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THE INTERNATIONAL LAW AND CUSTOM OF ANCIENT GREECE AND ROME

MACMILLAN AND
LONDON

CO., LIMITED BOMBAY CALCUTTA MELBOURNE

THE MACMILLAN COMPANY


NEW YORK
ATLANTA
BOSTON CHICAGO SAN FRANCISCO
CO.

THE MACMILLAN

OF CANADA,

LTD.

TORONTO

THE INTERNATIONAL LAW AND CUSTOM OF ANCIENT GREECE AND ROME


BY

COLEMAN PHILLIPSON
M.A., LL.D., LITT.D.
OF THE INNER TEMPLE, BARRISTER-AT-LAW AUTHOR OF "STUDIES IN INTERNATIONAL LAW," "THE EFFECT OF WAR ON CONTRACTS
AND ON TRADING ASSOCIATIONS
IN TERRITORIES

OF BELLIGERENTS," ETC.

IN

TWO VOLUMES

VOLUME

MACMILLAN AND
ST.
191
1

CO.,

LIMITED

MARTIN'S STREET, LONDON

GLASGOW PRINTED AT THE UNIVERSITY BY ROBERT MACI.EHOSE AND CO. LTD.


:

DEDICATED

TO

THE MEMORY OF MY MOTHER

PREFACE
THE
the
present work,
first
it

is

believed, offers to the reader

comprehensive and systematic account of the subject (namely, the international law, public and private, of ancient Greece and Rome) that has appeared I am in any language. by no means unmindful of such of Laurent devoted to as the two volumes writings But his exposition, so readable, Greece and Rome. clear, and interesting as it is in many ways, suffers through irrelevance and discursiveness, through expatiation on generalities, entire neglect of the most vital questions, superficial examination of many quoted authorities, and a most lamentable disregard of much documentary evidence which was accessible at the time he wrote. More fundamental drawbacks are his unreasoning preconceptions and his inadequate grasp of 1 have the legal point of view. reluctantly taken the
to refer to this author, not at all in a or captious obtrusively disparaging spirit, but chiefly because of his pernicious influence on subsequent writers who, still more blameworthy than himself, followed him unwarily, accepted his conclusions (charmingly as they are couched) without question, and failed to realize his
liberty thus

errors and pronounced bias. All these faults, whether of substance or of method, I have tried to avoid. It has, moreover, been my constant aim, in conformity with my prearranged

numerous

general

plan, to bring out the juridical side of the rather than to trace elaborately its historical development ; for it is the former aspect which has
subject,

hitherto

been

well-nigh

neglected,

or

imperfectly

viii

PREFACE

examined, and which has, therefore, given rise to misconceptions and oft-repeated blunders on the part of modern writers. Almost invariably have modern writers on international law when referring or, rather, condescending to refer to Greece and Rome, dismissed their international institutions as never having existed at all, or as having been merely sporadic negligible

phenomena, or, at most, as presumably answering to a few vague generalizations, copied and recopied from preceding writers who, in turn, had paid but little heed to the original sources of evidence. Although it is to desire the existence of a conshow avowedly my siderable body of ancient international law (and to term
it,

in

the case of Greece,


as
I

'

intermunicipal

the

detraction, chapter), I have taken care not to belittle militated against a doubtful thesis, or to

least

have

shown

is not an early anything that

'

law,

in

exaggerate

what supported
of epigraphic

it.

In recent times a larger mass of material, in the form and other historical documents, has
available
;

become
a

and, what

is

of cardinal import-

more scientific method is, in consequence, ance, demanded of investigators. I have been at pains to go through a wide field, comprising most of the ancient authors, large collections of Greek and Latin inscripIn tions, and the contributions of modern writers.
reference to the ancient sources, it will be seen that I have here set forth, if not extensive regions, at least,

numerous byways, which had


is

hitherto remained

un-

explored, in so far as the subject-matter

of

this

book
cases,

concerned.

have refrained from discussing ques-

tions of dubious authorship, arising in certain or those of controverted readings, in others.

The

solution of nice

scarcely falls within

problems I have chosen sphere. simply investigated the statements usually attributed to this or that author, with a view to extracting their intrinsic
literary

or bibliographical

my

testimony, and there

when
I

it was relevant to my purpose. Here have referred to legends and traditions,

PREFACE
as

ix

recounted by classical authors. In doing so I did not assume that such evidence possesses the same degree of of actually recorded facts, cogency and validity as that
with respect to any particular institution at any given time ; I introduced such legendary reports merely to reinforce the conclusions derived from more historical and

what is of especial significance reliable data, and to indicate the existence of an inveterate juridical consciousness, whose manifestations are perceived in

more

subsequent regularized systems and actual interstatal For similar reasons and not by way of practice. have incontrovertible proof of specific details urging
I

cited passages

from

historians

and

annalists,

whose

narratives were not infrequently inspired by an overweening desire to panegyrize their own respective States
to the disadvantage of others.
I have invariably given the original texts, epigraphic or other, as the indispensable documentary sources (the Qjuellen^ as German writers say), which exhibit the

grounds whereupon
in

conclusions are based. I have of the course book many carefully examined the opinions of modern writers on various relative matters, advanced reasons for any disagreement with them, and ventured to submit reconstructions of divers views respecting certain important questions. On the other hand, where I have not been able to discover adequate and relevant testimony, I have not allowed unjustifiable conjecture or random excursions

my

cases

in

the

of the imagination to serve instead, for, in this respect, the sanction of scientific method has operated throughout as the governing factor. In the development of my argument, and in the formulation of the propositions issuing therefrom, I have always endeavoured to be concise and to the A large proportion of the text could easily point. have been expanded by additional materials in my
possession
essential
detail,
I

but, to avoid the overburdening of the ; principles and conclusions with too much have refrained in certain cases somewhat

PREFACE
into

from diverging regretfully * deverticula amoena.'

many

tempting

I may point out that such readers as are unacquainted with the ancient or modern languages will be able to follow the main substance of the work, inasmuch as the citations are either translated, or their

purport briefly embodied in the text, according as In the case of the longer circumstances required. passages from Thucydides and Polybius, I have gratefully availed myself of the fine translations of Jowett and Dr. Shuckburgh respectively. I had intended to give here a resume of the subjects of public and private international law that I have considered, to indicate my reasons for their present arrangement, to show the connection of the chapters

and
the

sequence, and to draw attention to I have generally adopted ; but, I think, all this will clearly enough appear partly in the analytical contents, and partly in various places in the course of the earlier chapters. I may say,
their logical

methods of exposition

have been consistently most part, comparaso that their respective acceptance of and tively ; insistence on juridical principles, and their application of a regularized procedure and legal methods to international relationships will thus be the more forcibly
treated side

however, that Greece and

Rome

by

side, and, for the

emphasized. As to the bibliography, I have arranged in five classes the works which have been consulted to a Nothing need be said about greater or lesser extent. the first and second divisions, as their purport is With regard to the others, however, it is obvious. not to be understood that my intention was to place them in order of merit. The main consideration the was the amount of the subject principium divisionis the covered by writings in those classes ; so that whilst contains III. works dealing with several of the class I have considered, class IV. includes such as treat topics almost exclusively of certain limited portions of the

PREFACE

xi

subject-matter ; and, finally, the fifth section comprises miscellaneous writers, whose testimony has been invoked I have in the case of some or other particular point. abstained from characterizing this or that work by
epithets of praise or condemnation ; reference to Laurent was actuated solely
to

my

foregoing

combat the fallacious largely due to his treatment, though his work is, indeed, more valuable, in many respects, than a good many The discerning reader will, no others I have included. of the tabulated writings which discover doubt, readily will be the most useful for the further investigation
of any of the subjects constituting or relating to the substance of this book ; and to facilitate such inquiry I have, where it was thought desirable, added notes to the titles of many works in order to indicate the nature of such of their contents as have a direct bearing on my No claim is, of course, made to perfect comscope. pleteness of the bibliography, though the reader will, no doubt, allow that it is the fullest that has ever been presented. The majority of the books I have consulted at the British Museum ; but I may, in this connection,
take the opportunity to say that the establishment in
a thoroughly equipped library of comparative law, systematized on a practical and rational basis, would prove a veritable treasure-house to legislators and

by the desire modern tradition which is

London of

would

publicists, to professional writers and researchers, and also stimulate fresh investigators to enter a field

of work to which Englishmen (who are by no means fundamentally inferior to the best foreign students in the task of original research) have so far contributed too
little.

It may be worth while to point out that I have not had any assistance whatever in the composition of the work, or even in seeing it through the press ; I have myself transcribed the ancient texts and the passages from

continental authors, revised the proofs, prepared the index, etc., and in all this trying labour (considerably lightened, however, through the care and intelligence of

modern

xii

PREFACE

the printers and their readers), I have done my best to avoid inaccuracies. But having regard to the com-

prehensiveness of the matter and the multiplicity of details, the experienced and learned reader will, I am confident, overlook any small errors, typographical or
other, which his keen eye may detect. May I, in conclusion, express the hope that the
will

work

be found of some use not only to students of ancient law and of comparative law in general, but also to students of the classics and ancient history, as well

and in the evolution of public and private international law in If the book finds favour with such readers, particular.
as to those interested in comparative politics

possibly continue, on somewhat similar lines, the preparation of further volumes on the development of international law in the middle ages
I

may

with

and
I

in

modern

times.

cannot conclude

my

expressing
Sir

my

sincere thanks to

prefatory observations without my esteemed friend

John Macdonell, C.B., M.A., LL.D. (Master of Supreme Court and Quain Professor of Comparative Law in the University of London), for his kindness
the
in writing the

introductory note.

COLEMAN
INNER TEMPLE,
October $ist, 1910.

PHILLIPSON.

CONTENTS OF VOL.
BIBLIOGRAPHY

PAGE
I.

Ancient writings

II.

Other ancient documents

inscriptions, etc.

III.

Modern

writers dealing with several matters considered in the present work writers dealing with fewer questions, or

IV.

Modern

with special topics


V.

12
-

Other writers

referred to

24

CHAPTER

THE GREEK CITY-STATE SYSTEM


Ancient law of nations denied
27

Modern and
Autonomous
City-states

ancient law
city-states
-

27

28

and Hellenic
States

circle
-

30
32

Autonomous

and sovereignty
-

Exclusiveness and rivalry

34
36
-

Leagues and associations

External policy of the Greeks


Attitude towards foreigners
State interest

39

--------42

40

xiv

CONTENTS
CHAPTER
LAW
PAGE

II

GREEK CONCEPTION OF LAW. TO WHAT EXTENT THE GREEKS RECOGNIZED AN INTERNATIONAL


Law
Had
and
religion
-

43
positive

Ancient sanction of

law
?

46
46
50

the ancients international law

Existence of important elements thereof in Greeceland

Rome

Juridical nature of rules

51

Public and private law


'

52

Universal* and

particular' law
-

53

Written law and law of mankind


Natural and conventional law
-

54 54
55

Moral law and

positive

law

Moral law and divine law


Positive

56
-

law and natural law

57 57

General or
Interstatal

common law
law
as

unwritten

58
59 60

'Laws of Greeks' and 'laws


' '

of mankind'

Elements of ancient international law


Intermunicipal
'

law and international law


-

62 62

Universal

'

law and international law


practices progressive
-

Greek law and

63

Records of ancient practices

64

CHAPTER

III

THE JURISTIC GENIUS OF ROME. I US NATUR4LE, IUS GENTIUM, AND KINDRED CONCEPTIONS
Difference between Greek and

Roman

genius

Roman law and

religion

67 68

CONTENTS
Principle of bona fides
lus civile lus
-

xv
PAGE

68

and

ius

gentium
ius

69

privatum and

honorarium
-

69
7 7

Law The

public, private, sacred


ius

gentium

origin

and meaning
-

Ius gentium

used in various ways

77

Ius gentium, ius naturale, ius naturae

jS 79 79

Influence of
Ius gentium

Greek philosophy
and natural justice
-

Naturalis ratio
Ius gentium

"'-

80
8
1

and natural equity Ius naturale and ius commune


Ius naturale

81

and

ius

civile

82 83
-

Naturalis ratio and lex naturae


Ius gentium
Ius

and

ius naturale

submitted explanation

83
85

and

dike

significance

Lex and nomos


Fas, themis, ratio, mos
Fas,
ius,

86
-

bona fides, ethos,

bom mores
ius

87 88

Post- mediaeval writers

on

naturale and ius gentium


-

89
91
91

Ius gentium

Origin and development of ius gentium and ius honorarium

Ius gentium and ius naturale


Ius gentium
ius fetiale

submitted explanation
ius
belli

92

and

94

Ius gentium
Ius

as private international
ius

law

94
96

gentium

fetiale,

ius

belli

CHAPTER

IV

THE POLICY OF ROME. TO WHAT EXTENT SHE RECOGNIZED AN INTERNATIONAL LAW


Rome's foreign
Earlier

policy

State interest
-

100
103

and

later

epochs to be distinguished

xvi

CONTENTS
PAGE

Roman

international law progressive


juridical basis
-

106
107

Practices and institutions

To

distinguish

modern point of view from ancient


juridical consciousness

109

Civitas gentium

reciprocity

no
in
113 114
116

Juridical personality

Sovereignty and reciprocity

Juridical basis of various rules-

International juridical consciousness


Fides
as basis of relationships
-

Oath, bona fides^ and aequitas

-117 -119

CHAPTER V
GREECE AND FOREIGNERS
Citizenship, religion, and alienage
-

122
125
-

Relaxations as to aliens

Aliens not necessarily enemies-

127

Concessions to aliens
Sparta and strangers

128
129
131

Various relaxations
Passports

132
133

Hostelries for strangers

Athenian hospitality and humaneness

134

CHAPTER

VI

GREECE AND FOREIGNERS. DIFFERENT CLASSES AND PRIVILEGES. RUDIMENTS OF A CONSULAR SYSTEM (PROXENU)
Admission of strangers special authorization Restrictions and exemptions
Conventions to secure rights
Interchange of rights
-

136
137

139
141

isopolity

CONTENTS
Isopolitic
treaties
-

xvii
I'AGE

142

Privileges of isopolity

143

Sympolity
Classes of aliens in

144
145
147

Athens
-

Institution of proxenia

Proxenla and hospitality

148
-

Proxenia and modern consular system


International position and functions of proxenoi

149
152 154

Their

privileges

CHAPTER

VII

THE METOEC. RIGHTS AND DUTIES OF THE


DOMICILED ALIEN
Importance of the systematic rights accorded to metoecs
157

Meaning of word metoec


Patrons necessary
-

158 159

Influence of domiciled aliens on

Greek commerce

160
-

Authorization by decree

161
.

Duration of period of settlement

161

The

patron

prostates

162

Relations of patron and metoec

163

Duties of metoecs towards patron


Rights withheld from metoecs
Special burdens imposed on them

164
165 167

Foreigners and practice of their religion

169 170
171

Treatment of metoecs
Jurisdiction as to aliens

Rewards and
Isoteles

privileges to
-

metoecs

172
173
'

their position

hoteleia

how

conferred

175
-

Inferior classes of

Athenian population
-

176
177

Relation of metoecs to the State


b

xviii

CONTENTS
PAGE
-

Final definition of metoecs


Classes of Spartan population

178
-

178

CHAPTER

VIII

NATURALIZATION IN ATHENS CERTAIN IMPORTANT ELEMENTS OF PRIVATE INTERNATIONAL LAW IN GREECE


In earlier times naturalization
difficult
-

180
1

Gradual relaxations

81

Athens

most

liberal

181

Twofold

citizenship
-

182 183
185
-

Conditions of naturalization

Abuses

Naturalization en masse

187 188

Formal procedure

Effects of naturalization

190
in

Elements of private international law


Citizenship and domicileJurisdiction as to aliens
'

Greece

192
192
192

Conclusion of

law-treaties

198

Personal law and territorial law

2OO
201

Commercial

cases

Examples of 'law-treaties'
General conclusions

203 208

CHAPTER

IX

ROME AND FOREIGNERS


Civitas

Romana and

ius

^ulrltium

210
21
1

How
The

citizenship lost
-

Attitude towards aliens


peregrim
-

213
-

214

CONTENTS
The
Amid
term
-

xix
PAGE

hostis

21$
-

21 6

Hospitium
Public hospitality
-

217

-"221
-

Amicttia and hospitium


Clientela

222
223

and hospitium

Patronage of entire peoples Hospitium pub li cum


-

224
225
-

Hospitium and treaties

226
227

Position of aliens generally in

Rome

CHAPTER X
ROME AND FOREIGNERS. DIFFERENT
The The The
'
'

CLASSES,

AND
230
232

THEIR JURIDICAL POSITION


barbarians
-

dediticii

peregrini

233
235

lus gentium

and peregrin law

Latin peregrins

240

CHAPTER

XI

ROME AND FOREIGNERS. DOMICILE. NATIONALITY.


NATURALIZATION
Origo and domicilium
Acquisition of domicile
Nationality of origin
Naturalization in
-

245

246
249

Rome
-

254
257

Of Of Of

Latin peregrins
all

Latins

^-

ordinary peregrins
-

--

259 260
264

Effects of naturalization

xx

CONTENTS
CHAPTER
XII

ROME AND FOREIGNERS. JURISDICTION. PERSONAL AND TERRITORIAL LAW. CONFLICTS OF LAWS
PAGE

Relaxations in policy as to aliens

267
-

The

praetor peregrinus

origin, position

268

Various duties

269

Proceedings before

him

270
271

The

praetor and the ius gentium


-

His decline
Peregrin law

271
systems
-

different

272

Peregrin law and

Roman

law

273
275 277

How
The Law

conflicts
ius

of laws were obviated

gentium and lex peregrinorum


-

of origin and law of domicile

278
281

Certain modern views

objections thereto-

Examples of

conflicts of

laws

285
-

Territorial sovereignty of the law

295

Doctrine of public order

299
-

Why

few cases of

conflicts

300

CHAPTER

XIII

AMBASSADORS THEIR FUNCTIONS; THEIR RIGHTS AND DUTIES


Rise of diplomacy
-

302

Kinds of envoys and ambassadors Right to despatch embassies, and sovereignty Obligation to receive them
Reception by commanders in the
field
-

304
-

309
311

312
-

Roman

practices at different periods


in

313

Reception of ambassadors
Reception of ambassadors

Greece

314
-

in

Rome

315

CONTENTS
Friendly envoys and right of hospitality
-

xxi
PAGE
-

318 319
321

Ambassadors of enemy States

For what purposes despatched

Powers and instructions

credentials-

322

What

persons appointed
-

324
327

Ambassadors' suites
Rights and duties

328
-

Position of third States

333
-

Punishment of offences against ambassadors


Principle of exterritoriality

335

337
341

Neutrality of ambassadors

Reward and punishment of ambassadors

342

CHAPTER XIV
RIGHT OF ASYLUM.
Divine sanction
In oriental antiquity

EXTRADITION (DEDITIO)
347

348
*

Asylum

in

Greek temples

349
351

Inviolability of suppliants

Practices during

war
-

353

Certain elements of neutralization

354

Right of asylum in

Rome

354
358
361

The

practice of extradition

Homicides and fugitive slaves

The Roman
Procedure in

dedltio

362

deditio

364
366
367

Decline of extradition

Cases involving extradition


Surrender of sponsores

369

xxii

CONTENTS
CHAPTER XV
NEGOTIATION AND TREATIES
PAGE

Different kinds of treaties and pacts

375
-

Roman

treaties

only with organized States


treaties
-

378

Kinds of

Roman

380

Binding force of conventions


Various subjects in treaties
Functionaries and procedure
Earlier forms of ceremonial in

380
381

383 Greece
-

385
387

Similar ritual in antiquity in general

Force of the oath


Foedus, fides, sponsio

388
391

Roman
Use of

symbolic formalities
-

394

Later procedure
hostages

396
398
-

Religious formula in promise

406 408

When

treaties

might be repudiated

Treaties amending previous conventions

409

Compromise
Attitude of

clauses

410
-

Rome

towards conventions

411

Proceedings

in later

Greek

treaties

413
415

Proceedings in later

Roman

treaties-

INTRODUCTORY NOTE
Dr. Phillipson, has asked me to add an introductory note to these volumes. They need no recommendation. But I gladly make use of the opportunity to say, with some knowledge of English and foreign literature on the subject, that they give There is a that which is to be found nowhere else. multitude of essays, papers and monographs (rarely
friend,

MY

written

by lawyers) relating to parts or Many of them are of great value. points. deal fully and systematically with the whole
Dr. Phillipson rightly claims that
offers

isolated

None
subject.

" the present work

reader the first comprehensive and account of the subject that has appeared systematic in any language/* I have sought for such a work, and have hitherto not found it. These volumes, with their copious and convincing
to

the

details,

will help to dispel the fiction, still sometimes repeated, that in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries

group of writers, notably Albericus Gentilis and " founded " When stable international law. Grotius, communities whether tribes, or City-States, or States
of

customs hardening

permanently contiguous, time into law never fail to Ubi societas^ ibi ius ; whereregulate their intercourse. ever developed communities are brought in contact with each other, juridical relations must sooner or later be formed not mainly by agreement, tacit or express, but by the very necessity of the case, and partly from the same causes as those which working internally
type
in

modern

are

create States.

xxiv

INTRODUCTORY NOTE

These volumes reveal not only the existence of a system of international law in the ancient world, but one in some respects much more akin to that of to-day than international law as it was in the time of Grotius. In the number and variety of autonomous States ; in the many different forms of their constitutions ; in the in the existence of autonomous democratic States conception of the State itself, wholly different from
;

the feudal or patrimonial conception

;
;

in the

number
;

and variety of dependent communities in the existence of federations ; in the unstable balance of power in the relations of the mother countries to autonomous
colonies
;

in

the

multitude

many

subjects besides peace and war

use of arbitration, as a mode in these and many other the practice as to passports, matters there is more likeness between the international law in ancient Greece and that of to-day than there is between the latter and international law as described in De Jure Belli ac Pads.

of treaties dealing with in the developed ; of settling differences ; in

With one remark by Dr.


to

Phillipson
<c

would

desire

emphasize my agreement. thoroughly equipped library of comparative law, systematized on a practical and rational basis, would prove a veritable treasure-house." Every student of comparative law will agree with this. Perhaps the establishment one day of an Institute of Comparative Law, so much needed, may help to create such a " treasurehouse."

The

establishment of a

JOHN MACDONELL.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
COMPRISING WRITINGS REFERRED TO IN THE PRESENT WORK
I.

ANCIENT WRITINGS
;

Aelianus : De natura animalium ; Variae historiae. Aeschines : De falsa legat. ; De corona ; Epist. ; C. Timarch. C. Ctesiph. Aeschylus Seven against TJiebes.
:

Ammianus
Andocides
: :

Antiphon Appian De
Wasps.

(Marcellinus) : History. C. Alcibiad. ; De mysteriis De caede Herodis.


bell. civ. ;
:

De

reditu suo.

De

rebus Gallicis.

Aristophanes

Ly si strata ;

Acharn.

Birds

Peace

Clouds

Aristophanes of Byzantium,
Aristotle:

economics Politics; Athenian Constitution.

(Ed. Nauck). ; Rhetoric;

Ethics;

On

the

Asconius : Commentarii. Athenaeus Deipnosophistae. Ausonius Idyllia.


: :

Caesar De Callimachus
:

bello Galileo.
:

Hymns.
;

De re rustica. De repub. ; De offic. ; De leg. ; De fin. De Cicero De orat. ; De harusp. resp. ; Brut. ; Topica ; Tusc.
Cato
: :

invent.
htaest.

Divin. in Caecil.
Flacco
;

Philipp.

In

Verr.
;

Pro Plancio ; Pro Mur. Pro Caec. ; Pro Rabir. ; Epist.


Curtius (Quintus)
:

; Pro Archia ; Pro Pro Mil. ; Pro Balbo ;

De

rebus gestis Alexandri magni.

Deinarchus

C. Demosth.
:

Demosthenes

De

Cherson.

De

Corona

De

rep.

ord.

De

falsa legat.; De Halon. ; C. Neaer. ; C. Lept.; C. Everg. ; C. Aristocr.; C. Lacrit.; C. Ctesiph.; [C. Aristog.']; C. Calipp.; C. Eubulid.; C. Dionysod ; C. Steph. ; Pro Rhod. ;

Pro Megalop.
C. Apatur.
;

Pro Phorm.
A

C. Zenothem.

C.

Midiam

Exceptio adv. Pantaenet.

ANCIENT WRITINGS
History. Lives of the Philosophers. Hist. Rom.
: : :

Diodorus Siculus

Diogenes Laertius

Dion

Cassius

Dionysius Halicarnassensis

Archaeologia.

Donatus

Ad prolog.
:

Hecyr. (Terent.).

Empedocles
Euripides
:

De
Ad

natura (ILepl
;

Androm.
;

Hecub.
Ipbig. in

Phoeniss.

; ;

Med. ;
Fragm.

Heracl.

Hippol.

Suppl.

Taur.

Ion

Eustathius

Iliad.
hist.

Eutropius
Festus Florus
:

Brev.

Rom.

De

verborum signification. Epitome de gestis Romanorum.

Gaius

Institutions juris chilis.


:

(With

trans,

and commentary

by E. Poste, Oxford, 1890.)


Gellius (Aulus)

Nodes

Atticae.

Harpocration
:

Lexicon.
:

Heracleides (Ponticus)

De

rebus publicis.

Herodotus History. Hesiod Theogony.


:

Hesychius

Lexicon.

Homer
Horace

Iliad ; Odyssey.

Odes
:

Carm.

Sec.

Hyperides

Pro Euxenippo.
:

Isidore of Seville
Isocrates
:

Origins.
;

pace; De permut. Trapezit.; Panathen.


:

De

Panegyr.; Antid.

Plataic.;

De magistratibus populi Romani libri tres. Joannes (Lydus) Bell. jud. Josephus (In Opera, ed. Spanheim, LeipJulian (Emperor) Mhopogon.
:

zig, 1696.)

Justin

History.
:

(Justinian)
tiones.

Corpus juris

civilis

(Digest and Codex)

Institu-

Livy

Lucan
Lucian
Lysias

History of Rome. Pharsalia.


:

Lucretius
:

Demon. ; Scytha. De rerum natura.


:

De
;

antiq.

reipub.
;

forma

;
;

De

bonis

Aristoph.
;

Ergocl.

C. Philocr.

C. Agor.

C. Epicrat.

C. ; C. Nicom.

ANCIENT WRITINGS
Macrobius
:

Saturnal.
:

Conviv.
compendiosa doctrina.
dictisque^ etc.

Marcellus (Nonius)

De
:

Maximus

(Valerius)
:

De factis
Chronica
;

Nepos (Cornelius)
Orosius (Paulus)
:

De

vir. illust.
libri

Historiarum adversos paganos


;

VII.

Ovid

Fasti

Metam.

Amor.

Trist.

Paterculus (Velleius) : Hist. Rom. Sententiae receptae. Paulus Pausanias : Periegesis (Itinerary).
:

Persius

Satires.
:

Satyr icon. Fragmenta. Philostratus Vita Apoll. Pindar Olymp. ; Nem. Od. Plato Repub. ; Laws ; Protag.

Petronius

Philemon
:

Crito

Charm.

Hipp. Mai.,

Alcib.

Captivi ; Poen. ; Afenaech. Pliny (the Elder) : Historia naturalis. Pliny (the Younger) : Epist. Plutarch : Lives , Instit. Lacon. ; De unius in rep. dom. ; De >uaest. Grace. ; Quaest. Stoic, repug. ; De solert. anim. ;

Plautus

Rom.
Pollux
:

Onomasticon.
:

Polybius

History.
:

Quinctilian
Sallust
:

Institutes

of Oratory.

Jugurtha.

Seneca
Servius

De

benef.

De

consol. ;

Epist.

Hercul. Fur.

Ad
:

Aen. (Commentarii).
;

Sophocles
Spartian
:

Antig.

Philoc.

Oedip. Col.

Oedip. Tyr.

Hadrian.

Stobaeus Florilegium. Strabo Geography. Suetonius : Lives of the Caesars. Suidas : Lexicon Graecum. (For reasons of convenience work is here included in the ancient authors.)
:

this

Syrus (Publius)

Sententiae.
;

Tacitus

Agricola
:

Annals

History.

Terence

Hecyra.
:

Theocritus

Idylls.

Theodosius, and Valentinian


Theodosianus.

III.

(during their reign)

Codex

ANCIENT INSCRIPTIONS
:

Theophrastus : Characters. Thespis Fragmenta.

Thucydides
Tyrtaeus
:

History.

Tibullus: Poems.
Elegies.

Ulpian

Regulae.

Varro : De Lingua Latino. Victor (Aurelius) : De Caesaribus. Virgil : Aeneld ; Georgics.

Xenophon
Symp.

Anab.

; Cyrop. ; Memorab. Resp. Ath. ; Resp. Laced.

Hellen.

De

Vectig. ;

Zonaras

Annals

Lexicon.

II.

OTHER ANCIENT DOCUMENTS


ETC.
Barbeyrac
1739):

INSCRIPTIONS,

J.

Histoire

des

anciens

traites,

pt.

(Amsterdam,
:

A. Boeckh, E. Curtius, A. Kirchoff, and H. Roehl inscriptionum Graecarum (Berlin, 1828-1877).


C.
E.

Corpus

G. Bruns

Fontes juris

Romani

antiqui^

ed.

T.

Mommsen

(Freiburg, 1887).

Bulletin de correspondance hellenique (Paris, 1877, etc.). P. Cauer : Delectus inscriptionum Graecarum . . . (Lipsiae, 1883). D. Comparetti : Le leggi di Gortyna e le altre iscrixioni arcaiche
cretesi.

In Monumenti antichi
Haussoullier, and

(Milano, 1893).
:

R. Dareste, P.

T. Reinach
1891,

Recueil des

inscriptions juridiques grecques (Paris,

etc.).

Dittenberger: Sylloge inscriptionum Graecarum^ 3 (Leipzig, 1898-1901). P. Foucart : Melanges d'fyigraphie grecque (Paris, 1878). Textes de droit romain (Paris, 1890). P. F. Girard
:

W.

vols.

E. L. Hicks and G. F. Hill


inscriptions

Manual

of Greek historical

(Oxford, 1901).

W. Dittenberger : Corpus inscriptionum Atticarum (Berlin, 1873, etc.). C. Michel : Recueil d* inscriptions grecques (Paris, 1900).
A. Kirchoff, U. Kohler and

MODERN WORKS ON VARIOUS


T. Mommsen and other
arum
C. T.
editors
:

TOPICS

Corpus inscriptionum Latininscriptions

(Berlin, 1863, etc.).


:

Newton

Collection

of ancient Greek
:

in

the

J.

Museum, 3 pts. (Oxford, 1874-1890). C. von Orelli and G. Henzen Inscriptionum Latinarum
selectarum amplissima
collectio

British

... 3
lois

vols. (Turici,

1828-56).

J.

M.

Pardessus

Collection

de

mar

times

ant/rieures au

XV111*

siecle,

torn. (Paris, 1828-45).

Philopatris (Athens, 1859).

A. R. Rangabe

: Antiquitts helltniques, ou r/pertoire ^inscriptions et cTautres antiquit/s d/couvertes depuis Faffranchissement de la Grke, 2 vols. (Athenes, 1842-55). :

L. Renier

H. Roehl

Recueil de diplomes militaires (Paris, 1876). Inscriptions Graecae antiquissimae praeter Atticas in
.
. .

Attica repertas

(Berlin, 1882).
des Altertums (Leipzig,

R. von Scala
[Vol.
etc.,

Die Staatsvertrage
i.

1898,

in progress).

contains 218 texts of ancient treaties, alliances,


B.C.

from inscriptions and from and other writers. Contains reports references to other works and articles where these are treated more fully.]
to

338

taken

of

historians

J. B.

W.

Telfy Corpus juris Attici (Leipzig, 1868). H. Waddington Inscriptions d*Asie Mineure
:

(Paris).

III.

MODERN WRITERS DEALING WITH SEVERAL MATTERS CONSIDERED IN THE PRESENT WORK.
:

G. Baviera
pp.

// diritto internazionale del Romani.

giuridico,

Modena

Nuova

serie,

t.

463-506

[A
the

t. ii. ; pp. 243-278 ; consideration of various principles in support of argument that the Romans had an international

(In Archivio (1898), pp. 266-281 ; pp. 433-459.)


i.

law
F.

in the true sense


:

Bender

Antikes

V'dlkerrecht

of the term.] vornehmlich

im

Zeita/ter

des

Polybios (Bonn, 1901). [A brief statement of the practices and principles of ancient international law prevailing or advocated in the age

of Polybius, on the basis of whose history and opinions the conclusions are, for the most part, drawn.]

6
F.

MODERN WORKS ON VARIOUS


Bernhoft
sect.

TOPICS

: Staat und Recht der romischen Konigszeit im Verhaltniss zu verwandten Rechten (Stuttgart, 1882).

[Passim, esp. 133, 22O seq.~\


J.
:

6,

pp.

208

seq.

fetials

also pp.

Des conflits de lots a Rome (Bordeaux, 1888). Beyssac Le prfteur peregrin (Paris, 1882). : de Boeck C.
J.

Bortolucci : De jure gentium criminali apud Graecos. (In Rivista di storia antica, Padova, 1905, pp. 421-435.) A. Bouche-Leclercq : Manuel des institutions romaines (Paris,

G.

on citizengentium; pp. 350 seq. ; pp. 541 seq. fetials.] Die griechischen Staats- und Rechts alter turner Busolt vol. iv. pt. i. of Handbuch der klassischen Alter(being
seq. :

1886). [Pp. 343

ius

ship

and
:

its

acquisition

tums-flfissenschaft, ed. I. von Mtiller, Miinchen, 1892). [Passim, esp. sect. 3, pp. 52-90 : (various international

relationships)

"Die Beziehungen

der Staaten

unterein-

G.

M.

ander."] Ricostruzione storica Carle : Le origini del diritto romano. dei concetti che stanno a base del diritto pubblico e private di Roma (Torino, 1888). [Passim, esp. c. vii. pp. 139-165; "La formazione di un jus pacis ac belli durante il periodo gentilizio."] A. Carnazza : La istituzione dei feziali in rapporto a I diritto

pubblico romano (Catania, 1886). E. Catellani : Diritto inter nazwnale privato nelP antica Grecia. (In Studi e documenti di storia e diritto, Roma 1892, pp.

245-297.) E. L. Catellani

progressi (Torino, 1895).

// diritto inter nazionale privato e i suoi recenti Vol. i. Storia del diritto inter-

nazionale privato.

Greece
E. Cauchy
1862).

[Pp. 46-107 : elements of private international law in ; pp. 108-196 : the same in Rome.]
:

Le

droit

maritime international,

vols

(Paris,

[Passim, esp. vol.

Greece and

Rome

i. pp. 87-190, on various practices in relating to maritime law.]

A. Chauveau
les

Le droit des gens dans les rapports de Rome avec : peuples de I'antiquite. (In Nouvelle Revue historique de droit franfais et stranger, Paris, 1891, pp. 393-445.)
:

La lot plrlgrine a Rome. (In Bulletin du comite E. Chenon des travaux historiques et scientifiques, Paris, 1 890.)

MODERN WORKS ON VARIOUS TOPICS


E. Ciccotti
1901).
:

La

guerra

la

pace

nel

mondo antico (Torino,

E.

Comba

11 diritto internazionale in
et

C. V. Daremberg

E. Saglio

(eel.)

Roma (Torino, 1870). Dictionnaire des antiquitts


les

grecques et romaines (Paris, 1884, etc.). A. E. Egger : Etudes historiques sur les trait/s publics chez

Grecs
Feltin
:

et les

Remains

(Paris, 1866).

Le

droit des gens a


:

Rome
e

(1893).
(In Atti della

G. Fusinato

Dei

feziali

del diritto feziale.

Reale Accademia del Lincei, seVie iii. vol. xiii. 1883-4.) G. Fusinato Le droit international de la rtpublique romaine.
:

(In
P.

Revue de

droit international et de legislation compar/e,

Bruxelles, vol. xvii.

1885, pp. 278


:

seq.)

Gardner and F. B. Jevons (London, 1898).


[Pp.

Manual

of Greek antiquities

Greek
G. Gilbert

454 seq.\ metoecs, citizens, etc.; pp. States in their relations to each other.]
:

597-610:
2

Handbuch der

griechischen

Staatsalterthumer,

Bde. (Leipzig, 1881-85).


(English trans. : Constitutional antiquities of Sparta and Athens, London, 1895.)
[Vol. i. 2nd German edition, 1893, pp. 195 seq. : metoecs ; pp. 203 seq. naturalisation ; pp. 468 seq. : Athenian hegemony ; relationship of Athens to her allies.] Manuel tUmentalre de droit romain (Paris, F. Girard
: :

P.

1901). [Passim, esp. pp. 109-115, on peregrins in

Rome,

etc.]

A. H.

Greenidge (London, 1896).


J.

Handbook of Greek
36-55
:

constitutional history
c.
vii.

[Esp.
:

c.

iii.

pp.

colonisation

pp. 220-

243 international relationships and law.] A. H. J. Greenidge Roman public life (London, 1901). International relations of Rome, [Esp. pp. 289-315
: :

etc.]

G. Grote History of Greece, 10 vols. (London, 1872). H. Grotius De jure belli ac pads (Amstelaedami, 1650). (With trans, by W. Whewell, 4 vols., Cambridge, 1853.) K. Gtiterbock Byzanz und Persien in ihren diplomatischvolkerrechtlichen Beziehungen im Zeitalter Justinians (Berlin, 1906). [International relationships between Byzantium and
: :
:

Persia in the time of Justinian ; bassies, as to prisoners of war,


treaties of peace, etc.]

e.g.

fugitives,

interchange of emconclusion of

MODERN WORKS ON VARIOUS


:

TOPICS

H. Haelschner

De jure gentium

quale fuerit apud gentes orientis

A.

