Persuasive techniques

In the media, personal image, and relationships Mid-term information Three different passages. Excerpts from different books (one is a travel memoir, one is a novel, and one is about current events). Each passage will have around two exercises measuring different skills. Though the exercises themselves are different than in the FCE, the skills needed to complete them are the same. The following are directions close to how they’ll appear for each exercise. Not all of the exercises will appear on the final test: Mid-term information The following words or phrases are synonyms of words and phrases used in the passage. Next to each one, provide the original word or phrase and the line number where it appears in the text. Rewrite each of the following sentences from the passage. Start with the words provided. Make any changes you consider necessary, but retain the general meaning of the original sentence. Choose the option that best answers the question. For the sentences below, write whether they are True or False in what they describe from the passage. The sentences below are paraphrases of sentences in the passage. Reorganize the sentences below to match the order they occur in the passage. Mark your answers in the boxes below, with the left-most box being first and the right-most box being last. Fill in the blanks with the word or phrase that best completes the thoughts expressed in the summary below. The below sentences are taken from the passage. Paraphrase each sentence down to a phrase of no more than 7 words that reflect the meaning of the original sentence. A cue word is provided. Rewrite paragraph __ from the passage. Represent the opposite view taken in favor of ____. Do not reference the original paragraph, but transform it to reflect the opposing view supported by ____. You will be marked according to: your understanding of the view expressed in the original paragraph, your ability to fairly represent an opposing view, the coherency of your supporting points, and the overall strength of your argument. Persuasive techniques: inferencing Related to assumptions and presuppositions, inferencing can be understood as the unstated conclusions the writer expects the reader to arrive at.

What the author wants us to infer can be difficult, though, as it requires determining the author’s expectations of the reader. This can be assisted by the following: common sense, powers of reasoning, and knowledge of the world and schemata. Inferencing Consider the following example: The treatment was later withdrawn. Next day the patient died. What can be inferred from the sentence? What conclusion does the author want us to draw? A common persuasive technique related to this is called equivocation—implying something known to be untrue without actually lying. This is ultimately innuendo, and is often seen in highly politicized or controversial topics. Inferencing Consider this with the last example: The second of these statements is demonstrably untrue. What about the first statement? How are the first and second statements different? Any questions about inferencing? Using the article you read for homework, choose one part of the article where the author successfully persuaded you about a certain point. Identify what you consider to be the reasons why in how the author used language to persuade you, then discuss this point with a partner. And/Or, what didn’t persuade you, and why? Group discussion The group leader facilitates all discussion that takes place and you must follow according to her requests. If she wants to finish with discussion about one question or point, let her do so, or conclude your thoughts. The role you play as a group member is you can make the discussion much more rich and meaningful by the perspective you have of the article. Group members are free to comment on what each other says, but the group leader determines what comments are appropriate. Be careful with what you say, as the group leader will be noting down what everyone shares throughout the discussion of the topic, which she will summarize before the class.

For the teacher question that follows the group leaders’ summaries, everyone discusses it, then shares as a class. Teacher Question: In your opinion, who truly has final say in the shape an individual’s identity takes nowadays? Please elaborate. Class feedback Please answer the following questions on a small piece of paper to turn in to me. You do not need to write your name. I’ll use this during each class to improve upon what is done in and out of class. You don’t need to write the question, but do number your responses: 1. What (if anything) did you find helpful from today’s class? 2. What (if anything) did you find unhelpful from today’s class? 3. What would have made class better for you? 4. In your opinion, what was today’s class really about? (if you felt it had a purpose different than what was stated) Homework: Prepare for the mid-term, and group 2 will need to be ready to present . . . on the 9th or 16th?

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