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Acknowledgements

Santa Cruz County Homeless Census Subcommittee
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Training Centers, Deployment Sites, and Survey Distribution Centers
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Applied Survey Research
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Table of Contents

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Introduction
Study Definition of Homelessness

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Methodology

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Project Goals

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Point-in-Time Count
Number and Characteristics of Homeless Persons

TOTAL NUMBER OF HOMELESS INDIVIDUALS ENUMERATED DURING THE POINT-IN-TIME HOMELESS COUNT
4,000 3,000 2,000 1,000 0 Total Sheltered Unsheltered 729 646 641 2,771 2,265 1,536 2,125 3,536 2,895 2009 2011 2013

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SANTA CRUZ COUNTY HOMELESS COUNT EIGHT YEAR DATA TREND
5,000 4,000 3,000 2,000 1,000 0 2005 2007 2009 2011 2013 3,371 2,789 2,265 2,771 3,536

Count Demographics
COUNT RESULTS BY FAMILY STATUS (2013)
Single Individuals Street count Shelter count
Emergency Shelter Transitional Housing

Persons in Families 201 343 149 194 544

Total 2,895 641 402 239 3,536

2,694 298 253 45 2,992

Total

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COUNT RESULTS BY FAMILY STATUS AND AGE (2013)
Street Count Persons in Families
Under 18 years old 18-24 years old 25 years or older

Emergency Shelter Count 149 93 10 46 253 6 9 238 402

Transitional Housing Count 194 109 10 75 45 0 15 30 239

Total 544 292 68 184 2,992 133 814 2,045 3,536

201 90 48 63 2,694 127 790 1,777 2,895

Single Individuals
Under 18 years old 18-24 years old 25 years or older

Total

Total Number of Unsheltered and Sheltered Homeless Persons, by Jurisdiction

UNSHELTERED AND SHELTERED HOMELESS COUNT POPULATION BY JURISDICTION
Jurisdiction Total Incorporated
City of Capitola City of Santa Cruz City of Scotts Valley City of Watsonville

Unsheltered 1,220 1 892 25 352 1,567 108 2,895

Sheltered 602 0 459 0 143 39 0 641

Total 1,821 1 1,351 25 295 1,606 108 3,536

Total Unincorporated/Confidential/ Scattered Site Total County Office of Education Total

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UNSHELTERED HOMELESS CENSUS POPULATION BY JURISDICTION AND FAMILY STATUS
Individuals Jurisdiction Total Incorporated
City of Capitola City of Santa Cruz City of Scotts Valley City of Watsonville ‘11 ‘13 Net

Persons in Families
‘11 ‘13 Net

Total Persons
‘11 ‘13 Net

1,016 14 657 13 332 1,049 207 305 60 90 135 252 2,038 NA NA NA 2,038

1,309 1 887 25 396 1,360 218 678 30 156 137 141 2,668 25 18 7 2,693

293 -13 230 12 64 311 11 373 -30 66 2 111 630 655

31 0 19 0 12 29 4 17 0 0 8 0 60 NA NA NA 60

106 0 5 0 101 12 0 9 0 3 0 0 118 83 83 0 201

75 0 -14 0 89 -17 -4 -8 0 3 -8 0 58 141

1,047 14 676 13 344 1,078 211 322 60 90 143 252 2,125 NA NA NA 2,125

1,415 1 892 25 497 1,372 218 687 30 159 137 141 2,787 108 101 7 2,895

368 -13 213 12 153 294 7 365 -30 69 -6 -111 662 770

Total Unincorporated
Aptos/Rio Del Mar Live Oak/Twin Lakes/Opal Cliffs North Coast San Lorenzo Valley Soquel/Santa Cruz Mountains South County

Subtotal
Total COE Data North County South County

Total

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Homeless Survey Findings
Demographics

COMPARISON OF CENSUS AND SURVEY POPULATION
Census Population 25% 63% 94% 6% 18% 28% Survey Population 10% 90% 94% 6% 38% 11%

Age 18-24 Age 25+ Single Individuals Persons in Families Residing in Shelters Residing in Vehicles

