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**Jeff Morroni, Regan Zane and Dragan Maksimoviü
**

Colorado Power Electronics Center University of Colorado at Boulder, USA Email: {morroni, zane, maksimov}@colorado.edu

Abstract - This paper presents an online adaptive tuning technique for digitally controlled switched-mode power supplies (SMPS). The approach is based on continuous monitoring of the system crossover frequency and phase margin, followed by a multi-input multi-output (MIMO) control loop that continuously and concurrently tunes the compensator parameters to meet crossover frequency and phase margin targets. Small-signal models are derived and the MIMO control loop is designed to achieve stability and performance over a wide range of operating conditions. Using modest hardware resources, the proposed approach enables adaptive tuning during normal closed-loop SMPS operation. Experimental results demonstrating system functionality are presented for a synchronous buck SMPS.

I.

INTRODUCTION

Switched-mode power supply (SMPS) feedback loops are typically designed conservatively so that closedloop regulation and stability margins are maintained over expected ranges of operating conditions and tolerances in power stage parameters. Typical designs often lead to degraded closed-loop performance or loss of stability in the event of significant operating point changes associated with component degradation, input voltage variations, etc. These types of power stage parameter changes are mitigated by offline controller re-design to maintain desired dynamic performance constraints. With the increased feasibility of practical digital control for high-frequency switching power converters [1], new opportunities exist to incorporate intelligent control algorithms into the system to simplify the system design and improve dynamic responses and reliability over a wider range of possible operating points. Recent work in the area of digital control of DC-DC power converters has shown that auto-tuning algorithms can be completely integrated into the digital controller with modest additional hardware requirements [2-10]. However, the approaches described in [2-10] in general require steady-state conditions during tuning, making them more suitable for one-time or periodic compensator auto-tuning. Direct application of [2-10] to continuous adaptation of compensator coefficients to account for changes in converter parameters or operating conditions is more difficult due to the steady-state requirement. The goal of this paper is to present an approach to adaptive tuning of digital SMPS controller parameters

during normal closed-loop operation of the converter. The proposed approach, which is related to a large body of work in adaptive control techniques [11-14], includes continuous monitoring of the system crossover frequency and phase margin [15], and a multi-input multi-output (MIMO) control loop that adaptively tunes the compensator parameters to meet crossover frequency and phase margin targets. In contrast to the solutions presented in [2-9], the tuning is not restricted to a onetime event, but rather initializes to a conservatively designed compensator and then continuously tunes the compensator coefficients to maintain desired system crossover frequency and phase margin. The adaptive tuning does not require undisturbed steady-state operation and causes a very small output voltage perturbation which allows the tuning to run continuously. Adaptive tuning can be used to improve closed-loop performance and reliability by maintaining stability margins over wide tolerances in power-stage parameters or variations in power stage operating conditions. Section II describes the proposed approach for adaptive tuning. Section III presents a numerical design procedure for the MIMO control loop. Experimental results are presented in Section IV using a synchronous buck converter power stage. Conclusions are presented in Section V.

II.

ADAPTIVE TUNING SYSTEM

A system block diagram for the proposed tuning approach is shown in Fig. 1. The digital controller consists of a voltage A/D converter (ADC), a discretetime PID compensator, and a digital pulse-width modulator (DPWM). There are two main components to the adaptive tuning system: a stability margin monitor [15] and a MIMO control loop. The stability margin monitor is a digital implementation of the analog loop gain measurement technique using signal injection, as first described by Middlebrook [16]. Details of the blocks required to implement the stability margin monitor are described in [15] and are only briefly discussed in this paper. The stability margin monitor is based on a variable frequency square-wave injection, Vz, which is introduced between the output of the PID compensator and the DPWM input, similar to the technique described in [9]. The frequency of the perturbation, finj, is adjusted via a feedback loop, until