K.

rules and practices regarding the international relationships of oriental nations.] W. Heffter : De antiquo jure gentium prolusio (Bonn, 1823). Hildenbrand : Geschichte und System der Rechts- und Staatsphilosophie.

(Hake, 1842). [Examples of

Bd.

i.

Das
1
:

klassische

Alterthum

(Leipzig,

i860).
\_Passim, esp. pp. 6 1

F. von Holtzendorff, etc.

on ius gentium.] seq. Handbuch des Folkerrechts, 4 Bde.


:

(Berlin, 1885-1890). (French edition of vol.

i.

by F. von Holtzendorff and

A. Rivier :
[Vol.
c.
iii.
i.

Introduction au droit des gens, Hamburg, 1891.) c. ii. 49-56 : international law in Greece ;
:

57-64 international law in Rome.] R. von Ihering Geist des romischen Rechts auf den verschiedenen
:

Stufen seiner Entwicklungy 3 Bde. (Leipzig, 1852-78). [Passim, esp. vol. i. pp. 225 seq. : on international
relationships.]

P. Jors

Romische Rechtswissenschaft zur Zeit der Republik

(Berlin, 1888). [Teil i. sections xii.-xiv. pp.

113-156
2

Ius gentium

und

"Weltrecht."]

O. Karlowa

R'dmische

Rechtsgeschichte,

Bde.

(Leipzig,

Verhaltnisse
gentium.]

1855-1901). [Esp. vol. i. "


;

44, 45, pp. 279-295 : "Internationale 59, pp. 451-458: ius civile and ius
Lois
et

F. H. R. Kleen
(Paris,

usages

de

la

neutrality 2

torn.

1898-1900). [Occasional observations as to ancient law and custom in the historical treatment of the various subjects con:

sidered.]

F.

Laurent

nationales

Histoire du droit des gens , et des relations Inter(later additional title : Etudes sur rhistoire de
i.
:

rhumanit/\ 18
[Vol.
iii.
:

torn. (Gand, 1850-70). Oriental antiquity ; vol.

ii.

Greece

vol.

Rome.] Le droit F. Laurent


:

civil international (Bruxelles, 1880).


:

121-134 Greece; pp. 134-178: in


[Vol.
i.

pp.

private international

law

in

Rome;
des

annexe, pp. 667-678:


d'apres le
droit

"De

la

condition

civile

Strangers

remain" (by P. van Wetter).]

MODERN WORKS ON VARIOUS


:

TOPICS

Ancient international law. H. B. Leech (In Contemporary Review, London, 1883, vol. xliii. pp. 260-274; vol. xliv.
pp. 890-904.

The
1

articles

have been separately re-issued.)


gentium and ius civile ; pp. 88 element in ancient law ; pp.
;

B.

W.

Leist
[Pt.

Alt-arisches Jus Civile, 2 pt. (Jena, 1892-1896).

i.

pp.

seq.

ius

seq.

fas,
seq.
: :

and

religious

354
I

seq.

hospitality ; pp. 420 seq. : fides naturalis and civilis ratio ; pp.

pt.

ii.
:

pp.
ius

83

seq.

divinum.]

B.

W.

Alt-arisches Jus Gentium (Jena, 1889). : " Das weltliche Particularrecht und [Esp. pp. 545 seq. das neuere ius gentium."]

Leist

B.

W.
in

Leist

[Passim,

Graco-Italische Rechtsgeschichte (Jena, 1884). esp. 55-63 : international relationships

J.

Rome.] N. Madvig

Die Verfassung
i.

des

r'dmischen

Staates,

2 Bde.

(Leipzig, 1881-2). [Vol. i. chap.


vol.
J.
ii.

pp.
:

chap,

viii.

28

21-72: citizens and peregrins; law of nature.]


:

Marquardt and T.

Mommsen

Handbuch der rdmischen

Alterthumer, J Bde. (Leipzig, 1881-88). [The first three vols. the third in two parts are by Mommsen, under the title of Romisches Staatstrecht
(1887-8),
etc.
;

vol.
iii.

i.

pp.
i.

vol.

pt

246-257 pp. 340

foedus,
seq.
:

sponsio,

fetials,

foreign

relations

(declaration of war, treaties, etc.) ; pp. 590 seq. : treaties, hospitium, pax, ambassadors, relation of private to inter-

national law,
seq.
:

ius gentium-, foreign relations. The other four volumes


vi.

vol.

iii.

pt.

ii.

pp.

1147
iv.
v..

are

by
:

Marquardt,
etc.
;

and

under

the

title

of

Rb'mische

Staatsverwaltung
vol.
vi.

iv. vol. pp. 44 (1881-5), pp. 416 seq.: fetials; vol. lebender Romer (1886).]

seq.
vii.

treaties,

is

entitled

Das

Privat-

L. Mitteis
vol.
i.

Romisches Privatrecht

bis

auf die

T^eit

Diokletians y

(Leipzig, 1908). [Pp. 22-37 : conception and relationships of ius, fas, lex ; pp. 62-72: ius civile and ius gentium; pp. 125-135: on the loss of the rights conferred by the law of origin
(

u Heimatrecht "),
:

postliminium.]

T.

Mommsen
1894.)

Rb'mische Geschichte, 5 Bde. (Berlin, 1888-94). P. Dickson, 5 vols. London,. (English trans, by

W.

io
J.

MODERN WORKS ON VARIOUS


:

TOPICS

Muirhead Historical introduction to the private law of Rome y ed. H. Goudy (London, 1899). citizen and non-citizen; pp. 210-212 [Pp. 103 seq.
: :

international
pp.

recuperatio
:

pp.

225-232

ius

gentium

279-283
Miiller

ius naturale.~\

C. F.

W.

publica,

foedera

iuris fetialis

quibus Graeci commercia pacisque sanxerunt deque vocabulis Thucydidis et propriis, quoad ex Herodoti et
belli

De ritibus et ceremoniis

Xenophontis

libris cognosci
:

possunt (Regimont.

M. Muller-Jochmus
(Leipzig, 1848).

Geschichte

des Polkerrechts

1854). im Altertum

B. G. Niebuhr

: Romische Geschichte^ 3 Bde. (Berlin, 1873-4). (English trans. London, 1847-51.)


:

E. Osenbrueggen
1836).

De

jure

belli

et

pads Romanorum (Leipzig,

O.

Padelletti

Storia del diritto romano.


v.

Con

note di

P.

Cogliolo

(Firenze, 1886).

[Chaps,

and

vi.

"

Lo

stato e suoi rapporti esteriori

"

A. Pauly

(the foreign relationships of Rome).] : Real-Encyclopadie der classischen Alterthums-Whsenschaft (Stuttgart,

by G. Wissowa

(Stuttgart,

Vols. i. to 1844-1852). 1894-1905).

vi.

new

edition,

A. Pernice
Rechts

Parerga.

Beziehungen
(In

des offentlichen

romischen

zum
:

Privatrechte.

Zeitschrift
v.

A.

Stiftungfur Rechtsgeschichte, vol. Trattato di diritto Pierantoni

Savigny1884, pp. 1-135.) Internationale. Vol. i.

der

Prolegomena
peoples.]
<j. F.

[Pp. 71-348

Storia dalPantichita al 14.00 (Roma, 1881). on the international law of the ancient :

K. T.

Puchta: Cursus der Institutionem, 2 Bde. (Leipzig, 1875). Ptitter : Beitrage zur Folkerrechtsgeschichte und Wissen[Pp. 21-44
:

schaft (Leipzig, 1843).

outlines of ancient

law of

nations.]

M. Revon

De

romaine.

P existence du droit international sous la republique (In Revue g/nerale du droit , de la legislation, et de
Paris,

la jurisprudence,

vol.

xv.

1891,

pp.

394

seq.

pp.

504

seq.)

A. F. Rudorff: Romische
*G. Saredo
:

Rechtsgeschichte, 2 Bde. (Leipzig, 1857).

Saggio sulla storia del diritto internazionale

privato

(Firenze, 1873). [Sect. i. pp. 1-44 : "Relazioni di diritto internazionale privato presso gli antichi e specialmente presso i Romani."]

MODERN WORKS ON VARIOUS


F.
:

TOPICS

C. von Savigny System des heutigen rtimischen Rechts, 9 Bde. (Berlin, 1840-51). [Vol. i. app. i. : Jus naturale, gentium, civile ; vol. viii. 341 seq. : various matters relating to private
international

law

in

Rome.]

(French trans, by C. Guenoux, 8 torn. Paris, 1840-51 ; English trans, of vol. viii. by A. Guthrie.) Geschichte des rSmischen Rechts im Mitt elF. C. von Savigny alter, 7 Bde. (Heidelberg, 1834-51).
:

[Esp. vol.

i.

chap,

iii.]

(French

trans,

by C. Guenoux, 4

torn. Paris, 1839.)


i.

R. von Scala

Die

Studien des Polybios, vol.

(Stuttgart, 1890).

156-158; Anlage VI. pp. 299-324: "Das Volkerrecht bei Polybios" (The law of nations in the time of Polybius, and a consideration of his opinions and
[Esp. pp.

pronouncements thereon).] Zum internationalen Rechtsverkehr der R'omer. A. Schmidt


:

(In

der Savigny-Stiftung fur Rechtsgeschichte. Romantische Abtheilung, Bd. IX. 1888, pp. 122-143.)
Zeitschrift

G.

F.

Schoemann

Antiquitates
:

juris

publici

Graecorum

(Gryphiswaldiae, 1838).

on the Greek law of nations.] [Esp. pp. 364-377 G. F. Schoemann Griechische Alterthiimer. Vierte Auflage. Neu bearbeitet von J. H. Lipsius, 2 Bde. (Berlin, 1897-1902). (English trans, of vol. i. London, 1880; French trans,
:

of earlier edition, Paris, 1884-7.)


[Esp.
Sir
vol.
ii.

pp.

1-132:

"Die

internationalen

Verhaltnisse."]

William Smith
antiquities,

(ed.) : Dictionary vols. (London, 1891).

of Greek and

Roman

M.

Voigt Das lus naturale aequum et bonum und lus gentium der Rsmer, 4 Bde. (Leipzig, 1856-76). gentium-, vol. ii. 5: "Das 13 seq. : lus " [Vol. i. romisch-antike Volkerrecht ; lus gentium ; and in many
:

places throughout the entire work.]

M.

Voigt

Rtimische

Rechtsgeschichte,

3 Bde. (Leipzig,
ius
iii.

1892-

1902).

[Vol.
vol.
ii.

i.

15: "Das privatrechtliche 77: "Das ius gentium"; vol.

gentium"; 141: Ius

gentium, etc.]

E.

W.

G. Wachsmuth
ante

Graecos
1822).

: Jus gentium quale obtinuerit apud bellorum cum Persis gestorum initium (Kiliae,

12

WORKS ON PARTICULAR TOPICS


:

T. A. Walker

History of the law


:

of nations (Cambridge,

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vol.

liv.

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MODERN WRITERS DEALING WITH FEWER QUESTIONS, OR WITH SPECIAL TOPICS.


:

C. Accarias C.
I.

Precis de droit remain, 2 vols. (Paris, 1879, etc.)*


:

Ansaldi
tionibus

De

diis

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multarum gentium Romam evocatis ; sive apud Romanos deorum praesidum in oppugna-

urbium evocatione (Brixiae, 1743).

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19

Les

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20

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[Relationships, political and juridical, between the metroand the colonies, reciprocal rights and obligations.]
:

W.
J.

Rein

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:

Romer

(Leipzig, 1844).
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T. Reinaud
:

Relations politiques et commer dales de romain avec P Asie orientale (Paris, 1863).

empire

M. Revon

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pp.

62-105:

"Parbitrage international dans

Pantiquite."]

W.

Richter
1886).

Die Sklaverei

in griechischen Alter turner (Breslau,

22

WORKS ON PARTICULAR TOPICS


:

V. Rivalta

Diritto naturale

positive.

Saggio

storico

(Bologna,

1898). [Pp. 1-135

on the development of the conception of

law

in antiquity.]
:

A. Rodiere
peuples.

Du

latente (Tune

et de ^existence plus ou moins analogue a la sienne chez tous les (In Recueil de I* Academic de legislation de Toulouse^

prlteur peregrin
institution

1868,

t.

xviii.
:

pp. 339-351.)

M.

I.

G. Rogery

De

la condition des etrangers en droit

romain

(Montpellier, 1886). F. Roth : Ueber Sinn und Gebrauch des Wortes


berg, 1814).
J.

Bar bar (N urn-

Roulez

J.

: Considerations stir la condition politique des clients dans Pancienne Rome. (In Bulletins de FAcadtmie Royale de Bruxel/eSy t. vi. pt. i. pp. 304 seq.) Rubino : Untersuchungen uber romische Verfassung und

Geschichte (Cassel, 1 839). arbitrate pubblico E. de Ruggiero :

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[Esp.
pp.

Des
:

anciens gouvernemens federatifs (Paris,

1-270

authority, juridical

on the Amphictyons and their and otherwise ; and on other leagues.]


sur
les

G. de Sainte-Croix: Mfmoire
de litterature
tire's

meteques.

(In

Memoires
des

des

r/gistres
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de

F Academic Royale

Inscriptions et Belles
:

Lettres y

xlviii.

1808, pp. 176-207.)


1

V. Saverot Les recuperateurs (Dijon, 1885). F. C. von Savigny Vermischte Schriften, 5 vols.
:

(Berlin,

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t.

etc.).

H. Schenkl
:

De

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atticis.

(In

Wiener
2

Studien,

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" Der Mensch im 275-324 " Verhaltniss zu den Mitmenschen ; chap. vii. pp. 325" Das Verhaltniss der Gastfreundschaft."] 336
esp. vol.
ii.

[For the connection of juridical notions with


chap.
vi.

pp.

G. F. Schoemann
1856-8).

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academica,

vols.

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Schubert:

De proxenia

attica (Leipzig, 1881).

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WORKS ON PARTICULAR TOPICS


Simon
:

23

Des

asyles.

(In Histoire de PAcadlmie des Inscriptions et


1

Belles Lettres, Paris,

746.)

W.

Soltau
:

Die

Gliltigkeit der Plebiscite (Berlin, 1884).

E. Sonne

De

arbitris externis quos

Graeci adhibuerunt ad

lites

intestinas et peregrinas

componendas quaestiones epigraphicae

(Gottingen, 1888). [A critical study of a number of Greek inscriptions recording cases of arbitration, some of which relate to the settling of disputes in which aliens were involved.]

T. Sorgenfrey
1871).
in

De

vestigiis juris

gentium

Homerici (Lipsiae,

[On certain elements of the law of nations as it appears Homer but the evidence advanced is more of a philo;

than of a juridical nature.] De sociorum Atheniensium iudiciis (Miinster, 1881). Stahl Das griechische Burgerrecht (Freiburg i. B. 1892). E. Szanto [Grant and loss of Greek citizenship ; relationships of isopolity ; federal unions, and interchange of civic rights.]
logical
:

V. Thumser De civium Atheniensium muneribus (Wien, 1880). V. Thumser Untersuchungen uber die attischen Met'dken. (In Wiener Studien^ t. vii. pp. 45-68.)
: :

A.

Thurm
:

De Romanorum

legationibus

ad

exteras

nationes

missis (Lipsiae, 1883).

C. Tissot
F.

Les prox/nies grecques


:

et

de leur

analogie

avec

les

institutions consulaires modernes

(Dijon, 1863).
.

W.

Tittmann
:

Uber den Bund der Amphiktyonen

(Berlin,

G.
A.

1810). F. Tomasini

De
:

tesseris hospitalitatis

(Amstelodami
apud

Frisii,

1670). E. Turrettini

De

legationibus publicis

Athenienses

(Geneva, 1840).

Eine rechtsC. A. von Vangerow : Uber die Latini Juniani. geschichtliche Abhandlung (Marburg, 1833). A. Vaunois : De la notion du droit nature/ chez les Romains
(Paris, 1884).

M. M.
H.
S.

Voigt Voigt

Kdniglich (In Sachsischen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften^ Berlin, 1878.) A. Wallon : Histoire de Pesclavage dans f antiquity 3 torn.
:

Die XII. Tafeln (Leipzig, 1883). Ueber Clientel und Liber tinit at.

(Paris, 1879).

Waszynski

De

servis

Atheniensium publicis (Berlin, 1898).

24
S.

OTHER WRITINGS REFERRED TO


Waszynski
Athen.

Uber die rechtliche Stellung der Staatssklaven in (In Hermes. Zeitschrift fur classische Philologic, Berlin, 1899, Bd. xxxiv.)
:

E.

W. Weber
:

Demosthenis oratio in Aristocratem (Jena, 1845).


rebus publicis con-

H. Weil

tragoediarum graecarum cum junctions (Paris, 1844).


:

De

C. A. Weiske
1834).

Considerations historiques et diplomatique* sur

les

ambassades des Romains comparees aux modernes (Zwickau,

C. Welsing

De

inquilinorum

et

peregrinorum apud Athenienses

judiciis (Miinster, 1887).

[Mainly a commentary on various texts relating to questions of jurisdiction as to non-citizens in Athens, and to litigation in which they were involved.]
P. van Wetter : La condition civile des Strangers d'apres le droit romain. (Appendix to Laurent's Droit civil international,
ut sup. vol.
i.

pp. 667-678.)
:

U. von Wilamowitz-Mollendorff
Hermes.
xxii.

Demotika der Metoeken.


Philologie,

Zeitschrift fiir classische

(In Berlin, Bd.

M. Wlassak
G. Wolff
:

1887, pp. 107-128 ; pp. 211-259.) : Romische Processgesetze, 2 Pt. (Leipzig, 1888-91).
et

De primo inter Romanos (Neubrandenburg, 1843).

Carthaginienses foedere

V.

OTHER WRITERS REFERRED


:

TO.

A. de Barthelemy
1851).
I.

Manuel

de

numismatique ancienne (Paris,

Becker

J.

Bodin

Anecdota Graeca^ 3 vols. (Berolini, 1814-1821). Les six livres de la rfyublique (Lyon, 1580).
:

G.
H.

Boissier

La

religion

romaine tfAuguste aux Antonins, 2 torn.

(Paris, 1874).

Bonfils

Manuel de
: :

J. B. Bossuet
J.

B. Bossuet

droit international public (Paris, 1 905). Discours sur Fhistoire universelle (Paris, 1873). Sermon sur la justice. (In (Euvres.)

M.
M.

Breal and A. Bailly : Dictionnaire etymologique latin des mots (Paris 1882). Breal
latin.
:

Lemons

Sur Porigine
(In

des mots dtsignant

le

droit et la hi en
et

revue historique de droit fran^ais etranger, Paris, vol. vii. 1883, pp. 603-612.)

Nouvelle

OTHER WRITINGS REFERRED TO


P.

25

C.

oder Beitrlige zur griechischen Buttmann Lexilogus, Wort-erklarung ... 2 Bde. (Berlin, 1837-60).
: :

C. Calvo

Le
:

drolt international^

vols. (Paris,

1888-1896).

C. Carapanos

Dodone

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1878).

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Corssen

Kritische Beitrage

zur

lateinischen

Formenlehre,

(Leipzig, 1865).
et J. de Cujas (Cujacius) : Observatlonum xxviii. (Coloniae Agrippinae, 1598).

emendationum
2

libri

R. Dareste
i8 75 ).

Plaidoyers

civils

de

Dtmosthene,

vols.

(Paris,

L. Duguit
civils

Des

conflits

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forme

des actes

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:

J.

Dumont

Corps universe! diplomatique du droit des gens, 8 vols.

(La Haye, 1726-1731).

O. von Gerlach
G. V. Gravina
P.
:

Das

alte

Testament (Berlin, 1847).


civilis

Origines juris

(Lipsiae, 1708).

Guiraud Guiraud

La propriM fonciere

en Grece, jusqu'a la conquete

romaine (Paris, 1893).


P.
: Uimpot sur le capital a Athenes. deux mondes, Paris, Oct. 15, 1888.)
:

(In

Revue

des

F. P. G. Guizot
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1861

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A. Hartung
:

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)uellen

E. Helwing

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dargestellt

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G. Herder
heit,
:

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:

Sir

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text,

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: :

Kent

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26

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:

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Das
:

Volkerrecht systematisch

dargestellt

(Berlin,

1906). N. Machiavelli
Sir

Discorsi (Vinegia, 1532).


:

Henry Maine
:

Pillage communities

in

the East

and West
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(London, 1871). F. de Martens Trait/ de droit international^ 3 du russe par A. Leo, Paris, 1883.)

vols.

G. F. de Martens Precis du Verge (Paris, 1864).


:

droit des gens moderne, ed.

C.

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diplomatie au temps de

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M. H.
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E. Meier

B. Mispoulet

Opuscula academica (Halis Saxonum, 1863). Les institutions politiques des Romains ... 2
:

vols. (Paris, 1882-3).

C. de Montesquieu
S.

De P esprit

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5 torn. (Paris, 1816).

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:

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Commentaries upon international /aw, 4


etc.).

vols.

(London, 1885,
F. Ratzel
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Volkerkunde (Leipzig, 1885).


(Paris, 1896).

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:

della

Nubia ... 8
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torn. (Pisa, 1832-44).

A. Schaefer

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O.

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Sprachvergleichung

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E. Speck

Handelsgeschichte des Altertums.

3 vols. in 5 parts.

(Leipzig, 1901-1906.)

[Detailed information relating to many matters arising out of the commercial relationships of ancient States.]
J.

Westlake

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R. Zouche

Juris et judicii fecialis sive juris inter gentes et quaestionum de eodem explicatio (Oxford, 1650).
:

CHAPTER

THE GREEK CITY-STATE SYSTEM


IT has not infrequently been said that international law, Denial of th< public as well as private, that is, international law usually andenUaw nations, recognized, admitted, or insisted on as such in the strict
sense of the term, is a creation of the modern States, and of the modern States alone and that the ancient peoples, including the Hellenic and the Italic races, had no clear conception of a true law of nations. But such an attitude implies erroneous preconceptions, The errors m and indicates a blindness to historic perspective. In the comparison or contrast of races at different epochs in the world's history, or at different stages of development,
;

generalities

and careless mind. somewhere in the

prove only too seductive to the unthinking That which exists now has its roots

distant past ; sometimes, indeed, the to the past presents investigator more than mere roots of rudimentary development ; in truth, it occasionally offers a rich efflorescence of complex organisms, whose
significance may perhaps not be at once obvious owing to the different nature of the later stages of evolution, and the different point of view fostered by constant

contact therewith.

Nowadays, law, whether international or municipal,


is

Modern law
611

universally regarded as possessing a positive character, and as established by the general agreement of States or

likeness!

may be. In the past the rules of the law of nations as then existing were closely allied with religious and moral codes, and regarded as inevitable consequences thereof. The positive aspect and the
citizens, as the case

28

THE AUTONOMOUS CITY-STATE

principle of consensus were implicit, just as the less is contained in the greater. Thus our modern conceptions
substantially obtained then ; modern principles and conclusions were then just as forcibly insisted on, the main

difference being that now our rules mostly flow from explicit agreement as representing the major premise, whereas in antiquity rules of law were not only referred

Difference be-

tween them.

agreement as their source, but largely to and morality as necessarily dictating an implicit religion or acceptance agreement ; that is, the source of the sanction implied was sought merely further back. In spite of such fundamental likenesses, however, there are, of course, many important differences between the old and the new systems, and entire conceptions of law, inasmuch as there are differences in the character of the times, in the general outlook on life, in the ideals entertained, in the circumstances of private and civic life, in the conception of State, in the notions of the relationship between the individual and the State, and, what is of extreme importance, the difference in the view entertained as to human equality and brotherhood. The specific details of evidence showing the existence of a true international law in Greece and Rome will be At present it will be of advantage to dealt with later. refer briefly to some of the differences just indicated. What is particularly ascribed to Greece or to Rome may be regarded as concerning the other to a greater or
lesser extent, unless the contrary distinctly appears.

to the act of

In Greece

city-commonwealth.

In the Hellenic world, where the science of politics advanced so rapidly, we have a remarkable illustration of the ancient conception of the State as a citycommonwealth. The State was co-extensive with the city The city-state was an organized community jj TTO'XI?. and avrovoiuua, independence, autonomy, enjoying its had walled Each within a town. city dwelling usually but not unnecessurrounding territory, large enough to allow of the convenient assembly of sarily extensive its free citizens, for the purpose of exercising the rights and discharging the obligations incidental to citizenship.

CITY-STATES
Thus
large as to citizens to

AND GREEK CIRCLE


its

29

Aristotle insisted that a State should not be so

make

it

impossible or difficult for


1

free

have ready access to each other, and be


Tribal groupings and village

acquainted with one another. Such organization is undoubtedly derived from the ... -11 11 more primitive tribal groupings common to all the
i

communities,

Indeed, grouppeoples constituting the Aryan family. confined to members of of kind are not this strictly ings the Hellenic Athens in this family. States, Amongst wont to trace her to the early was greatness particular 2 or o-vvoucurfjios 3 of small village association a-vvoiKia-tg communities. In the first place, a citizen was a member
of, and closely associated with, his city-commonwealth, the interests of which were supreme as regards other

Secondly, he was a member of the Hellenic race, constituting, as regards nonHellenes, an exclusive circle. Accordingly he had a Double and twofold allegiance predominantly to his ^e Greek. primarily in to the first, and subservience city, secondarily always to the various other members of the Greek stock. Thus

Greek city-commonwealths.

days and to the time of the Macedonian conquest when, after the battle of Chaeronea, 338 B.C., Philip became master of Greece, it consisted of a large number of independent and sovereign cities, jealous of each other's advancement in power and dominion, and But sovereignty and constantly astir with dissension. seemed at times independence ready to sacrifice themselves in greater or lesser measure by the formation of leagues and combinations to repel the non-Hellenic/ invader. It must, however, be admitted that such readiness was generally of momentary duration. Whatever efforts were made to effect a real union were invariably defeated either by the natural tendency of the several constituent States to revert to a condition of
in its great
j

exclusiveness, or, in some cases relating to the more powerful members, to attain a position of predominance.
1

Politics, vii. 4.
3

13.

*Cf. Thucydides,

ii.

15.

Cf. Polybius, iv. 33. 7.

30
The
Hellenic

CITY-STATES

AND GREEK CIRCLE

The Greek
d fhf Roma n
difference.

" Les Grecs n'ont jamais eu la pense d'tendre le monde leur ideal n'est pas la domination sur leur monarchic universelle, mais la citeV' 1 This is a remarkideal.
:

Perfection within the circle, rather than extension of empire or territorial aggrandisement, was the Greek

able contrast to the

Roman

policy.

To

the

Greek the

Heiienicrace
1

superiority !

Hellenic
lty

self-sufficient, it was considered an adequate sphere for the realization of his ideals, for the cherishing of metaphysical abstractions, for the worship of the beautiful, for the attainment of philosophic culture. The Roman, no less patriotic, chafed against territorial limitations, and thirsted for constant expansion of power and rule. For the Greek, intensity of the inner life and development was the aim ; for the Roman, extension of the outer circle of life and material supremacy (of which aspiration towards universal dominion is an inevitable corollary) formed the object to be attained. The Greek race, like many other races in antiquity, in their turn, assumed its superiority to all other peoples, who were looked upon as barbarians, and were regarded as having been ordained and intended by nature to be the slaves of the Greeks ; and the adoption of any method to carry out this intention, be it of a forcible or of a deceitful nature, was, it was assumed, justifiable in the eyes of the gods. 2 To be within the Hellenic
circle
j

mother-country was

common
religion.

was to share in the common religion ; and to share n ^he Greek religion was if so facto to be placed within the Greek pale. Though the Greeks spoke a common in the common games, consulted the took part language, same oracles, and worshipped the gods in common, yet their separation into independent city-states rendered Law of nations possible the evolution of law governing the relationships evolution t ^ ^ c between them in their capacity or sovereign powers. possible. The position of such autonomous communities cannot be said to be fundamentally different from that, say, of the European States from the point of view of the
^.i
y

F. Laurent,

Etudes sur Phistoire de rhumanlte.

Histoire
vol.

du droit
ii.

des gens et des relations Internationales


2

(Gand, 1850-1870),

p. 3.

Cf. the opinion of Aristotle, in his Politics, c. viii.

THE CIRCLE AND PEOPLES OUTSIDE


It is

31

operativeness and applicability of an international law. true that the intrinsic kinship of the Greeks stamps

them as practically one nation, even though subdivided But international law reinto different municipalities. the existence of independent for its development quires
in political communities, and not necessarily difference The Greek race, language, religion, or anything else. States were in close proximity to each other ; but that only stimulated each to guard the more assiduously and To apply to the law regulatjealously its sovereignty.

Existence of

^unities.

law

ing their mutual relationships the epithet intermunicipal is not in reality tantamount to disclaiming the true There are those international character of such law.

modernism," neglect, or who, being so obsessed by even fail to see, the great indebtedness of modern
nations to the ancient.
international law
is

"

insist, for example, that of modern growth, whilst entirely

To

relationships category " law is to allow ourselves to be of " intermunicipal stultified by mere terminology and become slaves to

relegating

Greek

interstatal

to the

mere formalism. No doubt the Greeks sometimes acted or spoke as though the law was applicable only to themselves and not to barbarians ; but it will be shown below in detail what a large body of the law was extended to all alike. And even if it were not so extended and applied to the Hellenes alone, its international character would still remain. We do not regard our modern law of nations to be divested of its international character simply because we do not include uncivilized races savages,
in the family of nations. Further, then as the conduct of a now, people indicating a refusal to avail itself of the rights conferred by such law and

Extension of ns tey ndThl

Greek P ale

barbarians

perform the corresponding obligations thereby imposed, was ipso facto a deliberate self-elimination from the civitas gentium ; so that other nations recognized no duties towards it, either in time of peace or in time of war. Was the law It has been asserted and frequently repeated by applied only to * ' those bound by various writers, and, it is not too much to say, without treaty?
,
.

32

SOVEREIGNTY AND EXCLUSIVENESS

their having thoroughly investigated the facts that only those bound by an express compact owed duties towards each other, that the evanrovSoi, that is, practically, the signatories to the treaty, were alone to benefit by the provisions of the law, whilst the e/co-7roi/&><, those not

parties thereto,

were virtually outlaws. 1


in the following

But

it

will

be

abundantly shown from being true.


Existence of

pages that this

is far

, <rr autonomous states; marks different political constitutions.

The Greek

rf

sovereignty.

In one city-state, for ms ^ance) sovereignty was vested in a sole individual, a tyrant, whose functions and attributes varied at different times, in different places, and according to the exigency of circumstances ; in another, it was vested in constitutional monarchy ; in a third, the supreme power was exercised by an oligarchy ; whilst in a fourth it was in the hands of a democracy, in the strict sense of the term, where every free citizen had the right to an equal vote in the assembly, in all transactions relating either to the executive or to the legislative aspects of the government, e.g. in the election of magistrates, in the enactment of laws, in the ratification of treaties, in the declaration of war, or the conclusion of peace. Notwithstanding these wide differences in the internal political constitution, and the marked preference for, and devotion to, this or that polity, it was universally recognized in Hellas that each State, regardless of size or power, had, by virtue of its being a regularly organized community, the right of absolute autonomy, and of regulating its diplomatic relationships with the other independent States by means of its own ambassadors. 2

state-system v-i

offers
T

many examples

of
r

Exciusiveness.

Patriotism and keen jealousy of foreign interference occasioned mutual distrust and an unbending spirit of
1

E.g.
2

H. Wheaton,

to p. 5, referring Cf. E. A.

History of the Law of Nations Mitford, History of Greece, vol. i.

(New York,
c,

1845),

15,
In

7.

Italy

Freeman, History of federal Government (London, 1893), pp. 35-6.

Greece and

THEORY AND PRACTICE

33

and opposition, which frequently led to keen strife obstinate wars. Thus, a rigid exclusiveness prevailed. Citizenship was at first very rarely bestowed on subjects
Df other States, who, though fellow-Greeks, were considered aliens in the full legal and political sense of the

The characteristic note of each city was competterm. It was ence and self-sufficiency. regarded as possessing
an adequate number of citizens capable of satisfying all their national needs, and of attaining to the city's ideal, whether from the political or from the economic point of view. 1 The distinction, however, between the theory of the Buttheorytobe speculative thinker and the actual facts must be care- frofJTactuaf " To P ractice regard the political speculations fully recognized. of Plato and Aristotle as fully representing the tone of the odes of political thought in Greece is like regarding Pindar as a fair expression of the waves of emotion that swayed the mixed rabble at the Olympian and Isthmian
11
-

Yet the philosopher, the theorizer, influenced games." the statesman and the legislator more in Greece than elsewhere. It could scarcely have been otherwise, as the Hellenic temperament was marked by an untiring
curiosity
at

apply the intellect,

and yearning to experience the unknown, to once in practice the abstract constructions of

so that we find in Greece, despite the brief comparatively period of time, a body of coherent doctrine in almost every department of knowledge,

successive complete bodies of legislation, if not fully developed systems of law, which, unlike the Roman and the English, for example, can dispense with the

supplemented by a mass of convenNo actual code of laws has been left to us Greece. This was scarcely possible in view by of the revolutionary spirit of her people, their uncomnecessity of being tions and fictions.

characteristics
of

promising disposition, their obstinate unwillingness to


1

Cf. Plato, Repub.


viii. 4. 7.

ii.

p.

369 B

Aristotle, Oecon.

i.

Polit.

iii.

5.

14;
2

A.

H.

J.

Greenidge,
I,

Handbook of Greek Constitutional History


2.

(London, 1896), pp.

34

EXCLUSIVENESS

AND RIVALRY

make allowances and

Political unity in Greece

concessions, a spirit born of, and fostered by, a devotion to strict logical consistency, a was ultimately to prove their undoing. spirit that The intense patriotism of the Greeks promoted an
attitude of civic seclusion.

impossible.

The

spirit

of separateness,

of isolation made

political

unity impossible.

To

the

The
b'fe

Greek's
to

bound

his city.

Greek, his State, his fatherland was no vapid abstraction, but a living reality. He was bound to it by an almost indissoluble tie he was ready to give up his life for it, since he was indebted to it for his privileges, for
;

his dignity, for his very existence ; so that, as selfdevotion to his city's welfare was the supreme virtue,

banishment was the extreme penalty. To be disthe was to be disowned city by by his gods. In time, no doubt, there was manifested a certain relaxation in these stringent beliefs ; but the main underlying conceptions were retained even at the latest stages of
inherited

Greek

history.

Even

in regard to the colonial system,

the desire for

autonomy and separateness was every-

where manifested. city, was regarded

Though

a colony, established

by

as standing in the relation of child to parent, yet the colonizing group, whilst usually recognizing certain moral obligations due to the mother-state,
at

once asserted
:

its

political

independence.

Causes of the
spirit

of

exclusiveness.

Many causes contributed to produce this spirit of exclusiveness the physical configuration of the country, making intercourse difficult ; the existence of certain
differences operating strongly in spite of the common for example, differences in foundations of Greek life,
religion,
in

and gods, in legal codes, in currency, and measures, in the calendar, and, most weights of all causes, differences in political constisignificant 2 tution. As Demosthenes says, the democratic republics
festivals,

peuples, mais
2
OLV

" La nature physique a sans nul doute quelque action sur 1'histoire des les croyances de 1'homme en ont une bien plus puissante" (Fustel de Coulanges, La cite antique, Paris, 1900, pp. 238, 239).
1

Pro

Rhod.

II/oos

/xv yap

eXtvOtpovs
OTTOTC
fio

6Was

ov

eiprjvrjv

vficis

iroir)<ra.(r6ai

vo/xtu),

rryv

<iAiav

d<r<aA.TJ vo/xtfw.

DIFFERENCES AMONGST GREEKS


contend

35

with each other for power, for glory, but the oligarchies they struggle for liberty, for igainst with free peoples peace and :heir very existence ;
are
attainable,

equality
^veil-nigh

with
that

narmony

impossible, between the

so

oligarchic governments there can never be


for

passion

passion to predominate.

Thus we

equality and the get a constant and

Constant

uncompromising hostility between Athens and Sparta, the one the most powerful and frequently chosen leader of the democracies, the other that of the aristocracies. Even in the face of the common enemy, Philip of Macedon, they were actually unable to effect an amicable
union.

Just as expatriation

is

usually prohibited, often

under pain of death, not only in Sparta, but in republics like Argos, 1 legitimate marriage (eiriya^la) between citizens of different States is impossible, in the absence of a special convention ; 2 the issue of such forbidden marriage would be regarded as illegitimate, and as 3 possessing no rights of citizenship. In this unceasing rivalry, ties of kinship were dis- Differences regarded, and minor differences in character or tempera- a^f^S

ment became

intensified.

Theophrastus emphasizes the


4

Greeks

existence of such differences among the Greeks. Sometimes the general failings or peculiarities of the citizens of this or that city are held up to scorn by
are
1

writers or orators, as, for example, when the Boeotians mocked by the comic poets for their dulness and
Cf. Ovid,

Me tarn.

xv.

29

"...
Poenaque mors
-

prohibent discedere

leges,

posita est patriam

mutare volenti."

Cf.
;

Lysias,

51

Demosth. Pro Corona, 91.

to the

Roman

antlqua reipubllcae forma, 3 ; Isocrates, Plataicus, As to similar provisions relating ius connubii, cf. Gaius, Ins fit. i. 67 ; Ulpian, Reg. v. 4 ;
;

De

Livy, xxxviii. 36
3
.
.
.

xliii. 3.
iii.

Cf. Pollux, Qnomasticon,


6's

21

vo@o<s 6

av

atrTTjs yevr/Ttu
xiii.

voOov

?vcu (a

Deipnosophistae 1
Pericles, 37.
4

38);

Demosth.

K fvr)s f) TraAAcuaSos law cited by Athenaeus, In Neaeram, 16 ; Plutarch,

See the preface to his Characters


TOL^LV rCtv T/OOTTWV

o-v/x/Se/J^Kev ^/xiv oi5 ri)v

avryv

LEAGUES AND ASSOCIATIONS


Sometimes a great pride and vanity
gluttony.
1

city as to
;

excellent qualities of others Pindar was fined by his

was elated with such become blind to th as, for example, wher

Theban

countrymen

foi

designating the Athenians "the ornament and ramparl of Greece," 2 but Athens repaid him a double sum erected a statue to him, and declared him the guesl of the Republic. 3
Frequent attempts at effecting a
union.

