Leadership and Motivation

Leadership Meaning and importance Leadership qualities Leadership theories Leadership styles Managerial grid Motivation Meaning and definition Motivational factors Theories of Motivation

Leadership
Leadership is the process of influencing and supporting others to work enthusiastically towards a common goal/objective Importance of Leadership: • • • • • • Motivating employees Creating confidence Building morale To introduce change To represent employees To exercise coordination

Leadership Qualities
Personal Traits: Confidence Initiative Innovation Communication skills Intelligence Decisiveness Foresight Responsible Empathy Managerial Traits: Knowledge of aspects of management Technical Knowledge Administrative ability

Leadership Theories

Trait theory: • It advocates the thought that there are a few traits that identify a leader from a non leader • The traits can be innate (natural) or acquirable • Innate traits include: Physical features, intelligence, emotional stability, human relations, empathy, objectivity, motivating skills, technical skills, communicative skills, social skills

Situational Theory: Importance is given to the situation in which leadership is exercised Here, the effectiveness of leadership is directly dependent on the factors of the leader as well as the factors of the situation The situational factors can be: sub ordinate’s characteristics, leader’s situation, group factors, organisation factors like climate, culture etc.

Behavioral theory: • Researchers Katz, Maccoby and Morse came to a conclusion that leaders need to perform 2 major functions:

5) Task related functions 7) Group maintenance functions (Social functions like mediating disputes etc)

Fiedler’s contingency model • Identified leadership styles on two dimensions: Task directed style • and human relations style • Task directed styles is where the leader derives satisfaction out of task performance • Human relation style is concerned with achieving good interpersonal relations • He concluded that the concept of an ‘ideal leader’ was baseless

Path Goal Model: • This model attempts to predict the leadership effectiveness • The main function of a leader is to clarify and set goals with sub ordinates, to help them find best path to achieve goals and remove obstacles in their performance • The leader will adopt a different leadership style based on the situation • Leadership styles are participating, supportive, directive and achievement oriented

Leadership Styles

• Autocratic: No communication with sub ordinates, takes decisions and gives orders, workers work under fear and stress, does not entertain questions by followers • Democratic/participative: Empathy, respects employees, good listener, delegates authority, believes in participative management, open to suggestions, flexible, attracts loyal sub ordinates

• Laissez-faire: Passive leader, freedom to subordinates in decision making, limited guidance by the leader, no motivation or encouragement provided, indifference towards responsibilities as a leader • Functional/Intellectual: Expert with sound technical knowledge, gets respect from subordinates due to intellect, gives correct guidance to employees, considers problems and judges on merit

• Bureaucratic: No innovation and flexibility, function strictly within the framework of organisational rules and regulations, mechanical decision making, delays in functions • Situational: Adjusts his style according to the situation, studies the situation before adopting the style, which can range from dictatorship to democracy, flexibility, result oriented, combination of many types of leadership

Managerial Grid

• Studies leader behaviour and its impact on groups • Considers two factors: Concern for production and Concern for people • A leader’s style is combination of both factors, which are represented on a grid • Out of 81 possible combinations of these factors, 5 are illustrated (1.2, 1.9, 5.5, 9.1, 9.9)

Motivation
• Motivation is the act of stimulating someone or oneself to get a desired course of action • It is needed to raise the morale of the employees, retain the existing employees, reduce absenteeism, improve employee performance on the job etc • Motivational factors or stimulators can be monetary or non monetary in nature

Monetary factors
The monetary factors motivate an employee to a large extent. But after a certain point, money stops motivating employees. Hence, these factors need to be supported by non monetary factors of motivation too. Some of the common monetary incentives: • Attractive pay package/wages • Bonus, liberal incentives • Allowances (LTA, overtime, medical etc)

Some of the common non monetary incentives: • • • • • • • • Job security Job enrichment Recognition for good work Delegation of authority Fair opportunity to excel Fair treatment by management Congenial working conditions Designation and status

Theories of Motivation
Traditional Theories 3. ‘Be Strong’ theory - Believes that fear and punishment drive workers towards efficiency 5. Efforts and rewards theory - Based on the piece rate system of wage payment 7. Monastic theory - Assumes that workers are motivated by money alone 9. Carrot and stick theory - Believes that workers are motivated by rewards as well as fear of punishment 11.Paternalistic theory - Managers are fair and firm and are responsible to fulfill all the job related needs of the employees

Modern Theories 3. Maslow’s theory of motivation - It states the different human needs and their hierarchy. The theory explains the hierarchy of human needs in form of a pyramid, starting from physiological needs to self actualisation needs 5. McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y - The theory refers to traditional approach to management at Theory X and the professional approach as Theory Y. It defines the two theories on the assumptions made about human/employee nature by both the approaches 7. Herzberg’s two factor theory - The theory states that attitude of the people towards their work is related to two factors-hygiene factors and motivating factors

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