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when finj = fc. the adaptive tuning controller is driven by the errors between the desired crossover frequency and phase margin and the values measured by the stability margin detector. Downloaded on November 12. of interest can be written as ˆ º ªG finj − K ªf « inj » = « G ˆ ¼ «ϕ » ¬ « ϕ −K ¬ G finj − Z Gϕ − Z ˆº ˆº ªK ªK G finj − Z º « » « ˆ » . represents the transfer functions from fc_error and ĳm_error to K. (3) 1251 Authorized licensed use limited to: UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO. These error signals are used to adaptively tune the parameters of the compensator Gc(z) in order to achieve the target specifications fc = fc_ref and ĳm = ĳm_ref. A1 – A6 are selected to achieve stability and desired performance. Z1 and Z2 to outputs finj and ĳ must first be determined. Restrictions apply. the transfer matrix. S(z). The proposed approach can be directly applied to adaptive tuning of various types of compensator structures. Using the described system. G(z). and the gain K such that zero errors with respect to the target specifications are achieved. respectively. (4) A4 ˆ ˆ z − 1» ¬ ϕ ϕ » « m _ error ¼ » « m _ error ¼ ¬ z » A6 » z − 1¼ The injection signal magnitude. z ª A ˆ º « 1 z −1 ªK «ˆ » « z « Z1 » = « A3 − 1 z « «Z ˆ » ¬ 2¼ «A z « 5 z −1 ¬ A2 z º z − 1» ˆ ˆ º ªf º z »ª f » « c _ error » = S ( z ) ⋅ « c _ error » . based on the closed-loop small-signal transfer matrix of the adaptive tuning system loops. Z2. The error signals. In the simplest case. 1. Further. Z1 and Z2. Z1 and Z2. T ( f inj ) = V y ( f inj ) V x ( f inj ) =1 . In this paper. (2) As shown in Fig. į. are then compared to the desired reference values ĳm_ref and fc_ref. Crossover frequency and phase margin monitor and adaptive tuning control loop block diagram. The outputs of the stability margin monitor. To model the closed-loop system. both crossover frequency and phase margin can be continuously monitored while requiring only ±1 LSB output voltage perturbation [15]. are inputs to a matrix of transfer functions used to determine the compensator zero locations. the transfer functions are integrators. fc_error and ĳm_error. a transfer matrix from inputs K. is automatically adjusted by the injection amplitude controller such that only a minimum. ±1 least significant bit (LSB) perturbation at the ADC output is imparted by the injection. ĳm = ĳ and fc = finj. (5) 2 Z ˆ « 1 » = G ( z ) ⋅ « Z1 » Gϕ − Z » »« ˆ » 2 ¼ «Z ˆ » Z ¬ 2¼ ¬ 2¼ 1 (z − Z1 )(z − Z 2 ) Gc ( z ) = K z (z − 1) 1 . (1) at which point finj equals the system crossover frequency.G(z) Switching Power Converter Vout(t) L Vg + – + _ Verr(t) Ȉ ADC Vref(t) + C R Vout _ -T + Vy DPWM Vx Ȉ Vz + PID Compensator Gc(z) Injection Generator į Injection Amplitude Controller finj K Z1 Z2 Stability Margin Monitor ĳ _ ĳm ref _ fc_ref + Ȉ fc_error Adaptive Tuning Controller: S(z) ˆ º ªS ªK 1 «ˆ » « Z « 1 » = « S3 «Z ˆ » «S ¬ 2¼ ¬ 5 S2 º » ª f c _ error º S4 » « » ¬ϕ m _ error ¼ S6 » ¼ + Ȉ ĳm_error Figure 1. The outputs of the MIMO control loop are the PID compensator zero locations Z1. 2008 at 13:01 from IEEE Xplore. the system phase margin can be monitored via ϕ = ∠V y ( f inj ) − ∠V x ( f inj ) . The matrix. . a standard PID compensator example is considered with the following transfer function. In particular. and gain K.

