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Report on PLC Programming And Automation of Fuel Delivery System

Under the Guidance of: Mr. M. Ravisankar Manager(D) ETBR&DC, HAL(BC).

Submitted by: Tejinderbir Singh B.Tech 4th year, Electrical Engineering Enrol No.: 10115108


Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) based in Bangalore, India, is one of Asia's largest aerospace companies. Under the management of the Indian Ministry of Defence, this company is mainly involved in aerospace industry, which includes manufacturing and assembling aircraft, navigation and related communication equipment, as well as operating airports. HAL built the first military aircraft in South Asia and is currently involved in the design, fabrication and assembly of aircraft, jet engines, and helicopters, as well as their components and spares. HAL's supplies / services are mainly to Indian Defense Services, Coast Guard and Border Security Force. Transport aircraft and Helicopters have also been supplied to Airlines as well as State Governments of India. The Company has also achieved a foothold in export in more than 30 countries, having demonstrated its quality and price competitiveness.

1. Introduction 2. Programmable Logic Controller 2.1 Introduction to PLC 2.2 PLC Hardware 2.3 PLC Input/Outputs 2.4 Advantages of PLC over Relay Controls 2.5 PLC in Automation 2.6 PLC Communication 2.7 Components of the PLC 3. Programming the PLC 4. Binary Logic Control 4.1 Logic Control and Sequencing 4.2 Logic Control Elements 4.3 Logic Ladder Diagram 5. Automation of Fuel delivery system

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Conclusion References

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The report first introduces about Programmable Logic Controller (PLC). It describes about PLC components, hardware, its inputs/outputs . It then discusses about advantages of PLC over relay controls and how by programming the PLC using Ladder Logic and communicating PLC with a computer, PLC can be used for automation of various physical processes. The later part of report discusses about Binary Logic used in Ladder Programming and Binary Logic Control. Last part of report refers to the project Automation of Fuel Delivery System I did during internship and describes the program used for Automation of Fuel Delivery System using Ladder Logic.


Industrial Automation is the use of programmable and logic devices to complete manufacturing and controlling tasks. In this age of computers, industrial automation is becoming increasingly important as computerized systems are capable of handling repetitive tasks quickly and efficiently. In addition, the company can save money because it does not need to pay for expensive benefits for this specialized machinery. Automation of many different process, such as controlling machines or factory assembly lines, is done through the use of small computers called a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC). In our project we are automating the Fuel delivery system of aircrafts. The program for the PLC is developed using Ladder Logic.


Programmable Logic Controller (PLC)

2.1 Introduction to PLC
The PLC was invented in response to the needs of the American automotive manufacturing industry. Programmable controllers were initially adopted by the automotive industry where software revision replaced the re-writing of hardwired control panels when production models changed. Before the PLC, control, sequencing, and safety interlock logic for manufacturing automobiles was accomplished using hundreds or thousands of relays, cam timers, and drum sequencers and dedicated closed-loop controllers. The process for updating such facilities for the yearly model change-over was very time consuming and expensive, as the relay systems needed to be rewired by skilled electricians. I n 1968 GM Hydramatic (the automatic transmission division of General Motors) issued a request for the proposal for an electronic replacement for hard-wired relay systems. The winning proposal came from Bedford Associates of Bedford, Massachusetts. The first PLC, designated the 084 because it was Bedford Associates eighty forth project, was the result. Bedford Associates started a new company dedicated to developing, manufacturing , selling, and servicing this new product: Modicon, which stood for Modular Digital Conroller. One of the people who worked on that project was Dick Morley, who is considered to be a father of the PLC.

Communication abilities began to appear in approximately 1973. The first such system was Modicons Modbus. The PLC could now communicate with other devices and they can be far away from the actual machine they were controlling. They could also now be used to send and receive varying voltages to allow them to allow them to enter the analog world. The 80s saw an attempt to standardize communications with General Motors Manufacturing Automation Protocol(MAP). I t was also a time for reducing the size of the PLC and making them software programmable through symbolic programming on personal computers instead of dedicated programming terminals or handheld programmers. Today the worlds smallest is about the size of a single control relay. The 90s have seen a gradual reduction in the introduction of new protocols, and the modernization of the physical layers of some of the more popular protocols that survived the 1980s. The latest standard (I EC 1131-3) has tried to merge PLC programming languages under one international standard. We now have PLCs that are programmable in function block diagrams, instruction lists, C and structured text all at the same time. PCs are also being used to replace PLCs in some applications. The original company who commissioned the MODI CON 084 has actually switched to a PC based control system. One of the very first 084 models built is now display at Modicons headquarters in North Andover, Massachusetts . Most of this is because of the advantages they offer are

I mprove product quality through enhanced monitoring and data acquisition capabilities and tighter control. I mprove scalability (ease of expansion). Standardize programming. Cost effective for controlling complex systems . Flexible and can be reapplied to control other systems quickly and easily. Computation abilities allow more sophisticated control. Trouble shooting aids make programming easier and reduce downtime . Reliable components make these likely to operate for years before failure.

