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CH 2: Atoms, Molecules, and Ions

Chapter Outline
History

of chemistry (2.1 2.4)

Chemical laws start with slide 8 for content, 3-7 FYI slides Path to the atom

Modern

atomic structure (2.5) Molecules vs. Ions (2.6) Naming molecular and ionic compounds (2.8) Introduction to the periodic table (2.7)

History of Chemistry
Greek Philosophers: 5th Century BCE
(BCE = before the common era - replaces BC)

The

Greek philosophers were the first to reflect on the nature of matter.


They proposed that all matter is made out of first 4 elements -- earth, air , water, fire. Aristotle added a fifth element, plasma (also called ether).

Greek Philosophers
Democritus

had an alternate view of matter. He proposed that matter was made up of tiny particles called atoms.

His "theory" was not well accepted at the time.

Alchemy
Alchemy: ~600-1600's CE

(CE = common era, replaces AD)

Alchemy developed at about the same time in China, India, and Greece. It spread into Europe in the 8th century.

Alchemy
Alchemists had two pursuits
1.

2.

Search for a means to convert base metals into gold Search for the elixir of life
Substance that would lead to immortality

Alchemy
Advances from Alchemy

Many new substances where identified


Plaster of Paris, nitric acid.

New lab techniques and equipment developed New medicines identified

Modern Chemistry, ~1600 on

First chemists/physicists to use scientific method


Boyle - elements Lavoisier law of conservation of matter Proust - law of definite proportions Dalton law of multiple proportions, atomic theory Avogadro - hypothesis Thomson charge to mass ratio for an electron Millikan charge on the electron Bequerel and the Curies - radioactivity Rutherford nuclear atom

Modern Chemistry
Robert Boyle: ~1660 Proposed a substance to be an element unless it can be broken down into simpler substances.

Proposed one of the gas laws CH 5

Lavoisier: ~1760
Law of Conservation of Matter

Matter is neither created nor destroyed in a chemical reaction.

Proust: late 1700s


Law of Definite Composition/Proportions

A given compound always contains the same proportion of elements by mass.

John Dalton: ~1800


Law of Multiple Proportions

When two elements form more than one compound, the ratios of the masses of the second element that combines with one gram of the first element can always be reduced to small whole numbers. (see page 38)

SB 8th ed: Page 70: #36

Law of Multiple Proportions


Consider

two 100.0 g samples 2 different compounds containing only C and H. Compound A contains 27.2 g of C and compound B contains 42.9 g of C. Show how these numbers illustrate the law of multiple proportions.

Dalton

also proposed the first table of atomic masses


Most masses later need revision

Dalton

is best known for proposing Atomic

Theory

Daltons Atomic Theory


1.

Elements are made up of tiny particles called atoms.


Atoms are indivisible and indestructible

2.

Atoms of a given element are identical


Atoms of different elements differ in some fundamental way(s)

Daltons Atomic Theory


3.

Compounds form when atoms of different elements combine with each other.

A given compound always has the same relative number and types of elements.

Daltons Atomic Theory


4.

Chemical reactions occur when atoms change how they are bound to each other.

Individual atoms are not changed, just rearranged

Avogadro: 1811
Avogadro's Hypothesis

At the same temperature and pressure equal volumes of gases contain the same number of particles.
Based on Guy-Lussacs data See page 41/42

From Dalton to Atomic Structure


Daltons

atomic theory lead to much research on the nature of the atom. This research showed the atom to made up of smaller particles.

J.J. Thomson
Thomson

measured the deflection of a cathode ray beam in electrical and magnetic fields of known strengths.
Cathode ray Applied electrical field

+
(+)

(-) Metal electrode

Cathode ray tube experiment, pg 43

Metal electrode

Thomson found the cathode rays were attracted by the positive charge and repelled by negative These findings clearly indicated that the rays consisted of negatively charged particles.
Today we know these particles as electrons.

Thomson

measured the deflection of the beam in a magnetic field and more! From his data he determined the charge:mass ratio for an electron
e = - 1.76 x 108 C/g m
e = charge on the electron in coulombs

M = mass of an electron in grams

Cathode ray tube experiment

Thomson

also found that the cathode ray particles were identical regardless of source.

Concluded all elements contain these negative particles (electrons)

J.J. Thomson
Thomson:

identified cathode ray beams as a stream of negatively charged particles calculated the charge to mass ratio for these negatively charged particles proposed the existence of positively charged particles
To balance the negative charge of the electrons

Millikan ~1909
Millikans

oil drop experiment allowed him to determine the charge on an electron


This charge can be plugged into Thomsons formula and the mass of the electron calculated
Mass electron = 9.11 x 10-31 kg

Page 44

Radioactivity
Becquerel, Marie and Pierre Curie: ~1896 Henri Becquerel - observed the natural emission of energy/rays by uranium.

Marie and Pierre Curie studied Becquerel's rays.

The Curies findings suggested that matter was composed of smaller particles than atoms. The Curies coined the term radioactivity to describe the rays emitted.