on the theoretical (dashed) and simulated (solid) crossover frequency is shown. 2239 » « 1 » »« ˆ » z ¼ Z2 ¬ ¼ (9) With numerical values for the indices of G(z) as given in (9). the sample rates of each loop will scale in proportion to each other thus maintaining the same relative speeds of the control loops. is a synchronous buck converter as shown in Fig. The nominal power stage parameters in Fig. 1. as an example.0 μH. III. Vout = 5 V and fs = 100 kHz. Downloaded on November 12. Using (7). The ADC used to sample the output voltage is a TI-THS1030.2 kHz and phase margin ĳm = 65°. or 0. The effect of a step in compensator gain. In order to design (7) for desired performance and stability. » ¼ ˆ[n − 1] k (n−1)Tsample nTsample t (7) Figure 2 Waveforms illustrating the model derivation for the transfer function matrix G(z). the following compensator was used for system initialization G c ( z ) = 1 . such that the closed-loop transfer matrix is stable and wellbehaved. the closed-loop response can be shaped using (4) to 1252 Authorized licensed use limited to: UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO. In the experimental system. The waveforms illustrating the proposed modeling approach are given in Fig. It is assumed that sufficient information about the nominal power stage (i. The perturbation. the sampling rates of both loops are set relative to the injection frequency (crossover frequency) with the stability monitoring loop having considerably faster sampling. z ( z − 1) (8) which yields a system crossover frequency fc = 6. as the injection frequency changes.4 % of the DC output voltage. 2. as indicated in Fig. » L22 ¼ f c [n − 1] f c (t ) f c [ n] ˆ [ n] f c (6) Tsample k[n − 1] k [n] In (6). 2 is a corresponding simulation of the adaptive tuning system performed in Simulink. the modeling is performed based on a design decision to make the stability margin monitor control loop much faster than the adaptive tuning control loop. by choosing A1-A6. Now. Based on (6). The simulated model is based on the power stage described in Section III. the effect of a perturbation in compensator ˆ[n − 1] . C = 370 μF. the stability of the MIMO control loop can be directly determined based on the location of the closedloop poles. at system startup) is known such that a conservative compensator design can be performed.80) . Based on the power stage defined above. k time (n − 1) causing the stability margin monitor to update the new monitored crossover frequency fc[n] very quickly with respect to the next sample of the MIMO control loop. Also included in Fig. from fc Æ ĳm and ĳm Æ fc respectively). Vg = 12 V.0 (z − 0. Given the experimental system. 1 are L = 4. from which the design is performed. the indices of (5) must first be determined. The small-signal transfer function from ˆ[n − 1] to fˆ [n] is then just a one sample delay equal to k c Tsample and a gain scale factor. a nominal PID compensator can be designed for the output voltage feedback loop to yield relatively slow but guaranteed stable performance. the small-signal gains given in G(z) have been numerically computed based on the previously described modeling approach ˆ º ª − 4577 ªf « « inj » = « z 470 «ϕ » ¬ ˆ ¼ « ¬ z − 1138 z 1918 z ª ˆº 2102 º « K » » z «Z ˆ ». each loop gain entry can be designed. Restrictions apply. with a digital feedback loop realized using a Xilinx Virtex-IV FPGA. R = 2 ȍ. In this paper. thus making the modeling approach valid.90)(z − 0. L11 and L22 represent the direct path loop gains while L12 and L21 represent coupling gains (i. This allows the dynamics associated with the stability margin monitor loop to be neglected by the adaptive tuning control loop. as an example. where. The simulation indicates that the bandwidth of the monitoring control loop can be designed to be much faster than the adaptive tuning control loop bandwidth. 2. ADAPTIVE TUNING CONTROL LOOP DESIGN The experimental test-bed. In particular.e. The output voltage is sampled once per switching cycle with an effective output voltage LSB resolution of 20 mV. using the defined power stage and the compensator given in (8) as the adaptive tuning DC operating point. The closed-loop transfer matrix can be written in terms of the system of loop gains (6) as ˆ ˆ º ªf ªf c _ ref c « » = (I + L( z ) )−1 L( z ) « «ϕ «ϕ » ˆ ¬ ˆm ¼ ¬ m _ ref º ». the sampling rate of the stability margin monitor control loop is set to 16 times slower than the injection frequency while the adaptive tuning loop sampling rate is set to 64 times slower than the injection frequency. . the closed-loop system described by (7) is exponentially stable if it is proper and has no poles outside the unit circle [17]. By doing so. using a small-signal model [18].e.Together. 2008 at 13:01 from IEEE Xplore. occurs at gain K is considered. (4) and (5) make up a system of loop gains associated with each loop in the MIMO system ª L11 L( z ) = G ( z )S ( z ) = « « L21 ¬ L12 º ». In hardware.