From
was
felt.

time to time, however, a longing for union


It

showed

itself

first

in

the

interests

o;

religion,

when

leagues and associations were established

The Amphictyonic league.

between neighbouring cities for the protection or enrichment of some famous shrine lying in their midst. Of such associations the Amphictyonic league was the most notable. It grouped itself in turn about the temple of Apollo at Delphi, and about that of Demeter Amphictyonis at Thermopylae, and comprised, at one time, most of the States of Central Greece, and, in its later epoch, several of the Dorian States of the 4 The fulfilment of the various obligaPeloponnesus. tions was enforced by the Amphictyonic Council, which
incidentally established rules prescribing rights and Other associations duties of a non-religious character.

Other
associations.

and defence were occasionally were established, but they imperfect and transitory. Thus the idea of Themistocles to consolidate Greece came to nothing ; and a similar project of Pericles, on the eve of the Peloponnesian war, had it been realized, might have altered the course of Greek He had issued a decree to the effect that history. all Greek towns, whether in Europe or in Asia, should be invited to send representatives to a general assembly at Athens, to deliberate on the restoration of temples
of cities for mutual
profit
1

Cf.

Eubul. ap. Athen.

x.
.

1 1
.

ov 7rA?j/>i /3porun>,

ov/c

dyaBov
2

and again,
vi.

oXovs Tpa\^\ov<s.

Pindar, Olymp.

147 j^.
Isocrates,

3 4

Aeschines, Eput.

4. ;

De permut.
anciens

166.
gouvernements federates

See

G. de Sainte-Croix,
c.

<Des

(Paris, 1798),

vii.

ASSOCIATIONS
to the

AND HEGEMONY

37

destroyed by the barbarians, on the sacrifices vowed gods in connection with the Persian wars, and on

the best means of assuring to all freedom and security But of navigation, and of establishing general peace. this proposal came to nothing owing to Sparta's jealousy C j L ^.u /\*U of Athens, and her apprehension that an Athenian
'

Confedera-

and hegemony,
tions

hegemony might

Indeed the temporary conup proceeded under the leaderif not virtual ship, supremacy, of one or other of Aristocracies and demothe more powerful States. cracies found it impossible to be allied on a footing
result.

federations that were set

of

real

equality
It
its

the

diversity
in

Dorian and Ionian elements


eliminated.

occasioned by the Hellas could not be

and occupy
union.

was, in truth, easier to subjugate a city territory, than to retain it in friendly

The Greeks as Greeks cherished aspirations for unity, The Greeks as but as citizens their constant aim was decentralization ; ^Gr^kTas and the claims of citizenship invariably triumphed over Jj^!^ tof those of kinship. Although their genius was so versa- states,
tile,

for

its

and, in a sense, cosmopolitan, they found free scope exercise within the circumscribed limits of their
city-states.

respective

They

constructed

no

great

works of engineering skill, as the Romans had done. Their concern was with the conquest of the intellectual dominions, rather than with the establishment of territorial empire. Their nature is characterized by TO 2 the love of knowledge as a contrast, for <*Ao,ua0e9 example, to the love of wealth attributed to the Phoenicians and Egyptians. They may have proved incapable of political unity, but they were possessed of that intellectual unity which marks the true civilization
of a people. 3 The mission of Athens, as conceived by ancient The mission of Athens writers, is not merely to open men's eyes to light and
-

Plut. Pericl. 17.


Cf.

2
cit.

Plato, Repub. iv.


ii.

Laurent, op. p. ils ont eu 1'unite intellectuelle qui constitue tion d'un peuple."
:

F.

vol.

18

435 E. "Si 1'unitl politique


la civilisa-

leur a

manque,

HELLENIC INSTABILITY
beauty, but to disseminate amongst wretched humanit 1 the nourishing fruit of the earth, to teach them o " the bounteous gifts of Ceres. Athens showe
.
. .

Hellenic

temperament
its capriciousness.

having taught use of running water, or permission to light his fire at the hearth of his neighbour." 3 But the Hellenic temperament was in many respects changeable and capricious ; and the practices of Greeks

gods that when sh became the mistress of these great blessings [i.e. the gift of the Earth, and also mystic rites] she did not grudg them to the rest of the world, but shared her advantage She is further represented as having show with all." 2 the Greeks high examples of charity and consideratioi for and as them " not to refuse
such love for
as well as for the

men

others,

any one

the

in his

frequently diverged far from their doctrines. Polybius, comparison of the Roman Republic with other
States

attained

and constitutions, points out that Athens having its highest perfection under Themistocles,
.
.

suffered a rapid decline afterwards owing to the fundaSia mental instability of the Athenian disposition
.

rtjv

ava)/ma\iav

rtjg

(pva-eco^.

For the Athenian demus,


in
aei

continues Polybius, is always ship without a commander,


Srj/uiov

position of a ydp TTOTC rov

the

7rapa7r\^(7iov

elvai crvjuL/Saivei TOI$ a<

its

discord

and quarrels

present

sorry

spectacle to observers ; for in Athens, as in Thebes, a mob manages everything on its own unfettered
4

impulse.
Ancient view as to Spartan
duplicity.

As

to Sparta, her duplicity, in the view of ancient


is

writers,

proverbial.
. . .

Athens often accused her

rival

of thinking one thing and saying another, as Herodotus aXXa (fipoveovTow KOI aXXa Xeyovrcov ; 5 and remarks Euripides puts into the mouth of Andromache, in her
1

Lucretius,

De

rerum

nat. vi.
:

seq.
17

Isocrat. Panegyr.

29

OVTO>?

?roA,ts

^/zwv ov povov
yevofjievrj Tcxrovrdiv

d\Xa
OVK
3

KCU <f>L\av6pu>7ros ecr^cv, wore Kvpca


TOLS CtAAotS, dAA' <OV
4

<f>@6vr}(T

Plut. Cimon, 10.

Polyb.

vi.

44.

ix.

53.

EXTERNAL POLICY OF GREEKS


:

39

denunciation of Menelaus, expressions of severe cen" sure ye inhabitants of Sparta, most hated of mortals among all men, crafty in counsel, kings of liars, concocters of evil plots, crooked and thinking nothing soundly, but all things tortuously, unjustly are Are ye not detected . . ye prosperous in Greece. the one with ever tongue but thinking thing speaking

another ?"

external policy of the Greeks in general was extremely variable. In the democracies, the foreign policy

The

External policy

and conscientious the greater the the sophists in the assemblies and the power acquired by In aristocracies like Sparta, an external policy, courts.

became the

less stable

at least in a positive sense,

at

can scarcely be said to exist had Lycurgus prohibited not only commercial Attitude to J o aliens in the f 9 11 intercourse with foreigners, but navigation generally ; 3 aristocracies, e -& s P arta 4 foreigners were expelled, and Spartans were forbidden to go abroad. Later, the foreign trade was mainly in the hands of the perioed. Sparta's military ideal was As inconsistent with foreign commercial relationships. " Lacdmone 6tait une arme"e remarks Montesquieu "5
all.
i

Her institutions, her entretenue par des paysans poetry, her religion all conduced to promote the Plato thus makes an Athenian address military spirit. a Spartan "By your institutions you resemble soldiers in a camp rather than citizens in a city." 6
:

Eurip. Androm.
(5

466

seq.

(445

seq. t

ed.

Nauck)

TTOCTtV

dvOptoTTOKTlV t\6l(TTQl fipOTlOV


ei/oiKoi,

SoAta /JovAeirnJ/oia,
{Jir}-)^avoppd(f)Oi

a.voiKT<s y

KOLKIOV,

KovStv vyus,

aAAa

Trav

ov Aeyovres
'

aAAa

fj.v

CtAA'
8

Plut. Lycurg. 9.

Plut. Ins fit, Lacon. 42.

4
5 6

Plut. Lycurg.

27

lustit.

Lacon. 19.
1

De ? esprit
Laws,
ii.

des his, ixiii.


E
:
.

7.

666

a-rparoTrcSov

yap TroXirtiav

CXCTC,

aAA OVK

40
Antipathy
1161

ATTITUDE TO FOREIGNERS
There was everywhere and
at all times a greater or

general?

lesser antipathy to foreigners, to dwellers outside the Greek circle. 1 The citizens of one city regarded those

"Barbarians."

of another as aliens in the narrower political sense ; but non-Hellenes were considered barbarians, aliens not only in the political sense, but also in the intellectual and moral, and what is still more important, in the ethnic and religious sense. Greek patriotism had always the religious motive underlying it. Thucydides frequently refers to the gods and temples common to the Hellenes ra iepa TO. KOLVOL r^? "EXXa^o?,2 Oeovs TOV? 3 and when Aristoo/xo/3ft>/u/ov9 Kal KOIVOVS TWV 'EXX?ji'a>v ;

phanes urges his countrymen to cease their intestine struggles, he makes use of such phraseology as this
:
.

o? /xias

ye xpvi/3o<s

the Persians offered the Athenians their alliance, the reply, as drawn up by Aristides, was to the following " There is not effect enough gold on the earth, no land fine or rich enough, nothing whatever which can induce us to take the part of the Medes to reduce
:

When

Greece to slavery. The Hellenic race being of one the same blood, speaking language, having the same gods, temples, sacrifices, customs, and usages, it would be shameful of Athenians to betray it." 5
.
. .

Barbarians
e

0n *

for Savery.

Thus Aristotle held that barbarians were destined by A> tyaviv ol nature to be the slaves of the Greeks " TroirjTcu "EXX^i/a? ap-^eiv CMOS" a>? rauro fiappdpwv
: ' :

Q And originally (not to /3dp/3apov KOI $ov\ov ov. into enter here any distinctions which will be later set

(pva-ei

Cf. Dion. Hal.

i.

31

iv.

25.

iii.

58.

iii.

59;

v.

18.

*Lysistrata, 1130-1.
5

Herodot.

viii.

144
KOL

on

ovre.

\pwos

lorn y>}s ovSapoOt TOO-OVTOS,

'EXXryvt/cov tbv o/xat/xov re /cat 6/xoyXaxrcro^, KCU Oewv ISpvfiard KOIVOL KOI Ovcricu, ijOfd T ojUOT/ooTra. TWV Trpoooras yi>(r&aL
'

OVK av v
i.

\OL.
i.

Cf. Plut.
5.

Amtld.

IO.

ALIENS

AND HOSTILITY THEORY

41

forth) with the Romans as well as with the Greeks, the expressions for stranger, barbarian, and enemy were

sometimes used as synonymous. At the assembly of the Aetolians (called the Panaetolium) one of Philip's ambassadors, in the course of a speech directed against
" With foreigners, with barbarians, all Greeks have and ever will have eternal war, which is always the same, and not from causes which change with the times." 1 But different sentiments were not infrequently expressed as to the virtue and desirability of equality. Thus Jocasta, addressing her son Eteocles, says " It is nobler, my son, to honour equality, which ever links friends with friends, and States with States, and allies with allies ; for equality is sanctioned by law among men." 2 And so there were from time to time protests
:

foreigners

getting

footing

in

the

country,

said

Aspirations
to equallty
-

against slavery. There is to be found a similar antagonism to people Antagonism outside the pale, in every part of the ancient world, f^yond^he Thus in China there was a bond of sympathy between

the various constituent States, but active hostility against the " barbarians." For example, in the middle of the

seventh century, B.C., when " the Tartars of the northwest presented themselves at the court of Tsin, requesting a treaty of peace and amity, and humbly offering to submit to be treated as vassals of the more enlightened ' Power, Amity/ exclaimed the prince, what do they know of amity ? The barbarous savages Give them war as the portion due to our natural enemies.'" 3
'
!

eritque ; natura mutabilibus causis hostes sunt."


2

Livy, xxxi. 27 Graecis bellum est


:

"

cum

alienigenis,

cum

barbaris aeternum omnibus enim quae perpetua est, non

Eurip. Phoeniss. 536

seq.

KLVO KaiOV, T6KVOV,


aet

Cf. Eurip. Fragm.


8

W.

TO yap urov v6fj.ifj.ov av#/>a>7rots 60 ; Thespis, Fragm. 6. A. P. Martin, "Traces of international law in Ancient China"

in International Review,

New

York,

vol. xiv.

(1883),

p.

69.

42
Interest of the State the supreme consideration.

THE STATE AND THE INDIVIDUAL


The
interest of the State

was everywhere the supreme theory was that the citizens existed for the State ; their lives and fortunes were to be at its absolute disposal ; even the incidents and concerns of private life were not to be free from its dominance; that citizenship entirely absorbed individuality. This
consideration.

The

Sparta.

conception in its most rigorous form prevailed in In actual life, however, the theory was never

The individual was never to this extent fully realized. in the State. was never merely a civic merged

He

automaton.

There were always

relaxations in the theo-

retical relationship

between the State and the individual.

There were always opposed to this abstraction a variety of facts to which most modern writers, apparently led

away by the speculative imaginings of the ancient


philosphers, have failed to give adequate consideration. State interest may be actually of supreme moment, and

yet not to the extent of annihilating the subject's indiThe pride of nationality or citizenship was viduality. never really set above individual virtue. "It is not

your city which ennobles your race, ennoble your city by good actions." 1
1

it

is

you who

Philemon, Fragm.

ed.

Didot

TroAis erou TO yci/os

7roit, (rv 8'

vyeviei<$ TYJV TTO\LV

CHAPTER

II
-

GREEK CONCEPTION OF LAW. TO WHAT EXTENT THE GREEKS RECOGNIZED AN INTERNATIONAL

LAW
ANCIENT law is an embodiment of categorical commands without assigning reasons therefor. It is an imposition of unquestioned sovereign authority which sees no
necessity for elucidation
General nature of ancient law -

by argument or comment

in

preambles or otherwise ; and this sovereign authority In the early ages, law ultimately lies with the gods. and religion were so closely interwoven that it is difficult to say where religion ends and law begins. Indeed, law is religion as applied to the social, civic. Law and re and political life. To commit an infraction of the law lglon is to commit an offence against the gods, who must be For the gods are deemed to be then duly appeased. Thus the themselves the originators of the laws. Lacedaemonians regarded Apollo, not Lycurgus, as their real law-giver ; the Cretans attributed their laws to Jupiter, not to Minos. Again the Romans believed that Numa had written simply at the dictation of the goddess Egeria, whilst the Etruscans derived their legis'

lation

from Tages. But the gods are not always consistent, often given to caprice and self-contradiction.

they are TheS ancient wa

They

are

'

fons istu.

regarded as unchanging in themselves, though their behests often vary with the varying circumstances and ideals of their devotees. However, their seemingly superseded commands are not in reality abrogated ; they remain side by side with the new or modified

44
Mere addition dispositions. of new laws
rather than

RELIGION AND

LAW

abrogation.

Complete nullification would be a stigma, an acknowledgment of imperfect wisdom. involving Thus, in the code of Manu the earlier law establishes the right of primogeniture later, another law prescribes equal division amongst the sons, without necessarily cancelling the previous provision. Again, Solon's code did not of necessity abolish Draco's ; there may have been in the later law a tacit assumption of the nonapplicability of the Draconian legislation, but there was
;

no formal

act indicating its abrogation. 1 In every case to serve the laws is, as Plato insists, to

serve the gods. 2


as laying

In the Crito^ Socrates

is

represented
it

down

his life because the laws

demand

of

3 disobedience would be sacrilege. ; Ihering, discoursing on the influence of religion on law, terms them twin companions, which, in their early stages of evolution, are in constant communion aiding and " Recht und supplementing one another ; Religion sind ein Zwillingspaar, das iiberall, wohin wir in der

him

Geschichte blicken, seine Kinderjahre in innigster Gemeinschaft verbringt, sich gegenseitig helfend und erganFor a long time did laws retain their sacred zend." In Rome it was not thought sufficient for character. the unanimous decision of the people to make a law ; it was necessary for the pontiffs to give their approval, and for the augurs to attest that the gods were propitious respecting the proposed law.
Cf. Andocides, De my sterns, 83 7roAiTevT0ai 'AOvjvaiov? /card ra
1
:

As Dionysius
&j/xa>,

says

"ESo^e TW
Trar/ota,

Twra/uvbs

vo/xots Se

xPW^ aL

SoAwvos,

\pfj(r6ai Se KOL rots A/XXKOVTOS #oyAO?s, oT&irep e^/aw/xe^a See also Pollux, ix. 6 1 ; Demosth. In Leptinem y ev T<> irpoo-Otv XP V(P*
. . .

158; In Evergum, 71. Aulus Gellius thus comments on the disuse of the Draconian code: "Draconis leges, quoniam videbantur acerbiores,

non decreto
vi.

iussoque, sed tacito illiteratoque Atheniensium

consensu, obliteratae sunt


2

"

(xi.

8).

Laws,
Geist

762

E.

des

romischen

Rechts,

vol.

i.

pp. 256 seq.\

cf.

Fustel de

Coulanges, La
4 ix.

cite antique,

passim.

41

rots
K<xi

TT}S

/?ovA^s

/xf <j>paTpiCLKa<s \pir)<$>o<f>opi(L<s e'Set Trpoj3ov\V(rafj,vr)s TOV irXiijOovs Kara (ftpdrpas ras

ATHENIAN RELIGIOUSNESS
4C

45

In order to render the resolutions taken in the assemblies of the curiae valid, it was necessary that the senate should make the previous order, and that

On Republic" Republic did this procedure fall into desuetude. one occasion when the tribunes of the plebs proposed asp^ctfends the adoption of a law passed by an assembly of the tribes, to disappear. " a patrician said to them What, then, is there you can now pretend to take part in that requires sacrifices and holy rites, to which the law appertains?" 1 Fustel Relation de Coulanges thus sums up the relationship between anSenUaw " Chez les Grecs et chez les and reli g ion ancient law and religion
:
-

the people voting in their curiae should confirm it, and that, besides both these proceedings, the heavenly signs and auspices should not oppose it." Only with the

During
1

Remains, comme chez les Hindous, la loi fut d'abord une partie de la religion. Les anciens codes des cits etaient un ensemble de rites, de prescriptions liturgiques, de prires, en meme temps que de dispositions legislatives. Les regies du droit de propriete et du droit de succession y Etaient ^parses au milieu des regies relatives aux sacrifices, a la sepulture et au culte des morts." 2 Religion everywhere permeated the public and private lives both of the Greeks and of the Romans, at least in their earlier history. The religiousness of the Athenians was particularly notable. Xenophon says they had more religious festivals than any other Greek 3 people, and Sophocles makes one of his characters say that Athens is the most pious of cities, and that if any land knows how to worship the gods with due rites,
this

Athenian
reli s iousness -

land excels therein. 4


J

Plato

often

refers

to

the

KCU p.T a//,<oT/)a Tavra TWV Trapa TOV Saipoviov OlWVWl/ /AT/Sci/ tVCLVT 1(1)6 VT(i)V, TOT KU/OtaS flvOLL.
1

cr?7/xetwi/

re KCU

Dion. Hal. x. 4 : TIVOS o&> vp.lv ert jueTco-rt ruy icpuv KOL <r/?ao-/Aov Seo/Aeyeof, &v ei/ TI KCU 6 vo/xos r)v. . . . Livy likewise refers to the incapacity of the plebs and the tribunes to establish a law

"

Op.

nee plebem nee tribunes legem ferre posse" (ii. 41). 3 cit. p. 218. Resp. Ath. iii. 2 ; cf. Pausanias,
.

i.

24.

*Oedip. Col. 1007-8:


.
.

TIS

OtOVS

7TlCTTaTat

SANCTION OF ANCIENT
numerous

LAW

religious processions and sacrifices of his fellow-citizens, and in one place gives a significant hint as to the value of mere formalities as such. The

Lacedaemonians having gained several successive victories over the Athenians, the latter despatched envoys to the shrine of Ammon to inquire why success was not " We vouchsafed to them by the gods. (they were to say) offer them more and finer sacrifices than any other Hellenic State, and adorn their temples with gifts, as nobody else does ; moreover we make the most solemn and costly processions to them every year, and spend

more money

Ancient
sanction of positive law.

in their service than all the rest of the Hellenes put together." To which Ammon replied u The silent worship of the Lacedaemonians pleaseth me better than all the offerings of the other Hellenes." In early times the raison d'etre of a law was for the most part associated with its divine origin ; as such the consequences of its application were looked upon as whereas in more modern times right and inevitable, the criterion of a law's validity is in the people's acceptance of its imposition, and of the consequences it The ancients judged the results by the law ; entails. If the the moderns judge the law by the results. in this be connection it applied, expression may may be that the ancient law is subjective, the modern objective. 2
:
:

Was

there international law among the ancients ?

Had

the ancients international law

Various modern

Denied by

writers have expressed very disparaging opinions conThus Kent, in his cerning ancient international law.
j

many writers
Kent.

ii.

148, 149:

ot TrAciVras,

KaAAwrras
tepa avTiav

rtov

'EAA^van/ ayo/xev,

ai/a&y/xacri

<aVcu, fAtv Qvcrtas re KCKOoy/^/ca/xcv

/cat
TO,

a>s ovSei/es

raras

e8<apovfj,e6a TOL<S

aAAoi, 7ro//,7ras TC TroAvrcAco-TaYas OCOLS av CKCKTTOI/ ITOS KCU t


. .

/cat cre/xvo-

6Va
.
.

ovS' ot
.

aAAot

v/i,7ravTs"EAA?7i/9

av j3ov\eo-6ai avrtp TTJV AaKcSat /xaAAov YI TO, vfJLTravra TWI> *EAA^V(ov iepa. 2 Cf. M. Muller- Jochmus, Geschichte des Volkerrechts im Altertum " Der Unterschied zwischen dem antiken (Leipzig, 1848), p. 226: und modernen Rechtzustande besteht darin, dass das Recht in der alten Welt iiberhaupt subjectiv war, in der neuen zur Objectivitat
<f>r)<rlv

gekommen

ist."

MODERN OBJECTIONS

47

Commentary on International Law, stated that even the most civilized States amongst the ancients seem to have had no conception of the moral obligations of humanity and justice between nations, and that no such thing as
the science of international law obtained

Verge, in his Martens' Pricis, says that the ancient world had not grasped the fundamental notion of the law of nations, that it had no regard for man as man, or for territorial rights that when a nation became powerful it invaded the country of others, when it became weak it sought a treaty of peace ; that the stranger was regarded as an enemy or, at least, as a spy ; that the normal state of nations was war, during which everything was deemed per;

amongst them. Introduction to the French edition of ve rg6.

missible

that
all

characterized

religious and political exclusiveness The same international relationships. 2

when treaties were entered into not they were respected ; and so far as ambassadors are concerned, the privilege of inviolability was accorded to them not through any legal sanction, but simply 4 3 According to Laurent through religious sentiment. " Les Grecs bien que freres [referring to an expression of Plato], ne se croyaient lies ni par le droit ni par 1'humanite; ils ne se reconnaissaient d'obligations
writer adds that even
:

Laurent.

*P. II.
2

vol.

G. F. de Martens, Precis du i., Introd. by C. Verge, p. viii


s'etait

gens ne
respect
alors le

(Paris, 1864), "C'est que 1'idee-mere du droit des Quant au pas encore manifestee dans le monde.
: .
.

droit des gens moderne

pour

la qualite

d'homme, pour

n'en etait pas question : fondement des relations internationales.


il
;

Tinviolabilite des territoires, il Pexclusivisme religieux et politique, tel etait

Quand un peuple

se

croyait le plus fort,

envahissait
1'etranger

demandait
espion.

a traiter

quand il se sentait le plus faible, il etait un ennemi, ou tout au moins, un


;

En

temps de guerre chacun


barbare dans
ses

se croyait tout

dans
l'6tat
3

ses

origines,

precedes,
la

normal des populations anciennes, comme normal des nations modernes."


Ibid. p.

permis ; injuste guerre etait Tetat paix semble devoir etre


la

violabilite des

"... Les traites n'etaient point respected, et Tinambassadeurs tenait moins au respect du droit qu'4 un sentiment religieux fortifie par des serments et des sacrifices."
60
:

Op.

cit.

vol.

ii.

p.

117.

48

MODERN OBJECTIONS

La reciproques que lorsqu'un traite les avait stipulees. notion de devoirs decoulant de la nature de rhomme reconnue par les philosophes n'entra pas dans le domaine des relations Internationales." This statement is cited
Maury.
Guizot.

wheaton.

without question or discussion or personal investigation 1 by Maury, and the same conception is entertained by 2 " Guizot Dans 1'antiquite paienne, meme sur ses plus beaux theatres et dans ses plus beaux jours, les etranA moins que des conventions gers etaient des ennemis. et n'eussent ete conclues entre particulieres precises deux nations, elles se consideraient comme absolument La etrangeres Tune a 1'autre et naturellement hostiles. force presidait seule a leurs rapports ; le droit des gens A peine les plus grands esprits de n'existait pas. et Ciceron, en ont-ils con9u quelque Aristote Fantiquite, idee ; a peine rencontre-t-on dans I'histoire entre les Etats divers quelques instincts vagues et passagers de droits et de devoirs mutuels." Again, Wheaton, followthat asserts the Greeks considered they ing Mitford, had no obligations to other States apart from those regulated by an express compact ; that the Hva-irovSoi,
:

the parties to the contract, alone benefited by the rights and obligations thus agreed upon, and that the eKo-TrovSoi, the States not parties thereto, were in the position of

Further, it is urged that in the ancient world the law of might was universal ; that (on the authority of Cicero 3 and Plutarch 4 ) the Athenians publicly contended that all lands bearing wheat or olives belonged
outlaws.
to

them of
had

right

that even Aristides the Just

(whom

above Themistocles, Cimon, and Pericles 5 ) was guided by State interest rather than by 6 that the genius of Plato constructed the justice ; noblest theory of the just and the beautiful, but when he applies his ideas to the law of nations, he draws a disthat tinction between the Hellenes and the barbarians
Plato
placed
;

1856-9),

A. Maury, Histoire des t. iii. pp. 401-2.


iii.

religions de la

Grece antique, 3 torn. (Paris,

^Veglise et la

societe chretiennes
4

*DeRepub.

9.

Alcib. 15.

en 1861 (Paris, 1861), c. xiv. p. 101. 5 Q Plut. Aristid. 25. lbid.


.

THEIR UNTENABILITY
rthis

49 of
all

narrow attitude of State


considerations,

interest, irrespective

represents "le dernier mot de 1 la sur Finally, the 1'antiquite justice internationale." advanced that to the allhas been owing argument

other

pervading influence of religion in antiquity, whatever rules existed to regulate international relationships were
always based on the sacred law, and formed an integral portion of it, so that a body of rules resting on such 2 " geringe Stufe," as a German writer slightingly puts it, Heffter. " law of nations.'* can scarcely be considered the Now all this criticism is largely untenable. It is objections It fails to take due account of extreme and one-sided. the differences in ancient conditions, of the circumstances surrounding earlier stages of evolution in general, and
It sees imperfecof legal development in particular. tions and deficiencies in a system of things, and forthIt sees arbitrary or with condemns the entire system.

to

cruel acts in this or that quarter, at this or that epoch,

and the conclusions it jumps at are immediately applied It regards to all times and places in the ancient world. the speculative constructions of the philosophers proceeding in their tentative argument in accordance with a given ideal and from certain postulated premises, and lays hold of sundry implications and conclusions thereof,

any rational discrimination, takes to immediately represent the real facts and conditions of the time. Besides adverse critics for the most part speak as though modern international law is
which,
it

failing to exercise

comprising a fully systematized body of universally accepted doctrines. But, in spite of our boasted advance of twenty centuries beyond the Greeks and the Romans, there are those who deny that there exists even to-day any international law at all, at least
a perfect science,
1

Laurent,

op. at.

t. ii.

p.

90.
ed.

A.

W.

Heffter,

Das Europaische Volkerrecht der Gegenwart,


:

(Berlin, 1881), p. 12 Vslkerrecht der alten Welt nennen, so


F.

H. Geffcken

"Will man nun

dieses das
;

la"sst

sich nicht widersprechen

gewiss stand es auf sehr geringer Stufe


rechts aller oder

es

war ein Teil des Religions-

doch bestimmter Nationen."

50

INTERNATIONAL LAW RECOGNIZED


of law.

in the strict sense

For example,
is

quite recently
:

member of parliament, who

also a lawyer conversant

with international law, said in the

House of Commons

"

What moment had Mr.

Asquith chosen to forsake

two-Power standard, and in Dreadnoughts barely one-Power standard ? He had chosen a moment when the public law of Europe was not worth the documents on which its precepts were inscribed, when treaties were torn up at the dictation of armed power, when cold and undisguised aggression pursued
the
to maintain a
its course without hindrance or correction." If this be true then it is, to say the least, ridiculous to assume a censorious attitude with regard to the ancient law of In any case, this cited statement is (making nations. due allowance for its consisting in rhetorical flourish), no more erroneous than the unqualified captious obser-

vations of the above-mentioned and similar writers.

Difficulty in making

generalizations.

beings and human affairs are concerned, of an extreme character are never true. generalizations hinders the arrival at truth no less effectually Hyperbole

Where human

than superficial investigation or traditional prejudice. International law, if it is or can be a science at all, is, or can be, at most, a regulative science, dealing with the conduct of States, that is, human beings in a certain
capacity
like
;

and

its

principles

and prescriptions

are not,

Existence of elements of international

The man made by man, and different ages make differently. Ample evidence will, it is hoped, be adduced in

those of science proper, final and unchanging. substance of science proper is already made for the substance of international law is actually ;
the

law

in

Greece

and Rome.

following pages to prove that more than mere rudiments of an international law existed in ancient Greece and Rome ; that the ancients were by no means entirely indifferent to the moral obligations of justice and humanity between peoples, that they were not regardless

of the elementary rights of the individual, that the stranger was not necessarily looked upon as an enemy or a spy, that the normal state of nations was not war,

JURIDICAL NATURE OF RULES


tile

51

unless this refers to the assumption of a certain hosattitude towards the barbarian. But such attitude

was not in reality (apart from utterances of a merely theoretical description) any more hostile than that of the modern civilized States with respect to the uncivilized
.peoples.

Further,

it

will

be seen that the eKanrovSoi

Real

were not deemed outlaws, that liberty to break treaties The modern 'was no more admitted than it is now.
to disregard of the fact that u peace with the Greeks, as with the Romans, meant two things in ithe first place, a formal treaty of peace, a peace by

and

misapplication of the terms

evo-irovSoi

and

cKo-TrovSot

is

generally due

"

covenant, concluded with solemn ceremonial, with the indispensable oaths and libations ; and secondly, it implied the natural and ordinary condition of civilized
!

human

And

beings and regularly organized communities. as to the argument that because a certain code Does

of conduct in international relations draws its sanction ^religion the from religion, it cannot therefore be described as pos^stroy r character of p international sessmg the character of international law, the answer is la that it is of no consequence at all where the sanction lies since the fundamental question is whether there is a generally admitted rule regulating certain international relationships, and whether there exists any potent sanction whatever similarly recognized as enforcing the observance of that rule. The religious sanction did not impair but added force to the legal and political sanction. Religion in antiquity was co-extensive with the whole of life ; it did not form merely a portion of it set apart for some small section of the week or year ; it was at the bottom of law, because it was at the bottom of life ; and the admitted insistence and protection of the law by the gods, in view of its general acceptance by men, does not The juri- juridical necessarily deprive it of its character as law. dical nature of ancient rules between States is anSruies. obtaining attested by their consciousness of bound by the being

.77

obligations implied, by their regarding the due observance thereof as just, and violation unjust and punishable. And these rules are capable of international application,

PUBLIC
as

AND PRIVATE LAW

soon as there is a general recognition of the juridical This condition was equality and reciprocity of States. not wanting, at least in the case of the constituent
States of the Hellenic circle,

and

in that
is

of

Rome

during

period of history, that second Punic war.


her
first

to the

end of the

Usage as a source of the


law of nations.

Laurent, curiously enough, puts aside the rules " les established by usage, regies que Tusage a etablies
les relations des peuples," as not being of sufficient importance, and not deserving of being raised to the Now in default of such "dignite d'une science." source of international law the usages, outstanding would, of course, be express compacts, embodied in documents, definitely prescribing the rights and duties of the parties thereto ; and, what is still more curious, of the numerous important diplomatic instruments which were in existence at the time he wrote (for example, the compilation of Barbeyrac giving the actual text of, or otherwise indicating, some five hundred public treaties, etc., concluded before the Christian era), not a line is specifically quoted by him. Thus, in the

pour

Is

Laurent's

criticism

valid?

one case an attempt is made to support an argument by means of a petitio principii, in the other by a suppression or disregard of relevant testimony of vital significance.
The

The
them

political constitution

of the Greek States was for

the primary object of consideration. Legislative be subservient to the preservaactivity was thought to tion of the fundamental elements of the constitution.

Laws, private or public, were regarded as essential not (as the Romans mainly considered it) to adjust the relationships of individuals, but as a means of supporting

And so, notwithstanding the constitutional structure. certain apparent differences between private and public procedure in many of the Greek States, and particularly in Athens, there was no hard-and-fast distinction beNo sharp
distinction

between
public and private law.

tween private and public law. It was clearly perceived, however, that different societies possessing differently organized constitutions, would need different laws ;

UNIVERSAL AND PARTICULAR


but
in

LAW

53

human
nature.

so far as they were communities of civilized beings, certain laws would be common to all, as

their applicability is inevitably

determined by universal

Hence

ticular law, "Sios


KOIVO?

the distinction between private or parj/o/xo?, and common or universal law,

vo^ ; and it is this KOIVOS vo/j.o? which is the great source of the law between nations. 1 Aristotle, in his Rhetoric, thus notes the difference Aristotle on lv " I regard law as either particular or universal, meaning and" articular P by particular' the law ordained by a particular people for ^ and of its own sub-divided capable being requirements, ' into written and unwritten law, and by universal the law of nature. For there exists, as all men divine more or
:

'

'

less, a

natural and universal principle of right and wrong, 2 independent of any mutual intercourse or compact."

He

further alludes to the principle to which Sophocles

makes Antigone appeal when she avows that it is right to bury Polynices in defiance of Creon's edict, because it is right in accordance with the law of nature
:

ov ydp TI vvv ye Ka^Oes, aAA' aet TTOTC OTOV' <j>dvrj. s KovSeis otofv c fj Tairra,

(Not of to-day nor yesterday is this a law, but ever hath and no man knoweth whence or how it came.)

it life,

Aristotle goes on to refer to Empedocles who, insisting that it is wrong everywhere to put any living thing to death, says :

dAAa TO /AV

TravTCov vo/w/xwv 8id T' ev/ov/xeSovTOS

4 aWtpos rjvKd)? reraTat Sta T' (XTrAeTov cu; yijs. (The law universal doth evermore pervade the omnipotent heaven and the boundless earth.)

It is to

be observed that

in the tenth chapter, Aristotle


(jiSioi)^

similarly dividing law into particular


1

and uni-

On

the conception of the Hellenic KOIVOS VO/AOS, see A. Bonucci,


<$e

La

legge comune net pensiero greco (Perugia, 1903). 2 Rhet. i.13: Acyw 8 v6fj.ov TOV /ACV TSiov TOV

KOIVOV, tSiov /xcv

TOV eKcurrois wpi<rfj.vov irpus airrovs, KCU TOVTOV TOV />tV aypa.<f>ov TOV 8 yeypafj.fj.tvov, icotvbv 8e TOV KaTa <vcriv. IcrTt ydp, o /ActvTevovTat
Tt 7TaVTS, <f>VCTl KOtVOV StKCUOV Kttt ttStKOV, KttV
(JLTJOefllO.

KOtVWVltt 7T/)OS

aAA^Aoi's
8

TI fj,rjO

o"vv&rjKr).
11.

Soph. Antig.

456-7.

IIcpi ^>iVco>s,

11.

380-1, ed. Sturz.

54

NATURAL AND CONVENTIONAL LAW

(JMMI/O?), defines particular law as the written law, the statutes of any given State, and universal law as the unwritten (aypa(f)o$\ but universally recognized prin-

versal

1 The universal or unwritten law of ciples of morality. this latter classification corresponds to the universal law

or law of nature of the former, where particular is further subdivided into written or statutory law, and unwritten, comprising such principles of equity, derived

from custom and usage,

as possess juridical force, and to or adopted supplement rectify, in any manner that the law. written more than one desirable, appears

On

written law, and the

The

common law of
mankind.
Natural and conventional
justice.

occasion Demosthenes compares the written law, rov VOJULOV, with the law common to all men, TOV
KOLVOV

The same
justice

distinction

is

drawn elsewhere: 3 "Civil

is partly natural, and partly conventional ; that is natural which possesses the same validity everywhere, and does not depend on being deliberately adopted or not ;

while that is conventional which in the first instance does not matter whether it assumes one form or another, it matters only when it has been laid down, for example, ." that the ransom of a prisoner should be a mina. In his Politics, Aristotle states that customary laws
.

have

intrinsically

more

force,

and pertain

to

more

Force of custom.

important matters, than written laws ; and that a man may well be a safer ruler than the written law, but not safer than the customary law. 4 The well-known maxim of Pindar, which is quoted
1 Rhet. i. IO : vojaos 8' rrtv, 6 i*kv tStos, 6 8e KOLVOS. Aeyto Se iSiov fjxv Kad* ov yypafj,fj.vov TroAiTevovTai* KOLVOV oe oo~a aypafya

Trapa TTOOTLV 6/AoAoyto-0cu SoKt.


2 3

Cf. for example, c. Anstoc. 6 1 .


Nic. Eth. v.

