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2 (1965), pp. 182-184 Published by: BRILL Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/4429088 . Accessed: 30/04/2011 17:16
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1912). The custom. may be summarized as follows: when a funeral had been performed for a person who was falsely reported dead and later that person returned home. cit. Golden Bough. as well as in the Christian from Xenophon. Newcastle. There does not seem to be any objection to interpreting ?fa???s?ta? as a reference to the rebirth ceremony that Alcestis will undergo.) 3). Dio Chrysostom and Philo. in Luc?an Rhet. 19. 1. Or. before this his existence was ignored as much as possible because. technically. and in a parodied form. no doubt at the ceremony which returned them to the land of the living. 21 ff.. 66 ff. he was socially ostracized and placed under a religious ban until he had undergone a mock rebirth . from Hesiod 4). The variations. Betts A NOTE ON THE CYNIC SHORT CUT TO HAPPINESS Alpers has analysed the form of the familiar Prodicus allegory in Xenophon (Mem. who by his writings on Heracles as an essentially ethical figure. and how could this have any other effect than to give her an even stronger claim to be regarded by a Greek audience as a de?te??p?t??? ? It is significant that Heracles does not say that Alcestis is obliged to be silent but that it is not right (?????) for Admetus to listen to her words. derive ultimately through him. G?ttingen. started the process whereby Heracles became associated particularly with ?) 2) 3) 4) 5) Such seems to be the natural interpretation of Hesychius' words. 11 f. J. I. and is convincing in showing that the later traditions as found in Cicero. Op.l82 THE SILENCE OF ALCESTIS through a woman's lap" x). Alpers. . for example.. therefore. It seems likely that Xenophon's account of Socrates was much influenced by Antisthenes. G. not that the de?te??p?t??? themselves were not allowed to speak (and if the custom is correctly interpreted by Frazer there would be no point in such a ban). despite their variations. Frazer. 75. Hercules in Bivio (Diss. Paed. University College (Australia) G. Now Alcestis was buried and then returned from the dead. vol. The only thing exceptional about her case is that funeral rites were actually performed over her body whereas the rites for those mentioned by Plutarch and Hesychius were conducted in their absence. the introduction of Hermes in Dio Chrysostom 5). and fathers. The t??t?? f??? is still left unexplained but it may refer to some part of the ceremony of which we are ignorant. which is undoubtedly old and has parallels amongst other races2). he had been buried and could not be considered to be alive again until he had re-entered the world in the normal way. he did not exist. It is obvious that if Admetus is not allowed to listen to her there is no sense in having Alcestis say anything. this agrees with Plutarch who says that men did not associate (??d? ?ate?e????sa? ?a?t???) with the de?te??p?t???. he ascribes to the rhetorical schools. II i. Cf.
In Dio. that Ragnar Hoistad ascribes to the vulgarisation of early Cynicism (Cynic Hero and Cynic King. true ?as??e?a and t??a???? are sitting on twin peaks at the end of the roads and the figure of Hermes is added. II 1. is accepted in the satire as the right road. Paed. the road to a?et? and true happiness requires p???? and ep????e?a whereas the short and easy road leads to ?a??a. Diogenes of Sinope. VI 16. Socrates. Man and Myth (London. F.-H. 37 (Diehl). 7) R. there seems to be no reason to doubt that at this point they describe elaborately. 1948. 18. 2) It is not impossible to regard this as a tenet of early Cynicism (cf. Baltimore. virtue and vice are both the ????p??p?? and the ends themselves. early Cynic teaching. The break between this and our later references may be due to the decline in popularity of the Heracles figure. steep and narrow. whereas in Xenophon it is the road to virtue which is difficult and long. In this respect Dio harks back to Hesiod and Simonides who have virtue living among crags "difficult of approach" 5). however. whether a circuitous and perhaps easier path is to be preferred to a shorter and more direct one. In Lucian. Diss. 3 ff. Xenophon's image is reversed too. Laert. The path to ? ?as??e??? ???a is safe and broad while the path to ? t??a????? ???a is narrow. Epistolographi Graeci (Paris. viz. and in a satirical form in Lucian Vit. cit. the actual nature of the road is mentioned briefly. Capelle.. 1938. on which the seeker after Rhetoric is accompanied by an effeminate man (who is pictured in much the same terms as the personified ?a??a in Xenophon). 104. 