In the experimental system. and given in Fig.38 × 10− 5 z −1 ) ) º » »ª f ˆ º » « c _ error » . 0. the adaptive tuning control loop has been designed to minimize phase margin error faster than the crossover frequency error. A4 and A6 such that the closed-loop bandwidth of the direct phase margin loop is greater than the direct crossover frequency path bandwidth. (dB) 0 Mag. 3(d) showing that the effect of ĳm_ref changes on ĳm are tracked up to about 40 Hz. To realize this. computed from (7) and (12). 1253 Authorized licensed use limited to: UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO. Conversely. (dB) -40 Mag.11 × 10 − 4 z −1 z 8. The primary limitation introduced by (10) is that L11 and L21 in (6) can only be shaped by the choice of A1. (10) simplifies the design of the adaptive tuning control system. . consider the following choice A2 = A3 = A5 = 0. indicating the modeling approach presented previously is in fact valid. Responses (a) and (d) show that fc and ĳm track well the reference values up to a given frequency. In Fig.14 « (z − 1) L( z ) = « « − 0. the adaptive tuning gains can be designed to achieve desired performance and stability as discussed previously. Fig. 4(a) and Fig. while (b) and (c) show rejection of cross-coupling. the predicted step responses.05 × 10−5 ˆº « ªK z −1 « » « ˆ »=« «Z 0 « 1» « «Z ˆ » « 0 ¬ 2¼ « « ¬ ( ) ( ( 0 z 1. This amounts to choosing A1. First note that from Fig. 4 » (z − 1) ¼ » 0. (dB) -10 -20 0 Phase (deg) -90 -180 (a) Mag. Closed-loop frequency response of MIMO control system from: (a) fc Æ fc_ref.achieve desired performance. Beyond the constraints given in (10). Similarly. 3(b) is the response of ĳm to changes in fc_ref showing that any changes in fc_ref do not significantly affect ĳm due to the action of the feedback loop. (d) ĳm Æ ĳm_ref. Restrictions apply. of each loop match the simulated result. however.8 0 -5 -10 0 -90 ϕm f c _ ref ϕm ϕ m _ ref 90 -180 -90 10-4 10-2 1 Frequency (Hz) (b) 100 10-4 10-2 1 Frequency (Hz) (d) 100 Figure 3. (c) fc Æ ĳm_ref. »« ˆ » » ¬ϕ m _ error ¼ » » ¼ (11) which leads to a system loop gain matrix of: The impact of this design can be discussed based on the closed-loop frequency responses. 4(d).05 º (12) The constraints given in (10) are not required. based on the derived models. (10) ª 0. Similar results are presented in Fig. as desired. which is the approximate bandwidth of that tuning loop. Note that the closed-loop bandwidth of the ĳm Æ ĳm_ref loop is the largest thus ensuring fastest convergence of the phase margin loop. Fig. Fig. (dB) -80 -120 270 Phase (deg) Phase (deg) Phase (deg) fc f c _ ref -60 -100 90 ϕ m _ ref fc -90 50° (c) 0. 3(c) indicates that fc is not significantly affected by ĳm_ref changes. 4. 3.0143 « (z − 1) ¬ (z − 1) » ». 2008 at 13:01 from IEEE Xplore. Figure 4 shows the step response predicted by the model (red) and the simulated (performed in Simulink) response (blue). note that a step in phase margin -20 Mag. Downloaded on November 12. the gains in the experimental system were chosen as follows ª z − 3. (b) ĳm Æ fc_ref. As an example. 3(a) is the closed-loop frequency response from fc to fc_ref indicating that crossover frequency reference changes are tracked well up to about 10 Hz.