8c VO/AIKOI/,

TOV Se TroAiTtKov oiKaiov TO pzv <f>vo~LKov ecm TO TO Tcavra^ov TT))' avrrjv e^ov SvvafjLtv, /cat OV TO) 8o/ClV f) jJLTf], VOfJLLKOV 8t O l PX^ S P* V vQ*V 8ta^>/)6 OUTCOS ^ aAAws, 6Vav 8e 0tai/Tai, 8ia</oet, oibv rb [JLvas XvrpovvOai.

IO

<f>vcriKov fj,V

TWV KaTa iii. TTC/OI KVpi<j)Tpwv Kvpiwrepoi 9: ypdpfjiara v6p,<DV ol Kara ra tOv) eio-iv, WO*T' et TWV KaTa ypappaTa avOpwros apx<v ao-^aAecrTe/oos, aAA' ov TWI/ KaTa T^ c6o<s.
1 6.

4 Pol.

Tt

/cat

MORAL AND
1 by Herodotus, that

POSITIVE

LAW

55

custom is the king of all things," was at first taken to refer to the fact that usage makes a certain thing appear right to one but afterwards was conpeople, and wrong to another ceived in the sense of the law's sovereignty over all things divine and human.
TTOLVTWV /3curi\a,
;

ct

Thus, in the Digest it is stated that the philosopher Chrysippus began his book entitled Trepl VO/ULOV (a treatise on law) in this manner " Law is the king of all things, both divine and human ; it ought to control, rule, and command both the good and the bad, and hence be a standard as to things just and unjust, and a director of beings political by nature, enjoining what ought to be done and forbidding what ought not to be done." 2 Natural or moral law may sometimes be found to When Creon accused conflict with positive law. of the of the State, she Conflict of laws breaking Antigone that those laws were not ordained by Zeus, replied or by Justice who dwells with the gods below
:

" CR. Now, tell me thou not in many words, but briefly knewest thou that an edict had forbidden this ? AN. I knew it ; could I help it ? It was public. CR. And thou didst indeed dare to transgress that law ? AN. Yes ; for it was not Zeus that had published me that
not such are the laws set among men by the Justice who ; dwells with the gods below ; nor deemed I that thy decrees were of such force, that a mortal could override the unwritten and unfailing statutes of heaven. For their life is not of to-day or yesterday, but from all time, and no man knows when they
edict

were
2

first

3 put forth."

Mii. 38.
Cf. Dig. suetudine), 2
i.
:

3 (De legibus senatusque consultis et longa con6 VO/AOS Trai/rwv rrt /JacnAevs Oeiw re /cat

TTpayftaTW
aurxptov
/cat

Set

Sc

avrov
/cat

Trpoarra.Tf]v

eTvai

TU>V /caA.c3y

/cat

TWV
eti/ai

apxovra

^ye/AoVa, /cat /caret TOVTO /cavoVa re

St/cat'cov /cat d8i/ca>v /cat TWV <^ucrct 7roA,iTt/cwi/ ^wv, 7r/3OO"Ta/cTt/cbv fj.V <5v TTot^reov, aVayo/aevriKoi/ Se (5v ov Trotryreov.
3

Soph. Antlg. 450

seq.i
jMOl
fir)

KR.
AN.

(TV 8'

t7T

pfjKOS,

d\\a

(TUVTO/ZW?,

y8r)'
/cat

KR.

TI 8' ov/c fj.e\\ov fj,<f>avr) yap &JT' croA/xas rova-8' VTTepfiaivtiv

56

MORAL AND DIVINE LAW

and

Different interpretations have been given of the action Thus Bockh held that significance of the play. both Creon and Antigone transcended the limits of their respective obligations, the one by an infraction of the natural or divine law, the other by disobedience of

and both are ultimately punished ; for defending principles, intrinsically sound, in a mistaken manner. similar opinion is that of Hegel, to the
the conventional law

Moral law and

view of the Eternal Justice, both were because wrong they were one-sided, but at the same time both were right. 1 The sympathies of Sophocles, however, are wholly with Antigone ; and he undoubtedly intends to convey that she was in the right. 2 Sophocles elsewhere describes the moral laws as the " offspring of the gods. May destiny still find me the of reverent winning praise purity in all words and deeds sanctioned by those laws of range sublime, called into life throughout the high clear heaven, whose father is Olympus alone ; their parent was of no race of mortal men, no, nor shall oblivion ever lay them to sleep ; a mighty god is in them, and he grows not old."
effect that in the

AN.

ov yap ri /xoi Zevs ov& rj VVOIKOS TWV Kara) ^ewv


crS'

4v ai/0/oawroicriv wpto-cv
TO.

<r6evLv TOCTOVTOV wo/x^i/


',

era

OXTT'

dypairra

Kaar<j>a\fj

0t5i>

vo/u/xa SvvacrOcu Ovrjrov 6v6' V ov yap TL vvv yc Ka^dcs aAA' act


77

rcurra,

KOvSets otScv
ii.

OTOV

Religionsphtlosophie,
2

1 1

4.

See the Introduction, p. xxii, and notes, passim, in Jebb's edition and translation of the Antigone.
3

Oedip. Tyr.

863
et

seq.

XO.

jtxot

fiolpa TOLV evarerrrov ayvciav

Aoywv

e/oywv T

TTCIVTWV,

(v

^^tVoSes, ovpaviav Si' aWepa, TeKi/a>$VT?, Trarrjp /AOVOS, ovSe viv

6avra

<J)V<ri<s

avepwi/
TTOTC

TtKTV, ovSe pav

XaOa

KaTaKOifjidcrei+

kv rovrots ^eos, ovSe

GENERAL OR COMMON LAW


This idea
La

57

is of frequent recurrence in Greek literature, In conspicuous instance being Plato's Apologia. HHomer and elsewhere the duty of vouchsafing hospiis tality to suppliants regarded as being directly en1 joined by Zeus. The expression ' natural law is liable to misinterpre- The term c is to be often tation. Briefly it may be said that natural Law is reason misinter preted. .understood in the sense of rational/
' '

'

unaffected by desire,
avev

as

Aristotle emphasizes
* '

Stoirep

ope^ew

vov<s

i/o/xo? earTtv.

nature in the of his desires, his peculiarities, which may, indeed, defeat or obscure his real fundamental nature. Thus positive law is essential as a corrective. " The Relation of -whole life of men, O Athenians, whether they inhabit SSSSftew. a great city or a small one, is governed both by nature and by laws. Of these, nature is something irregular, laws are unequal, and peculiar to the individual
sense
;

One

often speaks of an individual's

regular,

common, and the same for

all.

Nature,

if it

be depraved, has often vicious desires ; therefore you Laws will find people of that sort falling into error. desire what is just and honourable and useful ; this
they aim at, and when it is attained, it is set forth as a And general ordinance, the same and alike for all.
that
all men ought to obey for many and because reasons, every law is an invention especially and gift of the gods, a resolution of wise men, a corrective of errors, intentional and unintentional, a compact of the whole State, according to which all who
is

law, which

belong to the State ought to live."

A
tions

We
1

certain application of these conceptions and distinc- Expressions for general or i r /" i i c is seen in the sphere or the Greek law or nations, common law.
. ,
i

find writers frequently referring to

" the laws of

Cf. the article

in History
*Po/if.
3

by J. Bryce on the Law of Nature, in his Studies and Jurisprudence, Oxford, 1901, vol. ii. pp. 112 seq.
1

iii.

6. 5.
.

c Aristogiton, i. 1 6 tTravopBufJia 3e TU>V CJCOOTICDV KCU

[Demosth.]

... S6y/*a

<$'

avtf/owrrcoi/ <j>povifj,<ov,

aKOVonW

d/xaprrj/A

<rvv6i']Kr) Kotvrj,

KO.&

rjv Tracrt TrpocrrjKti f?ji>

rots cv ry

58

INTERSTATAL LAW UNWRITTEN


" the common laws of " the laws Hellas," " the laws common to etc. Hence

Hellenes,"

of mankind,"
TOL

men,"

expressions such as the following are constantly used

TWV
'

'EXX>/I/ft)J/

VOjULljULa

TO. TTOLVTCDV

CtvOpCOTTCOV
'

TCI KOLVOL

TWV
;

'EXA^I/Wl/

VOJULl/ULCL \

KOLVOl VOJULOl

KOLVOL
3
;

TV? EXXa^o?
KOtVol TU)V
'Trap
TTjOO?

ra
5

KOLVOL

TWV avOpcoTrwv
4
;

0tj (KOI. VO/ULI/ULCL)

OLvOpWTTWV
;

VO/ULOl

TOL KCLTCL KOLVOV

O)pl<TIULVa

OLKaia

av6pu>7TOLS

ra
6
;

oiKaia irpos rot'? avOpu>7rov$ f


VOJULIJULCL

(KOLL

ra

roy? 6eov$
like.

OQ-LCL)

Trda-rjs (<ru'y^eoj/Ta9)

E\Xa^09> 7

and the
Presence of a y em do es not
ts

necessarily imply a perfect system.

a large number of important rules and international law are implied in these of practices one must not expect to find, as Schoemann expressions, r s out, an entire point system or clearly formulated legal " Darunter sind aber keine bestimmt dispositions.

Though

riiriji

formulirte

zu verstehn
Unwritten law law of

und ausdriicklich verabredete Satzungen denn dergleichen gab es nur einige wenige
the
their

zwischen verschiedenen Staaten." 8

The
class

"^o^

underlying principles belong mainly to of unwritten laws VO/ULOL aypafyoi deriving

force

and

juridical validity

from the regular

insistence

of tradition and inveterate custom, and having for their " Sie sanction the will of the gods. gehSren sammtlich zur Classe der ungeschriebenen Gesetze (VO/JLOI aypoxpoi) die als Sitte und Herkommen gelten, und zu deren Beobachtung man sich durch eine sittliche Scheu oder durch religiose Verehrung der Getter verpflichtet fiihlt, von denen sie herruhren und den Menschen ins Herz
geschrieben sind."
1

2 3

Thuc. Thuc.

iv.
i.

97
;

; i.

Diod.

Sic. xix.

63.
;

118

Plut. Pericl. 17
4 7

etc.
ii.

70. 6 ; iv. 67. 4. Polyb. Q lbid. xxii. 13. 8 ; ii. 8. 12.


i.

Ibid.

58.

^Ibid.

iv.

6. ii.

J.

G. H. Lipsius
Hid.

Eurip. Suppl. 311. F. Schoemann, Griechische dlterthlimer, 2 vols., 4th ed. by


(Berlin,

1897-1902),

vol.

ii.

p. 2.

the force and significance of the unwritten law generand especially in Greece, see R. Hirzel, "Ay/Da<f>o? ally in antiquity, der philologisch-historischen Classe der koniglich vo/xos, in Jtbhandlungen s'dchmchen Gesellschaft der Wiutnsckaften, Bd. xx. No. i (Leipzig,

On

1900), pp. 23

seq.

LAWS OF GREEKS AND LAWS OF MEN

59
Distinction

Further, a certain distinction was drawn between the 'Maws of the Hellenes," and the "laws of all men," based on the broader distinction between Greeks and
barbarians.

The

ito/uupa

rw

'EXA>/i/a>i/,

consisting partly

ail

men."

-of natural or

of customary law, and partly of convenon express compacts, were applicable members of the Hellenic circle, but were sometimes also adopted, as a special concession or as a recognition of a broader reciprocity, in relationThe vdjuuima. ru>v ships with non-Hellenic communities. avOpwTTcov, consisting almost exclusively of traditional usages and principles spontaneously enforced by human conscience, were thought fit to be applied to men as men, and irrespective of race or nationality. Now the difference between these two classes was not necessarily a difference of kind, as a good many writers seem to imagine, but a difference of extent, of denotaa difference to borrow a term from logic The greater portion of the latter class was also tion. contained in the former ; but there were many rules in the former class which were but rarely extended to the latter. There was never, at all events, a hard-andfast line of demarcation between the two. There is
tional law, based primarily to the

manifested, no doubt, in several Greek writers, particua certain antagonism between Euripides, Hellenism and barbarism.' But such contrast, involving an opposition to and disparagement of non-Hellenic
larly

in

'

peoples, arises national pride,

mainly from sentiments of civic and from a perception of the intellectual and artistic pre-eminence of the Greeks, from a conviction of a special bestowal of favours on them by the gods.
Besides,

the

expressions,
VOJUUJULO.

particularly
avOpwircov,

so
are

the

more

general

one

TWV

frequently

employed with varying contents ; for example, the VO/ULI/ULO. T&v avOpcoTTtov are sometimes mentioned in the sense of universal law, and as a criterion of the moral validity of any law, apart from being used in reference
1 E.g. in his Heraclid. 130 seq.

Medea,
;

536

seq.,

133

seq. seq.
;

lphig> in Tauris,

1399

Hecuba, 1199 Androm. 173 seq.

seq*

6o
to

ANCIENT INTERNATIONAL LAW


relationships

with the barbarians. Thus, th of the Persian the Athenian envoys by slaughter and Spartans was confessedly a transgression of th VO/JUJULCL TWV avOpwTrwv, as a law of the human race generand not merely as a law applicable exclusively to ally, the barbarians. And Xerxes recognized and submitted to such general law, when he answered, on suggestions being made to him that he should resort to similar retaliation, that he would not be like the Lacedaemonians, for they had violated the law of all nations by murdering his heralds, and that he would not do the 1 very thing which he blamed in them.
Ancient elements of
international law.

international law

That the ancients possessed a complete system of no one can justifiably assert. That

they possessed important elements thereof which contributed greatly to subsequent juridical evolution is Practice was not invariably consistent, and undeniable.

was not always in accordance with recognized principles. But is this the case even now in our more enlightened

To deny the existence of ancient international times ? law in toto, simply because a perfectly organized system did not obtain, is, to say the least, a gross injustice International law is based on the to the ancients. the of principles of juridical equality and recognition of nations and, in respect of the interstatal ; reciprocity
relationships
later

and

chapters

practices, these principles were, as the will amply show, in a large measure

recognized and applied, in spite of the assertion by this or that race of its intellectual superiority, or by this or that State of its civic and constitutional preTo lay claim to intellectual, material, or eminence. other predominance does not of necessity eliminate
entirely equality before the law.
Difference between the ancient and the modern
conceptions.

course the principles of equality, reciprocity, and subservience to the law were not then as explicit and
1 ... Herodot. vii. 136 Ktvov$ jLiev yap crvy^eat ra
:

Of

ov/c ec^ry O/AOIOS ecrccr&zi


TravTcoi/

avdputirw vo/u/za, aT
ov
Troirja'civ.
.

avros

8e, TO, /cetvoMri eTriTrA^crcra, TO.VTO.

ANCIENT AND MODERN VIEWS


as firmly established as

61

To admit this is they are now. not to imply the admission that international law then was a non-entity, but simply to concede that it had not the breadth, the completeness, the firm basis, the scientific co-ordination of the modern law. Naturmodern ally the ancients had not yet arrived at the as Fusinato remarks, presupposes conception which, the voluntary recognition of law on the part of organized States in free co-existence, equal and autono1 mous, and, it may be added, such unreserved recogof law being related to the insistence on a strictly nition Various writers urge that the law of Notion of positive sanction. r one on the nations is, hand, inconsistent with the notion of ^ chosen of a u chosen race," based on the grounds either of f^ofnaSons religion or of culture, and, on the other, with the notion
of universal dominion
;

and, further, that

its

rational

development is impossible where a stranger is regarded To this as an enemy, or an infidel, or a barbarian. " Das Volkereffect writes a modern German author
:

mit dem Gedanken eines, sei es durch einem besonderen Bund mit der Gottheit, sei es durch eine iiberlegene und eigenartige Kultur * So lange im Sinne des judiauserwahlten Volkes.' schen wie des klassischen Altertums der Staatsfremde als Feind, als Unglaubiger oder als Barbar gait, konnte ein Volkerrecht sich nicht entwickeln. Das Volkerrecht einer ist aber auch mit Gedanken dem unvertraglich Weltherrschaft. ." 2 The answer to this contention has already been suggested in general terms. It has been that absence of a out the already complete pointed
recht
ist

unvertra"glich

1 G. Fusinato, Dei feziali e del diritto fezlale (in Attl delta Reale Accademia del Lincei, 1883-4. ^er'ie Terza. Memorie della C fosse dl

.scienze morali,
i

Romani, come
il

storiche e filologiche, vol. tutti gli altri popoli

xiii.),

p.

455

" Certamente

potevano

possedere

un

diritto
il

delP antichita, non ebbero ne delle genti secondo il concetto


in

moderno,

quale presuppone

volontario riconoscimento del diritto


libera

da parte degli Stati organizzati autonoma."


2

coesistenza

uguale

ed

F.

von

Liszt,

Das

Volkerrecht

systematisch

dargettellt

(Berlin,

1906), p. 15.

62

INTERMUNICIPAL
scientifically
itself,

LAW

and
in

systematized body of law does not render juridically inapplicable the element

that do exist; and that the denial of equality wa based on a speculative theory, which was more o the nature of a phantasm than of an effective guid< to practice. More specific answers will be given in the succeeding chapters which will present such a comprehensive body of material as will suffice, it is hoped, to disprove traditional and oft-repeated, undiscriminat"interC

iaw" and
international

ing opinions. Again, it has been said with regard to Greece that her international law was more of the character of an intermun i c ip al l aw> i O n the ground of the admitted natural bonds between the Hellenic States, based on the com-

munity of origin, customs, language, religion, TO 'EXA^w/coy eov oju.aiju.6v re Herodotus says
:
.

as
KOI

ojuLoyXcocrcrov
2

KCU

Oewv iSujmard re

KOIVGL

KOLL

Ova-iai

%6ed re

6fj.6rpo7ra.

But the Greek municipalities being autono-

mous and

equal before the law, they present an adequate correspondence to the modern civilized States, constic tuting the family of nations ; and their intermunicipal law offers a sufficiently valid counterpart to modern international law. The Roman ius gentium and lex naturae furnished a more secular basis for the law of nations, but the religious element in the Greek law
'

cannot per
application.
universal'
international law.
'

se

invalidate

its

juridical
it

Further, Hellenic law of nations was rather 'universal' than international/ the answer immediately follows that the greater part of international law, even of the most ideal code as constructed by modern theorizers, either is sub' universal law, or is based on it ; the stantially such Neither universality contrary is, indeed, inconceivable.
'

when

is

significance and contended 3 that the

nor particularity (nor, in truth, anything

else) obliterates

or even diminishes the international character of rules

and
1

practices

when,

in point

of

fact,

such rules are regu1

Cf.

T. A. Walker,
144.

History of the
8

Law

of Nations (Cambridge,
op. cit. p.

899),

p. 38.
viii.

Walker,

43.

MAIN ELEMENTS THEREOF


rly insisted

63

on and such practices regularly applied ween independent and sovereign nations. Apart from the pride of race and the hostile attitude to

Patriotism

reigners (which have been so much misrepresented by odern writers who have made their own exaggerated
estimate testify to the very impossibility of ancient interlational law), ineradicable patriotism and ceaseless rivalry

pf the Greeks prevented

to a large extent the more rapid The ind complete development of the law of nations. absent was condition of political equilibrium accessary The Corinthians' reproach that for the most part.

Political

r^

Athens would neither remain at rest herself nor allow other tranquillity to others was equally applicable to

among the more powerful city-states, and Confederacies were especially so when in the ascendant.
peoples
often established for the protection of common interests, sometimes even for self-preservation, the most powerful
its own accord, or being conceded the the hegemony which invarimembers, by remaining Hence a tended to into ably develop sovereignty. continual conflict between the necessity of alliances and

member assuming of

the arch-rivals.

the spirit of independence. To obtain

fomented discords, <was ever in a state of oscillation.

Athens and Sparta were supremacy they constantly and so the balance of power in Hellas
Main causes
of

The fundamental cause militating against the preservation of political equilibrium was the existence of so many States, and of such small States, in comparative
proximity to each other
;

and, as a consequence of

this,

the fact that the citizens of the respective States were :the soldiers, and the soldiers were the citizens, the

-same individuals fighting in the wars and voting in the


assemblies.

However, Greek international law, such as it was, shows a decided advance on antecedent law both in The main matters it comprised theory and in practice. are as follows various questions of private international law, naturalization, position of aliens and especially
:

in any case,

nations an

^^^^
Main subj ect .
matter

64

RECORDS OF ANCIENT PRACTICES


;

of metoecs (domiciled aliens), proxenia (analogous tc the modern consular system) questions of public inter national law in time of peace, such as hospitality, right of asylum, extradition, position of ambassadors, and character of diplomatic negotiations, treaties and alliances, colonies, balance of power and right of intervention, international arbitration
in time of war, ; questions relating to sufficient cause of war, declaration, truce and armistice, ransom of prisoners, spies, hostages, reprisals and androlepsia, a certain neutralization,

and various mitigations

of

Preservation

of records of ancient
practices.

of the dead, treatment of temples and graves, and those who took refuge in temples, as also priests, erection of trophies, neutrality ; some maritime provisions concerning the treatment of the shipwrecked, nautodikai and jurisdiction of the admiralty court, embargo, blockade, piracy, etc. The records of the practices relating to the above matters, as well as to those of Roman international law
warfare, including regulations as to burial
are to

Inscriptions.

some extent preserved in inscriptions on bronze or marble tablets, of which a large number of texts are 1 extant, and partly in the works of contemporary histori

cal

Though a great many docuhave been lost, as, for example, that of mentary records the famous peace of Antalcidas concluded with Persia in 387 B.C., the science of epigraphy has been a veritable revelation of ancient international law, and an invaluable supplement to and corrective of the historical writings. On the other hand, many of the documents which are preserved regulate the differences only of obscure and
writers.

and other

nevertheless they throw light on the negotiations that probably took place between the more considerable States. Further, various public and interstatal transactions are inferred from the legends on

unimportant

cities

medals and coins. 2

more

fugitive index, as

Egger

1 Some useful collections, as well as the great Corpus inscriptionum Graecarum, are given in the bibliography. 2 Cf. A. de Barthelemy, Manuel de numismatique ancienne (Paris, i8;i), passim; and, more particularly in the case of Rome, T.

Mommsen,

Geschichte des romischen Munzzvesens (Berlin, 1860), passim.

RECORDS OF ANCIENT PRACTICES


points out,
e.g. Jtiprivrj
1

65

is

found
;

in the reported
Kaiirf

names of

galleys,
;

(peace)

Eiprjvt)

(new or recent peace)


3
;

Etp^vrj

TWV
2
;

aix/uLaXcoTtov

(relating to prisoners

of war, or
^u/m/uLa^ia

booty)

'Ojmovoia
4

(harmony, or unity)

(alliance),

etc.
Historical writin ss-

and other writers we have the of Herodotus, Thucydides, Demosthenes, testimony Xenophon, Polybius, Diodorus Siculus, Dionysius,
to the historical
[Plutarch, Livy, Cicero,

As

Aulus

Gaius and the Digest, and

Gellius, certain texts in 6 Of the prinmany others.

ciples and practices more especially relating to the second century before the Christian era, Polybius is an He is, on the one hand, far more invaluable authority. reliable than writers like Livy in respect of the narration of facts and events, and, on the other, is more profound

and has

a much greater historical grasp and a more accurate notion of the historical method. indicates

He

the outlines of a " family of nations," comprising the

Great Powers of Rome, Carthage, Macedonia, Syria and Egypt, and Parthia and Bactria ; States of secondary rank like the commonwealths of Hellas, the kingdoms of Asia Minor, Pergamos, Bithynia, Cappadocia, Pontus, and Paphlagonia ; and finally, semi-barbarous princiThe contribution of palities in Illyria and Numidia. Polybius has not incorrectly been described as presenting a structure of a philosophic law of nations " Gebaude

He not only Volkerrechts." 6 acted as a historical reporter of events and rules, but examined the significance and applicability of the same,
des

philosophischen

Op.
2

'/.,

in the Introduction.

A. Boeckh, Seewesen der Athener (Berlin, 1.840-51), p. 86.


*lbid. p. 92.

*lbid. p. 90.
5 6

See bibliography as to the ancient writers consulted.

p.

323

R. von Scala, Die Studien " Auf dem Grunde


:

des Polybios (Stuttgart, 1890), vol. i. peripatetischer Gelehrsamkeit aufgebaut,

durch die an der Bekanntschaft mit Rom gewonnenen Gesichtspunkte, das noch ganz anders als die orientalischen Vclker eine Kulturmacht darstellt, erhebt sich das polybianische
fester gegrttndet

Gebaude

des philosophischen Volkerrechts."

66

RECORDS OF ANCIENT PRACTICES


critical

and made

suggestions

in

favour

of such an

No ancient
works on
international law.

would have redounded to th and honour of the States concerned. greater harmony Of Greek or Roman works dealing specially witl international law we have scarcely a trace. Demetriu
international policy as

Phalereus

(c.

345 B.C.-283

B.C.) is said to

have

writtei

a treatise, and Varro (166 B.C.-27 B.C.) is reportec l by Aulus Gellius (and also cited by him on the questioi of truces) to have written a contribution on war anc

a part of his principal work et divinarum. have rerum humanarum Antiquitates of course, in the Institutes of Gaius, and in the Diges and Codex of Justinian certain scattered texts apper taining to the law of nations as recognized in the Romar

peace (De

bello et pace) as

We

civil law.
Grotius' mistake.

By

a curious inadvertence, Grotius says that Aristotl


treatise

wrote a

on the laws of war

" Veterum philo-

sophorum
quos

inter

nihil exstat huius generis neque Graecorum, Aristoteles librum fecerat cui nomen
.

and, although the error was pointed out by Barbeyrac, in his edition of Grotius* work, Sir James Mackintosh repeated it in his Discourse on the study of the law of nature and of nations originally The delivered as lectures at Lincoln's Inn, 1799. of a Ammonius the mistake is explained by phrase c. Alexandrian grammarian (fl. 400 A.D.), and by the
Ai/cafw/xara iroXefuov
.

."

',

substitution of the

word TroXewv for TroAeV^" in the titl of one of Aristotle's works Awccuw/xara TCOV TroXewv (th " law " laws of States," not, as Grotius had read, the of war "), of which some fragments have reached us.
1
2

Nocf. Att.

i.

25.

Dejure

belli et pacts,

Proleg.

36.

CHAPTER
THE
1US

III

JURISTIC GENIUS OF ROME.

I US

NATUR4LE

GENTIUM, AND KINDRED CONCEPTIONS


Difference

the ancient nations, the Romans possessed The Greeks the greatest juristic and political genius. theorized, experimented, made tentative provisions; the Romans observed the issues clearly, and adopted measures according to the immediate needs of time and

AMONGST

place.

with the Romans,


spirit,

The Greeks were visionaries in comparison who were of a positive and calculating and prudent men of affairs. The Greek was

away by, and was almost a slave to, his imaginthe Roman was guided by, and was master of, a sound, practical, hard-headed common-sense. Hence the supreme philosophy and poetry and art of the Greeks, and their preference for territorial exclusiveness hence the supreme juristic work of the Romans, and their unsatiable longing for territorial expansion and 2 The Greek jealousy conquest of the material world.
carried

ation

Cf.

Laurent,
elle assiste,

op.

dt.

vol.

iii.

p. 3

" La Grece represente

les

facultes brillantes

auquel
joie."
2

de 1'imagination, pour elle la vie est un banquet couronnee de fleurs et chantant des hymnes a la

Cf. Bluntschli's statement in which he sums up in what respects lay the superiority of the Romans over their predecessors and teachers : "Aber in zwei Beziehungen Ubertrafen die ROmer ihre alteren

Vorbilder und Lehrer, furs erste durch ihre juristic he Begabung und inbesondere ihre grossere Fahigkeit, scharfe und klare Rechtsformen auszubilden, fllrs zweite durch ihren grosfarfigeren politischen Giist und " eine Staatspraxis, die entschlossen war, sich der Welt zu bema"chtigen C. Bluntschli, Dat Beuterecht im Kneg und das Seebeutencht (J.
inbesondere,

Nftrdlingen,

1878).

68

RELIGION AND EONA FIDES


is

of citizenship

contrasted with the

Roman

policy of

incorporation, gradually and surely by the extension of the franchise first to Italy, then to Gaul and Spain, and ultimately to the entire Roman empire. The great skill of the Romans in the sphere of practical jurisprudence was manifested alike in the assemblies of
realized

the people, in the legislative comitia, in the institution of the tribunes, and in that of the praetor. To meet all in the law was aimed possible emergencies, elasticity at ; to supplement or or supply the modify generally" deficiencies of the statutory provisions, a system of legal fictions and rules of equity was devised and The Romans were the first people constantly applied. in the world clearly and firmly to grasp the fact that law is a living organism. As with the law of the Hellenes and that of all other nations of antiquity, the influence of religion on the law of Rome was likewise great, notably during the first half of her The Roman ritual was somehistory. what simpler than the Greek, which, presenting certain heterogeneous elements of oriental origin, was thereby rendered less stable, both in respect of its form and of its The sacred formula was the governing significance. element and the indispensable condition in the adjustments of all kinds of legal relationships, whether they possessed a municipal or an international character. Rome was apparently dominated by an absolute formalism in all things, divine and human ; in reality, however, this formalism was made to subserve the underlying purpose and all-important substance of this or that transaction. The basis of all relationships, of
all

faith

obligations was conceived to be sincerity and good and Rome always prided herself on her invincible ;

The

principle

Qibona fides.

attachment to bona fides, and constantly held up to con trast to her own laudable attitude, the scorn infidelity, the dissimulation, the duplicity of foreign c nations. Punica fides,' c graeca fides/ and the like, became proverbial expressions of reproach. Bona fides
^

m
'

was

closely allied to religiousness, piety, respect for the

IUS CIVILE

AND

IUS

GENTIUM

69

Though for many centuries Rome was inspired gods. with the " fear of God," to use Machiavelli's exu per piu secoli non fu mai tanto timore di pression Dio quanto in quella republica," l nevertheless her
international law contains a large body of rules which are not directly drawn from religion, but issue from her international juridical consciousness. Just as the VOJULIJULO. 'EXX^ftji/ are closely allied to the The

ius civile,

has the Roman ius civile many VO/ULIUJLO, avOpooTTcw, in reference to its origin and essential of contact, points the ius with nature, gentium. The expression ius civile has been used in various At the beginning of the Institutes of Justinian, senses. we find ius civile defined as those laws which are enacted
so

n#

by a State for
It
is,

its

own

subjects,

again, used as synonymous with


it

and are peculiar to itself. 2 ius privatum?

Then

employed in contradistinction to the ius i the law introduced by the edicts of the honorarium, 4 for example, where the institution as heir magistrates ;
is

of a stranger's posthumous child would, according to the civil law, be invalid, he could nevertheless be put in possession of the property by the praetorian law (though
in the civil law). 5 this praetorian provision was later embodied Further, ius civile is sometimes used Further

to signify that portion of the law the jurisconsults. 6


1

which

is

the

work of

Discorsi

sopra la

prlma deca
init.

di

Tito Livio,

lib.

i.

cap. 1 1

(della

Religione de' Romani), in


2
i.

2. i

"Nam
i.

quod quisque populus


est,

ipse sibi ius constituit, id

ipsius civitatis
8 4

proprium
z. 10.

vocaturque ius civile."

Just. Inst.

"Ius autem civile est, quod ex (de justitia et jure), 7 legibus, plebis scitis, senatus consultis, decretis principum, auctoritate
Dig.
i.

prudentium venit." 5 " Nam si alienus

postumus

heres

fuerit

institutus,

quamvis

hereditatem iure civili adire non poterat, cum institutio non valebat, honorario tamen iure bonorum possessor efficiebatur, videlicet cum a praetore adiuvabatur ; sed hie e nostra constitutione hodie recte " heres
instituitur, quasi et iure civili
i.

non incognitus

(Inst.

iii.

9).

" His prudentium), 2.5: legibus

Dig.

2 (de origine juris et

omnium magistratuum
latis

et successione

coepit (ut naturaliter evenire

70
Division of

THE

IUS

GENTIUM

hc ' prfrate?and
sacred.

Jurisconsults, historians, and other writers, including poets, frequently emphasize a tripartite division of law j nto public, private, and sacred ; thus, in Ausonius we

find:
,.

" lus

triplex, tabulae

quod

ter sanxere

quaternae

Sacrum, privatum, et populi

commune quod usquam

est."

Cicero points out the relationship between the law and the law of nations, in so far as their content is concerned, and insists that whatever distinction may have been made between them the civil law ought always to comprise the law of nations, though the law of nations obviously cannot be co-extensive with 2 the civil law. Indeed, the Romans never did really the existence of any marked difference in the recognize fundamental principles of private law, public law, and
civil

And

international law, either as regards their cogent applicaor as regards the force of their respective sanctions. bility,
The
ius
ts

There
of the
sj r
_

is

origin tnd'

ius

a great difference of opinion as to the origin 3 gentium and as to its meaning. According to

meaning.

Maine

view.

Henry Maine,

or

common

the ius gentium represents the totality r elements round in the customs and usages
i
i
i

ut interpretatio desideraret prudentium auctoritatem) necessariam esse disputationem fori. haec disputatio et hoc ius, quod sine scripto venit compositum a prudentibus, propria parte aliqua non
solet,

appellatur, ut ceterae partes iuris suis nominibus designantur, datis propriis nominibus ceteris partibus, sed communi nomine appellatur
ius civile."

Cf. Dig.

i.

2 (de orig., etc.), z. 12

"
:

id est lege, constituitur, aut est proprium ius civile, in sola prudentium interpretatione consistit. ..."
1
11.

Ita in civitate nostra aut iure, quod sine scripto

Opuscula^ ed. R. Peiper (Lipsiae, 1886), Edyll. xi. (336), p. 203,

61-62.
2

De offic.
;

iii.

17

:" Itaque

maiores aliud ius gentium, aliud ius civile

quod civile, non idem continue gentium ; quod autem gentium, idem civile esse debet." 8 As to the different meanings attributed to the phrase ius gentium, see the article by H. Nettleship, in The Journal of Philology, vol. xiii.
voluerunt
(1885), pp. 169-181 ; reprinted in his Contributions to Lexicography Cf. also J. Baron, Peregrinenrecht und (Oxford, 1889), pp. 500-510. Jus Gentium (Leipzig, i%y 2), passim.

VARIOUS MODERN VIEWS


of the ancient Italian
nations that the
in contact

71

tribes,

Romans had

with and observing. particular was seen to be practised by a large number of usage separate races in common, it was set down as part of
to all nations, or ius gentium. The a collection of rules and was gentium accordingly observation be determined to common by principles, to the institutions which prevailed among the various

which constituted all the opportunities of coming " Whenever a

the law

common

ius

The ius gentium, the same writer goes to say, was a system of which the Roman was compelled to take cognizance in consequence of political " loved it as little as he loved the exigencies.
Italian tribes."
l

on

He

foreigners from whose institutions it was derived, and A complete revolufor whose benefit it was intended. tion in his ideas was required before it could challenge his respect, but so complete was it when it did occur, that the true reason why our modern estimate of the ius gentium differs from that which has just been described, is that both modern jurisprudence and modern philosophy have inherited the matured views of the There did come later jurisconsults on this subject. a time when, from an ignoble appendage to the ius civile, the ius gentium came to be considered a great though as yet imperfectly developed model to which 2 all law ought as far as possible to conform."

In a subsequent work, 3 Maine incidentally points out that originally the ius gentium was also to some extent a kind of market law, owing its existence to In this the necessity of commercial relationships.
respect it would bear a certain resemblance to our own law-merchant. The view of Savigny inclines to the conception of view $ the close relationship between the ius gentium and a
private international law.
1

of

As more and more


1

aliens

Ancient Law, ed. Sir F. Pollock (London,


Ibid.

906), pp.

5 2 seq.

Village Communities in the East and West, pp. 193-4 (published in 1871, the Ancient Law having been first issued in 1861).

72

THE

IUS

GENTIUM

were admitted, and as Rome extended her dominion, and assimilated conquered peoples, it became necessary
to apply other or modified provisions in the case of

temporarily or more permanently on territory, so as to meet the interests and demands of justice. The rules thus admitted gradually formed the body of ius gentium. They were based on the principle of personality, that is, on considerations of the nature and applicability of the personal law of the stranger ; in other words, the origo of the individual, not his domicilium, was usually adopted as the deter1 mining factor in the solution of legal difficulties. Thus the ius gentium, which was instituted in favour of noncitizens, served as a supplement to the ius civile, the ancient national law, which was reserved for citizens
aliens

residing

Roman

exclusively.

Karlowa 3 agrees with Savigny as to origin, but denies the application of the principle of personality, namely, the ius originis.

somewhat

Puchta. 4
fetiale, as

He

explanation is advanced by a consideration of the ius with begins


different

embodying the

rules

and

principles governing

the relationships which arise out of the declaration of war and the conclusion of peace, and prescribing the assumes that in necessary formalities thereof.

He

matters within the scope of the fetial law as, for example, in the earlier treaties between Rome and Carthage, there must have been clauses regulating the various relationships arising from the intercourse of the subjects of the allied States. Then
the ancient treaties
As to origo and domicilium and their respective applications in regard to conflicts of laws, see Infra. (See contents table and index.) 2 F. C. von Savigny, System des heutlgen romischen Rechts, 9 Bde. i, c. iii. s. 22; and Geschuhte des (Berlin, 1840-1851), Bd. i. lib. romischen Rechts im Mittelalter, 7 Bde. (Heidelberg, 1834-1851), Bd. i.
c.
i.

s.

i.

3
cf.

O. }Htt\ovfz,RomischeRechtsgeschichte, 2 Bde. (Leipzig, 1885-1901);


i.

Bd.
4

59.

G.
i.

F.

Puchta, Cursus der Institutionen, ^ Bde.

(Leipzig,

1875),

Bd.

83, pp.

304

seq.

',

and

cf.

Nettleship, he.

cit.

VARIOUS MODERN VIEWS

73

he refers to the institution of the recuperatores and that of the praetor inter peregrines, whose jurisdictions respectively were determined to meet the new and constantly

growing needs.