2.2 PLC Hardware

Many PLC configuration are available, even from a single vendor. The most essential components are: 1. Power Supply- This can be built into the PLC or be an external unit. Common voltages required by the PLC(with or without power supply) are 24Vdc, 120Vac, 220Vac. 2. CPU (Central Processing Unit)- This is a computer where ladder logic level is stored and processed. 3. I/O (Input/Output)- A number of input/output terminals must be provided so that the PLC can monitor the process and initiate actions. 4. Indicator Lights- These indicate the status of the PLC including power on, program running, and a fault. These are essentials when diagnosing problems.

2.3 PLC Input/Outputs

I nputs to, and outputs from, a PC are necessary to monitor and control a process. Both inputs and outputs can be categorized into two basic types: logical or continuous.

Consider the example of a light bulb. I f it can only be turned on or off, it is logical control. I f the light can be dimmed to different levels, it is continuous. Continuous values seem more intuitive, but logical values are preferred because they allow more certainty, and simplify control. As a result most controls applications (and PLCs) use logical inputs for most applications. Hence, we will discuss logical I /O. I nputs come from sensors that translate physical phenomena into electrical signals. Typical examples of sensors are listed below. 1. Proximity Switches- use inductance, capacitance or light to detect an object logically. 2. Switches mechanical mechanisms will open or close electrical contacts for a logical signal. 3. Potentiometer measures angular positions continuously, using resistance. 4. LVDT (linear variable differential transformer) measures linear displacement continuously using magnetic coupling. Outputs to actuators allow a PLC to cause something to happen in a process. A short list of major actuators is given below. 1. Solenoid Valves logical outputs that can switch a hydraulic or pneumatic flow. 2. Lights logical outputs that can often be powered directly from PLC output boards. 3. Motor Starters motors often draw a large amount of current when started, so they require motor starters, which are basically large relays. 4. Servo Motor a continuous output from the PLC can command a variable speed or position.

2.4 Advantages of PLC over Relay Controls

1. Flexibility

At first, any production engine is electronically controlled, requiring each control, for example, 12 machine requires 12 controller. Now by using the model of the PLC can control any of the 12 machines. Each machine is controlled by its own respective programs.
2. Implementing Change and error correction

By using the type of relay that is connected to the panel, program changes will take time to re-connect panels and equipment. While using the PLC, to make changes to the program, does not require a long time is by way of a change in software. And if the program error occurs, then the error can be directly detected by monitoring its existence directly. The change is very simple, just change its ladder diagram.
3. Low Price

PLC is simpler in shape, size, and other devices that support it, so the price can be reached. Current can be purchased the following PLC timers, counters, and analog inputs in a single CPU package. PLC easy to get, and now many in the market with different brands and types.
4. Contact number is much

PLC has a number of contacts for each coil are many available. For example, the panel that connects the relay has 5 contacts and all use while on the design changes needed 4 more contact means required the addition of a single relay again. By using PLC, typing required just to make contact again 4 pieces. Hundreds of contacts can be used

from a single relay, if the memory on the computer is still possible.

5. Monitoring Results

The series of PLC programs can be tested first, tested, examined and modified at the office or laboratory, so the time efficiency can be achieved. To test the PLC program does not have to be installed first to the instrument to be executed, but can be seen directly in the PLC CPU or seen in the supporting software.
6. Visual Observation

Operation of the circuit can be seen during the PLC operated directly via the CRT screen. If there are errors or mistakes that other operations can be immediately known. Logic path will light up on the screen so that repairs can be done quickly through visual observation. Even some PLC can provide an error message if it occurs.
7. The Operating Speed

Operating speed of the PLC, exceeds the operating speed than relay at work, which in a few micro-seconds. So as to determine the speed of the output of the tools used.
8. Boolean or Ladder Method

PLC programs can be done with a ladder diagram by the technician or also use bolean or digital system for the programmers.
9. Reliability

Solid state equipment is generally more resistant than mechanical relays or timers. PLC is able to work in severe

environmental conditions, such as shock, dust, high temperatures, and so on.