the analytical crossover frequency and phase margin are .12 -0.2 0. 5. with gains given by (11).0 0. TABLE I RANGE OF ALLOWED POWER STAGE VARIATIONS WITHOUT DESTABILIZING ADAPTIVE TUNING FEEDBACK Parameter Nominal Maximum Minimum C 370 μF 1. (b) PID compensator z-domain zero locations. Downloaded on November 12. because the adaptive tuning system is being designed to account for potentially large power stage variations.fc_analytical = 14. 3. all three major power stage components can tolerate large changes without inducing instability in the adaptive tuning feedback loops.1 0. remain stable. Restrictions apply.04 0.63 0.08 0.2 0. (d) ĳm Æ ĳm_ref. Figure 5 shows how the compensator parameters adjust to meet target stability specifications from start-up.3 0. the load transient performance is not degraded when the adaptive tuning is running.08 0.8 0. Fig.2 0.5 0. For this experiment.06 0. which both closely match the target values.8 0.4 0. (c) fc Æ ĳm_ref. (d) PID compensator gain 0.8 0.6039 which lie inside the unit circle.2 0.IV.0 0.6 0.2 0 (a) 1 0.e.6 kHz. (a) Monitored phase margin in degrees.2 0 ϕm ϕ m _ ref Experimental verification was performed on the same hardware as described in Section III. Finally. Table I shows the range of allowable power stage variations under which the adaptive tuning loops.8 0.7 0. 1 0. the compensator parameters converge to G c ( z ) = 3.4 0.3 0. to steady state when the stability margin references are met. the PID compensator is automatically adjusted to maintain reference phase margin and crossover frequency in the presence these system changes.4 0.7 0. (13) z 2 = 0.3 0.1 0.06 0. The adaptive tuning process begins by initializing the system to the nominal compensator given by (8).1 -0. The conservatively designed control loop exhibits noticeably worse load transient performance after a change in input voltage or output filter capacitance. In Figs. it is of interest to investigate the range of power stage component changes under which the adaptive tuning loop remains stable (i. .02 0.0 0.6 0.8203) z (z − 1) . (14) reference is tracked faster than a step in crossover frequency.9 1.01 0 (c) EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS fc f c _ ref fc ϕ m _ ref -0.9492)(z − 0. and desired phase margin ĳm_ref = 40o. given by z1 = 0. 6(d).9 Time (s) (d) Figure 5: Experimentally observed dynamic performance of the MIMO adaptive tuning control loop. the closed-loop poles of the MIMO adaptive tuning control loops remain inside the unit circle). As indicated. the amplitude of the oscillation due to the signal 50° 0° 1.9 1. Predicted and simulated normalized step responses for MIMO control loop from: (a) fc Æ fc_ref. the target crossover frequency is set at fc_ref = 14. Note in Table I that any one of the power stage variations assumes the other parameters are at nominal values.8 0.1 Time(s) Time(s) (d) (b) Figure 4.4 mF 15 μF L 4. for the design given by (11). all closed-loop responses are stable and well-behaved. each of the indices of the closed-loop transfer matrix share the same closed loop poles.1 1254 Authorized licensed use limited to: UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO.1 20 10 0.04 0.1 0. (c) Monitored crossover frequency in kHz. Figure 6 is a comparison of load transient performance between the conservatively designed control loop corresponding to the compensator given by (8) and the above described adaptive loop with target crossover frequency fc_ref = 14. after a short time.5 0. As shown in Fig. 4(b) and 4(c) indicate that the cross-coupling gains do not strongly respond to step reference changes. Further examples illustrating the monitor performance can be found in [15].3 0. 2008 at 13:01 from IEEE Xplore. Specifically. 4.08 -0.4 0.04 0. With the adaptive tuning system running. (z − 0.7 0.6 0.0 0. 6(e) and 6(f). As indicated in Fig. and the values measured by the stability margin monitor.5 kHz and ĳm_analytical = 39.9 1.7 0.02 0.0 μH 17 μH 0. with the compensator given by (8).6 0. Conversely.4 0. As a consequence. This is further validated by inspection of the closed-loop poles of the system based on the design given in (11).014 ϕm f c _ ref 0.06 0. as expected based on the closed-loop frequency responses given in Fig. (b) ĳm Æ fc_ref.8 0.4 0.8561 .8 0.04 -0.6 (a) 0.1 5 0 0.08 0.35 μH Vg 12 V 17 V 3V Based on the discrete-time model of [18].6 kHz and the target phase margin is ĳm_ref = 40o.5 (b) 0.5 (c) 0.6 0.