Thus a general Roman peregrin-law " " ein was allgemeines romisches Peregrinenrecht The claims of peregrins, who were necesthe result.
sarily

debarred from availing themselves of the ius civile, settled, as Savigny held, by the adoption of the peregrins' national law, or, where this was not possible, by resorting to principles which were more or less (provided, it may be safely universally recognized ; cases the in both that added, adoption of such measures was not in any way prejudicial to the Roman commonHence the ius gentium was the law applied wealth). to the various nations besides the Roman. to thegentes, " Das romische ius gentium ist das Recht welches Rom

were

den Gentes,

also

den Volkern ausser dem romischen,

in

ihren Gliedern, die vor den romischen Behftrden Recht 1 And the expression indicates law suchen, gewahrt."

determined not merely in view of any individual nation, but for foreign peoples in general. " Zugleich liegt in

dem Wort,
einzelnes
clusion
is

dass es ein allgemeines, nicht bloss fur ein


ist."
2

Volk bestimmter Recht


that the

Puchta's con-

ius gentium presents two aspects be designated the objective and the subjective (though, strangely enough, he does not here make use of these expressions so beloved of German In the first place it represents the general writers). peregrin law applied to individuals to whom the civil law was not extended, and consisting substantially of the peregrins' own laws, adapted to render them universally applicable, and modified and enlarged under the influence of Roman conceptions. Secondly, it represents the law not deliberately arrived at by scientific

which

may

'

'

Puchta,

loc. cit.

It

is

that the

word

gentes,

when

to be noted in this connection, however, used in the sense of foreign nations, in


is

contradistinction

to

the Romans,

of very rare occurrence, and

post-Augustan.

74
analysis

THE

IUS

GENTIUM

and speculation, but as issuing spontaneously and imperceptibly from the progressive spirit of the " Das Romans, from their broadening juridical sense. ius gentium hat zwei Seiten einmal ist es das allgemeine Peregrinenrecht, nach welchem die Romer die Rechtsverhaltnisse von Personen beurtheilten, fur die
:

das jus civile keine Anwendung fand ; die Grundlage dieses Rechtes, waren wirkliche Peregrinenrechte, nur nach dem Bedu'rfniss allgemeiner Anwendbarkeit und unter dem Einfluss romischer Auffassung mannigfaltig modificirt und erweitert. Dann aber ist es das Recht, welches in den erweiternten allgemeinen Rechtsansichten des romischen Volks seinen Ursprung hat, das also nicht auf eine kiinstliche Art, durch Speculation oder gelehrte Forschung, gemacht, sondern durch die innere

Macht des in seiner Bildung fortschreitenden Volksgeistes


viewofjors.

hervorgetrieben ist." 2 Jors follows Puchta, and insists that the


consists

ius

gentium

of peregrin rules which have gradually passed

into the

Roman

civil law, until at last

the entire sub-

of the Weltrecht became the law of Roman "bis schliesslich die ganze Masse des Weltcitizens,
stance
rechts ein recht der
Of Wlassak.

Romischen Burger geworden The same opinion is held by Wlassak, 4 who

ist."

sees in

international relationships the source of the ius gentium? which, with certain exceptions, became embodied in the
Of Mommsen.

Roman civil law. 6 Mommsen, 7 again,


international
/of. cit.

regards the

ius

international law, 8 gradually developed in side of the municipal law.


Of
Rudorff.

gentium as private Rome by the

Its
1

character

is

also

emphasized by

Puchta,

P. J6rs, Romische Rechtsmssemchaft zur Zeit der Republik (Berlin,

1888), pp. 134, 139, 151,


*Ibid. p. 147.
5 7 8

Anm.

i.

Romische Processgesetze (Leipzig, 1888-91), 2 Pt.


*lbid. p. 131,

Ibid,

ii.

p.

145.

Anm.

15.
iii.

Cf. Romisches Staatsrecht (Leipzig, 1887-88), Bd.

pp. 603-6.

For

fuller

treatment of this question, see

infra.

VARIOUS MODERN VIEWS


Rudorff,
1

75

goes so far as to maintain that it international law represents, States qua States, between the is regulating relationships et belli ius is veritable a as and, pads, and, on the such, as adjusting the law international other hand, private members of the various individual between differences " diesen nationalen Rechten iiber und Zwischen States.

who even

on the one hand, public

steht das internationale

Ius Gentium.

Es

enthalt die

gemeinsamen Grundlagen des Verkehrs, nach welchen zu entscheiden ist, wo das eigene oder fremde Civilrecht Als gemeines Recht der nicht massgebend sein kann.
Staaten seines Rechtskreises beherrscht es die Rechts-

gegen einander, das Jus belli Glieder verschiedener Staaten, et pacts, (2) der einzelnen also das internationale Privatrecht, z. B. das Recht der Wechselheirathen und obligatorischen Vertrage, soweit
verhaltnisse (i) der Staaten
sie

wie das mutuum


sind,
2

(/xorro*/),

die emptio, locatio,

u.s.w.

international

den Schutz

des Besitzes

und des
Dirksen.

Rechtsfriedens."

Dirksen 3 had already advanced an opinion to this 4 effect before Rudorff, and, more recently, Willems held the same point of view.

wuiems.

own way Voigt, who, as Baron says, likes to go " " der doch seine liebt asserts zu gehen Wege eigenen that with the introduction of a silver currency, and the
5

his

voigt.

adoption of a more fixed coinage system, demanded by the necessities of international commercial relationships,
the ius gentium was gradually called into being for the purpose of determining the rights and obligations arising in transactions between citizens and peregrins, or
1

A. F. Rudorff, Romisehe Rechtsgeschichte, 2 Bde. (Leipzig, 1857).


i.

^Ibid. vol.
3

p. 3.

H. E. Dirksen, Uber die Eigenthlimluhkeit des Jus Gentium nach den Vorstellungen der Romer (in Vermuchte Schrlften, vol. i. pp. 200-252,
Berlin,
4

1841);

cf.

esp. pp.

215

seq.

P.
5.

Willems, Le

droit public

romain

(Louvain,

1883), p.

128,

note
5

M.
O/.

Voigt, Romisehe Rechtsgeschichte, 3 Bde. (Leipzig, 1892-1902).


/.

p. 38.

76

THE

IUS

GENTIUM

between peregrins themselves ; and the growth of this body of rules was facilitated on the one side by the borrowings of the praetor urbanus from the edictum peregrinum, and on the other by those of the praetoi " Gleichwie man in peregrinus from the ius civile. dem neu eingefiihrten Silbergelde und Sextantarasse
.
.

eine

Miinze

schuf, die

dem

internationalen Geschafts-

verkehr zu dienen berufen war, so ward auch das iu gentium als Rechtsordnung fur den Verkehr mit ode zwischen Peregrinen, nicht dagegen zwischen Gives in Leben gerufen, vielmehr geschah es erst im Lauf weiterer Entwicklung, dass ein dem edictum urbanum und peregrinum gemeinsamer Stock von Satzungen sic bildete, sei es dass der praetor urbanus aus dem edictum peregrinum oder der praetor peregrinus aus dem iu * The same writer, in another work, civile entlehnte." that the ius says gentium in its earlier stages was an international independent private law which, as such the various relationships between peregrins, o regulated between citizens and peregrins, on the basis of thei common libertas. " Nach Alle dem aber haben wir im Sinne des Alterthumes die Wesenbestimmung des ius gentium fur die fruheste Periode seines Bestehens dahin

zu geben, ein selbststandiges, Internationales Privatrecht zu sein, welches als solches den Verkehr zwischen Peregrinen unter sich, wie mit cives romani auf Grund der den verkehrenden beiwohnenden libertas normirte."During the Republic this libertas was merely of an empirical nature, and practically free from the influence
of scientific or philosophical speculation, which, however, with the jurists of the early Empire, co-operating with their construction of a comparative jurisprudence brought about an extension of such libertas.*
l

Romische Rechtsgeschichte, vol.

i.

p.

154.
Ius

aequum (Leipzig, 1856-1876).


3

Das

ius naturale

et

bonum und

gentium der Rbmer, 4 Bde.

Ibid. vol.

ii.

p.

66 1.
i.

Voigt,

ibid. vol.

pp. 399, 400.

DIFFERENT USES OF THE TERM

77

the difficulty in determining the origin of the Difficult to gentium is greatly enhanced by the fact that Roman fhe'originof s gentium. in different ways. 1 Some- The writers use this expression r expression times it is used in a popular sense, much in the same used in a large " " vanetyofways way as we would say "public opinion, or the sense As derivatives from such usage we of nations," etc. find the adverbial phrases ubi gentium (where in the It is, iworld), minime gentium, nusquam gentium. again, employed in a somewhat quasi-legal sense, with reference to common customs or usages of the world. Then
ius
. .

Now

t/i

its

legal significance in the relationships

applicable, will

emerges when it is recognized that between peoples such usages, when be spontaneously adopted or expected on

the ground of their universal, or seemingly universal, <c a presumption or fiction acceptance by tacit consent," introduced in the earliest times to impart a juridical
character to transactions based

on such common usages

so that, in this connection, ius gentium is now used to signify a public international law, now a private international law.

The jurisconsults frequently make use of the expres- use sion in reference to certain simple cases of contract, of 2 for example, questions as to ownership, of actions ;
the position and treatment of ambassadors (also very often mentioned by the historians) ; 3 questions as to transactions between individuals, of which Gaius and the Digest give many examples relating to the obligationes of
traditio, acceptilatio, etc.,

of the

and the implied actiones ; quesownership of certain things and places, of which the Digest makes frequent reference to the
tions as to the
sea, the shore, alluvial deposit,

booty taken
is

in war, etc.

In a passage already quoted, 4 which


1
3

a passage of

C.

Nettleship, be.

cit.

*lbid. p. 175.
viii. 5.

Sallust, lug. xxxv. 6 ; Livy, i. 14. I ; ii. 4. 7 ; 10. 6; Tacit. Ann. i. 42 (all quoted by Nettleship). chapter on ambassadors.
4

xxi.

Cf. infra, the

"

Itaque maiores aliud ius gentium, aliud ius civile voluerunt; quod
;

civile

esse

non idem continue gentium debet" (De offic. iii. 17).

quod autem gentium, idem

civile

78
Cicero's

IUS

GENTIUM AND
owing to

IUS

NATURALE
inferences drawn

great importance

certain

th^Sstinction

^ntium and
ius civile.

therefrom by modern writers, Cicero stated that his ancest ors drew a distinction between the ius gentium and the ius civile to the effect that the former was universal unwritten law, the latter special or particular written The statement of Gaius l corresponds substanlaw. Now with regard to this passage, tially with Cicero's. Nettleship asserts that the ancestors (maiores) Cicero
speaks of probably refer to the theoretical lawyers of the second century before the Christian era. But, it may well be asked, why limit the origin of this
distinction to

validity of

such reference,

that date

It

was then, perhaps,


explicitly

that
a

such distinction was more

formulated,

proceeding which was, indeed, inevitable at a time when a large variety of matters in jurisprudence were eluciThere can dated and subjected to thorough analysis. be no doubt that through the influence of Greek writers, if through no other cause (which is a highly improbable
hypothesis), distinction 2

and particularly through the Aristotelian between vojmo? 'IStos (the particular law), and

KOIVOS (the universal, the unwritten law, the earlier than the second century Romans, aypcupos), B.C., discriminated clearly between the ius gentium and the ius civile, although, of course, that distinction was never a hard-and-fast one.

the

VOJULOS

ius gentium
natttraie,

Again,

ius

consults as

frequently taken by the jurissynonymous with ius naturale? ius naturae

gentium
are

is

',

ius naturae,

though
1

there
i.

also
i.

many
2,
i.

cases

where they

are

Inst.

cf.

Just. Inst.

2
3

Cf. supra, p. 53.

On

ius

naturale

generally,
iii.

see

B.

W.

Leist,
;

Graco-Italische

Rechtsgeschichte (Jena, 1884), Civ. Stud. i. (1854), p. 33;

32, pp. 199

seq.

the same author's


\

(1859), pp.

seq.

Naturalis ratio
;

undNatur der Sache (1860); Civ. Stud. iv. (1877) pp. i seq. Voigt, Das jus naturale vol. i. pp. 244 seq. ; K. Hildenbrand, Geschlchte und System der Rechts- und Staatsphilosophie, Bd. i. Das Klassische Alterthum (Leipzig, 1860), pp. 566 seq. ; G. Brini, Jus naturale (Bologna, 1889); Sir F. Pollock, History of the law of nature (in
. . .

Journal of the Society of Comparative Legislation (London,

900) pp.

4^-433).

IUS

GENTIUM AND NATURAL JUSTICE


from each other.
justice
is

79

distinguished
1

In

the

Nicomachean
Aristotle into

Ethics,

political
/mev

natural, TO The rules

by and conventional, TO Se vofUKov. of natural justice are those which are


ipvariKov,

divided

necessarily recognized

by all civilized men, as civilized of men, irrespective place or nationality ; whilst the rules of conventional justice are those which are
deliberately and expressly enacted by sovereign authority for the particular individuals subject thereto, and serving
to confirm, to explain, or to complete the former. 2 Aristotle's conception of nature implies the notion of rational design, or " reason," in the universe ; and of
this

" reason " manifestations are perceptible in the its or material world, though perfect realization physical is there never attainable. This theory was developed more fully by the sub- influence sequent schools of Greek philosophers, particularly so phfios^h^ " emphasized the teleological by the Stoics. The latter and ethical aspects of the peripatetic doctrine, and fixed in this connection the special nature on the term meaning of the constitution of man as a rational and social being." 3 It is noteworthy that also among the ancient Aryans the word rita expressed the design, the principle, or order which governed the universe, alternations of day and night, the various manifestations
*
'

of nature, birth, growth, decay. 4 No doubt to this corresponds the conceptions of ritus, ratio^ ratum of the Latins, as also the notion of rerum natura^ and, in a
certain sense, ius naturale.

Now
1

the substance of the

Roman

ius gentium,

when

substance of

actually applied in practice,


v.

was seen to harmonize,

for ^notion*
of natural
justice '

10 (quoted supra,

p. 54).
:

As Bossuet says (in Sermon sur la justice} "La creature raisonnable lois dont les unes sont naturelles; et les autres, que nous appelons positives, sont faites ou pour con firmer, ou pour expliquer ou pour perfectionner les lumieres de la nature."
2

a ses

8 Sir
4

F. Pollock, ibid. p. 419.

Cf. Leist, Graco-Italische Rechtsgetchichte, p. 187 ; and see, passim, the same writer's Alt-Arisches Jus Gentium (Jena, 1889).

8o

THE NATURALIS RATIO

so that what was

the most part, with the precepts of this natural justice ; first seen to be a close kinship between them gradually developed into a notion of identity. Hence th,e jurisconsults regarded the ius gentium as equivalent to ius naturale, the Latin expression for the Greek (pva-ucov SiKalov. Thus Gaius refers to the rules
' for all, and observed by prescribed by natural reason all nations alike, "... naturalis ratio inter vero quod '

omnes homines

constituit,

id

apud omnes populos

peraeque custoditur vocaturque ius gentium, quasi quo iure omnes gentes utuntur." l This naturalis ratio was conceived to be the self-evident principle of the
universe, and essentially unchangeable

representing perfect justice, a moral faculty. Cicero gives various examples of the guidance and efficacy of the universal reason, It is laid down, he says, not natura, or naturae ratio.

and immutable, and inspiring into human

minds

only by the law of nature, that is the law of nations, but also by the statutory law of States, that no one shall be allowed, for his own advantage, to inflict an injury on another. Now he who obeys the behests of universal reason, which is the law of gods and men alike, will in other words, he who lives according to nature never covet his neighbour's goods, or be induced to appropriate for his own profit what he has wrested from another. 2 Cicero, whilst insisting that true law must be derived from philosophy "penitus ex intima philo3 hauriendam does not, disciplinam putat" sophia is fact that it and must be overlook the nevertheless, made for man " hominum causa omne ius constitutum
l

lnst.

i.

I.
:

5. 23 "Neque vero hoc solum natura, id est, iure gentium, sed etiam legibus populorum, quibus in singulis civitatibus res publica continetur, eodem modo constitutum est, ut non liceat sui
offic. iii.

De

commodi causa nocere alteri .... naturae ratio, quae omnes autem cui parere qui velit et humana
;

est lex

divina

secundum naturam volent


appetat et
17. 69.
id,

vivere

numquam

parebunt, qui committet ut alienum


Cf. also ibid.
iii.

quod

alteri detraxerit, sibi

adsumat."

JUS
est."
1

NATURALE AND
with
if

IUS

COMMUNE
spirit,

81

The Romans

their

practical

and

not unwillingness or ingeneral incapacity difference to follow the metaphysical disquisitions and subtle analysis of the Greeks, constantly emphasize that and that law is always subject necessity begets law, 2 to the exigencies of some particular time and place. Occasionally we find that the ius gentium, in the sense of universal usage, is considered to be in conflict with
their

/us gentium

natural equity aequum bonumque. For example, Sallust the to case of Bomilcar says that the accusation referring him when he reached Rome was made rather on against considerations of equity than in accordance with the
"fit reus magis ex usage of nations (ius gentium) ex iure Bomilcar, comes aequo bonoque quam gentium " 3 eius qui Romam fide publica venerat that is, in this ; was made to overcase, equity aequum bonumque ride the claims of fides pubhca? which appertained to the
ius gentium.

wilj

"

the maturity of the Roman jurisprudence, that the until the is, during Empire days of Diocletian, the ius naturale exercised a influence. Its characterisgreat as from a speculative tics, expressed by Voigt, were,

During

influence

point of view, a potential general validity or universal for all individuals, for all nations, for all applicability times in consequence of which it claimed to be free

from abrogation by the


is

civil law.

Hence

the ius naturale

potentially a ius gentium, in the sense of a ius commune ius commune omnium hominum ; and, further, as the ius naturale necessarily implies aequitas, it

bonum, as differentiated
1

of the nature of aequum et from the ius civile, which repreis


i.

De fnibus,

iii.

20

cf.

Gaius and Hermogenes in Dig.


c.

5. 2.

Cf. Publilius Syrus

(fl.

45

B.C.), Sententiae

" Honesta
3

lex est temporis necessitas.

Necessitas dat legem,


Jug. xxxv. 6.

non

ipsa accipit."

On

infra.

the conception of'fides and its force in the law of nations, see (Consult the index for various references thereto.)

82
/us strictum.

IUS

NATURALE AND

IUS CIVILE

From a practical point of view the contemporary jurisconsults, by considering the actual application of the ius naturale to everyday life, make it
sents the ius strictum. 1
clear that certain conclusions were inferred by them, an admission of the claims of the principle of kinship

(" sanguinis vel cognationis ratio ") ; a necessary obligation of fidelity to engagements (" is natura debet cuius fidem secuti sumus," as Paulus says in the Digest) ;
.

the apportionment of advantages and disadvantages, gain and loss, in accordance with the demands of aequitas, with the standard of the bonum et aequum ; and, generally, a predominance of the spirit, the " ratio intention over the letter or outvoluntatis,"
Possible
conflicts

ward form. 2 It would appear

that

serious difficulties

would be

between the

and the
civile.

ius naturale ius

created in the possible antagonism between the newer dispensations of the ius naturale and the previously But such inconsisexisting provisions of the ius civile.
tencies, as

derogatory to the civil law, were largely avoided by the fact that the jurisconsults of the early

The

ius

respondendi of the jurisconsults.

Empire possessed the .ius respondendi which virtually constituted them legislative organs of the State. Thus, the new principles of the ius naturale or of aequum
bonumque introduced by them were endowed, ip so facto, These jurists were, as Voigt with the force of law.
Die potentielle vol. i. p. 304 , Voigt, Das ius naturale Gemeingultigkeit des jus naturale fur alle Menschen, bei alien Vslkern und zu alien Zeiten bedingt, dass dem jus naturale der Anspruch zukOmmt, durch das jus civile nicht aufgehoben zu werden ; Die potentielle Gemeingiiltigkeit des jus naturale fur alle Menschen und bei alien Nationen resultirt, dass das jus naturale in potentia ein
. . . :

"

jus

gentium,

d. h.
ist,

wie ein jus

ebensowohl ein jus commune omnium hominum, quo omnes gentes utuntur, wahrend anderseits der

rein nationale Character des aus der civilis ratio hervorgegangenen jus civile bedingt, dass dasselbe seinem Wesen nach auch ein jus civile im

Gegensatze

zum jus gentium ist Die Uebereinstimmung des jus naturale mit den Anforderungen der aequitas bedingt, dass das Erste ein bonum et aequum ist, wogegen
;

das jus civile


2

als

das strictum jus sich darstellt."

Voigt,

Ibid.

pp. 321-3.

NATURALIS RATIO LEX NATURAE


"

83

1 philosophers in the region of law, investigators says, of the ultimate and highest truth ; but whereas they, for the most part in reference to a concrete case, sought out the truth and applied what they had found, they combined with the freedom of speculation the vitality and freshness of practice, and the power of assuring the of their abstract applicability propositions." It is, in fact, the naturalis ratio, observes Voigt, that Function of 1" is the point of departure of the philosophical systems of ^atio"*" " mit diesem Begriffe law of Gaius and Paul, fur uns die beginnen rechtsphilosophischen Systeme des Gaius und Paulus." 2 This naturalis ratio is that which represents the total and essential significance of each thing, " its ordinative energy and determinative rule." The lex ux naturae. naturae is the product of such naturales rationes ; and the substance of the lex naturae constitutes a ius naturale? It is here worthy of note that Ulpian in a passage, uipian's in both the adopted Digest and in Justinian's Institutes, aeration of defines ius naturale as the law which is common to ius nat* ral*. man and all animals, " quod natura omnia animalia and distinguishes it from ius gentium, which is docuit,"
.

the

" solis hominibus rule applicable to men alone inter se commune." Of this definition Sir Frederick

Pollock says

we are not obliged to believe " that it was current among Roman lawyers in Ulpian's own time, or anything but a conceit borrowed from some forgotten
Greek
But, it is submitted, it is not necessary to refer to a supposed lost Greek source this And it is scarcely to be particular definition of Ulpian. tc conceit," unless it be necessarily a conceit designated a
rhetorician."
to adopt a modified sense, or rather to emphasize
4

submitted
explana

some

vol. i. p. 341: "... Sie sind Philosophen auf dem Gebiete des Rechtes, Erforscher letzter und hochster Wahrheit, allein indem sie, meist im Hinblick auf den concreten Fall, das Wahre erfbrschen und das Erkannte verwirklichen, verbinden sie mit der Freiheit und Ungebundenheit der Speculation die Lebensfrische der Praxis und die Macht dem abstracten Satze die Verwirklichung zu

sichern."
id. vol.
i.

p.

274.

Cf. Voigt, ibid. vol.

i.

pp. 270-274.

Note (E)

to Maine's dncient

Law, pp. 75-6.

84

THE

IUS

NATURALE OF ULPIAN

particular element of the denotation of a term which had ever been used by writers with marked elasticity, and the definition of which had never been finally fixed or To lay stress on some partiuniversally agreed upon. cular aspect of a term is not necessarily to employ that

term

meaning.

in a far-fetched sense, foreign to the underlying Ulpian in his definition lays stress

When

on natural
by

instinct,

naturale to denote

he simply uses the expression ius what Cicero had intended to convey

vis naturae^ and Seneca by lex naturae. Thus Cicero, speaking of the reproduction and nurture of the lower " animals, makes use of these words atque etiam in bestiis vis naturae inspici potest ; quarum in foetu, in educatione laborem quum cernimus, naturae ipsius vocem videmur audire." 1 Seneca uses lex natura in reference to the physical sensations of hunger, thirst, " Lex naturae non cold sitire, non esurire, non " Hinc descen2 Then followed with Ulpian algere." hinc liberorum dit maris atque feminae conjunctio videmus caetera quoque hinc educatio enim procreatio, Here animalia, feras etiam istius iuris perita denser!*"' we see that, as Cicero and Seneca had done before him, Ulpian (probably not unmindful of other notions then current) singled out natural instinct as a fundamental factor, providing for the propagation and preservation of the species. Justinus, writing still later than these, uses naturae ius to express the right of the eldest son to the 4 succession, though elsewhere he adopts ius gentium in
:
:

reference to the same right. 5


l

DeJinibus,

iii.

19.

Epist. iv.

Dig.

\.

\.

i.

"Exstincto in Sicilia Dionysio tyranno in locum eius milites maximum natu ex filiis eius, nomine Dionysium, suffecere, et naturae ius secuti, et quod firmius futurum esse regnum, si penes

unum
5

remansisset,

arbitrabantur

"

quam
I.

si

portionibus inter plures

filios

divideretur,

(xxi.

2).

For further

natura^

illustrations of the elastic character of the word the following verses from Virgil : compare " Hos natura modos primum dedit ..." (Georg. ii. 20).

"... Has
Imposuit natura

leges aeternaque foedera certis

locis

..."

(Georg.

i.

60-6 1).

IUS
In

AND DIKE

85
Use
of

times, with all the ripeness of our Ianour vaunted habits of scientific precision, we and guage do not always use words strictly and in the same sense, Nor did the ancients always do regardless of context.
scientific tendency to refine conceptions, to them, to materialize them, as it were, is always accompanied by the poetic tendency to widen them, to apply them to somewhat different circumstances.
so.

modern

K^
world -

The

label

have been already used a good therefore, it will be worth ; while to say something of their meanings, and of their implications both in private and in public law.
ius, !ex, etc.,

The words

/us,

ux

etc.

deal

in this connection,

The word
justice

ius is in

and law.
aspect.
is

Ius

human
nection

Some

the older Latin jous, signifying significance lheword mainly represents justice in its^ of its derivatives are Justus, index,

in iurgo, iniuria, iuro,

obvious.

u etymologists from iubeo ( quod iussum est a populo"). But this is, as Breal says, 1 to explain the antecedent by the consequent, in view of the fact that iubeo is a com-

the last of which a religious conIus has been derived by some

pound of

ius

and habeo.

The wordjaus

is

found

as a

neuter substantive both in ancient Sanscrit and in Zend. In the Vedas,yw is used with a religious meaning, such
2 and in the Avesta means In such to compound jaos-dd purify.' words as iudex, iudicare, iudicium we get ius associated with dico, which is found in dido (as, for example, in the u The phrase in dicione populi Romani"), and condido. Latin dico, it is usually held, corresponds to the Greek 3 ieucwfu, whence we get SIKJJ, and its various derivatives.

as 'salvation,' or 'divine protection'

the

It

is,

however, not

improbable that the substantive


Sucetv,

is
fy,

related to the verb

TrdOq to iraBeiv, and so similar words. In this case SIKTJ

just as TV-^I is akin to on with various other

might not unreasonably

1 M. Breal, Stir t'origine des mots de'signant le droit et la lot en latin (in Nouvelle Revue historique de droit franfats et etranger, Paris, vol. vii.

(1883), pp. 603-612).


*lbid. p. 606. *lbul. p. 612.

86

LEX AND NOMOS

be thought to imply the idea of the stroke of the rod of justice, in reference to the judge's decision in the disputes of litigants by a vertical stroke of his rod
1

(lOeia Siiaj)

Meaning

of course, clearly connected with legere. Its 2 a matter of Breal As is, however, origin dispute. says " Lex est la Lecture, comme chez les peuples semitiques
is,
:

Lex

la loi c'est 1'Ecriture."

lex are

Oea-juLog,

fnjrpa, VO/ULOS*

Greek words corresponding to The ordinances of Lycur-

4 gus were called prjTpat (in the sense of unwritten laws). At Athens, Solon's laws were generally described as

vofjLoi*
of lex by the Roman
jurisconsults,

Draco's as 0r/*o/ 6 (connected with


i

0e/xi?).

use

The Roman
,

two senses of the comitia? and hence sometimes


:

jurisconsults employed the word lex in i in the first place, as meaning an enactment
/

lex publica

8
;

and

declaration, condition, or remeaning striction, expressly incorporated in a private deed (lex private)^ as in the phrases, lex mancipii, lex contractus, lex 9 testamenti, etc. Later, lex acquired further meanings, 10 for an as, example, imperial constitution.

secondly, as

!Cf. R. Hirzel, Themis, Dike, und Verwandtes.


^Ibid. p. 610.
3

Ein Beitrag zur

Geschichte der Rechtsidee bei den Griechen (Leipzig, 1907), pp. 94. seq.

The
vo/xos

underlying sense of

this

word

is

thus expressed by Aristotle

*0

Tts e(TTt KOI TTjv evvofjiiav aj/ayKcuov cvra^tai/ etvai No/xos is evidently related to ve/zccrts. (cf. Pofit. iv. 8. 6).
4 5 6

rais

Tyrtaeus,

ii.

Plut. Lycurg. 13.

Andocid.

De

Mysteriis,

82

Aelian.

viii.

10.
;

Because each began with the word of the law were termed 0oyio0eTcu.
7 9

flcor/xos

and hence the

revisers

Gaius,
Cf.
J.

i.

3.

*Ibid.

ii.

104;

iii.

174.

Cf. Aul. Gell. x. 20.


private late

2.

(London,
See also
10 Cf.

Muirhead, 1899); note ^X t ^ie ec^i tor > Voigt, Rom. Rechtsgeschichte, i.
iii.

Historical Introduction

to the

of Rome 18
seq.

Prof.
p.

Goudy,
;

pp.

21

Mommsen, Rom.

pp. 308-10. Cf. further Soltau, Giiltigkeit der Plebiscite (Berlin, 1884). as to ius and lex, the lines of Ausonius, Qpuscula, ed. Peiper (Lipsiae,
Staatsrecht,

W.

1886), EdylL

xii.

" Lex
Ius

naturali

(339), p. 157, 11. 12-13 : quam condidit imperio ius,


ius certa

genitum pietate hominum,

Dei mens."

On

C. Clark, Practical Jurisprudence ius, lex, dike, themis, etc., see E.

FAS,

THEMIS,
0e/x*9

AND RATIO
;

87

Fas corresponds to the Greek


&?/>u<7T09,
'

est

is

nefas to ov equivalent to the


1

and

Oe/uns, hence fas tus to so that the Latin ' fas


6e/j.t$

Greek

e<rn ("

it is

meet

Fas refers rather to rules of an exclusively "). for example, in relation to the character ; religious to of augury, and to the various the art auspices, ceremonies of worship. Similarly, fastus, the derivative of fas (as iustus is derived from ius) pertains to pontifical

and right

laws.

Both fas and 6ejuu? are frequently personified in be2 Festus points ginning solemn invocations to the gods. out that Themis was considered a goddess instructing men as to what was fas " Themin deam putabant esse, quae praeciperet hominibus quid fas esset, eamque id
:

Personification

esse existimabant, quod et fas est." 3 Leist states that to the fundamental conception
rita
4

of of other the ancient (the ratio] Aryans vrata y to notions are related, which are thus expressed which corresponds the fas and the ratum of the Latins ;
Latin
:

dhdma, analogous to the Greek $eV*9 \ svadha, answering to e#o9 or ?&>9 of the Greeks, and to mos of the Latins ; It may whilst dharma approaches the meaning of lex. 5 be said briefly that ratio signifies the fundamental principle of the universe governing the course of things
and especially Hirzel, op. cit. For (Cambridge, 1883), pp. 16-58 the relationships between ius, fas, and lex in Roman jurisprudence, cf.
;

L. Mitteis, R'dmisches Prlvatrecht


l

(Leipzig, 1908), vol.


;

i.

pp. 22-37.

IRad,
Cf.

xi.

779

xiv.

386

Odyss. x. 73

xiv.

56

etc.

Seneca: "Fas omne mundi invocation of the fetials (Livy, i. 32).

"

(Hercul. Fur.

658); and the

See infra on

fetials.

3 s.v. Themin, in C. E. G. Bruns, Fontes juris Romani antiqui, ed. T. Mommsen (Freiburg, 1887), p. 372. The same conception is found in Ausonius, Edyll. xii. (343), p. 161, 11. 44-45.

"... prima deum Fas

Quae Themis
4 5

est Graiis
i.

..."

Cf. Voigt, Die XII. Tafeln (1883), vol.

p. 102.

See supra,
Graco-Ifa/.

p.

79.
Rechtsgeschichte,
p.

187;

cf.

also

the same author's

Alt-Arlsches Jus Gentium (passim}.

88

FAS,

EONA

FIDES,

AND ETHOS
and mos are the various

divine and
Fas and ius
contrast.

human,

whilst

ius, fas,

1 aspects of this operating force. Non-legal writers very often contrast fas Both, indeed, represent the will of the gods ;

and

ius.

in fas it declared by inspired agency, for example, by augurs, The oracles, etc. ; in ius, by ordinary human agency. ius was the product of traditional and inveterate custom, or of statute (lex), or of both. Fas sometimes permitted certain things expressly prohibited by ius, thus "transire per alienum fas est, ius non est." 3 In the
is
:

sphere of relationships between nations, fas forbade war was not prosecuted in accordance with the due 4 formalities of fetial procedure, it insisted on bona fides, in promises made even to the enemy, it protected e.g.
if it

hospitality to strangers

5
;

and

in civil relationships,

it

forbade murder, the sale of a wife by her husband, filial 6 violation of fas rendered the offender impiety, etc. impius ; the sin was sometimes expiable, and sometimes no expiation could apply. Where expiation was possible, a peace offering (piacularis hostia) had to be made to the

injured city, and, on some occasions, additional satisfaction had to be made to any third party involved.

Boni mores, regulating public and private morality and general order, is taken to be different from the ius moribus constitutum but part of its content was also within the spheres of ius and fas. Its function was somewhat similar to that of modern public opinion,' especially in respect of mitigating the extreme exercise of legal right, where this would appear to be inequitable, and of enforcing the observance of such moral obligations as were beyond the limits of legal process, e.g. (officia)
; '

obsequium

et reverentia, pudicitia, fides, etc.


is

The Greek

equivalent
1

practically

$09 or ?$o?.

Festus, in his

As tofas\ and mos in early Italy, see G. Carle, Le origini del diritto romano (Torino, 1888), pp. 98-104 ; origin of ius, pp. 104-116. 2 E.g. Livy, vii. 31 ; Virg. Aen. ii. 157.
3 As to fas and lex, cf. the verse Isidore of Seville, Origins, v. 2. 2. of Persius, Sat. 5 " Publica lex hominum, naturaque continet hoc fas."
:

See

infra.

See infra.

Cf.

Muirhead.

op. cit.

pp.

5 seq.

IUS

NATURALE AND
out
its

IUS

GENTIUM
in

89

definition of mosj- points " mos also defines ritus as


sacrificiis."
It is to
2

religious character,

and

comprobatus

administrandis
Post-

be noted that the post-mediaeval writers on law, so devoted to the Roman jurisand so desirous of introducing by all means prudence L.
international

na '* ra/' and


ius gentium.

notions into the consideration or contemporary questions, have a good deal to say as to the relationships between the ius naturale and the ius gentium ; but their
conclusions and discriminations are, as Professor
observes,

Roman

>

3 Isidore of Isidore unsatisfactory." & Seville, writing in the early part of the seventh century, uses ius gentium to represent approximately the

"

Goudy
of

vague and

what

law of nations/ and puts under ius naturale had before been termed ius commune omnium He gives a definite statement of the subjectnationum. " Ius matter of ius gentium gentium est sedium occu-

modern

patio, aedificatio, munitio, bella, captivitates, servitutes,

postliminia,

foedera,
religio, earlier

violandorum
hibita." 4

The

induciae, legatorum non connubia inter alienigenas proRenaissance writers employed the
paces,

expression ius gentium to imply something more than international law in the strict sense. Later, a distinc-

was frequently made between ius naturale, as indicatwhose necessity was manifest and unquestioned, law ing and ius gentium, whose necessity was not obvious to the same extent. Writers like Suarez emphasized the force Suarez. and significance of custom. Ayala held that ius gentium Ayaia. was added to the law of nations by general consent. Gentilis, again, laid stress on the principle of common Gentiiis. Grotius' use of Grotius. consent, as related to natural reason. ius gentium differs considerably from that of Roman
tion
1

"

Mos

est

institutum patrium, id est


religiones

memoria veterum pertinens


s.v.

maxime ad

Bruns, Fontes juris Romani antiqui,


3

caerimoniasque antiquorum." op. cit. p. 343.

mos

in

Note

to

Muirhead,

op. cit.

p.

283.

Cf. also J. Westlake, Chapseq.

ters on International
4

Law (Cambridge,

1894), pp. 17

Orig. lib. v. cc. 4-7.

PRECISE DISTINCTION DIFFICULT


jurisprudence in that he excludes from it merely municipal ordinances, applying it only to interstatal institutions. The latter he considered to be sanctioned the will of the family of nations as deliberate by exercised within limits set by reason. Puffendorf to were hold that appears practically identical. they The Roman ius gentium, he says, is either part of the civil law or part of the ius naturae ; and to this effect he also cites Hobbes. And so on with greater or lesser modifications by other writers.

Puffendorf.

Hobbes.

Difficult to give strict

definitions

of the various
expressions.

was thought necessary to make the above observashowing conclusively that it is down definitions marked by scientific precision and logical consistency, by comprehensiveness and exclusiveness alike, of such expressions
It

tions for the purpose of really impossible to lay

as ius gentium, ius naturale,

ius naturae, etc.


(fleju*?,

Even

the

elemental conceptions of ius, fas, mos^lex


i/o'/xo?)

?0o?, Slxy,

clearly differentiated from each other, or mutually exclusive. Indeed, given two notions, there is bound to be something in common,
distinct,

are

by no means

no matter
crucial point

in
is

what way they are contrasted. The that sometimes their likeness is emphapredominating,

sized

and

considered

by

regarding

mainly this or that attribute, at other times and under Philoother conditions their difference is emphasized.
sophical speculations and abstract analyses constantly intersected a system of rules derived from actual practice

reaction

and the result of such action and tended to become more and more naturally It will be of advantage, notwithstandheterogeneous.

and custom

ing
ius
In the ancient
Italian institutions distinction

these

difficulties,

to

distinction

between

the

draw a rough or working expressions ius gentium and


by the Romans
in

naturale, as generally used reference to the law of nations.