Radioactivity
Three

types of radioactivity were identified:

gamma rays - very high energy light beta particles - high energy electrons alpha particles - He+2 particles
2 protons and 2 neutrons

Plum Pudding Model of the Atom


In

the early 1900s the accepted model of the atom was called the plum pudding model of the atom

Electrons (tiny and negatively charged) were pictured to be dispersed in a cloud of positive charge.
Proposed by JJ Thomson and Lord Kelvin in 1904

Rutherford and the Nuclear Atom


In

1911 an experiment conducted in Ernest Rutherfords lab showed the plum pudding model to be incorrect.

Experiment was conducted by Geiger and Marsden and the findings interpreted by Rutherford.

See page 45

Rutherfords Atom
First

to propose a nuclear atom.

An atom has a dense positive center containing all of positive charge and most of the mass of the atom the nucleus Electrons are scattered in the empty space around the nucleus
Electrons occupy a volume that is huge as compared to the size of the nucleus.

A New Model of the Atom


Expected based on Plum pudding model
Rutherfords model Based on his results

Modern Atomic Structure


Rutherford

continued to study the atom and the positive matter of the atom.
1919, + particle named the proton

~1932

James Chadwick proposed the existence of a third subatomic particle, the neutron.

Subatomic Particles
Subatomic Particle Charge Mass, amu Location in atom

Electron (e-)

-1

0 amu

Outside of nucleus

Proton (p)

+1

~1 amu

Nucleus

Neutron (n)

~1 amu

Nucleus

Mass of Subatomic Particles


Protons

and neutrons have ~ the same

mass (in the range of 10 -27 kg).


Mass of each and of individual atoms is often expressed in amu rather than grams
Atomic mass unit (amu) 1/12 the mass of a carbon-12 atom

Mass of Subatomic Particles


The

mass of the electron (10-31 kg) is tiny as compared to that of the proton and neutron (10-27 kg) .

Therefore, the electrons mass is considered to be ~0 amu when calculating the mass of an atom.

Subatomic Particles and the Elements


Each

element has a unique number of protons.


Number of protons defines the element.

Atomic # = # protons

Subatomic Particles
Since

atoms are neutral, for every proton there is a/n _________. atoms interact to form compounds, it is their ___________ that interact.

When

Terms
Mass

number = sum of the # of protons and the # neutrons in the nucleus of an atom

FOR MOST ELEMENTS THE MASS NUMBER IF NOT ON THE PERIODIC TABLE.
You will be given enough information to determine mass number or number of neutrons.

Terms
Isotopes

= atoms of a given element that differ in mass number


Isotopes have the same number of _____________. Isotopes differ in the number of _______.

Isotopes
Writing

atomic symbols for isotopes

pg 46
11 5

Mass #

Symbol for element

Atomic #

FAQ - Isotopes
When

is mass number found on the periodic table? the atomic mass? Is it the same as the mass number?
84 (209) 6 12.0107

Whats

Po

Molecules and Ions (2.6)


Atoms

of different elements combine to form compounds


Atoms in compounds are held together by chemical bonds.
Bonds involve interactions of the bonding atoms ________

Bonding
There are two types of bonds:
1.

Covalent bonds bonding atoms share electrons


Atoms are always nonmetal atoms Covalently bonded atoms form molecules Ways to represent molecules

Chemical formula; H2O Structural formula O H H

Bonding
2.

Ionic bonds attractive force among oppositely charged ions


Bond formed between metal cations and nonmetal anions No molecules involved

Ions - Terms
Ion

charged atom or group of atoms

Formed when atoms gain or lose electrons

Cation

positively charged ion

Formed when an atom _______ electrons

Anion

negatively charged ion

Formed when an atom ______ electrons

Ions
Describing

ion formation

Cation example:

Anion example:

Naming Binary Compounds


Binary

compounds compound composed of 2 elements


NaCl CO CO2

Types of Binary Compounds


Type

I binary ionic compounds II binary ionic compounds

Metal forms only one ion


Metal forms more than one ion Use roman numerals to indicate the charge on the ion

Type

Type

III binary covalent compounds

Compound between 2 nonmetals

Types I Binary Compounds


Compound

between a metal and a

nonmetal

Metal forms only one ion

Name

the cation and then the anion.

Name of the cation is the name of the element Name of the anion is the name of the nonmetal with the ending changed to ide

Monoatomic cations to know


Group # Charge on ion examples IA +1 Na1+ sodium (ion) K1+ potassium (ion)

IIA
IIIA metals

+2
+3

Mg2+ magnesium (ion)


Al3+ aluminum (ion)

Monoatomic anions to know


Group # Charge on ion examples VA VIA VIIA -3 -2 -1 N3P3O2S2F1Cl1Br1I1nitride (ion) phosphide (ion) oxide (ion) sulfide fluoride (ion) chloride (ion) bromide (ion) iodide (ion)

Practice
Name

chemical formula formula name

Chemical