8203) z (z − 1) (z − 0. TABLE II SUMMARY OF LOAD TRANSIENT RESPONSES WITH AND WITHOUT THE ADAPTIVE TUNING CONTROL Without Adaptive Tuning Vg = 12V C = 370 μF Measured Crossover Frequency Measured Phase Margin % Overshoot Settle Time Compensator Gc(z) 6.2 kHz Vg = 8V C = 370 μF 5.9492)(z − 0.855) z ( z − 1) 1255 Authorized licensed use limited to: UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO.2 kHz Vg = 12V C = 270 μF 7.63 39° 3% 30 μs 40° 3% 30 μs 4.5% 70 μs 3. Downloaded on November 12. (a)-(c) are load transient results without adaptive tuning.6 kHz Vg = 12V C = 270 μF 14.7 kHz 65° 4% 80 μs 1 . AC coupled output voltage (top) and inductor current (bottom) in the presence of load transients.5 kHz With Adaptive Tuning Vg = 8V C = 370 μF 14.9336) z ( z − 1) (z − 0.9492)(z − 0.8 kHz Vg = 12V C = 370 μF 14.3° 4.935)(z − 0.63 (z − 0. . Restrictions apply. 2008 at 13:01 from IEEE Xplore.2% 30 μs 2.80 ) z (z − 1) (z − 0.Vg = 12 V C = 370 μF Vg = 12 V C = 370 μF 1 LSB (a) (d) Vg = 8 V C = 370 μF Vg = 8 V C = 370 μF 1 LSB (b) Vg = 12 V C = 270 μF (e) Vg = 12 V C = 270 μF 1 LSB (c) (f) Figure 6.35 39° 3.90 )(z − 0.0 67° 5% 320 μs 52. (d)-(f) are load transient results with adaptive tuning.