Gender and Sexual Orientation

Race/Ethnicity

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RESPONDENTS BY RACE/ETHNICITY (TOP 3 RACES/ETHNICITIES)
100% 75% 50% 25% 0% White/Caucasian Hispanic/Latino 63% 43% 23% 6% 5% 1% 2011 Homeless Survey Population 35% 34% 2013 Homeless Survey Population 2013 Santa Cruz County General Population

57%

Black/African American

Transition from Foster Care

FOSTER CARE HISTORY, BY AGE
With foster care history Without foster care history Under 25 31% 69%

25 and Over 13%

77%

0%

50%

100%

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Living Accommodations

County Residency

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WHERE RESPONDENTS WERE LIVING AT THE TIME THEY MOST RECENTLY BECAME HOMELESS
100% 75% 50% 25% 0% 2011 2013 19% 13% 17% 11% 67% 72% Santa Cruz County Other county in California Out of state

Previous Living Arrangements

LIVING ARRANGEMENTS IMMEDIATELY PRIOR TO BECOMING HOMELESS THIS TIME (TOP 5 RESPONSES IN 2013)
A home owned or rented by you or your partner Staying with friends/relatives In jail or prison 7% 9% 4% 3% 3% 3% 0% 50% 100% 44% 44% 32% 30% 2011 2013

Living Alone

Motel/hotel Hospital/treatme nt facility

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Current Living Arrangements Obstacles to Obtaining Permanent Housing

CIRCUMSTANCES PREVENTING RESPONDENTS FROM SECURING PERMANENT HOUSING (TOP 5 RESPONSES IN 2013)
100% 64% 65% 50% 71% 59% 48% 46% 18% 20% 0% No job/income Can't afford rent No money for moving costs Bad credit No housing availability 23% 19% 2011 2013

Access to Shelters

IN THE LAST 30 DAYS, HAVE YOU EVER TRIED TO STAY AT A SHELTER OR TRANSITIONAL HOUSING FACILITY IN SANTA CRUZ COUNTY AND BEEN TURNED AWAY?
100% 78% 70% 26% 3% 0% 2011 2013 4% Yes, a shelter Yes, a transitional housing facility No

50% 19%

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OF RESPONDENTS WHO TRIED TO STAY AT A SHELTER IN THE MONTH PRIOR TO THE SURVEY, REASONS THEY WERE TURNED AWAY (TOP 5 RESPONSES IN 2013)
No beds available Alcohol/drug problems Couldn't follow shelter rules Didn't accept partner/friend Didn't accept children 0% 22% 65% 2011 2013

58% 11% 8% 6% 5% 6% 1% 3% 25% 50%

75%

100%

Occurrence and Length of Homelessness
Reoccurrence of Homelessness
RESPONDENTS EXPERIENCING HOMELESSNESS FOR THE
FIRST TIME

2011 2013 52% Yes 44%

0%

50%

100%

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NUMBER OF TIMES RESPONDENTS HAD BEEN HOMELESS IN THE LAST 12 MONTHS, INCLUDING THIS TIME
One time 2 times 3 times 4 times 5 times 6 times or more 0% 8% 8% 3% 7% 1% 3% 0% 2% 2% 12% 50% 100% 87% 68% 2011 2013

NUMBER OF TIMES RESPONDENTS HAD BEEN HOMELESS IN THE LAST 3 YEARS, INCLUDING THIS TIME
One time 2 times 3 times 4 times 5 times 6 or more times 0% 11% 16% 5% 9% 1% 4% 1% 1% 4% 17% 50% 100% 78% 53% 2011 2013

Duration of Homelessness

LENGTH OF HOMELESSNESS THIS CURRENT TIME (2013)
100% 54% 51% 17% 2011 2013

50% 11% 6% 0% 30 days or less 1-3 months 4-6 months 7-11 months 13% 13% 10% 11% 13%