In the institutions of the

Italic tribes

long before the

Roman
,

between ius
gentilicium

ascendency we
a
1

out,
,

that

1 find, as an Italian writer points distinction was made between the ius

ius gentilitatis and ius

G. Carle,

op. cit.

gentium.

ORIGIN OF
gentilicium,
ius gentilicium superior class
gentilicii
;

I US

GENTIUM

91

the ius gentilitatis, and the ius gentium. The l governed the relationships between the of gentiles and the dependent class of

gentilitatis comprised the body of laws the members of the class of gentiles ; and regarding the ius gentium regulated the relationships between the various gentes? And so this ius gentium, as originally an intertribal law of limited application, gradually expanded through the growth of dealings with non-gentes, that is intercourse not only with the Italic peoples but also with the

the ius

Origin of
lus

senttum

rise

nations of Greece, Macedonia, Syria, Africa, etc. The of Rome's supremacy and the development of her

tended to reinforce the significance and Her municipal law applicability of this ius gentium. both added elements to it and borrowed principles from
civil

law

praetorian institution rapidly accelerated its the great bulk of the ius honorarium indeed, growth; (praetorium, aedilicium) was absorbed by it. The ius honorarium was by no means identical with
it.

The

ius gentium

the ius gentium, as

The

writers have carelessly imagined. former included certain provisions which were not

some

strictly

recognized

in the latter,

e.g.

the

actio

Publiciana

(the legal remedy applied in the case of anything by a non-proprietor to

bona deprived of
feree
l

fide possessor
its

of the transference an innocent transshould the latter have been

Further, the Digest specipossession). ' * the to fically opposes praecepta civilia et praetoria 3 the merum ius gentium.' the ius gentium Again,

already contained a comparatively elaborate body of principles before the ius honorarium was even established.
1

As

to ius gentilicium, see

Karlowa,

op.

cit.

vol.

i.

p.

35

Muir-

head,
2

op. cit. p.

Willerns, Le droit public romain, pp. 40, 69.

comprende anche

p. 45, note 3 : "... II jus gentilicium, che rapporti fra la classe superiore dei gentiles e quella dei dipendenti da essi o gentilicii, il jus ge ntilitatis che significa il complesso dei diritti spettanti ai membri di una stessa gente (gentiles}, e i

Carle,

op.

cit.

jura gentium, che governano

rapporti fra le varie gentes."

*Dig. xvi. 3. 31.

IUS
Submitted
explanation of the relation between the
ius gentium and the ius naturale.

GENTIUM AND

I US

NATURALE

The human mind is not satisfied to remain in the concrete alone, and ever tends to get behind phenomena in order to discover their rationale ; there is ever an instinctive conation to search for the corresponding
noumena.

And

so

we

get speculative

thinkers with

their ratio, with their natura, with their ius naturale, and other kindred conceptions which, based, as they are

on an apprehension of cosmic unity, of a human life and non-human, are between harmony to be the guiding principles of all human necessarily a private or of an international of whether relationships, The theoretical ius naturale and the practical character. ius gentium interact, refining and enlarging each other, the former representing the ideal, what ought to be established, the latter representing the real, what is universally established. And as the two have a very large portion of their respective contents in common and converge towards the same goal, there is a tendency, especially in minds of what may be called a practical Hence nature, to call one by the name of the other.
to be,

deemed

the jurisconsults, whilst using the two expressions as of ius naturale^ practically synonymous, generally speak in order to ius naturae, or naturalis ratio?emphasize the raison d'etre of some particular rule ; and, on the other hand, speak of ius gentium when they desire to point out
In reference to the process practical application. the exigencies juridical evolution as occasioned by
its

of of

increasing intercourse, one

Difficult to

determine which came


first in

legal evolution.

2 may say, with Sir F. Pollock, " that ius gentium was presumed to follow ius naturale, if the contrary did not appear." Now to determine which of these two expressions was used first is of the utmost difficulty ; indeed, it On this subject one writer has is well-nigh impossible. said one thing, another writer has said another thing ; but, it must with all respect be said, no sufficient 1 Cicero, as a rule, uses the expression lex naturae when he argues his subject from a philosophical point of view, as, for example, in Tusc. Quaesf. i. 30 ; De Invention, ii. 67 and 161 ; De Leg. (passim). 2

Op. At. p. 75-

THEIR RELATIONSHIP

93

ground or cogent reason has been advanced in any case. The counterpart to this question of terminology is

more important problem relating to the priority the of Can one say respective underlying conceptions. with an adequate degree of definiteness which of these that or the more concrete ius gentium conceptions
the

or

that

of the more abstract


first ?

ius

naturale

became
Fallacious
is, it

crystallized as investigators
is

To
for

point to this or that as the earlier,


psychological fallacy induces the unwary abstract detached point

the most part have done,

submitted, to commit that be termed) which (as it may

inquirer to infer from his own of view, consequent on an elaborate self-introspection coupled with a priori assumptions of a false logic,
certain notions which arise in his own mind and deemed to arise in a certain order, must necessarily have existed in the same form and evolved in the same order at a different epoch and in different minds. Further, and even from the point of view of a strictly
that

formal

may we warrantably say that in the of apperception the particular aspect (as development
logic,

being related more to the ius gentium) distinctly and of necessity precedes the general aspect (as being related
to the ius naturale] ? It is again submitted, indeed, it is self-evident, though, strangely enough, writers endeavouring to establish a priority have overlooked this fact, that in the evolution of thought,

more

and the synthetic The analytic each other, and are synthetic processes necessarily accompany as inseparable, if the comparison may be made, as ment ai
legal

or

otherwise,

the

analytic

J -J C the convex and concave sides or a curve.

r\C

Or

processes

course, accompany
GS

for certain purposes now this now that aspect is emphasized ; the attention is directed to and concentrated

on
if,

But this or that process, or this or that conception. in this way, the one is made explicit, the other

does not thereby become a non-entity, but remains implicit ; the one is in the focus of consciousness, the other is in the margin, and they are ever ready
to

exchange positions.

And

so,

it

is

maintained, in

94

IUS

GENTIUM TWOFOLD NATURE

Simultaneous development
of the notions contained in
ius gentium and ius naturale.

opposition to the customary determination of priority, that the notions underlying ius gentium and ius naturale arose and were developed simultaneously, and, morethus not were evolved over, along independent parallel lines but in indissoluble association, by inevitable intersections

and reciprocal implications.

Ius gentium
ius fetiale and ius bellicum.

The ius gentium represents both the private international law and the public international law of Rome. 1 No clear distinction appears to have been made between
the two.

Sometimes the expression


connection with
ius fetiale

ius

gentium
ius

is

also

used
in

in

or

bellicum,

some

cases to point to a comparison, in others to

Ius gentium

and private international law.

point to a contrast. The private international

character

of

ius

gentium

was

more accentuated

in

the

earlier

stages

of

its

evolution.

The

extension of commercial relationships

and

the increasing influx of strangers necessitated the adoption of certain common rules and principles which dispensed with the need of inserting in treaties

The ius civile express stipulations as to recuperatio. duiritium was a personal law applicable exclusively to the civis Romanus ; the ius gentium was a law appliThus it was cable to all free men on Roman territory. in this respect more of the nature of a territorial
law,
partly from the national policy, and And a from national juridical conscience. partly and defined it was not as systematically clearly though

resulting

set

out as the modern


a
certain

private

international

law,

it

yet comprised or resolving conflicts


Twofold
character of ius gentium.

body of rules for avoiding that might arise between different

systems of legislation. Rudorff emphasizes the twofold character of ius gentium as governing, on the one hand, the relationships between States themselves, the ius belli et pads, and, on the other, the legal relationships between
1

Cf.

giurid'uo,

G. Baviera, // dmtto internazwnale Modena, 1898 Nuova Serie, vol.


;

del
i.

Romanl (in Archivio and ii.), pp. 446 seq^

the greater portion of chap.

vii.

AS PRIVATE

INTERNATIONAL LAW

95

individual members of different States, e.g. the law of intermarriage and various contractual obligations, such as mutuum (loan for consumption), amongst unilateral conventions, emptio (purchase and sale), locatio (letting and hiring), amongst bilateral conventions, and several others, so far, of course, as these are of an Their application, and the obligations interstatal nature. thus tended to secure peace and the clearly prescribed, 1 of protection property. This ius gentium^ as a code of private international ius gentiu law, cannot be strictly considered merely a national law, 2 It was neither law as writers such as Fusinato have done. strictly national in its application, nor even purely " A nation that borrowed its Italian in
-

alphabet origin. Chalcidian city, that imitated the militaryorganisation of the Hellenes, that traded in the sixth century with Sicily, Sardinia, Libya and Carthage, must have been deeply imbued with the customs of the

from

Neither can it truly be said that such law was the necessary outcome of Rome's political supremacy ; for many of the elements already existed before her supremacy for the purpose of regulating differences arising out of interstatal comworld.'*

Greek and Phoenician

mercial dealings. With the territorial expansion


1

of

Rome and

the

vol.

A. F. Rudorff, Romische Rechtsgeschichte, z Bde. (Leipzig, 1857), i. "Zwischen und iiber diesen nationalen Rechten steht p. 3
:

das internationale jus gentium.

Es enthalt die gemeinsamen Grunddas eigene Als gemeines es die Rechts-

lagen des Verkehrs, nach welchen zu entscheiden ist, oder fremde Civilrecht nicht massgebend sein kann.

wo

Rechtskreises beherrscht der Staaten gegen einander, das Jus belli et pacts, der einzelnen Glieder verschiedener Staaten, also das inter(z) nationale Privatrecht, z. B. das Recht der Wechselheirathen und obligatorischen VertrSge, soweit sie wie das mutuum (/xotrov), die emptio, locatio, u.s.w. international sind, den Schutz des Besitzes
verhaltnisse

Recht der Staaten seines


(i)

und des Rechtsfriedens."


2 G. Fusinato, Le drolt international de Revue de droit international et de legislation

la

republique

romaine

(in

compare'e, Bruxelles,

1885,
294.

vol. xvii. pp.


8

278

sey.).

A. H.

J.

Greenidge, Roman Public Life (London, 1901),

p.

I US

GENTIUM AND

I US

FETIALE

Roman
national policy and imperial

gradual

expansion.

Two

extension of her predominance, her legal attitude with regard to non-citizens was generally made to depend on political considerations, on State interest. principles, it may be said, dominated her national
:

policy as to imperial expansion firstly, to permit the inhabitants of submitted provinces to preserve their

personal laws so far as the interests of administration


necessitated

no

radical

change
settle

secondly, to concede to

Roman
relationships with foreign nations.

Rome all such rights foreigners coming and privileges as were in accord with the demands of equity and not prejudicial to national politica interests. For centuries there were several intermediate gradations between full Roman citizenship and the purely private law of aliens there was, for an distinction between Latin rights, example, important Italic and provincial rights. rights, The rules regulating Rome's relationships with foreign nations in their sovereign capacity are sometimes referred to under ius fetiale^ sometimes ius belli et pads, sometimes ius gentium. These rules did not,
to
in
;

of

course,

constitute

an

international

law

in

the

modern sense of the term.

The customs and


;

usages

were not always uniformly observed and they scarcely acquired the objectivity and perfection of formal law. But modern international law is not always characterized

by
in

this quality.

The Roman
and
in

the ius fetiale,

common

philosophical

jurisconsults recognized the ius civile Romanorum a basis, viz. the naturalis ratio.

Thus, Gaius, speaking of the capture of enemy property which thereby becomes vested in the captor, says in the
1

"

Digest
statim

Quae ex hostibus

same rule
The
iusfetiale, ius

capientium fiunt," is thus formulated

capiuntur, iure gentium whilst in his Institutes the


<c
:

Quae ex

hostibus

capiuntur naturali ratione nostra fiunt/'

The

and the

ius fetiale^

however,

is

by no means

identical with

gentium.

the ius gentium^ though the latter served to a large extent as a guide in the development of the fetial institutions.

The

ius fetiale
1

was
Dig.

a special system
v.

of principles and
69.

41.

i.

7.

ii.

IUS
practices

FETIALE AND IUS BELLI

97

under the guardianship and jurisdiction of the of fetials. 1 It prescribed the necessary formalities college and proceedings relative to the declaration of war, to the conclusion of peace and of treaties, and to extradition for certain offences.

In many points it coincided with the ius gentium, in the sense that the special is contained in the general, though certain matters of the rather minor matters concerned with formal ius fetiale proceedings than fundamental questions relating to were not the veritable foundation of international law found in the ius gentium, since they were provisions inculcated more by the Roman religion than by broad Hence, an infraction of the ius legal conceptions. an offence against religion primarily, constituted fetiale and sometimes against religion and the ius gentium equally. The ius fetiale was a formal recognition, with

an added religious sanction, of customs and practices of war, and the other questions already suggested, of which the ius gentium took cognizance ; so that it 2 included, more or less, the ius belli of the Roman 3 jurists, the ius bellicum of Cicero, the fas armorum of 6 4 But Tacitus, the assuelus belli mos, of Silius Italicus. 6 it is to be observed, as Poste that (in points out,
1

The view

in the text differs

somewhat from the opinion of

Fusinato, op. cif., and agrees in a sense with that of Chauveau, who holds that the ius fetiale is "la partie du droit des gens, du jus gentium, rentrant dans les attributions exclusives des fetiaux ; quant

au jus gentium, qui a pour equivalent jus belli ac pacis, c'est, dans son acception primitive, 1'ensemble des regies applicables aux rapports entre les peuples et presentant un caractere jundique international." (A. Chauveau, Le droit des gens dans les rapports de Rome avec let
peuples de rantiquit'e, in Nouvelle

Revue

historique de droit fran^ais et

cf. p. Granger, Paris, 1891, No. 4, pp. 393-445 ; 409, note.) But, it must be pointed out, the ius gentium was not the equivalent of the ius belli et pacis y in the sense of their being co-extensive ; the latter was subsumed under the former, which, therefore, as the wider

category, included
further,
2 3

many

matters foreign to the ius

belli et pacis.

See,

above

text.
belli iura

Cf. also

"Nil
iii.

poposcit" (Lucan,
*Hist.
iv.

vii.). 5

De

offic.

29.

58.

Born

c.

25 A.D.

E. Poste, Gaii Institutiones juris

civilis

(Oxford, 1890), p. 358.

98

IUS

FETIALE AND IUS GENTIUM


elastic

keeping with the already explained


ius

use of the the term ius expression belli sometimes not so much or designates right c as or executive law/ sanction, power, or means of
gentium) the

word

ius

in

<

'

the

ale '

in one place appears to employ of self-control, or inner force <c Nam desunt vires ad me mihi iusque regendi." x z Strictly speaking ius bellicum is not synonymous with as has iusfetiale, generally been held ; for it refers more particularly to the rights and obligations resulting from the actual state of war, and thus is, in many respects,

compulsion

and Ovid

word

in the sense

allied to the ius gentium.

relating to the rights


ius legatomm.

Another portion of public international law, viz. that and duties of ambassadors, is often specifically described as the 'ius legatorum? This is part
ius

of the
fetiale.
ius fetiaie 2,n&

gentium^ but

it is

also connected with the ius

seem to have confused also the Thus Zouche uses the coX^bT" many modem expression de iurc feciali^ as synonymous with ius inter wri'torc writers. 11 f gentes, that is, he makes it cover the whole sphere or 5 More recently Wheaton, 6 Calvo, 7 international law. and others have failed to discriminate carefully between ius fetiale, and ius gentium. The main difference between the two may perhaps be very briefly stated to be that, whereas the ius gentium represents sometimes the ideal to be aimed at which serves as a guide thus exhibiting

good many
1_

writers
ius

ius

fetiale
I

witn the

g^tium.

Amor.

ii.

4. 7.

Cf. Cic.

De

offic.

iii.

29.

In

De

offic.

i.

u, he

speaks of iura

belli

with the same meaning.


1.

*Dig.
4
5

7. 17-

As

to the spelling of this word, see infra^

on the

fetials.

Cf. the present writer's contribution

the Society

of Comparative Legislation, pp. 281-304 ; p. 282.


6

New

on Zouche Series, No.

in the Journal of xx. April, 1909,

Op.

fit.

C.
i.

Calvo,
p. 4.

Le

drolt

international,

vols.

(Paris,

1888-1896),

vol.

IUS

FETIALE AND IUS GENTIUM

99

an underlying relationship to the ius naturale, and sometimes the actual substance of the law, the ius fetia/e indicates rather the jurisdiction which takes cognizance of certain matters of the ius gentium (which, consequently, possesses wider extent), though, by a natural synecdochical process, the term (ius fetiale) is also applied to the body itself of these matters.

CHAPTER

IV

THE POLICY OF ROME. TO WHAT EXTENT SHE RECOGNIZED AN INTERNATIONAL LAW


Rome's foreign policy and position of international law.

IT has very often been maintained that Rome's foreign policy, her history of war and conquest made the very existence of international law impossible, and tended to transform her ius fetiale into a worthless formality, or a mere cover for imparting a legal semblance to illegal
practices.

Such an extreme assertion is far from being history of Rome may have been a long series of wars and conquests her temple of Janus, the 1 of as Suetonius peace, guardian god says, may have been closed, as an indication of established peace, only twice in seven centuries, from Rome's foundation to the reign of Augustus. Notwithstanding this she evolved and practised a large body of principles which have furnished the basis of international law for all time. Nations like the Hellenic excelled in art, the Roman genius lay in literature, and philosophy
accurate.

The

Roman
diplomatic

methods
frequently rigorous but many
relaxations.

conquest, imperial expansion, in the practical sphere of political organization and juridical development. Roman diplomatic methods were no doubt rigorous from time to time, but in practice various important relaxations were frequently adopted, such as, for example, her insistence on the right of sanctuary at Teos, 2 a recognition which by no means conin 193 B.C., duced to her selfish interests. By concentrating their
i.

^August. 22; cf. Paulus Orosius, Hist. 121-124. 2 See on this subject infra.

vi.

20,21,22

Ovid,

Fasti,

STATE INTEREST AND POLICY

101

attention on the great wars of Rome, the majority of writers lamentably neglect her pacific proceedings. The interest of State was, of course (then as now), state the supreme consideration. Rome's supremacy was

interest.

ever ready to assert itself; but often she protected weaker States. Thus, after the battle of Cynoscephalae, where she defeated Philip of Macedon, she had then no serious rivals in the East ; nevertheless, she respected innocent liberty and encouraged sentiments of

independence. "Ainsi le mpris des nationalits n'aveuglait pas la nation conqu6rante, et les plus petits peuples 1'ont trouve souvent attentive a leur honneur
local

comme

In some cases, however, it Rome's supremacy was affirmed even when, animated by political interests, she pro-

a leur int^ret." 1
that

must be admitted

claimed the liberty of certain nations ; for example, the liberty of the Greeks of Europe and Asia was declared 2 similar enactment absolved by a senatusconsultum. for a time Masinissa, king of the Eastern Numidians, from the Roman imperium'^ and Livy mentions another declaration of this kind in the case of the Corinthians, 4 Such proceedings are conPhocians, and Locrians. rather the unilateral acts of supremacy than fessedly bilateral conventions of an international character. Cicero often emphasizes that justice must be observed " meminerimus even towards the weakest and meanest autem etiam ad versus infimos justitiam esse servan5 dam," and he could have readily cited in support of this principle numerous examples from Roman

justice

and

nations.

history.

The Roman
the

writers

all

celebrate the justice, p raise

of

Rome equity, nobility of their fatherland. is described as the flower of model the humanity, " rerum of kindness and fairness. Virgil speaks of
the
1

Egger,
Val.

op. cit. p.
vii.

160.

Plut. Flam. 10.

Max.

2-6.
:

Liv. xxxiii. 32

" Senatus

Romanus

liberos,

immunes, suis legibus

iubet esse Corinthios Phocenses, Locriensesque omnes."


5

De

offic.

i.

13.

102

ROMAN POLICY

l pulcherrima Roma," Livy says the Roman Empire was the greatest after that of the gods, and that justice and good faith conduced to the attainment of such a great position. The historians and other writers of Greece, Diodorus the Sicilian, Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Polybius of Megalopolis, Plutarch the Boeotian, though the victims of Rome's domination, added to the 2 Bodin, writing in glorification of their conquerors. the last quarter of the sixteenth century, attributed the greatness of Rome to her magnanimity, and especi"La r6publique des Remains a ally to her justice: fleuri en justice et surpasse celle de Lacedemone, parce que les Remains n'avaient pas seulement la magnanimite, mais aussi la vraie justice leur etait comme

un

sujet auquel

ils

adressaient toutes leurs actions."

The
it

Italian jurist Gravina,

that the

Roman

going even further, holds domination was the only just one, as
;

was based on reason

the

Romans

considered as their

own enemies

enemies of humanity ; their only treatment of the conquered peoples was exemplary, inasmuch as they were deprived only of the power to do harm ; slavery was imposed only on those who
the

preferred

savage existence to social

life

civilized

peoples were permitted to enjoy their own laws ; in a word, the Roman aim was to spread civilization and to realize universal association. 4 Bossuet is also " Je ne sais s'il y cut jamais, dans high in his praise
:

un grand empire, un gouvernement plus sage plus modere qu'a 6te celui des Romains dans
ixliv.
2
i.

et
les

Cf.
;

Diod.

Sic.

xxxii. 4, 5

Dion. Hal.
i.

ii.

72

Polyb.

xviii.

20
8

Plut.

Numa,

16.
i.

Les six livres de la Republique (1576),

De jure

naturati, gentium,

1708)

simum
.

p. 255 : fuit imperium,


victis

"Hinc Romanorum

Humanitatis enim
. . .

Originet juris civilis, Lipsiae, unice, atque undequaque justisquippe fundatum in vertice rationis humanae. . hostes tantum Romani ducebant suos
(in
. .

etc.

quibus

nihil

eripiebant

praeter

injuriae

licentiam

nee

servitute premebant, nisi qui rationis legibus repugnarent, et civili " vitae immanem vivendi ritum anteponerent

DIFFERENT EPOCHS AND PRACTICES


1

103

provinces."

Herder was among the


2

first

to

assume

a contrary attitude.
It
is

the

earlier

necessary, however, to distinguish between and the later period of Roman history.

important

In the earlier period, say to the conclusion of Second Punic War, there obtained a readier recognition of rules of international conduct, to which Rome considered herself as well as all other civilized nations subject ; the principles of reciprocity and juridical equality were largely accepted ; and political and commercial intercourse between Rome and other States for the most part proceeded in accordance therewith. This condition of things was to some extent due, no doubt, to the fact that at this time Rome came After the into contact with powerful Italian nations. she for was victory of Porsenna, obliged to example, no means to her submit to conditions which were by
3

of
hl

Roman

liking.

a gradual transformation was already perceptible After at the time of the conflict with Pyrrhus.

But

Decline of

eP victory at Zama (B.C. 202) the law of nations suffered an indubitable declension. Carthage became the

ch

dependent ally of the Roman Republic, and Philip and Antiochus were obliged to submit to humiliating terms. Barbarian invaders were quickly dispersed.

Rome
no

regarding these peoples as uncivilized admitted towards them. The principle of reciprocity was disappearing ; though various rules, as,
legal obligations
1

V*

avertissement

aux

Protestants ;
vi.

cf.

his

Discours

sur Fhistoire

universelle, 3
2

par tie, chap.

Cf. Ideen

zur

Philosophic der Geschichte, xiv. 3.

iii. 72 ; Dion. Hal. v. 34 ; Pliny, Hist. Nat. " Porsenna defendit ne ferro nisi in agricultura uterentur," indicates a thorough submission on the part of the Romans. The story is that Porsenna offered peace to the Romans on condition of their restoring to the Veientines the land which they had taken from them ; that these terms were accepted, and that Porsenna then withdrew his troops from the Janiculum after receiving twenty hostages from the Romans.

Tacit.
:

Hist.

xxxiv.

4 which

io 4

DIFFERENT EPOCHS AND PRACTICES

for example, those concerning the inviolability of ambassadors and the fetial procedure, were always admitted to be binding. The Senate was loth to decide judicially between conflicting claims ; it rather imposed its will, and arrived at conclusions based on considerations of State interest, neglecting the demands of Thus, when the truce conceded impartial justice. to Perseus was being discussed in the senate, the oldest senators, inspired by Rome's earlier and nobler conduct, condemned the action of the deputies in having deceived him, but, as Livy says, that part of the

senate

prevailed

in

whom

self-interest

over fairness and justice,


Roman
after^esecond Punic war.

"
.
.

predominated

vicit

tamen ea pars

senatus cui potior utilis quam honesti cura erat." 1 Indeed, in the period after the Second Punic War, Rome's supremacy was not only established in fact, but was consistently insisted on or implied in political

other nations. After their defeat, were ostensibly permitted to retain their independence, but in actual practice they were, as allies of Rome, virtually under her protection and hegemony. The usual clause in treaties " ut eosdem amicos et hostes haberent" implied a complete submission to
relationships with
cities

Rome

in

regard,

at

least,

to

foreign

relationships.

Thus, internally preserved a pseudowere autonomy, externally they deprived of effective In the of their case sovereignty. foreign conflicts
cities

these

intervened as arbiter, in their intestine discords interposed as mediator ; and sometimes even, when public interests required it, the Senate assumed
she
direct control.
Proud boasts
2

Rome

period.

writers of this period proudly insist on the supremacy of the Republic ; her people are designated the " princeps orbis terrarum populus," and the world " orbis Romanus." is Similarly, regarded as the

Roman

subsequent writers panegyrize the earlier exploits and transcendent glory of Rome ; but, in some cases, they
1

Liv.

xlii.

47.

Cf. Chauveau,

op. cif., inlt,

DIFFERENT EPOCHS AND PRACTICES


also deplore the manifest decline

105

from former greatness.

Thus Tibullus
"

writes

Roma, tuum nomen

terris fatale regendis,

sua de caelo prospicit arva Ceres, Quaque patent ortus et qua fluitantibus undis Soils anhelantes abluit amnis equos." 1 (Rome, thy name is destined to rule the Earth, wherever Ceres from her heaven looks down on her fields, from the regions where the sun rises to where his panting steeds bathe in
the restless waves.)

Qua

Petronius " Orbem iam totum


:

victor

Romanus habebat

2 qua mare, qua terrae, qua sidus currit utrumque." had now the whole as far as earth world, (Rome conquered

extends or ocean

rolls,

from the

rising to the setting sun.)

Lucan

"...

Quo

latius

orbem
:

Possedit, citius per prospera fata cucurrit. tibi bellum gentes dedit omnibus annis

Omne Te geminum

Titan procedere
refers

vidit in

axem."

(The poet laments the slaughter in the conflict between


and Caesar, and
to

Pompey

Rome's

earlier

glory and her

"The greater her possessions have vanishing greatness. been in the world, the more speedily have her prospering destinies run by. Throughout all ages, every war has given thee conquered nations ; thee has Titan beheld
approaching both poles.")

The

cosmopolitan tendencies of the later epoch never


Cicero, under

Narrower

really displaced the intense patriotism.

and
f^der cos-

the influence of
that
less,

Greek philosophical doctrines, wisdom and virtue recognize no exile 4 nevertheas a true Roman, he advises the exiled Marcellus
;

asserts m

litanism ~

to appeal to Caesar's clemency, adding that if death threatened him he would certainly rather suffer it in his

own country
Mi.
2

than in a foreign land. 6

Ovid, enthusiastic

5.

57-60.

Saturae, c.
;

119

ed. F. Buecheler (Berolini, 1904).


;

Cf. also Cic.

Pro Muraena
s

Marcellinus, xix.

xxiii.
4 Tusc. v.

De

bello rivi/i, vii.

419-422.

37

Pro Mi/one, 37.

*Epist. iv, 7.

Cf. Pro Mi/one, 38.

io6

ROMAN INTERNATIONAL LAW

over a Greek maxim, says all the world is a land for the brave man, 1 but his Roman spirit betrays itself elsewhere. 2 Seneca, when banished to Corsica by Claudius, makes use of Stoic arguments as to exile, 3 but afterwards he avows a secret anguish. 4
Roman
na r a iaw sh ows
progress.

And
tion
is

yet

when

all is said,

when every

made,

Roman

international law

possible detracshows a great

Roman law
modern

of

Erroneous

advance on that of Greece (as Greek international law was an advance on that of the other nations of antiquity), inasmuch as it eliminates ideas of religious exclusiveness, and imparts to it a true juridical foundation. Even in 5 theory, the generous conceptions of Cicero show a broader outlook than the rigorous doctrines of Plato and Aristotle in regard, for example, to the treatment of And not only is Roman international law foreigners. progressive ; it furnishes, indeed (it is not amiss to repeat), a great part of the groundwork of our modern As to the extent of Rome's recognition of system. international law, writers have expressed very different The majority of writers, one must in all opinions. conscientiousness say, have exhibited a lamentable lack of scientific method and argumentative precision. Often their assertions are mere undiscriminating repetitions of the dogmatic opinions of earlier writers, who usually generalized after merely superficial inquiry, and were often misled by a casual remark found in the " ubi solitudinem such for classical
authors,
faciunt,

pacem appellant
tc

made

" by such statements as, adversus hostem aeterna auctoriIn some of these cases, tas esto" from the XII. Tables.
1 Cf. the saying of Democritus, as cited by Stobaeus Fasti, i. 393. (FlonlegLum, xl. 7) : 'AvSpt <ro<<> Tracra yyj j3ar^' \ta>X*?s 7^-P dyaOrjs (For the wise man every country is habitirarpls 6 fvpra? /coayio?.

to say), 6 the

instance, the Briton Calgacus is " of Virgil, or debellare superbos


as,

"

(as

able
2

since to the virtuous soul


i.

all

the world
3

is

a fatherland.)
vi. viii. etc.

Tristia,

3.
i. ;

Comol ad Helv.

^Epigramm.
5

Comol. ad Poly b. 32.


;

De

offic.

i.

7 and 13

ii.

8.

Tacit. Agrlc. 30.


-

JURIDICAL BASIS OF PRACTICES


actual

107

from rhetorical facts are carelessly inferred flourishes, in others expressions are taken out of their context, and the real significance of the terminology is
sight
of.

lost

As

recent

author

says,

the

legal

has been strangely exaggerated the extent of assimilating it to to various writers, by " cercarono rinforzare i loro risultati, barbarism, esagerando fantasticamente resclusivismo dei Romani,
exclusiveness of
. .
.

Rome

Again, occasionher period of avarice, ally taken as representis and unjustly irreligion despotism, ative of the whole extent of her history ; then we get u le such a dogmatic utterance as pretendu droit des for n'est qu'une chimere." 2 Others des Remains gens on the insist Bonfils perfect reciprocity of example,
tanto da assimilarlo
.

ai

selvaggi."

Rome's time of decadence

and finding obligations as the indispensable criterion, that this reciprocity is not always perfect and absolute,
conformity with modern notions, conclude that interwas a non-entity in Rome ; that the various matters relating to the conclusion of treaties of peace and to the international status of ambassadors were of a nature. 3 political rather than of a juridical
in

national law

was the only dispensation, how is Roman it possible to explain the formation of alliances between Rome and less powerful cities, and the agreement on showing adherence to \ reciprocal concessions and mutual treatment, the resort aw to arbitral procedure, the functions of the tribunal of
If the law of force
.
,

How is it possible to account for the ? of hospitium publicum, provisions for naturalization, the practice of extradition, the immunity of ambassadors, the regular procedure and formalities in the conclusion of treaties, the conception of protecrecuperators
institution
1

Baviera,

op. clt. vol.

i.

fasc. 2, p.

271.

2 3

M. Revon, V arbitrage
H.
Bonfils,

international (Paris, 1892), p. 101.

" Mais ces

comme

de droit international public (Paris, 1905), p. 35 : dieted par la politique, ne peuvent e"tre interpreters constituant des actes juridiques, comme des manifestations et
faits,

Manuel

des applications d'un droit international."

io8

JURIDICAL BASIS OF PRACTICES

notion of territory from an international of view ? How is it, on this assumption, possible point to account for the constant insistence on the necessity of due declaration before the actual commencement of hostilities, and on the observation of certain regularized proceedings preliminary thereto, and also on the right of asylum, the sanction of pledged faith whether in peace or war, the granting of safe-conducts, the regulations as to treatment of the conquered enemy and captured property, the burial of the dead, truces, armistices, the ransom and exchange of prisoners, the doctrine of postliminium, the position of hostages ? How is it possible to account for the use of such expressions as " ius belli et pads," the adoption of phrases of municipal law in questions of foreign relationships, e.g. " condicere " condicere " dare fieri solvi pater patratus," oportere," " " " " bellum," pacem spondere," agere or vindicare ex iure belli," " pignus facere," " ius persolvere, adipisci," and the like. 1 Do not all these matters, even on merely superficial examination, show clearly that a system of law was in course of development, of which a large body
torates, the

Attributing to
sanftion does not necessarily

destroy
juridical significance.

was already recognized, for regularizing and controlling international relationships, and for settling disputes arising therefrom by means other than that of violence ? Further, to attribute what rules there were to the sanction of religion is not at all tantamount to a denial of their validity and applicability, and hence their relation t ... .. f C to juridical economy. The fas prepares the way for and mer g es m ^ o {us and religion custom makes law
'

makes custom.
Conformity of
relationships to a certain of rules.

body

Again, it is not an indispensable condition in the case ^ ancient international law that there should be a of States, of their universal recognition of the autonomy >
.

sovereign power to the extent of imparting to them an It suffices, it is subobjective juridical personality. mitted, that there should be simply a certain body of rules to which foreign relationships, public or private,

conformed.

And such
1

body of
op.

rules certainly existed.


272.

Cf. Baviera,

dtt

p.

JURIDICAL BASIS OF PRACTICES

109

Of

course, there

was not

complete system elaborately

to scientifically constructed, so as to point s y stem To beforehand. all difficulties possible of criticism and judge entirely and exclusively from the modern point mod view is to be hopelessly blind to the elemental phe- }^
-

organized and a solution of

imperfect

nomenon of growth,
ditions,

the changeability of
elasticity

and to the inherent

human conof law as being a

dependent on, those conditions. M. Revon emphasizes the unfixed character of the law of Law of nations nations and the perpetual change in its forms, and com- ^rpetuai chan s e pares the process of its evolution to the monotonous and rhythmic movement of the ebb and flow of the sea " Le droit des gens, en effet, n'est point une science fixe bien au contraire, il se developpe sans immuable et il cesse, change eternellement de formes ; tour a tour il avance et il recule, selon les vicissitudes de 1'histoire et
reflex of, or being
-

suivant

un rhythme monotone qui

est

comme

le flux

d'une mer." 1 The same author, who et le elsewhere said that the Roman intercuriously enough national law was nothing but a chimera, 2 asks whether we are now really more advanced in international law In certain matters it is clear we in various than the Romans. 3 have made substantial progress, but in other points, he Roman law maintains, we have retrograded ; for example, in the middle ages the oath was not always respected as faith- later law.
reflux
fully as in ancient

of

Rome

and nearer our own times,

in

the seventeenth century, Grotius proclaims the unquestioned right of belligerents to massacre the women and

children of the

enemy

and

in

our more modern age

the due declaration of war which the Romans always conformed to has not been invariably observed.

The caution of not confounding modern conceptions, TO modern method and scope with the ancient cannot be
too strongly emphasized. M. Fusinato well points out the danger of judging the legal relationships of ancient
the ancient

M. Revon, De r existence du droit international sous la repubhque romaine (in Revue gtnerale du droit, de la legislation, et de la jurispru1

dence, Paris,
2

1891,

t.

xv. pp. 394-4<>5


8

See supra, p. 107.

54-5 IO ) P- 59De ? existence, etc. loc. cit. pp. 509,


5

510.

no

NOTION OF

CI7ITAS

GENTIUM

peoples according to the comprehensive and complex by our vast modern culture and knowand of ledge, inferring the absence of juridical conditions, a confusion of objective law with some partithrough
ideas fostered

cular

form assumed

at a

given historical moment.

" Gli

e che troppo spesso, nel ricercare quali fossero le relazioni di diritto dei popoli antichi, si giudicarono quelle relazioni con i vasti criteri che ne consente la sviluppata cultura

nostri tempi ; e come allora quelle relazioni si trovarono governate dai principi talvolta in opposizione assoluta con i nostri, si confuse il diritto, obiettivamente considerate, con la forma particolare che esso puo assumere in un determinate momento storico, e se ne dedusse la negazione della esistenza di quelle relazioni medesime." *

dei

Recognition of

a true law of nations by

Rome

in her

first

period.

Ci-uitas

gentium.
Juridical consciousness.

Reciprocity.

Such
recognition in the case of

sovereign
States.

One may go further than merely assert the existence of a body of rules to which foreign relationships conformed. It may, in truth, be said that (at all events, in the first period of her history) Rome recognized the existence of sovereign and independent States other than her own, that she had clear notions of a civitas gentium^ and possessed an international juridical consciousness, and admitted the principle of reciprocity. 2 Such recognition of international law depends, of course, on the fact that other States to which its provisions may apply are properly constituted. Juridical capacity was not admitted in the absence of a duly established political organization. The principle of reciprocity was not entertained in the case of a mere conglomeration of people, devoid of political unity. Just as the slave was deemed to be incapable of enjoying the provisions of the civil law, which was reserved for cives alone, so were the benefits conferred by the law of nations, which was reserved for civitates alone, withheld from a disorganized " omnis group of individuals, in Cicero's phrase
:

hominum

coetus quoque
1

modo
clt.

congregatus sed coetus


fasc. 3,

Deifeziali

he.

p.

454.
i.

Baviera, he.

fit.

vol.

pp. 463

seq.