pp. B. May 2004. IEEE Power Electronics Specialist Conference. Zane.” in Proc. “Practical on-line identification of power converter dynamic responses. S.Middlebrook. D. pp. A. 1987.Miao. D. pp. G. Zane. Corradini. Mattavelli. J. Electronics.” in Proc. Maksimovic and R. Feb. Erickson. “Online Health Monitoring in Digitally Controlled Power Converters. P. Mass: Addison-Wesley Publishing. June 2005 pp. Ben-Yaakov. 809-813. pp. June 2007.H. Astrom. 2008 at 13:01 from IEEE Xplore. B. C. Wittenmark. 2196-2202. pp. 2552-2556. Zane and D. IEEE Power Electronics Specialist Conference.J. pp. Mattavelli. R. . Zane. IEEE Conference on Decisions and Control. D. Maksimovic.” in Proc. W. P. K. indicating that more aggressive design and more robust system performance can be achieved with the adaptive tuning system as compared to conventional controller designs. REFERENCES [1] D. L. Multivariable Feedback Design. Maksimovic. W. 2007.” in Proc. As a final note. 185-217. Hardware requirements for the entire adaptive tuning system are relatively modest making it a practical solution for high performance digitally controlled DC-DC power converters. “Automated Digital Controller Design for Switching Converters.” in Proc. A summary of the load transient performance and the adaptively tuned compensators is given in Table II. Mattavelli.” in Proc. June 2008. January 2007. D. IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference. IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference. 1995.” Int. Table III lists the required logic resources to implement the above described adaptive tuning system and phase margin monitor.H. “Adaptive Feedback Control. “A Survey of Adaptive Control Applications. 245-248.” in Proc. Restrictions apply. load transient performance is not compromised in the presence of system variations. Maciejowski. 14-20. Letters. Maksimovic. 1. 37283733. CONCLUSIONS [9] This paper presents a practical method for online adaptive tuning of digital controllers for switched mode power supplies (SMPS). Maksimovic. J.” in Proc. Miao. D. Vol. R. pp. P. R. 57-62. pp. K. M. Maksimovic. 13-22. the adaptive tuning controller can be added to a digital controller to simplify system design and improve reliability and performance. Maksimovic. pp. Ghioni. Hang. pp. Zhao and A. Zane. R. 649-654. June 2007. 1189-1194. R.Miao. Z. R. IEEE [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] [17] [18] International Symposium on Power Semiconductor Devices & ICs. Nov. The compensator tuning relies on continuous monitoring of phase margin and crossover frequency.” in Proc.D. “A modified crosscorrelation method for system identification of power converter with digital control. Shirazi. “Small-signal discrete-time modeling of digitally controlled DC-DC converters. IEEE Instrument and Measurement Technology Conference. J. Dec. Dolgov. As indicated. J. Morroni. June 2007. pp. Peretz. No. M. March 2005. Corradini. “Robust Relay-Feedback Based Autotuning for DC-DC Converters.” IEEE Trans. B. Power Electron. M. 112118. “Relay Based Gain and Phase Margins PI controller design. Prodic. IEEE Transactions of Power Electronics. “Autotuning techniques for digitally controlled point-of-load converters with wide range of capacitive loads. J.injection Vz is about ± 1 LSB of the voltage sensing ADC.” in Proc. “Impact of digital control in power electronics. M. L. D. which equals ± 0. “An Online Phase Margin Monitor for Digitally Controlled Switched-Mode Power Supplies. 2007. S. 485512. P. Maksimovic. IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference. “Time Domain Identification of PWM Converters for Digital Controller Design. with the adaptive tuning. The monitored phase margin and crossover frequency are inputs to a multi-input multi-output (MIMO) control loop which minimizes the error between the desired crossover frequency and phase margin and the measured values. Table III indicates that for a reasonable number of gates and no memory requirements.K.” IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology.” Proceedings of the IEEE. R. Simple small-signal models are derived and used to design the adaptive tuning control loop to achieve stability over a wide range of power stage parameters and operating points. 2001. Zhon. IEEE Power Electronics Specialist Conference. “Autotuning of Digitally Controlled Buck Converters based on Relay Feedback”. 1989. “Limit-Cycle Oscillations Based Auto-Tuning System for Digitally Controlled DC-DC Power Supplies.R. Feb.” IEEE Trans. TABLE III REQUIRED LOGIC RESOURCES TO IMPLEMENT ADAPTIVE TUNING [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] Function Injection/Clock Generator Stability Margin Monitor Amplitude Controller Adaptive Tuning Control Loop PID Compensator Total Logic Gates 1262 4594 1448 4262 1704 13270 [7] [8] V. 22112222.M de Arruda. Barros. Reading. 22. which are outputs of a stability margin monitor [15]. D. Shirazi. 2007. pp. Maksimovic. Mar.4% of the DC output voltage.C. IEEE Power Electronics Specialist Conference. “Performance tuned gain and phase margins. 1995. R. Downloaded on November 12.M. June 2004.” in Proc. Power Electronics.J Astrom. 2729-2735. IEEE Power Electronics Specialist Conference. Morroni. Saggini. Nov. Ho. 1975. 199-207. “Measurement of Loop Gain in Feedback Systems. pp. Zane and R. pp. pp. B. Zane. Stefanutti. 1256 Authorized licensed use limited to: UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO. Zane. Experimental results presented for a synchronous buck SMPS demonstrate improved load transient performance.

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