1 year ore more

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Cause of Homelessness

Primary Causes of Homelessness

PRIMARY EVENT OR CONDITION THAT LED TO RESPONDENTS’ CURRENT EPISODE OF HOMELESSNESS (TOP 5 RESPONSES IN 2013) 2011
Lost job Alcohol or drug use Argument with family or friend Family/domestic violence Illness or medical problem 25% 17% 12% 9% 5% Lost job Could not afford rent Alcohol or drug use Evicted Mental health

2013
33% 18% 16% 12% 10%

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Prevention of Homelessness

WHAT MIGHT HAVE PREVENTED HOMELESSNESS (2013)
2013
Employment assistance Rent/mortgage assistance Alcohol/drug counseling Mental health services Help accessing benefits Case management after leaving hospital/jail/prison/juvenile justice Legal assistance Health insurance/services Transportation benefits

50% 36% 26% 23% 21% 15% 13% 12% 8%

Government Assistance, Employment, and Income

Government Assistance

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OF THOSE RECEIVING SOME FORM OF GOVERNMENT ASSISTANCE, TYPES OF ASSISTANCE RECEIVED (TOP 5 RESPONSES IN 2013)
100% 42% 47% 7% 0% Food stamps General Assistance Medi-cal/ Medicare SSI/ SSDI Social Security 17% 14% 17% 11% 20% 4% 11% 2011 2013

50%

Reasons for Not Receiving Government Assistance

REASONS FOR NOT RECEIVING GOVERNMENT ASSISTANCE (TOP 5 RESPONSES IN 2013)
100% 2011 2013 50% 13% 0% Don't need government assistance No permanent address Don't think I'm eligible Have no identification Never applied 28% 11% 25% 27% 24% 12% 22% 19% 20%

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Employment Status

Barriers to Employment

EMPLOYMENT STATUS OF RESPONDENTS
76% 79% 16% 17% 8% 4% 0% 50% 100% 2011 No jobs Health problems No transportation No permanent address Alcohol/drug issues No phone Disabled 44% 21% 27% 27% 23% 25% 19% 2013 37% 31% 28% 28% 26% 24% 19% 2011 2013

Unemployed

RESPONDENTS’ BARRIERS TO OBTAINING EMPLOYMENT (TOP RESPONSES)
11-13 Net Change -7 10 1 1 3 -1 0

Employed parttime

Employed fulltime

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Income from Private Sources

EMPLOYMENT AND MEDIAN MONTHLY INCOME
Employed Median income from government sources Median income from non-government sources Median income from all sources $350 $800 $580 Unemployed $500 $260 $500

Panhandling

Justice System

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Incarceration, Probation and Parole

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NUMBER OF NIGHTS RESPONDENTS REPORTED SPENDING IN JAIL OR PRISON IN THE YEAR PRIOR TO THE SURVEY
100% 80% 2011 2013

72%

50% 9% 11% 0% 0 nights 1-5 nights 6-10 nights 4% 5% 4% 6% More than 50 nights

1% 3% 11-20 nights

3% 4% 21-50 nights

Health

Access to Medical Care

HAVE YOU NEEDED HEALTH CARE AND BEEN UNABLE TO RECEIVE IT SINCE BECOMING HOMELESS THIS LAST TIME?

2013 Yes 36%

0%

50%

100%

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Sources of Medical Care

Emergency Room Use

NUMBER OF TIMES RESPONDENTS USED THE EMERGENCY ROOM IN THE YEAR PRIOR TO THE SURVEY
68% 55% 15% 17% 8% 11% 3% 6% 2% 4% 0% 3% 4% 4% 0% 50% 100% 2011 2013

Never 1 time 2 times 3 times 4 times 5 times 6+ times

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Disabling Conditions

Health Conditions

PERCENTAGE OF RESPONDENTS WITH PHYSICAL HEALTH CONDITIONS
38% 2011 2013

Substance abuse Physical disability Chronic physical illness Developmental disability Traumatic brain injury HIV/AIDS 0% 3% 3% 2% 1% 1%

26% 26% 20% 17% 26%

50%

100%

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Mental Health Conditions

PERCENTAGE OF RESPONDENTS EXPERIENCING PTSD, DEPRESSION, AND OTHER MENTAL ILLNESSES
PTSD Depression Mental Illness 0% 18% 26% 50% 100% 19% 21% 35% 42% 2011 2013

