values of x.


(c) Variation of xz We have t xz =

6 Fz 6 F 2 - 3 . z 2 d d

From the above expression, it is clear that the variation of t xz is parabolic with z. However,

t xz is independent of x and is thus constant along the length, corresponding to a given value of z. \ At z = 0, t xz = 0 6 Fd 6 F At z = +d, t xz = 2 - 3 d 2 = 0 d d 6F 6F 12 F At z = -d, t xz = - 2 d - 3 ( - d 2 ) = - d d d
The variation of t xz is shown in figure below.

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Figure 5.13 Variation of

xz

Example 5.4 Investigate what problem of plane stress is satisfied by the stress function

j=

3F 4d

xy 3 p 2 xy + y 2 3 d 2

applied to the region included in y = 0, y = d, x = 0 on the side x positive. Solution: The given stress function may be written as

1 Fxy 3 p 2 3F j = xy + y 3 4d 4 d 2
\ 2f =0 x 2

2j F 3 2 Fxy 2 p = - . 3 + = p - 1.5 3 xy 2 y 4 d 2 d
and

2f 3F 3 Fy 2 = xy 4d 4 d 3

Hence the stress components are

2j F = p - 1.5 3 xy 2 y d 2 f sy = 2 =0 x

sx =

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t xy = -

2f 3 Fy 2 3F = xy 4 d 3 4d

(a) Variation of x

F s x = p - 1.5 3 xy d When x = 0 and y = 0 or d , s x = p (i.e., constant across the section) When x = L and y = 0, s x = p FL When x = L and y = +d, s x = p - 1.5 2 d FL When x = L and y = -d, s x = P + 1.5 2 d Thus, at x = L, the variation of s x is linear with y. The variation of s x is shown in the figure below.

Figure 5.14 Variation of stress

(b) Variation of z

sy =

\ s y is zero for all value of x and y

2f =0 x 2

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(c) Variation of xy

3 Fy 2 3 F t xy = 4 d3 -4 d Thus, t xy varies parabolically with z. However, it is independent of x, i.e., it's value is the same for all values of x. 3 F \ At y = 0, t xy = - 4 d 3 F 3 F At y = d , t xy = (d ) 2 - 3 =0 4 d 4 d

-3F 4d o X

d d L
Y
Figure 5.15 Variation of shear stress

-3F 4d txy

xy

The stress function therefore solves the problem of a cantilever beam subjected to point load F at its free end along with an axial stress of p. Example 5.5 Show that the following stress function satisfies the boundary condition in a beam of rectangular cross-section of width 2h and depth d under a total shear force W.

W f = - xy 2 (3d - 2 y ) 3 2hd
Solution: s x =

2f y 2

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Now,

f W =6 xyd - 6 xy 2 3 y 2hd

2f W [6 xd - 12 xy ] =2 y 2hd 3 W \ s x = - 3 [3 xd - 6 xy ] hd
2f sy = 2 =0 x 2f and t xy = xy W = 6 yd - 6 y 2 2hd 3 W = 3 yd - 3 y 2 3 hd

Also, 4f =

4 4 2 4 + + f = 0 4 y 4 x 2 y 2 x

Boundary conditions are (a) s y = 0 for y = 0 and d (b) t xy = 0 for y = 0 and d (c)
d

t
0

xy

.2h.dy = W for x = 0 and L

(d) M = s x .2h.dy = 0 for x = 0 and x = L, M = WL


0

(e)

s
0

.2h. y.dy = 0 for x = 0 and x = L

Now, Condition (a) This condition is satisfied since s y = 0 Condition (b)

W 3d 2 - 3d 2 = 0 3 hd

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Hence satisfied. Condition (c)

W hd [3 yd - 3 y ]2hdy
d 2 3 0

2W 3 yd - 3 y 2 dy 3 d 0
d

2W 3 y 2 d = 3 - y3 d 2 0 3 2W 3d = 3 - d3 d 2

2W d 3 = 3 . 2 d =W
Hence satisfied. Condition (d)

W - hd [3xd - 6 xy ]2hdy
3 0

=-

2W 3 xyd - 3 xy 2 3 d

=0
Hence satisfied. Condition (e)

W [3xd - 6 xy ]2h. ydy hd 3


d

2W 3 xdy 2 =- 3 - 2 xy 3 d 2 0

2W 3xd 3 =- 3 - 2 xd 3 d 2

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=-

2W d3

1 3 - 2 xd

= Wx
Hence satisfied

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