10. Simplification Ordering Parts

PLC is one piece of equipment with a delivery time. If the PLC arrives, then all relays, counters, and other components also arrived. If the relay panel design as much as 10 pieces, it would require 10 different supplier delivery time, so if you forgot to order one relay will result in delays in processing a panel.
11. Documentation

Print series PLC can be done real soon in part or whole without the need to look at a series of bl ueprints that are not necessarily up to date, and also do not need to check the wiring to the circuit path.
12. Security

PLC programs can not be changed by anyone and can be made password. While the regular relay panel allows for changes that are difficult to detect.
13. Facilitate Change by Reprogramming

PLC can be quickly re-programmed, it is possible to mix the production process, while the other is running production.

2.5 PLC in Automation

Automation or industrial automation or numerical control is the use of control systems such as computers to control industrial machinery and processes ,

reducing the need for human intervention. I n the scope of industrialization, automation is a step beyond mechanization. Whereas mechanization provided human operators with machinery to assist them with physical requirements of work, automation greatly reduces the need for human sensory and mental requirements as well. Process and system can also be automated. Automation plays an increasingly important role in the global economy and in daily experience. Engineers strive to combine automated devices with mathematical and organizational tools to create complex system for a rapidly expanding range of applications. Specialized hardened computers, referred to as PLCs are frequently used to synchronize the flow of inputs to actuators and events. This leads to precisely controlled actions that permit a tight control of almost any industrial process. The programmable logic controller has made a significant contribution to factory automation. Earlier automation systems had to use thousands of individual relays and cam timers, but all of the relays and timers within a factory system can often be replaced with a single programmable logic controller. Today, programmable logic controllers deliver a wide range of functionality, including basic relay control motion control, process control, and complex networking, as well as being used in Distributed Control Systems

2.6 PLC Communication

PLCs have built in communications ports, usually 9 -pin RS-232, but optionally EIA-485 or Ethernet. Modbus, BACnet or DF1 is usually included as one of the communications protocols. Other options include various fieldbuses such as DeviceNet or Profibus. Other communications protocols that may be used are listed in the List of automation protocols.. Most modern PLCs can communicate over a network to some other system, such as a computer running a SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition) system or web browser.

2.7 Components of the PLC

A schematic diagram of a programmable logic controller is presented. The basic components of the OPLC are the following Input module Output module Processor Memory Power supply Programming device

Fig 2.1 Diagram of Programmable Logic Controller



Programming the PLC

Most of the programming methods in use today for PLCs are based on the ladder logic diagram. This diagram has been found to be very convenient for shop personnel who are familiar with circuit diagrams because it does not require them to learn an entirely new programming language. What is required is a means of inputting the program into the OPLC memory: There are various approaches for entering and interconnecting the individual logic elements. These include: 1. Entry of the ladder logic diagram 2. Low-level computer-type languages 3. High-level computer-type languages 4. Functional blocks 5. Sequential function chart The first method involves direct entry of the ladder logic diagram into the PLC memory. This method requires the use of a keyboard and CRT with limited graphics capability to display symbols representing the components and their interrelationships in the ladder logic diagram. The PLC keyboard device is often designed with keys for each of the individual symbols. Programming is accomplished by inserting the appropriate components into the rungs if the ladder diagram. The components are of two basic types. Contac ts and coils. Contacts are used to represent loads such as motors, Solenoids, relays, timers, counters, etc. in effect; the programmer inputs the ladder logic circuit diagram rung by rung into the PLC memory with the CRT displaying the results for verification. The second method makes use of a low-level computer-type language that parallels the ladder logic diagram. Using the language instructions, the programmer contracts the ladder diagram by specifying the various components and their relationships for each rung. Let us explain this approach by developing an elementary PLC instruction set. Our PLC language will be a composite of various manufacturers languages, containing perhaps fewer features than most commercially available PLCs. A CRT capable of displaying each ladder rung, and several rungs that precede it.

The low-level languages are generally limited to the types of logic and sequencing functions that can be defined in a ladder logic diagram. Although timers and counters have not been illustrated in the two preceding examples, some of the problems at the end of the chapter require the reader to make use of them. High-level computer-type languages are likely to become more common in the future to program the PLC. There are several of these languages that are beginning to be offered commercially, including [ SYBIL (GTE Sylvania), MCL mod el APC2 (Cincinnati Milacron), and Control Statements (Reliance Electric). Most of the available languages use an instruction set that is similar to the BASIC computer language for personal computers. There are additional statements available beyond the normal BASIC set to accomplish the control functions. The principal advantage offered by the high-level languages for programming the PLC is their capability to perform data processing and calculations on values other than binary. Ladder logic diagrams and lowlevel OPLC languages are usually quite limited in their ability to operate on signals that are other than ON/OFF types. The capability to perform data processing and computation permits the use of more complex control algorithms, communications with other computer-based systems display of data on a CRT console, and input of data by a human operator. Another advantage of the higher-level languages is the relative case with which a user can interpret a printout of a complicated control program. Explanatory comments can be inserted into the program to facilitate the interpretation.