JURIDICAL PERSONALITY
multitudinis iuris consensu, et
1

in

utilitatis commune conas States with Only political organisms, as 2 " free nations," did Rome negotiate her foedera, her sponsiones, her indutiae^ or exchange ambassadors, or make use of the indictio belli ; and, likewise, in the invariably made a general relationships of war Rome " and "irregular" similar distinction between " regular enemies. To the Romans the treaty-making power presented Treaty-making two aspects on the one hand, in a negative sense, a jSidkaHmd htical treaty could not be entered into with a people not pos- p

sociatus."

sessing autonomy, juridical and political individuality, on the other hand, in a positive sense, the bilateral character of a convention disappeared as soon as a contracting

..,..

j-

-J

1-

personality.

was lost or impaired. For the treaty-making capacity implied then as now a sovereign will with its power of deliberate choice to be bound in this or that way. 3 Other arguments, well emphasized by M. Baviera, 4 showing the co-existence of politically independent and sovereign States are found in the various formalities necessary for the conclusion of foedera, in the power and practice of coining money independently, in the mutual recognition of the ius exilii and of the ius postliminii, and
people's independent personality

acceptance by belligerents of equality of treatment. universally considered an exclusive privilege of sovereign States. As Mommsen points out, the recognition of the very existence of an
in the

The money-coining power was

Money-coining
sovereignty!

organized State was a corollary of the recognition of a " Das Mu'nzpeople's right to coin its own money. recht ist, rechtlich betrachtet, ein Theil der Gesetzgebung und hat auch im Alterthum wie heut zu Tage als Bestandtheil und Zeichen der staatlichen Souveranitat
l

De

Rep.

i.

25

cf.

PhiRpp.

iv. 5. 6.

of " free nations," see infra, as to when declaration of war is essential, and when it may be dispensed with. 3 See infra, for instances, such as the foedus Cassianum (261 B.C.), where the sovereignty of the Latini was clearly recognized by Rome.
2

On meaning

Loc.

cit.

pp.

474

seq.

ii2

POLITICAL INDEPENDENCE

l The Latin cities, bound to Rome either by gegolten." a pact of alliance or by nationality, were not only independent but sovereign, and from the right of sovereignty is derived the right of coinage. They could have

adopted, had they been so disposed, special systems of currency ; but, in fact, they made them agree with the Roman monetary system as far as their habits, circum2 On the other stances, and local needs permitted them. hand, to deprive a people of its autonomy, or to reduce it to political semi-independence, is ipso facto to take away from it the right of coinage entirely in the case of the first alternative, or, in the case of the second alternative, to

impose certain

restrictions

on

it,

as, for

example,

a limitation to silver coin or to bronze coin, as the case 3 may be. Thus the peoples allied to Rome on the basis

of a foedus aequum, that is, on an equal footing as to rights and obligations, had their own respective money In the systems, inasmuch as they enjoyed sovereignty. confederation of Rome with the various nations of Italy, as Mommsen reminds us, we may see that the States which possessed the greatest measure of political independence were precisely those that possessed the fullest The confederates of Rome came right of coinage. within this category, and amongst them were the Latin
colonies as the
1

most favoured. 4
Munzwescns,
p.

Geschichte des romischen


p.

309.

Mommsen, ibid. Klasse von Munzen

danach nahe, diese ganze auf die durch Italien zerstreuten Gemeinden
liegt

182: " Es

latinischen Rechts, also ausser dem wenigen in Latium iibrig gebliebenen altlatinischen und den diesen spater gleichgestellten Bundesgemeinden vornamlich auf die latinischen Colonien zu beziehen ;

diesen stand theils diejenige Souveranitat zu, welche zur Austibung des Miinzrechts erfordert ward, theils richteten sie sich begreiflicher Weise, wo die bestehenden Circulationsverhaltnisse es gestatteten, im

Allgemeinen nach dem Muster Roms."


3

Examples

in

Mommsen,

ibid., passim.

*lbid. p. 309: "Aehnliches diirfen wir auch in der rOmischitalischen Symmachie zu finden erwarten ; wir werden das Miinzrecht

zunachst

und am vollsta"ndigsten bei den Gemeinden vorauszusetzen haben, die ihre staatliche Selbstandigkeit am vollstandigsten gewahrt Dies sind die mit Rom foderirten Staaten iiberhaupt, vor hatten.

SOVEREIGNTY AND RECIPROCITY

113

Further, the adoption of the ius exilii and of the /# j /j */ and postliminii indicates the enjoyment of full sovereignty. l^rSoTtT

implied a mutual recognition of political autonomy, and enabled an exile of one State to be domiciled undisturbed in another, and often to acquire
Jus
exilii
its
1

sovereignty,

citizenship.

And

ius postliminii

was likewise granted

" populis liberis et referring to Aulus Gellius cum foederatis et cum regibus postliminium nobis est uti cum hostibus ; quae nationes in dicione sunt his
:

to independent nations, but not admitted in the case of those not possessing sovereign power ; as Festus says,

Cum

postliminium nullum est."


is

In war relationships, again, the principle of reciprocity also attested in the proceedings and formulae of the
various express laws,
e.g.

Reciprocity
relationships,

fetials, in

the Digest* which recognizes in the same rights and privileges and in the same measure as are competent in the Romans, whether it be relative
in

Pomponius the enemy of Rome

that of

to

the acquisition of prisoners to slavery, or is similarly admitted in is, conventions entered

booty, or

to

the reduction of Booty,

The principle Postuminy. to ius postliminii. the conclusion of sponsiones, that sponsions. into by generals in the field, in
-

indutiae (truces and armistices), in the granting of safe- Truces, s&k conducts conducts and their admitted protective force, in negotiation for the release, ransom, or exchange of prisoners. Prisoners, and in several other customs and institutions. M. Baviera thus concludes as to the existence of the principles of equality and reciprocity, based on the recognition of political independence, sovereignty, and at least in the first period of juridical personality Rome's history both in pacific and in belligerent
ct

relationships

Reciprocita stretta eguaglianza rigorosa


:

vi fu, specie nel

primo periodo della storia reciprocita ed eguaglianza che scaturivano immediamente e necessariamente dal riconoscimento della independenza e
alien

Dingen also die bedeutendste die latinischen Colonien."


1

und

bestgestellte Klasse derselben,

Cf. Cic. Pro ISalbo,

2
.

On postliminium,

see infra.

Dig.

xlix.

15. 15.

2.

ii4

JURIDICAL BASIS OF RULES

della sovranita di tali popoli coi quali

Roma

venne

in

rapporti sia pacifichi che belligeri, essendo inconcepibile l il contrario." The contrary, indeed, is inconceivable, notwithstanding the assertions of detractors and the

carpings of the prejudiced.


juridical basis of these
principles.

Moreover, these principles rested on a truly mndical


t

by an international juridical conscioushas ness, though (as already been suggested) we must here guard against judging indiscriminately from the point of view of our modern conceptions and our broad outlook. The regula iuris conferred a right and imposed a corresponding obligation ; and it was conceived that a recalcitrant State could be lawfully compelled by the other States duly to fulfil its obligaso that, at bottom, the ancient ultimate sanction tions, was not different from the modern. The juridical basis is evidenced in the frequent clauses in treaties, determining the relationships of commerdum and connubium, regulating the rights and duties of the individual citizen of the States in question, or of States in their sovereign capacity, marking out the sphere of free maritime navigation, providing for recuperatio and deditio. It is also shown in the necessary formalities of the established procedure, in the strict expression of the As Ihering says, form, especially solemn formulas.
basis, established

i_ i

in ancient law,

is

in regard to juridical acts,

what the

imprint

is

to the coin. 2

The form

with which the

stipulation of the foedus or of the sponsio was invested indicated the intention on the part of the contracting As in parties to set up a legal bond, a vinculum iuris.

the case of the private law, it is indispensable that there should be an intention voluntarily expressed by a promisor, and a corresponding expectation signified by promisee, that there should be, in the language of the
!

Loc.

cif.

p.

478.

R. von Ihering, Geist des romlschen Rechts auf den venchiedenen Stufen seiner Entwicklung, 3 Bde. (Leipzig, 1852-1878), vol. iii
p.

187.

JURIDICAL BASIS OF RULES


"
Digest,

115

sensus."

duorum pluriumve The consensus in

in

idem placitum conthe case of the treaty

formula 'Pacem futuram spondes ?' 2 relating to States imposes an obligation marked by the same legal character * as that in the case of the civil formula Dari spondes ?
'

relating to private citizens. a treaty was broken a reason was generally advanced for such conduct, a reason which was con-

spondeo

When

violation of

The

sidered by the infringing party to be of juridical force. breaking of a treaty by Rome may sometimes

seem, as

M.

Baviera observes, to be due to a mere

pretext, to a piece of chicanery ; but it was, none the less, usually averred to be consequent on the conflicting interpretations of an ambiguous clause, or on the omission of some essential formality, or on the violation

Thus in the case of the of some equitable principle. annulment of the treaty of the Caudine Forks, the mala fides of the Romans may have been undeniable
;

they, however,

on the

sought to justify their action juridically ground that the treaty had been concluded

without the authority of the Roman people, and by one who had not the power to do so. 3 Belligerent relationships, too, were deemed to possess
a juridical foundation. belonged entirely to a

Legal basis
relationships,

The

imputation that the fetials

religious sphere is not really valid. In the first place, as has been insisted on above, a religious connection does not necessarily militate
against, at least does not destroy, juridical significance, and, in the second place, the college of fetials was not
1

Dig.
2 8

ii.

14.

i.
iii.

cf.

Dig.

1.

12. 3.

Gaius, Imt.

94.
:

"... La rottura e rappresentata sempre Baviera, loc. cit. p. 485 da un motive giuridico, un pretesto, un cavillo se vogliamo, ma poggiato sul conflitto di interpretazione di una clausola ambigua,
sulla

mancanza
II

diritto.
.

nel 434.

di una formalita, sulla violazione di un principio di primo trattato annullato e quello delle forche Caudine Nessuno nega la mala fede Romana. Ma una teoria

giuridica sta a giustificarla : e nullo, si disse, quel trattato concluso senza 1'approvazione del popolo, da quella persona che non ha il potere di farlo."

u6

JURIDICAL CONSCIOUSNESS

exclusively a religious body.

When

engaged
;

in

the

performance of ambassadorial functions they bore a purely political or diplomatic character and when they

pronounce on the validity or otherwise of the suggested cause of war, on the legitimacy of
called

were

upon

to

To

relative claims, they acted in a purely judicial capacity. find in such functions more or less distant associations

does not relegate them in toto to the if religious sphere and deprive them of a legal nature we but extend our ramifications far enough we shall inevitably find a connection or kinship between all For the Romans warfare must be regular, things. iustum ; x the idea of war, more latronum, was repugnant to them. Just as the interpellate was indispensable in
with
religion
;

private law, so was it necessary in international relationships duly to set forth one's claim, to make a formal

demand

for satisfaction, repetitio rerum, or clarigatioi before resorting to violent measures. War was not conceived by the Romans as a terrible struggle of

material force, to use the phraseology of the previously 2 quoted Italian writer, but it assumed the juridical

of a true actio it operated as the ultimate and supreme ratio for effecting a restitution (should satisfaction have been denied) of violated rights, or
position
;

for obtaining compensation therefor.


Existence of

That

this

0n
juridiad consciousness.

juridical basis of international relationships


juridical consciousness
it

proceeded from an international


cannot be doubted.
1

And
more

here, again,

is

necessar

For the juridical


492.

basis

and

for iustum helium, see

of the various causes of war, see infra fully below.

2 Loc. cit. p.
3

the significance and content of the notion of internatiom juridical consciousness, see (as cited by Baviera) Fallati, Die Genes der Volkergesellschaft (in Zeitschrift fur Staatswissenschaft, 1884] F. de Martens, Traite de droit international, 3 vols. (Trad, du russ 45-52 (on "droit de la com par A. Leo, Paris, 1883), vol. i. A. Rivier, Principes du droit des gens munaute internationale ")
;

On

2 vols. (Paris, 1896), vol. i. pp. 7 seq. ; F. von Holtzendorff, Hand 10. buck des Volkerrechts, 4 Bde. (Hamburg, 1885-1889), vol. i.

FIDES AS
to insist that

THE

BASIS

117

the international juridical consciousness not a stable, immutable entity throughout the ages ; it is not some peculiarly inexplicable endowment by which men and nations are actuated to conduct themselves in accordance with eternally valid prescrip-

of

men

is

tions

rather,

it

changes

in

proportion as the

spirit

and the structure of society and the relationships of Cicero's civitas gentium is not a mere nations change.
metaphysical figment of the speculative imagination ; his civitas (or societas) gentium is conceived to be composed of sovereign and independent States enjoying their

own
and

leges, iura, indicia, suffragia,

their

own

legal rights

recognition of a certain comitas gentium is shown, amongst other incidents, in the conferring of honours by the Romans on foreign princes by means of titles or presents, as, for instance, in the case of Masinissa ; x and it is shown also in the
civic

privileges.

The

The acceptance of the decisions of foreign tribunals. existence and the influence of a juridical consciousness is clearly evidenced in the whole fabric of the law of
nations as accepted by the Romans. It is manifested in the practice of deditio (as corresponding to the civil

procedure of noxae datio, noxal surrender of the delinquent), which was applicable to certain prescribed cases, it is indicated in a multiplicity of institutions and doctrines, such as the hospitium publicum and privatum, the ius honorarium (in reference to peregrins),
the ius legationis, the foedera, sponsiones, and indutiae, the ius fetiale, the recuperatio, the ius postliminii, the

doctrine of balance of power, the reference to arbitration and acceptance of the arbitral judgment, and in various other principles and institutions.

was stated above, in connection with the affair of Fides the basis Caudine Forks, that Rome was undeniably guilty of International mala fides, or of a violation of the spirit, if not of the relationships, Rome, in truth, conceived fides to letter, of the law. be the underlying basis of all international relationships,
It

the

Liv. xxvii.

4;

xxxi. 10,

n.

n8

FORCE OF THE OATH

the determining factor of all acts of private and public conduct. Sometimes the bona fides was expressly by a special clause or stipulation, reinforced Guaranteed a solemn oath ; more frequently it was implicit. The y
Force of oath, ne
?anction

violation of the oath

was universally considered a de-

liberate offence against the gods themselves, who exacted vengeance by pursuing to destruction not only the

malefactor, but also his family, deemed to be tainted with his perfidy ; it was likewise an offence against human law. All races of antiquity recognized bona fides to be an indispensable attribute of private, of public, and of international dealings, indeed, of all

conceivable

transactions.

"The

writers of Chinese antiquity

more enlightened condemn the practice of

exchanging hostages, as tending to keep up a state of quasi hostility and mutual mistrust ; and no writers of any nation have been more emphatic in insisting on

good
'

faith

as
.

a
.

cardinal

virtue in

all

international
:

transactions.

Confucius, speaking of a State, says


the greatest
is

Of

the

three essentials,
a revenue

good

faith.
'

Without
still

and without an army a State may but it cannot exist without good faith.' In the Hellenic world the oath was deemed to possess a sacred binding force the oracles threatened with dire 2 Some of the Greek vengeance would-be violators. peoples nevertheless became notorious for their perfidiousness ; e.g. a counterfeit coin was termed a Thessalian coin,' an act of treachery was stigmatized as a Thessalian trick.' Crete was reproached by
exist,
;
1

K/^re? poets and historians for her faithlessness, 3 the Alexandrian poet and \J/-ei/(rraf, writes Callimachus, grammarian, in the third century before the Christian
era
in

Plutarch reports that her people were treacherous which war ; 4 her name furnished the verb " to meant " to lie," 717)09 Kpfjra meaning
,

W. A.
Cf.

P. Martin, Traces of international law in ancient China,


vi.

loc. tit.

p. 74.
2

Heudot.
1

86.

Hymn,
Plut.

in Jov. 8.

*Philop.

Lysand. 20';

AemiL

23.

Aemit.

23

Lysand. 20.

BO NA FIDES AND AEQUIT4S


outwit a

119

knave." Similarly the Parians were proverbial for their apostasy ; avairaptdQiv meant to change sides like the Parians. 1
a n on- The oath as Polybius, though received In Rome the oath says, greater respect. his time, he states, there was a rash and foolish rejection of the gods by the Greeks, whose statesmen were

With Roman,

the

Romans,

in

" addicted to falsifying their accounts, though protected by ten checking-clerks, as many seals, and twice as many witnesses"; whereas the Romans, in their embassies

their faith intact from Kara rov opKov Tr/crreo)? pure respect TO But in Ka6>JKov. subsequent chapters of his rrjpova-t that there was a considerable admits history Polybius

and magistracies, kept


to
their

oath

by the Romans in this respect. Thus in the eighteenth book he says the decline was becoming apparent, though on the whole the Romans were com3 and in the thirty-second paratively incorruptible 4 book he points out the rampant degeneration due to luxury and sensual excesses, fostered by the importation of wealth after the destruction of the Macedonian monarchy and acquisition of universal supremacy. But men like Scipio, it is carefully noted, were throughout averse from all such viciousness. However, in the international transactions of Rome, to especially in her earlier period, bona fides was taken it ever be the fundamental principle of aequitas served as a criterion and guide in the interpretation and execution of undertakings. 5 It was at the bottom of the praetorian edicts. It was the fundamental prinof the ius for ambassadors were placed ciple legationis, under the protection of public faith, of which, says " fidei 6 Varro, the fetials were the ministers publicae inter populos praeerant." More particularly was fides or
falling off
; ;

Bona fides and


aet ultas
-

Ephorus
vi.

(fl.

375

B.C.),
8

Fragm. 107.
xviii.

56.

35.

4 xxxii.

II.

Cic.

De

offic.

iii.

29

Dig.

xlviii.

4 (ad

leg. lul. mai.),

24

pr.

De Ling.

Lat. v. 15.

120
l

INFLUENCE OF FIDES
2

the very basis of foedera and or-TrovSai (sponsiones). " says foedus was so called quia in foedere interponatur fides," and Livy frequently makes use of " in terminology to indicate the same conception

Festus

ergo in amicitiam ac3 cepti;" "eo anno societas coepta est; in fidem populi Romani venisse." 4 Fides was the indispensable condi" indutiarum tion in the case of a truce or armistice 5 6 "indutiarum fidem ruperat"; as also in the fides," u deditionis case of deditio quam societatis fides sanctior 7 "in fidem consulis dicionemque populi Romani erat," sese tradebant," 8 " non in servitutem sed in fidem tuam nos tradidimus." 9 The Romans had their Jupiter Fidius as the Greeks had their Zeus- ILWto?. 10 Fides was deified by the Romans and provided with a temple and a cult. Horace, in an ode to Virgil, thus writes of this numen, as of other deified virtues
.

fidem

venerunt

foedere

"...

cui

Pudor

et Justitiae soror

Incorruptae Fides, nudaque Veritas "u

Quando ullum

inveniet

parem

course, practice did not always keep pace with In the ancient world, as well as in the modern, theory.

Of

not infrequently applied, in view of the of State interest, so as to admit of excepexigencies tions ; and it is more just and profitable to infer our
rules were
1

On

Rechtsgeschichte, pp.
2

the significance of fides generally, see Leist, Graco-Italische 470 seq. ; and H. A. A. Danz, Der sacrale Schutz

in romischen Rechtsverkehr (Jena,

1857), passim.
lost

De

verborum

significatione,

84 (an alphabetical epitome of the


4 viii.
6

work under
3 viii.
5 7

this title

of Verrius Flaccus).

25.
i.

27

cf. viii.

21

ix.

x.

45.

Liv.

30.
;

Liv. ix. 40.


8

Liv. vi. 9

cf.

xxxii. 2
;

xxxvii. 32.
;

Liv. xxxvii. 45.


xxxiv. 35
;

9 Liv.

xxxvi. 28

xxxix. 54.

31 ; 43 19 (Most of the foregoing references


iv.

cf.

vii.

vii.

x.

xxxvii.

to Livy are cited

by

Leist, ibid.)
10
11

Dion. Hal.
i.

58, etc.

cf.

24;

11.

6-8.

Cf. also his

Danz, Carm.

op. df.

pp. 127 seq.


;

Sec.

57

Virg. Aen.

i.

292.

INFLUENCE OF FIDES

121

conclusions as to ancient practices from their observance of those rules than from their rarer breach.

Some

writers

animated,

it

would appear, by precon-

are ceptions antagonistic to Roman policy and conduct, too prone to draw their generalizations from certain
particular exceptions.

Romans with
defensible act
:

the
it

For example, the alliance of the Mamertines was certainly an in;

1 it duly censured by Polybius of Rome. the shame to redound Niebuhr as says, may, But this or that occasional offence against the law of nations does not necessarily debar the Romans from the right of making complaints in regard to the fides tc Le peuple," Punka,* as Laurent seems to think. " in a remarks he qui n'avait highly moralizing tone, s'allier aux Mamertins n'etait pas en droit de pas rougi 3 If comparatively de parler de foi et de justice." law made the whole law the of infractions occasional said to have be at time could non-existent, no State any is that Roman fides The truth possessed any legal system whatever. that of with in the fides of the Romans comparison with events all at most of the contemporary peoples, that of the Carthaginians, was immaculate ; wherefor they were, without shame or hypocrisy, entitled to complain of Punic treachery.

is

iii.

26.

Cf. Florus,

ii.

2.

Op.

cit.

vol.

iii.

p.

114.

CHAPTER V
GREECE AND FOREIGNERS
Greek notion
of
citizenship.

THE Greek
Qf y
|

idea of citizenship

ew

c | ose jy

bound up with
with
that

was, from one point that of the national

religion,

and,

from another

close

correlation

point of view, was in of membership of the

The phratry ((frpdrpa or (bparpn) was, in the phratry. 1 heroic age, a group of individuals of kindred race, and
became a political division of from ties of blood and kinship. At people, originating Athens the (frpdrptj was a subdivision of the (puX^ 2 was of the tribus? Each just as at Rome the curia
in

more

historical times

Link between and

thelttef

comprised three (ppdrpac or (frparpiai, the members of which were called <ppdrepe<s 4 (as those of a <pv\ri were termed (pvXercu, and those of a curia were termed curiales\ and were bound together by various religious This organization suggests an rites peculiar to each. inevitable connecting link between the family and the State. Exclusion from the city's worship was equivalent " to a deprivation of citizenship. Renon9ait-on au
<f)v\rj
1

Cf. Iliad,

ii.

362.
curiae
ii.

The Roman word


;

cf.

Dion. Hal.

7
;

exactly corresponds Plut. Pop fie. J.


Isoc.

to

the

Attic

Plato, Laws,
;

746

D,

785 A

De pace,

88.

Cf. Arist. Polit.

ii.

5.

17

v. 8. 19.

4 It may be interesting to note the etymological relationships In the Sanscrit we get bhrata, the form in Zend being of this word. bhratar, with which the Latin frater is associated ; the Gothic form is brothar, brothrahans (cf. brother, brethren), the Old High German In Greek is bruodar (which gives bruder), the Slavonic bratru. the word curiously assumes an exclusively political signification.

RELIGION AND ALIENAGE


culte,
1

123

de Coulanges of citizenship involved the Citizenshipsays. conferring 10 of to a solemn oath worship the gods and fight SJfcSJJT taking rel '8 lon KOI ra TO. for them ajjLvi>a> Se Trdrpia Tiw<ru> iepa
droits," as Fustel

on renonsait aux

The

virep lepwv?

Demosthenes describes admission

to civic

privileges as a concession to take part in the sacred affairs of the city peretvai TWV iepw* to share in the reXerwi/ KOI iepwv KCU festivals and sacrifices religious

Presence at the common meals was /uLere-^eiv.* an important duty ; absence therefrom (as, for example, Citizens in Sparta) brought about a loss of privileges. were obliged to assist at the religious festivals of their 5 Similarly in Rome the enjoyment of respective cities.
Ti/mwv
political rights

of

lustration,

implied presence at the sacred ceremony except in the case of soldiers engaged
Local deities
ai

in the field.

tutelary deities were considered to be antagonistic to the alien intruder, who was deemed to be incapable of participating in their worship. Should a town be captured by the enemy, and subsequently
city's

The

recaptured, an immediate purification of its temples was essential to obliterate the alien taint. Thus, when the

Persians were defeated by the Athenians and Spartans at Plataea, 479 B.C., messengers were sent to Delphi to inquire what sacrifices were to be offered in

honour of the
Protector

commanded them

The oracle, victory. to erect an altar

says Plutarch, to Zeus, the

of the free, and not to sacrifice upon it until they had first extinguished all fires throughout the country, because it had been defiled by the presence of the barbarians, and had then brought a new fire
1

La

cite

antique (Paris, 1900), p. 226.

2
3

Cf. the entire formula as given

Demosth.
Ibid.

In Neaeram,

by Pollux, viii. 105-6. 104; in connection with the decree


Strabo,
vol.
ii.

.relating to the Plataeans.


4
5

43 ; and No. Corpus imcriptionum Graecarum, 3641 B, Dion. Hal. iv. 15; Cic. Pro Caecina, 34.
113.
Cf. also Isoc. Panegyr.

ix. 3. 5.

p.

1131.

I2 4

RELIGIOUS EXCLUSIVENESS
from pollution from the hearth
1

free
is

at

Delphi, which

Jealousy of sacred rites.

common to all Greece. The Greeks' extreme


oriental

shows a certain
in

jealousy of their sacred rites There is, of course, spirit.

other respects a distinct kinship between " Dans Hellenic race and Oriental peoples. TOrient tout homme qui ne fait pas partie de la communion religieuse est impur ; sa presence souille les
several

the

fideles."

Herodotus reports

that

refused to

make use of

vessels

had been brought from abroad. Again, in the case of the Romans, Livy reports that after the defeat of the Gauls by Camillus, in 390 B.C., the Senate decreed that such temples as had been in the possession of the enemy should be restored, their bounds traced out, and due expiations made for them, " fana omnia, quod
ea
hostis

the Greek priests and other objects that 3

terminarentur restituerentur, possedisset, 4 In the Digest there is an express expiarenturque." provision for the purification by expiatory ceremonies

of
Religious exclusiveness
in antiquity.

all

places

in contact with a foreign

and objects that had 5 enemy.

in

any way been

The same
rigorous

spirit

was

of exclusiveness indeed, much more manifested amongst the nations of

oriental The Egyptians, for antiquity generally. example, regarded themselves as autochthonous, as the

human

race

par
:

excellence?

much

in

the same

way

1 Plut. Aristld. 20 He/at Se dv<ria.<$ tpopevois OLVTOLS a.vti\ev o TivOtos Atos 'EAeuflep'ov fiajfjLov i8pv(ra(r6ai Bvarai Se p.rj Trporepov TO Kara TYJV yj&pav irvp ciTrocr/^ecrai/Tas <os VTTO TWV /3ap/3a/xuv rj
}

/ze^uaoyxevov lvavcra.(rdai,
2 3

Kadapov IK AcA<a)V
Athenaeus,
iv.

aTrb rfjs KOtvfjs etrrias.

Laurent,

op.

cit.

ii.

p. 104.

Herodot.

v.

88;

cf.

14.

4 Liv. v. 50. 5 xi.

Dig.

(De

religiosis et

sumptibus funerum

et ut

funus ducere

liceat),

36:

"Cum

loca

capta sunt ab

religiosa vel sacra esse, sicut

homines

hostibus, omnia desinunt liberi in servitutem perveniunt ;

quod
6

si

ab hac calamitate fuerint liberata, quasi

quodam

postliminio
i.

reversa pristine statui restituuntur."

Cf. F. Laurent, Drolt civil international (Bruxelles, 1880), vol.

p.

114.

RELAXATIONS AS TO ALIENS
as

125

The men

the Hebrews, the Greeks, and other peoples did. dwellers on the Nile shores were alone ' pure
'

their soil

was sacred and pure


1

universe was

deemed

and savages. An effect that he governed Egypt and chastised foreign 2 territory. Though in course of time certain commercial privileges were conferred on foreigners, and 3 mainly on the Greeks, the Egyptians, in the time of Herodotus, seem to have retained a certain personal " . No Egyptian man or aversion to the Greeks. " will kiss a Grecian on the woman," says Herodotus, mouth ; or use the knife, spit, or cauldron of a Greek, or taste of the flesh of a pure ox that has been cut by a Grecian knife." 4 There was far less stringency, in this respect, in the attitude of the Persians, who often showed remarkable tolerance towards strangers. For this reason illustrious exiles like Themistocles and Alcibiades preferred the refuge of the Persian Court 5 to that of the Republics of Italy or of Sicily.
.
.

the rest of the ; Aliens were criminals polluted. of Sesostris was to the inscription

an antagon- Relaxations In spite of the antagonism to foreigners, 63 ism resting partly on religious motives and on pride of^s culture, and partly on the desire to preserve civic the Greeks gradually introduced conexclusiveness, And it siderable relaxations with regard to strangers. must be remembered in this connection, that aliens
1

in

N.

(Pisa,
2

1832-44),

8 torn. F. Rosellini, / monumenti del? Egitto e della Nubia. ... vol. iii. pt. i. pp. 37, 39, 51, 351 ; vol. iv. pp. 89,

90, 230.
Rosellini, op. cit. vol. iv. p. 1 8 ; vol. iii. pt. i. p. 350; pt. ii. pp. 54, 163, 215. (The references in this and in the preceding note are cited by Laurent, ibid?)
Collection de lois maritime* anterieures au xviii* 1828-45), vol. i. p. 52; cf. Herodot. ii. 178. 4 Herodot. ii. 41 TWV ei've/ca oiV dvrjp AiyvTrrtos, ovre yvvrj avSpa "EAAvjva c^tA^creie ai> T< o-ro/icm, ovSf fjLa^acprj avSpos "EAAr/i/os
J.
S

M.

Pardessus,

tilde (Paris,

Xpija-fraLj ovS' o^eAoto-t, ovSe


rfTjj.rnj.fvov
5

Ae/^n,
.
.

ovSrj

K/OCCUS

KaOapov

/?o5s Sia-

'EAATjviKy

fj.a.^aiprj ytvcrfTai.
.

Holtzendorff, Handbuch

vol.

i.

45.

126

ATTITUDE TO ALIENS
'

included, from the point of view of any particular State, not only barbarians,' that is non-Hellenes, but also

Exigencies of

commerce.

obtained a domicile in travellers or visitors whose stay was merely temporary. In the classic epoch of Greece, the racial distinction between Hellenes and barbarians was not emphasized as strongly as it was in the heroic age the distinction came to rest more on the claim to superior moral and intellectual capacity. In a " So far has Athens left striking passage, Isocrates said the rest of mankind behind in thought and expression that her pupils have become the teachers of the world, and she has made the name of Hellas distinctive no longer of race but of intellect, and the title of Hellene a badge of education rather than of common descent." l In practice this narrow exclusiveness was constantly being broken down, on the one hand by the exigencies
cities

Greeks of other

who had

that State, and, of course,

Greek

Effect of

war

down

in breaking barriers.

of commerce which, as Montesquieu says, necessarily remedies destructive prejudices, "guerit des prejuges 2 destructeurs," and on the other by war with its subsequent peaceful adjustments and alliances, which so much promoted international relationships and ameliorated the condition of the foreigners of the respective
States.

Exaggerated
statement as to
attitude to
aliens.

Wheaton's observation, that " nothing but some positive compact exempted the persons of aliens from
being

doomed

to slavery the

moment

Wrong
methods on the
part of writers.

and touched the confines of another B conveys an entirely erroneous impression. There is a tendency in some writers (especially such as are given to glorify the present civilization to the extreme disadvan-

bounds of one

State

they passed the "

TO(TOVTOV 6 aTToAeAotTTCV

rj

TToAfcS 17/U.WV

aAAovs

di/0pw7rovs, wo-0' ol Tavrrjs (JLaOr^ral

TTpl TO <f>pOVLV KOI XejCLV TO>I/ aAA<oi/ StSacncaAoi

ycyovacri, KOU TO

aAAa T^S
TITJS

TO>I> 'EAA^vcov 6Vo/xa 7r7ron7/c /Z^KCTI rov ycvovs, Stavota? SOKCIV ctVcu, /ecu /xaAAov "EAA^vas KaAcicr^ou TOVS 7TaiSVCT(OS TTJS f)fJ.Tpa.S rj TOVS TJS KOIV>JS <v(Ta>S fJLT%OVTa<S.

(Panegyr. 50).
2 3

Esprit des

lois, liv.

xx. chap.

i.

H. Wheaton,

History of the

Law

of Nations

(New

York,

845),

p.

I.

ALIEN

NOT NECESSARILY ENEMY

127

tage of the ancient), who have not sufficiently investigated their subject, to regard this or that exceptional case, particularly so if it happens to be a prominent one, as representative of the usual prevailing conditions; and there is a still more injurious tendency in others who

have

not

even

superficially

examined

many

issues

relevant to their subject to embrace such views blindly

and unreservedly.

The fame of Greek and Roman

from both these tendencies. consideration of the institutions relating to aliens and of the various rights and privileges extended to them,
international law has suffered

as evidenced

by the incontestable original sources (of extant which inscriptions are of the greatest importance) at once dispel such erroneous conclusions. will
Achilles said

among

that Atreides treated the Argives as though he were


'

him arrogantly some worthless


'

Fallacious
cc

wa-el TIV but this aTijuLrjrov jULeravda-Triv ; sojourner expression does not prove that the law authorized violence to the stranger. At most it indicates that he did not receive the same consideration as the citizen. Some writers, again, have inferred from the word

Aliens were not

exfyo? (enemy) that foreigners were assimilated to ^mies!" enemies. But such argument is based on what is most wrong The probably, if not indubitably, a false etymology.

word

ol e/cro? is cognate with e/cro? (outside), being used by Plato with the meaning of strangers 2 and in certain Locrian and Epidaurian inscriptions the forms 6^009 and C^ODI are found for e/cro?. Similarly, from a
;

3 passage in Herodotus,

who

strangers barbarians,

j*civow, it

says the Spartans called is often concluded that

foreigners were of necessity identified with enemies. This is a strangely distorted syllogism, and is still more

untenable when applied to the Greeks in general. Indeed, on the contrary, does not the fact that
1

///W,

ix.

648
D.

cf.

xvi. 59.
8
*

2 4

Laws, 629

ix.

ii. 55.

On the meaning of barbarian,' /3dp/3apos, see F. Roth, Ueber Sinn und Gebrauch des Wortes Barbar (Ndrnberg, 1814).

128

CONCESSIONS

TO

ALIENS

means at the same time a guest-friend, under the protection of Zev? eYfo?, and a stranger, an alien refugee, clearly point to a conception which is the very antithesis to notions of hostility ?
The Greeks
1

not

fOTdgners"

Hospitality,

In point of fact the Greeks liked foreigners, and they were themselves fond of travelling abroad. Hospitality was practised not only through the influence of the religious traditions of the race, but also with a view to commercial advantages. Herodotus states there were even certain ties of hospitality between such sovereigns as Polycrates, the tyrant of Samos, and Amasis, king of

Egypt.
Athens offered

fredom't?
aliens,

Different
116

extent of the privileges of access varied, of course, Athens extended the greatest liberty, the the policy of these two cities indileast and ; Sparta cates the attitude generally of the democratic, commercial States on the one hand, and that of the aristocratic, agri-

The

m different States.

Greek'stat"!

cultural States

on the
to

other.

most anxious
influences.

safeguard
c

The Doric States were themselves against alien


a special officer,

Thus Epidamnus appointed


seller

TrwXrJTw
in Crete.

(literally

Sparta.

Argos.

fellow-countrymen, all neighbouring Illyrian barbarians. The Cretan cities also 3 imposed certain restrictions, but they were not so rigorIn the earlier history of ous as those of the Spartans. citizens forbidden to go abroad, 4 as was her were Sparta 5 also the case in Argos, and foreigners were not allowed
1

to regulate, on behalf of his ') commercial transactions with the

Herodot.
Plut.

iii.

39.

This is not to be confused with the Gr. 29. Athenian TruA^Tou, ten officers who, like the Roman censors, let out (locabanf) the taxes and other revenues to the highest bidders, and
Quaesf.
sold confiscated property.
3

Cf.

G.

F.

Schoemann,
J.

Grlechlsche Alterthumer.

Vierte Auflage.

Neu
p.

bearbeitet von

H.

Lipsius, 2 Bde. (Berlin,

1897-1902)
D.

vol

i.

385. *Plut. Ins fit. Lacon. 19


5

cf.

Plato, Protag.

342

Cf.

Ovid, Metam.

xv.

29

"... prohibent
Poenaque mors

discedere leges,

posita est patriam

mutare volenti."

ATTITUDE OF SPARTA TO ALIENS


to reside within her precincts,
1

129

which found many parties of other States. 2 The Athenian citizens, on the contrary, were permitted to emigrate, and take their possessions with
a policy

admirers

in

the

conservative

them,

TO)

'AOyvatwv ro>

/3oiAoyttei/ft>

e^eivai

Herodotus \a/36vra ra avrov ctTrievai OTTOI av /3ov\rjTai* that in his had time conferred reports citizenship spartan Sparta on only one individual, and that even then the sanction J^ 10 of the oracle had to be obtained. 4 The aim of the
Lacedaemonians was to preserve the purity of their religion, and the valour, simplicity and frugality of their

Thus Archilochus of Paros, a lyric esteemed poet greatly by the ancients, was expelled from the hour his arrival for having said that same of Sparta it was better to flee than die on the battlefield ; a tyrant was expelled for distributing gold and silver vessels amongst the citizens ; likewise a sophist for claiming he could discourse for a whole day on any subject whatever ; and a cook for corrupting their simple taste. 6 Aristophanes refers, on more than one occasion, to Spartan alien laws the unsociable spirit of the Lacedaemonians 7 and they also incurred, on account of their ^evrjXcurla (alien acts), the hatred of many other Greek nations. But many But many were made even at the most rigorous epoch. exceptions Lycurgus himself made use of the poet and musician Thales, a native of Gortyna in Crete, who came to appease the wrath of Apollo ; Terpander, the father of Greek music and of lyric poetry, a native of Antissa in Lesbos, was welcomed ; and so was Pherecydes, an early
national character. 5
'

1 Xenoph. Resp. Laced, Thuc. i. 144.

xiv.

4;

cf.

Plut.

Ages.

10

Lycurg.

27;

2 8

Cf. Arist. Polit.


Plat. Crito,

vii. 5. 3

Plato, Laws,

viii.

849.

510.
33-35.
See infra, p. 181, as to naturalization in

Herodot.

ix.