11. Ps-Diog. Xenophon's description is reversed and amplified. Laert. Rhet.. Our later references occur in Plut. I 185. In Xenophon's account. This is completely reversed in Cynic thinking and the dilemma is minimised. It is also probable that this is the source of the characteristically Cynic notion of "the short cut to happiness" (s??t???? ?d?? ?p' e?da?????a?) 2). Hercher. W. The terminology is found applied literally to a short cut and implies that it is an alternative to a longer and more circuitous route 3). 105. involving much effort and surrounded by sharp rocks is rejected. 37. Ran. At the end of both roads resides Rhetoric e). 106) since we find mention of a short route in Xenophon (Mem. and Ar. For his satirical purpose. 5) Hesiod Op. but rather. crooked and difficult. whereas in Xenophon. Chroust. 3) Hdt. 8) Although these letters belong to imperial times (cf. since e?da?????a is the objective. It is not so much a question of one road leading to ?a??a and another to e?da?????a. 286 ff. Paed. Letters 12. Diog. but for an entirely different reason. Sayre. IV 136. The rough road. 1896). . and Simonides. Diss. In the letters of the pseudo-Diogenes 7) we find an elaborate description of what is probably genuine Cynic thought8). the explicit mention of false rhetoric is suppressed?Lucian's purpose is to show the true road by a complete reversal of values. 759 D. however. Auct. In Dio Chrysostom4). Uppsala. Fr. 1873). 4) loc.A NOTE ON THE CYNIC SHORT CUT TO HAPPINESS 183 the Cynics1). 29). 30. 1957) an(^ Diog. 123. De Cynicorum Epistulis. 44. 3. Letter 30 describes the ap?) For a maximum account of Antisthenes' contribution to the Memorabilia see A. Amat. VI 104. 6) Rhet. the shorter pleasant approach. 49-50). G?ttingen.
2) The only vestige that remains is the realisation that not everybody is equipped mentally or physically to make use of the short cut (?ta? .e. . the minimum of preparation is necessary?in to start ??????. i) Cf. The ????p??p?? has been internalised so that it is the personal attitude towards the goal that guides the Cynic to happiness. Diog. t?? ?a?ep?t?ta ?e?s??ta? ?? ?s?e????te? ?p?s? ??a?????s???Letter 12). II 7. well proaches to the Acropolis at Athens as being two in number?the trodden path used by visitors to the temple and a shorter. requires toughness and endurance. more direct path. 11 (ep?t???? . it is the means rather than the end that is criticised.) couples s??t???? with s??t????. It is this more intellectual philosophy that the Cynic regarded as circuitous and it is in opposition to this that he offered his "short cut to happiness". 5. perhaps modified by Antisthenes. I 3. stripped of all that hinders the prospective climber. Both Luc?an and Plutarch could refer to the s??t???? ?d?? without further that the term was generally understood and explanation presupposing applied to Cynic philosophy 3). it involves toil and thirst. Emeljanow (New Zealand) AD SEN. It seems clear that they envisaged the term as meaning the Cynic adaptation of the original conception found in the Memorabilia?an essentially literary concept. . Nevertheless. 8.e. i. and therefore. it would be preferable this. Other than fact. DE CLEM. it is much shorter and the climber finds that his goal transmutes his apparent hardships into pleasures (letter 37) 1). On a metaphorical level. Laert. ille in occulto maneat tenuis et in qua sede latitet incertus. Hence for the Cyiiic. VI 71. pedes. ilium haec cutis munit. cum hoc tanto maius tantoque speciosius sit. short and intense. . illius iussu iacemus aut inquieti discurrimus. Plutarch (loc. cum ille imperavit. Like the approach that Luc?an rejects. . Thus we can see that the Cynic view is decidedly eclectic. and changed the entire meaning of the short road which is no to this it has added the p???? and ep????e?a of longer to be rejected?and Xenophon's road to happiness. ?d??)?again in a satirical way since his Cynic has the road lead p??? d??a?. oculi negotium illi gerunt. involving concentrated attention. The reason for the adoption of this image seems to be a desire to combat theoretical philosophy with its own terms. i. ? I 3-5 'Quemadmodum totum corpus animo deservit et. "Doctrine" in fact hinders the man who seeks happiness since it wastes time by leading him along a winding side-track. 3) Luc?an Vit Auct. It has suppressed the dilemma found in Xenophon 2) and implied in Luc?an and Dio Chrysostom. sive Lucian's awareness of Cynic terminology may indicate that he is reversing a Cynic version of the Prodicus allegory. tarnen manus.184 A NOTE ON THE CYNIC SHORT CUT TO HAPPINESS normal. 19. The University of Auckland V. . This is clearly reflected in Lucian's ?? ?a? de?se? pa?de?a? ?a? ??????the road to Cynic happiness is non-doctrinal. The Cynic was only concerned with happiness attainable in this life and not in an ultimate e?da?????a that might come after the final dissolution and separation of the soul from the trammels of the body. happiness can be reached using either path but he who attempts the short cut must first undergo training (?s??s??). cit.
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