Domestic/Partner Violence or Abuse

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HUD Defined Homeless Subpopulations
Subpopulations

Chronic Homelessness

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Prevalence of Chronic Homelessness

CHRONICALLY HOMELESS PERSONS AS A PERCENTAGE OF THE SANTA CRUZ COUNTY HOMELESS POPULATION
100%

50%

41%

41%

37%

35%

28%

0% 2005 2007 2009 2011 2013

Demographics of the Chronic Homelessness

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CHRONICALLY HOMELESS POPULATION BY ETHNICITY
100% 77% 51% 50% 37% 12% 0% White/ Caucasian Hispanic/ Latino 2011 2013

3% 1% Black/ African American

3% 5% American Indian/ Alaskan Native

1% 0% Asian

0% 1% Pacific Islander

3% 5% Other/ Multiethnic

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Disabling Conditions

PERCENTAGE OF CHRONICALLY HOMELESS RESPONDENTS WHO WERE EXPERIENCING THE FOLLOWING DISABLING CONDITIONS
Chronic Depression Physical disability PTSD Mental illness Developmental disability HIV/AIDS 0% 3% 7% 1% 2% 50% 100% 29% 26% 24% 32% 35% 42% 53% 52% 2011 2013

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PERCENTAGE OF CHRONICALLY HOMELESS RESPONDENTS WHO WERE EXPERIENCING THE FOLLOWING NUMBER OF DISABLING CONDITIONS
100% 2011 2013 50% 32% 41% 29% 23%

15% 19% Three

12% 9% Four

8% 6% Five

4% 4% Six or more

0% One Two

Emergency Room Use

Primary Cause of Homelessness for the Chronically Homeless

Government Assistance and Local Support Services for the Chronically Homeless

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Veteran Status

Number of Homeless Veterans

VETERANS AS A PERCENTAGE OF THE SANTA CRUZ COUNTY HOMELESS POPULATION
100%

50% 14% 0% 2005 2007 2009 2011 2013 15% 12% 11% 11%

Demographics of Homeless Veterans

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Disabling Conditions among Homeless Veterans

NUMBER OF DISABLING CONDITIONS AMONG HOMELESS VETERAN RESPONDENTS
100% 2011 2013 18% 20% 0% One Two Three Four Five Six or more
26%

50% 12% 16%
9%

18%

9%

16%

7%

6% 2%

Primary Cause of Homelessness for Veterans

Government Assistance for Homeless Veterans

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Homeless Families with Children

Number of Homeless Families with Children

Demographics of Homeless Families with Children

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HOMELESS INDIVIDUALS WITH CHILDREN BY ETHNICITY
100% 44%48% 44% 22% 4% 9% Black/ African American 3% 9% American Indian/ Alaskan Native 0% 9% 1% 4% Asian 4% 0% Other/ Multiethnic 2011 2013

50%

0% Hispanic/ Latino White/ Caucasian

Pacific Islander

County Residency for Homeless Families with Children

Government Assistance for Homeless Families with Children

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Unaccompanied Homeless Children and Youth

Prevalence of Unaccompanied Children and Transition Age Youth

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Appendix I: Homeless Census & Survey Methodology
Overview

Components of the Homeless Count Method

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Street Count Methodology Definition

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Research Design

Volunteer and Worker Recruitment

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Street Count Teams

Safety Precautions

Street Count Deployment

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Shelter and Institution Count Methodology
Goal

Data Collection

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Homeless Census Challenges and Assumptions
Challenges

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Census Undercount

Survey Methodology
Planning and Implementation

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Survey Sampling

Data Collection

Data Analysis
Survey Administration Details

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Survey Challenges and Limitation

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Appendix II: Summary for the Continuum of Care Application

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Appendix III: Definitions and Abbreviations
Chronic homelessness

HUD

Sheltered homeless individuals

Disabling condition,

Single individual

Transitional housing

Emergency shelter – –

Family Unsheltered homeless individuals Homeless individuals,

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Appendix IV: Endnotes

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