Binary Logic Control

In some application of control systems, the variables are binary they can be either of two possible values, 1 or 0. These values can be interpreted to mean ON or OFF, true of false, object present or not present, high voltage value or low voltage value, and so on.

4.1 Logic Control and Sequencing

A logic control system is a switching system whose output at any moment is determined exclusively by the value of inputs. A logic control system has no memory and does not consider any previous values of the input signals in determining the output signal. Neither does it have any operating characteristics that perform as a function of time. A sequencing system is one that uses internal timing devices to determine when to initiate changes in output variables.


4.2 Logic Control Elements

There are three basic elements of Logic Control, which are also called Logic Gates: 1. AND 2. OR 3. NOT There are other elements which are derived from these three basic elements above like NOR, and NAND, etc. In each case, the logic gate is designed to provide a specified o utput value based on the values of input(s). For both inputs and outputs, the values can be either of the two levels, the binary values 0 or 1. For purpose of industrial control, we will define 0 (zero) to mean OFF and 1 (one) to mean ON.

Logic AND Gate

The logic gate AND outputs a value of 1 if all of the inputs are 1, and 0 otherwise If both of the switches, Xl and X2 (representing inputs), in the circuit are closed, the lamp Y (representing the output) is on. The truth table for the AND gate is shown in Figure.

Fig 4.1 Logical AND gate: (a) Circuit illustrating the operation, (b) Its truth table

Logic Gate OR
The logic gate OR outputs a value of 1 if either of the inputs have a value of 1, and 0 otherwise. In this case, Xl and X2 are arranged in a parallel circuit, so that if either of the switches is closed, the lamp Y will be on. The truth table for the OR gate is shown in Figure.

Fig 4.2 Logical OR gate: (a) Circuit illustrating the operation (b) Its truth table

Logic Gate NOT

Logic gate NOT has a single input and a single output too. If the input is 1, the output is 0; if the input is 0, the output is 1. Figure shows a circuit in which the input switch Xl is arranged in parallel with the outputs so that the voltage flows through the lower path when the switched is closed and the upper path when circuit is open The truth

table for the NOT gate is shown in Figure

Fig 4.3 Logical NOT gate: (a) Circuit illustrating the operation, (b) Its truth table


4.3 Logic Ladder Diagram


Symbols for common logic and sequence components in a ladder logic diagram



Automation of Fuel delivery system

Digital Inputs to PLC: TS1 (%M0.0), TS2 (%M0.1), Fuel pressure at fuel room (%I0.0), speed(>=50%) (%I0.1), Fuel tank level low (%I0.2), fuel tank level high (%I0.3), Test cell doors open (%I0.4), Rolling shutter closed (%I0.5), emergency tank level low (%I0.6), shop air pressure low (%I0.7). Digital outputs from PLC: Main Fuel valve (%Q0.0), Nitrogen valve (%Q0.1), Emergency fuel valve (%Q0.2), Test cell fuel valve (%Q0.3), fuel fill valve (%Q0.4). Digital Indicators: Fuel pressure low (%Q0.5), low fuel (%Q0.6), test cell doors open (%Q0.7), rolling shutter closed (%Q1.0), low emergency fuel (%Q1.1), emergency fuel active (%Q1.2).

Conclusion from the above Ladder Logic Diagram

1. Main fuel valve opens when Nitrogen valve is inactive and switch T1 is ON. 2. Nitrogen valve and Emergency fuel valve opens when there is sufficient fuel pressure in the fuel tank and speed greater than certain specified value. 3. Test Cell fuel valve opens as soon as TS2 is switched ON. 4. Fuel Fill Valve remain open as long as fuel level is below high level.

Fuel Pump


The pump starts as soon as start is pushed and remains in the operating mode unless stop key is pressed. The sensors sense the operation and give the indication whether pump is running(green) or not(red).


Automation of Fuel delivery system


The whole experience of working at HAL was great. This organization has a superb work culture, great minds and very high quality of work. I learned a lot of about Programmable Logic Controller and its use in making processes automatic . The work I could complete here was very satisfactory. I used the developed ladder program for fuel delivery system of Jet Turbo engine in HAL and got good results. The program worked as expected. I hope my work on PLC Programming and Automation of Fuel Delivery System helps HAL meet its goals.


1.Kevin Collins : PLC Programming for industrial Automation 2. Neal Babcock : Beginner's Guide to PLC Programming 3. Wikipedia: ogic_controller 4. Wikibooks: C_Programming