Sparta.
5 6

Plut. Ages. 10.

Cf.

Nauze, Memoire sur


t.

la Xtnelasie (in

Memoires de

F Academie des

Inscriptions,
7

xii.

pp. 159-176).
;

Ave^ 1013

seq.

Pax, 623.
I

130

MORE LIBERAL POLICY

island in the Aegean. the Athenian Tyrtaeus, elegiac poet, whose war-songs stimulated the Spartans in the second Messenian war, received citizenship. 1 Foreign physicians and sooth2 were admitted. sayers During the celebration of the were allowed access to the terripublic games foreigners 3 Proxenia was established and many citizens ; tory. obtained hospitality abroad. 4 In the time of Xenophon the

Greek philosopher of Syros, an

between Spartans and foreigners were still further removed. Discussing the government of Lacedaemon and her departure from the discipline of Lycurgus, he says, as an ardent admirer of the earlier constitution " I know that for this reason [i.e. degeneration through contact with foreigners and possible imitation of ostentation in wealth, etc.] strangers were formerly banished from Sparta, and that citizens were not allowed to reside abroad, lest they should be initiated in licentiousness by foreigners ; but now I know that those who are thought the leading men among them have shown the utmost
barriers
:

Restrictions

eagerness to be constantly engaged in governing some 5 foreign city." In other parts of the Hellenic world the earlier stric-

gradually

removed
general.

in

Greece in

from prison, and assured him that he would be loved wherever he might go, and not in Athens only, that in Thessaly he had
1

tures against strangers were more and Crito tried to induce Socrates to escape

more

mitigated.

Nauze,

loc cit.

pp. 162
seq.

seq.

2 3

Ibid. pp.

169

On
Cf.

this institution see Infra, pp.

147

seq.

G. F. Schoemann,
xiv.

dntiquitates juris publici Graecorum (Gryphis-

waldiae, 1838), p. 142.


5

Resp. Laced,

'En-tcrra/Acii

<5e

KGU TrpovOev TOVTOV


^oi/,

^ev^Acwnas ytyvoptvas KCU aTro&y/Aetv OVK


Ol

6Va>s
8'

(J.YJ

TToAlTOU

(X7TO

TWV

v<>)V

/A7Tt7rAatl/TO'

VVV

7TWTTajUat

TOU?

SoKOiWas

TT/OWTOVS cu/cu

T7nn;SaKOTas ws

bi/Tes 7ri ^ev^s. (There appears to be but that need not genuineness or proper place of this chapter; Cf. the frequent denunciations of Italianized concern us here.) Englishmen, in the Elizabethan epoch, through their assumption of foreign airs and use of foreign language.

/zrjSeTrore Travoji/rat apposome controversy as to the

VARIOUS RELAXATIONS
friends

131

who would value and protect him, and that no Thessalian would in any way molest him. 1
In most of the Greek States, but in Athens above
all,

concessions

strangers received protection and large concessions. esp^uuyTn" Not only were the persons and property of free Athens
-

foreigners safeguarded, but even prisoners of war who had been ransomed (Sopv^evoi) were afforded faithful

General hospitality (not to be confused proxenia, which will be considered shortly) assumed the character of a public institution. In the heroic age the tie of hospitality contracted between Tie of hosplt stranger and host was held to be a sacred bond, and was 2 This institution transmitted from father to son. an in also historic times ; for important part played as was the Alcibiades, relates, example, Thucydides intimate and hereditary friend of Endius, one of the ephors, and on account of this bond his family adopted a Lacedaemonian name. 3 Homer often says that
protection.

with

strangers

and the poor came from Zeus, 4 that suppliants Zeus the were under his special protection. 5 When Ulysses, stra'ngeS and as an unknown wrecked man, came to Alcinous, the suppliants. latter said that anyone with even a moderate share of right feeling is fully aware that it is his duty to treat a guest and a suppliant just as though he were his

own brother
an
Only the
1
I

KCKriyv^Tov

di>e/3fc,

eivos IKCT^S re TCTVKTCU 6s T' dXiyov irtp ^VLi^avy 7r/3awi'6Wo~t. 6

&

Cyclopes

and

the

Laestrygonians

attack

Plato, CrifOy 45 c : eicrti/ e/xot e/cei i>oi, 01 ae TTC/OI TroAAov O-OVTCU Kott ao-<a/UidV (rot Trapcfoi/Tcu, axrre ere /zrjSeva Avrmi/.
2

///W,

vi.

119-236;
tesseris

Odyss.

i.

187;

Tomasini,
8

<>

hospitalitatu

xv. 197; and see G. F. (Amstelodami Frisii, 1670),

esp. chap, xxiii. pp.

Thuc.

viii. 6.

159-164. ... i>i>7r/ooo-o-

yap avrois KOI


cr\V.
6

'AA/a/^iaoSys,

</>0/DeVOVT4 TTttT/aiKOS S TO, /AttAtCTTa AO.KOVIKOV f) oi/a'a avrtav Kara

EvSuj)
4

^VO<5 WV, odtV KOL TOVVOfJM

Trjv ^ei/tav

Odyss.
5

vi.

207

seq.

xiv.
;

508.

Odyss. vii. 165, 181

ix.

270.

Odyst.

viii.

546.

132
foreigners.

PASSPORTS

Not only do princes offer shelter to a poor swineherd like Eumaeus gladly but travellers, " offers a beggar food and a lodging. Stranger, though should come it would not be man here still a poorer for me to for all insult him, strangers and beggars right
are from Jove."
iv',

OV

fJLOL

aTiftdcrarai'

Tr/sbs

yap Atos

ewrtv a?ravTs

Consideration
strangers.

Amongst
a fine

on any

the Lucanians there was a law which imposed citizen who refused to receive a foreigner

2 Charondas urged his asking for shelter after sunset. citizens to fulfil the obligation of hospitality as being of And of Crete, conservative as a sacred character. 3

it was, it is reported by a later Greek writer that at the common meals two tables were reserved for themstrangers, who were served before the magistrates travellers refused to show selves. 4 who Anyone strayed In Theothe way was liable to public imprecations. 5

critus

this

duty

is

enjoined in the

name of Hermes

'Ei/o<W. 7
Passports.

The practice of conceding passports was also known There was the artypayls (so called because in Greece.
of the
official

seal),

contract, (rvyypacjyri.
1

which was really a form of Sometimes passports were term<


2

Odyss. xiv. 55 seq.

Aelianus, Variae historiae,


:

iv.

i.

eviov ws Stobaeus, Florilegium, xliv. 40 Mc/^vrj/x-ei/ovs Aib? 7ri<rKO7rov faXogwias re KOL iraxriv iSvpwov KOIVOV Oeov, KOI OVTOS
4

Athen. Deip.
offic.

iv.

22;
13.

cf.

Sainte-Croix,

Legislation de la Crefe,

' pp. 39 6 8 5 Cic. De


6

iii.

Idyll, xxv. 3-6: IK rot, ^?v,

Trp6(f)p(ov

fJt.vOr)(TOfj.a.i

ocrcr'

'Ep/xcca a^o/xcvos SewrjV OTTIV

tvo8toto'

TOV yap
t

<^curi fieyto-roi/

irovpavt<av

Kev 6Sov faxpeiov dvrjvrjTat TIS otTTjv.

7 From An epithet of certain gods 6Sos, road, highway. their statues by the way-side or at cross-roads.

who had

HOSTELRIES FOR ALIENS


a
all

133

designation

which applied
1

in

general

to

marks or signs of

legalization.
is

The

distinction,

not very clear. a to sealed Probably artypayh applied passport granted Difference to a person, whereas the <rv]UL/3o\ov was frequently 0^" ai d (especially as used by Aristophanes) an official label for ^ to that were free indicate from contraband. goods they These passports were necessary for foreign travellers only when the town, which was their destination, was engaged in war. It was naturally indispensable in such cases to exercise greater care and superintendence not only with regard to those coming into the town but also with regard to those leaving it. Sometimes such passports were also employed in time of peace to ensure greater safety. There were numerous establishments in Greece in Numerous which foreigners could obtain food and shelter. There hostelries were hostelries of various kinds ; we hear of the Trav<$OKia (inns), the Karaywyia (halting-places), the KCLTa\vjuiaTa (lodgings, guest-chambers), the KaraXva-eis (resting-places), and the like. In the Laws Plato laid down that arbitrary offences wrong to committed against strangers were liable to the ven- su geance of the gods, that the foreigner having no kindred and friends is all the more an object of sympathy both of gods and men. The greatest of such offences
?

however, between the two terms

are those

committed against

Athens frequently

suppliants. boasted that of

all

States

she Freedom
1 b;

conferred the largest measure of privileges and evinced the greatest liberality to foreigners. In this respect the

Athens
Difference

Athenian foreign policy offers a striking contrast to the


Spartan.
1

Solon, unlike Lycurgus the Lacedaemonian


ii.

Athenian and SP*"* P lic y-

Plautus, Captivij
2

3.

90 (447)
TTOU'T'

Aristoph. Aves, 1213 '*?

v.

729

<r^c8ov

yap

cvov<s dfjLaprrjfJMTa

Trapa
o>v 6
. .

TO.

/iaAAov*
7

fprjfjios

yap
dOl<S.

ra T<OV ei/a)v KOI ct? TOVS TWV TroAtrwv is deov dvr)pTr)fj.vo. KOI ^vyyevwv e evo<s kraiptov T
ecrrt
a.fj,apTrjfj.dT(av

dv6plOTTOlS KOL

30 A: ^eviKwy 8' av /cat kiriyjapiov iKTas fieyicrTov ytyvcTat d/xa/my/Aa

TO

rrc/oi

TOVS

134

ALIENS

WELCOMED

IN

ATHENS

commercial intercourse and and welcomed It was navigation foreign merchants. the proud boast of Pericles, in his famous oration on the occasion of the public funeral at Athens of the citizens who had fallen in the war (B.C. 431) that his city was thrown open to the world, that the Athenians never expelled a foreigner or prevented him from observing or learning anything the secret of which if revealed to an enemy might be profitable to him.
lawgiver,

encouraged

TT/I/

Te

yap
CLV
2

7TO\iv

Koivtjv

TrajOe^Oywei/,

ical
rj

OVK

<TTIV

ore
ju.rj

evrjXa(rlai$ aTrelpyojULev

TWO. q ^a&yyuaro?
TToXe/micov
iocov

6ea/u.aTO$, o
wcbeXrjOeLrj.
. .

KovcbOev

Tt?

TWV

1
.

Sophocles refers to the right of hospitality. Euripides terms Athens the X^eW rov 'hospitable port' oTaTov vavrats 3 and says she is ever ready to aid 4 the unfortunate ; and similarly Xenophon claims that she is always disposed to extend a helping hand to those who appeal to her as victims of injustice 5 TraVra?
KCU rou? aSiKOvjmevovs KOI

row

(f)o/3ovju.evov$
.

evOdSe

Athens a place
6
fntesthfe
conflicts.
in

During the

intestine conflicts in the

Greek

States,

6 everybody could find in Athens a place of refuge. Diodorus speaks of the right of asylum and of the 7 It was the generous laws in favour of suppliants. constant policy of Athens, says Demosthenes, to deliver 8 the oppressed TOW aSiKovjuievovg a-w(eiv and to take the part of the unfortunate. 9 Indeed, she practised this she was often reproachec that to such an extent policy The Athenians for allying herself with the feeble. 10

Pity deified,

recommend mercy to a judge," " will it not support my application argued Quinctilian, to observe that the eminently wise nation of the Athenians regarded mercy not as a mere affection
deified
pity.

"If

Thuc. Thuc.

ii.

39.

CW/>.
xiii.

Co!.

562-568.
8

Hippol.

157

^Heraclid.
6
9
i.

329
2,

seq.
7

Xenoph.
26.

Hellen. vi. 5. 45.

Pro Megalop. 14

seq

Demosth. Pro Rhod. 2 z


Panegyr. 53.

De

Cforson. 4 1

10 Isocrat.

ATHENIAN HUMANENESS
"
.

135

of the mind but as a deity ? l " In the market-place of Athens there is an altar to Mercy, to whom, he is of all though gods the most helpful in human life and in the vicissitudes of fortune, the Athenians are the only Greeks who pay honour." When under the Roman empire it was proposed to the Athenians to
. .
5

adopt

gladiatorial

down

strongly protested. the altar which


3

shows, Demonax, a philosopher, " First of " cried


all,"

our

fathers

have

he, pull raised to

Plutarch relates also that the Athenians were considerate to animals. 4 Even in the time of Plutarch Athens gained the esteem and admiration of other peoples for her conspicuous examples of kindness and humanity ; 5 later, Lucian (a native of Syria) commended the Athenians' humane conduct towards their guests ; 6 and the Roman Emperor Julian

Mercy."

added the same testimony. 7


1

Inst. orat. v.

n.

38:

"Aut

si

misericordiam
civitas

commendabo

iudici,

nihil proderit, aftectu sed pro

quod prudentissima numine accepit ? "

Atheniensium non earn pro

OV KOI /ATa/3oAas Tr/oay/xarcDV OVTL <o<eAi/>iu>, [j,6voi Cf. Apollod. Bibl. ii. 8, with ve/xowiv 'A&patot.
the note of Heyne.
3

Lucian, Demon. 57.

Cat. Maj. 5 ; De solert. anlm. 1 3 ; Cf. Aelian. De natur. anim. vi. Cf. the note by W. H. S. Jones, The Attitude of the Greeks 49. towards Animals (in Classical Review, London, 1908, vol. xxiii.

pp. 209-210).
5
7

Plut. Aristid. 27.

Scytha. 10.

Misopogon. in Opera, ed. Spanheim, p.

348

c.

CHAPTER
GREECE

VI

AND

FOREIGNERS.

DIFFERENT

CLASSES

AND
Admission of strangers by
special authorization.

PRIVILEGES.

RUDIMENTS OF A CONSULAR

SYSTEM (PROXENI4)

THE

admission of strangers was in practice usually permitted by special authorization, though in Athens there were no particular provisions in her public law 1 to that effect. As has been already mentioned, passports

Foreigners enjoyed

freedom of
speech.

were readily granted to travellers, and to foreigners intending to stay in the country temporarily. They enjoyed freedom of speech and were at liberty to move about where they pleased except, of course, in such places as were exclusively reserved for citizens for the purpose of performing their sacred rites. Demosthenes, protesting against the restrictions that appear to have been imposed at certain times on the free expression
:

Taxes

in case

they engaged in Athenian

commerce.

of opinion in the Athenian Councils, exclaims " You hold liberty of speech in other matters to be the general right of all residents in Athens, insomuch that you allow 2 a measure of it to foreigners and slaves." In case they should engage in commercial transactions of any kind in Athens, special taxes were imposed. There was a law of Solon to this effect OVK
:

TOV

oLTroSrjfJMVvra Set

2<paytSa
Ovjvai

f)

orv^/^oAoi/ Set e^etv TOV

evov,

CTTI

iraptXOdv (Schol. ad Corpus juris JLtticij 25, 1247.


2

Aristoph.

dves,

1213,

1214).

Cf.

aAAwi/ OUTQ> c. Philipp. iii. 3 : ty/,ets Tt\v irappr)<riav eVt fJLtv T0)v /cat rots KOivrjv ofearOe Stiv eii/ai Trcuri rots ev ry TroXet, worre KCU rots SovAots avrfjs /AeraSeSw/caTe. . . .

RESTRICTIONS AND EXEMPTIONS


1

137

Certain restric- Certain feviKu. reAeF. ayopa epydQ&Oai, el measures were applied to their trading, not through on the grounds ill-feeling or racial antagonism, but solely For example, the free exportation of public economy. of certain commodities, and principally olive oil, 2 was prohibited ; and they were also forbidden to lend money on ships which did not bring corn to Athens, a provision which applied, however, as much to Athenians as to
Til
/u.tj

tive

non-citizens.

Demosthenes addressing the Athenian jury reminds them of the seventy of the law in respect of such delin3

But restrictions
Athenians.

quencies
cdv r*9
e(V

tcrre

yap

Stfirov
TTOI
rj

TOV vo^ov
37
'

o>?

^u\7ro9
t]

<TTIV,

'A.6tjval(ii)V

aXXoare

artTtiyrfa'fl

'AOrfvalc,

A.6tjval(jov ("For, of course, you know, men of the jury, how severe the law is if any Athenian convey corn to any place other than Athens, or lend money to any port other than the Athenian "). Then he proceeds to recite the enactment relating to the question: "It shall not be lawful for any Athenian, or any stranger domiciled in Athens, or any person under their control, to lend out money on a ship which is not commissioned to bring corn to Athens, or anything else which is specifically mentioned" ; 4 and afterwards he refers to the necessary legal proceedings and the penalty involved, including a forfeiture of the lender's right of

aXXo

TI c/uLTTopiov

TO

action.

To compensate
there were

for such restrictions, few as they were,

Certain

instances of exemption from taxes, as, for example, in the case of fishermen and sellers of eels,

some

and dyers and importers of purple.


1

The

foreigners not

Given in Corp.jur. Att. 874. ^Corp.jur. Att. 1546: ran/ yi I/O/AC vwv SidOc&iv irpbs ^cvovs eAxxtov /lovov emu, aAAa 8' ayav /XT) rT<o. See the note to this article and compare Schol. ad Pindar, Nem. Od. x. 64 : OVK crrri 8e eay<oyr) eAatov e 'A077i/(ov t /XT) TOIS vt/cwcrt.
8
4
f.

Laerit. 51.
'
:

Ibid.

'Apyv/otov

<$

/XT)

c^civat

K($ovi/cu
/x^Sei/t,

A.6irjvat<DV
/xrrSe

/cat

rwv

/XCTOI'KOOI'
L<TIV,

TW>
vavv

'ASrjvrjcri
T^rts
a.v

/XCTOCKOVVTCOV
/XT)

ets

oSrot Kvpioi } /xcXX^ a^ctv arirov A$T^vae Kat raAAa


tuv

Ta ycypa/x/xeva

TTC/M e/cacrrov O.VT(DV.

138

WRONG CONCLUSIONS

only promoted the external commerce of Athens, but brought with them various industries, and also largely worked in the mines. Xenophon, speaking of the Athenian revenues derived from the silver mines and of the probable continuance of their output, says the State

seemed to have recognized


Foreign
influence in

Athens.

this, for it permitted any mines on paying the same duty 1 To such an extent was the by citizens. of in Athens, so considermanifested activity foreigners able was their number, and so marked their influences that the city presented an international aspect. In their lives Athenians the various words, customs, daily adopted and fashions from the different kinds of languages they heard, and from the different modes of living they

foreigner to as was paid

work

in the

observed. 2
False
inferences

It

is

not to

be

inferred

from

certain

occasional

from

ancient writers,

observations, found in the ancient writers, of a character seemingly hostile to foreigners that their position was really precarious, and that the national tolerance of them

was only ostensible. For example, Demosthenes is said to have made the remark, which is reported by Aeschines, 3 that he preferred the salt of the city to that of the
guest's table
TJ/C;

TOL/?

r^9 TroXeco? a'Aa?

Tre^o*

TrAe/oyo? TroujcracrOai

evLK.w TjoaTre^c;.

One may, no doubt, justifiably

con-

clude from statements of this description that there was and always remained with the Greeks as is obviously the case with the so-called more enlightened modern nations a certain innate hostility to foreigners, a certain subconscious aversion. But, on the other hand, one cannot that aliens were not granted any subinfer legitimately
stantial
1

rights at
iv.

all,

and that they were beyond the


ITTI

De

vectig.

12: Ao/ct

Vi/o)Kvat.
ixevo)
2

Ilape^et yovv

8e /not /cat TroAts irpoTcpa e/xov ravra to~OTeAtci /cat Ttoy ^cVtoy TW pouAo-

Xenoph.

cpyd^ecrOdL tv rots /xeraAAots. "ETreira Resp. Athen. ii. 8


:

<wv?)v
T^5.

Tracrai/

TOVTO
ta fj.a\Xov teAe^avro

/xci/

l/c

rfjs

TOVTO 8e

4/c

/cat ot /ACI

/cat <f>iovy
cbrai/Ttoi/

KKpafj,vy e^
3
c.

TWV

KCU StatT^ Kat cr^/xaTt x/owvTat, 'A^^vatot e EAA-^i/<ov Kat

Ctesiph. 224.

INTERNATIONAL CONVENTIONS
of the law. of commerce prohibition enemies to applied only
protection
in the national ports

139

Absolute exclusion from and and markets

and foreigners (notwithstand; careless verbal the twistings of a good many modern ing 1 not were writers) necessarily enemies.

To
of

explicit recognition

obtain greater security for foreigners, in the sense by the State, and to render their

Conventions

position more precise and their rights more clearly defined, international conventions (<nV/3oAa) were entered Andocides refers to such a convention and to its into.
violation

by Alcibiades who had imprisoned one Aga-

tharcus, a painter, in his house to compel him to execute " But in our conventions with the other certain work.
cities

we

agree that

it is

forbidden to arrest or imprison

a free

man, and we have imposed a large fine for any inSometimes it was fringement of this undertaking."
punishment should be
3

also stipulated that

inflicted for

the commission of offences in the territory against the

These o-v/ui/SoXa regulated sovereigns of other States. the procedure for the trial of actions (Swat a-rro o-^oXwi/), 4 brought by the individual subjects of different States against one another, or by an individual against a foreign
State against an individual tribunal the of the defendant's country subject. Usually the forum rei of Roman jurisprudence exercised
State,

Settlement of

or

by a foreign

jurisdiction

over such suits ; but in some instances Athens adopted the forum contractus. In any case we find many examples where such court was only a court of first instance, from which the plaintiff could appeal to the tribunal of his own or of the defendant's city, as the case
1

See

infra, as to

commerce during war.


1

Andocid.

c . Alcibiad.

KOU Trpos

IJLCV

rots

aAAas

TroAeis ev rots

<rvfjif36\ois

Otpov.
3

(TUVTi0/Ae0a fir) eetvai jJ.v)0' ijp<u, yu^re Srjo-ai roi/ eAeueav Se rts 7rapa/3y, /AcyaAr/v jjr)pia.v CTTI TOVTOIS @fj,v.

Cf. A.
les

Grecs et
4

E. Egger, Etudes historiques Romains (Paris, 1866), p. 90.

stir

les

traites publics

chez

les

See

M. H.

E. Meier and G. F. Schoemann,

Der attache Process. Neu 994


*'?

bearbeitet von J. H. Lipsius (Berlin, 1883-7), PPinfra, the second part of chap. viii.

See further,

140

MEASURES OF REPRISAL

be, or even, sometimes, by previous or express Such arrangement, to the arbitration of a third city. * was called 7r6\is a called eWXiyro? city (literally, city

may

out* or chosen to decide a certain matter in dispute),


The
of laws.

and the trial itself SIKJJ e/c/cXj/ro?. 1 Commercial treaties in the strict modern sense were
But, at least, the <nV/3oXa not to assured the only respective subjects of the States in question personal liberty and unmolested possession of their property in each other's territory, and provided for
practically

unknown. 2

Where no
convention measures of
reprisal.

of any violation of these rights ; of possible conflicts on equitable principles. The provisions were not, of course, everywhere the same ; they varied in accordance with the customs and practices of the contracting States. And, no doubt, the principles adopted in these conventions were modified according to the municipal law or special legislation of each State ; and the procedure varied in like manner. 3 Should a contract be violated, when no such commercial convention existed between two States, and when satisfaction was refused in any other way not
in case

due punishment

they also based the juridical solution

expressly provided for by contractual stipulation, the party wronged was entitled to avail himself of measures of
1

As

to TroXis

see infra, p. 206,

and chap. xx. on Greek

arbitration.
2 Cf. A. B. Buchsenschiitz, Besitz und Erwerb im griechischen Alterthume (Halle, 1869), pp. 516 seq. : "Es scheint allerdings, als ob es gewisse, allgemein anerkannte Bestimmungen gegeben hatte, durch welche die Freiheit des gegenseitigen Verkehrs zwischen den Angeh5rigen der einzelnen Staaten garantiert war, da die Megarer, als

sie von dem Besuche des athenischen Marktes ausgeschlossen worden waren, sich beklagten, dass dies gegen das allgemeine Recht und die von den Hellenen beschworenen Festsetzungen geschahe, aber In reference to the weiteres ist iiber die Sache nicht bekannt." complaints of the citizens of Megara on their having been excluded from the Athenian markets, cf. Plut. Pericles, 29 Mcya/aeis
:

aiTta>/Ai>oi

Traces

//,!/

ayopas

TTOLVTIDV

6e

/cparoixrtv,
3

?/>yeo-$ai

/cat

aVcAavvccr^cu

8>v 'A.0rjvaioi At/ieveov, Trapa ra /coiva Si/cata /cat

See further the latter part of chap.

viii.

as

to the question of

aliens

and

jurisdiction.

INTERCHANGE OF RIGHTS

141

avXcu or o-OXa. This involved strictly a seizure reprisal of the defaulting party's goods only, as opposed to the proceeding of avSpoXytya, which permitted, under certain Such goods circumstances, the seizure of his person. constituted a pvviov, or pledge, by means of which satisfaction for the wrong could be obtained, if the verdict
1 eventually went against the said defaulter.

Apart from these specific a-up/SoXa there was occasion- interchange ally an interchange by two (and sometimes more) States of certain civic rights, an arrangement effected also by means of treaties. Such practices were promoted by the conception of, at all events, a certain rudimentary international comity, which was fostered by close political and commercial relationships. A mutual exchange of the private rights of citizenship established the relationship of isopolity (*Vo7roA*Te/a), and carried with it eTTfyayu/a, the right of intermarriage (corresponding to the ius connubii of the Roman law), and the right to hold land and houses yw KOI otKias eyKTtjans in each other's dominions. Xenophon remarks that it was, indeed, a
great privilege to be allowed to acquire houses, etc., in On many occasions, it is to be observed, the city. 2
isopolity was established unilateral basis.

of

not mutually but simply on a

To proceed to the exercise of these privileges usually Renunciation involved a renunciation of former citizenship. 3 In this cUiwnshiR if connection it may be mentioned that there was a law of hatof another State accepted. . ri-11' i Athens forbidding citizens to cultivate land outside Attica. Ot 'AOrjitaioi VO/ULOV eOevro jmtjSeva TCOV 'AOijvaiuv
,

11

'

yecopyeiv e/cro? r>/9 'ArTf/ciy?.

Niebuhr
political
1

that isopolity did not include but the extant texts of the conventions rights,

believes

isopolity

and
-

htlcal

"* hts

See

infra,
vectig.

chap, xxvii., on reprisals and androkpsia.


ii.

2 3
4

De

6.
ctt.

Cf. Egger, op.

p.
:

86.

Diod.

5
ii.

29 and see Corp.jur. Att. 1295. B. G. Niebuhr, R'omische Geschichte, 3 Bde. (Berlin, 1873-4)
Sic. xv.

vol.

note 101.

142
relating to

ISOPOLITY

it are couched in the most general terms, and of the in all speak participation things divine and human. 1 Such a comprehensive concession undoubtedly included some rights of a political character.

Several

Greek

writers after the

third century, for

example, Dionysius, Strabo, Diodorus, Josephus, and Appian, use the word /VoTroXtre/a as the equivalent of full citizenship. Before then it was not employed in that sense, TroXirela having been used instead.

Some decrees state that it was granted to citizens of another town en masse ; others show it to have been conferred on individuals as a reward for rendering good services, or for otherwise evincing a friendly disposition. There were various isopolitic treaties between Cretan towns. 2 But the scope and application of such treaties were naturally different from those between more powerful communities. The alliance between Athens and Rhodes 3 belongs to the epoch of Greek decadence, as Laurent says. 4 Though the principle of perfect
equality was scarcely ever, if at any time, at all applied, yet these arrangements had, whatever scope they

possessed, certain beneficial results. They were especially conducive to the evolution of the idea of international

comity, of a civitas gentium^ and played an important " part in the formation of Roman unity. Cependant 1'idee que Tisopolitie renfermait ne resta pas sterile; elle Nous produisit ses fruits sur un sol plus favorable. trouverons les conventions isopolitiques chez les Remains, nous en verrons naltre les municipes qui ont joue un r61e considerable dans la formation de Tunite

romaine."
1

Compare

Corp.

inscrip.

Graec.

t.

i.

nos.

2254. 26;

2256. 13;
Sainte-

2257. 16.
See Corp. inscrip. Graec. t. ii. nos. 2554, 2556, 2557 Croix, Legislation de Crete, pp. 357-360.
3

cf.

Polyb. xvi. 26; Livy, xxxi. 15.


Histoire

4 5

du

droit des gens

.,

vol.

ii.

p. 115.

Laurent,

ibid.

PRIVILEGES
Isopoiity

CONCEDED

143

was sometimes given specifically and alone ; isopoiity often though generally it was comprised in a more general ISSfT treaties 1 (inviolability of person and treaty, either of aa-vXia for property in the stricter sense) ; or of simple alliance defensive purposes 67n/xax/a, as between Hierapytna of Crete and Magnesia, 2 when the word ia-oTroXtreia is
1
1

replaced by the expressions, indicating the regular constituent rights, are'Aem, immunity from certain Rights and 5 of intermarriage, eyjrnycny, SmpiieT public burdens, eTriyaimia, right capacity to hold real property, TrpoeSpla, right to occupy in a word, participation front seats at public games, etc.,
in
all

civil
3
;

avOpcoTTivtw

and and

KCU religious affairs, ^Toyf! Oeiwi/ as between Pergamum and Temnos,

where there
suffrage

is

in the assemblies

express mention of the right of reciprocal of the people, which is a

clear refutation

of Niebuhr's view mentioned above ; or, again, isopoiity was sometimes included in a treaty establishing a symmachy, o-fyu/xa^m, an alliance both offensive and defensive (as between the Cretan towns Lato and Olus, 4 and between Hierapytna and Lyttos, etc.). Though the rights conferred were of so extensive a character, yet the two States concerned preserved their 5 respective identity and independence. Apart from establishing isopoiity by means of a treaty, certain rights, more or less comprehensive, were granted by decree as a recompense for services rendered to the
State.

isopoiitic

Thus

conventions.

the

large privileges assistance especially


Cf. the treaty Grace. 2557.
2 8
1

memorable Byzantine decree conferred on the Athenians for having offered


in

the

struggles with

Philip

of

between Allaria of Crete and Paros, in Corp.

inscrip.

P. Cauer, Delectus inscriptionum Graecarum (Lipsiae, 1883), no.

18.

Cf. in the following paragraph the Byzantine decree in favour of

the Athenians.

*Corp.
5

inscrip. Graec.

no. 2554.

C. V. Daremberg and E. Saglio (Ed.), isopoiity, Dictionnaire des antiquites grecques et romaines (Paris, 1884, etc.), s.v.
see
hopoliteia,

On

pp.

180, 181.

And on
xvii.

treaties

and

alliances generally,

see infra, chaps, xvi.

and

144

STMPOLITT

Macedon. " It is resolved by the people of Byzantium and Perinthus to grant unto the Athenians the right of intermarriage, citizenship, purchase of land and houses,
the
first seat at

the games,

first

admission to the Council

and People

after the sacrifices,

and exemption from

all

public services to such as wish to reside in the city." In the Greek text of the decree, as given by Demosthenes, will be found some of the terms considered

above,
sides
their

and TrpoeSpla. 1 Bethese concessions, three statues were erected in


rsri-yaju/o, TroXrre/a, ey/cr^cn?,

honour.
isopolitic

Hence, the

decrees were of a

unilateral

nature, whilst the isopolitic conventions established a


reciprocity of civic rights.
Sympolity.

An enlargement of reciprocal isopolity is found in a rarer institution, arvjULTroXireia, which is practically a federal union of States with interchange of full civic
and probably full political rights. It did not imply a complete amalgamation of these States, in the sense of the whole obliterating the significance of the individual constituent members, for their respective civic and political independence was not necessarily impaired. It was merely a convention voluntarily established for the purpose of giving every subject of the States in question a double or treble citizenship, as the case ma be, and was susceptible of dissolution at the pleasure o any of the allied communities. An example is found in the case where the people of Magnesia are made full
citizens of

Double or
treble

citizenship possible.

Smyrna.

Special
privileges

and
1

Special

privileges of lesser
:

extent were

also

occa-

exemptions.

Demosth. De corona, 91 SfSo^Oai TO> 8a/zo) T$ Bvfai/Tian/ KOI TlepivOtwv A.Or)vaiois SO/ACV eTriya/uav, TroA-tretav, ey/crcurti/ yas /cai ot/aaV, TrpoeSpiav kv rots ayoxrt, TroOoSov TTOTI rav ySwXai/ /cat TOI
}

8a.fJi.ov

TT/oarots /xera TO, ic/>a, /cat rots /caroi/ceiy eOfXovcri

rav

TroAti

aXeirovpyriTois >}/xei/ Hellen. i. i. 26.


2

iracrav

rav

Xtirovpyiav. ...

Cf.

Xenoph.

E. L. Hicks and G. F. Hill, (Oxford, 1901), no. 176, 11. 35


treaties

A Manual of Greek Historical Inscriptions See infra, on examples of G seq.


see chap.
viii.

and

alliances

and on naturalization in Greece,

CLASSES OF ALIENS IN ATHENS


sionally

145

Travellers were liable to be the searched frontiers, to find whether they took of the country or brought in prohibited goods, out

conceded.

at

or such goods as were subject to customs duty.

Now

of honourable recognition for other reasons. An immunity of this nature was termed areXeta (which has already been referred to), of which numerous instances are preserved in inscriptions. 1 Again in time of war certain enemy aliens were for the same reasons protected both in regard to their persons and their property; such
guaranteed inviolability was termed ao-uX/a (as was before mentioned). Many inscriptions speak of such inviolaavvXla KCU in peace and war, bility on land and sea, Kal Kara 6d\a<r(rav TrdXe/uiov KOI ei Kara yfjv a<r(pd\ta
these occasional concessions, granted special reasons, various rights were permanently extended to foreigners, in accordance with their rank
all
a<rv\ia.

some foreigners were exempted from this liability, either because of their good offices to the State, or as a mark

Apart from

classes of
&I

for

or status
classes

more or

less clearly defined

by the particular State concerned. were distinguished. Occupying an intermediate position between the full citizens and the barbarians, these were (enumerating in descending order as to the extent of rights enjoyed), the naturalized aliens
public guests/ so specifically legalized, constituting largely the 7rp6j~evoi, the isoteles (*VoreX?); the metoecs, or domiciled aliens (/ULGTOIKOI), and non/yuo7rofVof), the
'

as recognized In Athens several

j^^nem
s r din

status.

Classes of
11

Athens.

domiciled aliens. The naturalized alien held the title of citizen by virtue of a decree of the people in his favour. He enjoyed the general rights of citizenship, but with
certain restrictions. 2
1

Naturalized

ahen *

Cf.

2I Mf(Halle, 1843), PP muneribus (Wien, 1880), pp.


2

H. H. Meier, De proxenia she de publico Graecorum hospttio V. Thumser, De civium Athenieniium


>

no

seq.

See G. Gilbert, Handbuch der griechischen Staatsalterthiimer, 2 Bde. (Leipzig, 1 881-85), vol. i. p. 177. And see further infra, on naturalization in Greece, chap. viii.

146

NON-DOMICILED ALIENS

The pToxenoi corresponded approximately to our consuls, agents, or residents. They enjoyed their privileges

on condition of

in various

their entertaining and assisting the ambassadors and private citizens of ways

the States they represented. 1


as
isoteles were metoecs exempt from such taxes were peculiar to the latter ; indeed, in point of taxation, they were practically on the same footing as

The

citizens. 2
Metoecs.

Non-domiciled

Position of

"1
aliens

:iled

were domiciled aliens who enjoyed the of the Athenian laws through the agency protection of a patron (TrpoorTcm/?), and were subject to special taxation, to compulsory military service by land and sea, and to certain other compulsory duties and burdens.* The non-domiciled aliens were subjects of cities with which Athens 4 had commercial relationships or other intercourse, but who had not been formally authorized by law to settle definitely on her territory. They were not included in her regular population. According to the theory of the law, such aliens were to be esteemed enemies,' but in the post-heroic period of Athens, In actual practice this theory was virtually obsolete. these non-domiciled aliens were almost assimilated to the metoecs, being like them under the jurisdiction o the xenodikai, or the polemarch, as the case may be.
metoecs
'

The

no specific texts extant indicating th< status of this class of inhabitants ; but there is legal no doubt that their persons and property were adeThere are
quately protected, as is shown to some extent in the speeches of the Attic orators discussing commercial
1

For a

full

treatment of the proxenoi see


vii.

infra,

pp. 147

seq.

Cf. infra, the latter portion of chap.

For preciser definition of metoecs and detailed treatment

see infra,

pp.
4

I57*f.

Of course
;

these distinctions

and

practices

to

Athens
5

but here the Athenian system


infra,

is

do not apply exclusively more particularly con-

sidered.

See further

chap.

viii. in fin.,

in general

from the point of view of the

as to the position of foreigners local jurisdiction.

ELEMENTS OF CONSULAR SYSTEM


transactions in

147

which foreigners were engaged. They in the army, and also from 1 and very probably being initiated in the mysteries j certain other private rights given to metoecs were withTo conclude, as Schenkl 2 does, that held from them. they were wholly deprived of the benefit of the law If this were fts an entirely unwarrantable assumption. the institution of the proxenoi officials [.so purposely appointed to see to the interests of aliens, their fellow:ountrymen would be a mere chimera.
were debarred from serving
It will
;the

now

be well to enter a

little

more

fully into

system of proxenia, the rights and duties of the niomiciled alien, and the mode, conditions, and effects
f naturalization.
3
.

This institution was by no means peculiar

Proxenia.

the Hellenic nations.


Dtained

More

or

less similar practices

amongst many peoples of antiquity, as, for There are definite inscriptions hich indicate that a system of this kind was known o the Phoenicians and to the Carthaginians ; there is,
xample, the Egyptians.
loreover, epigraphic evidence that the Carthaginians rere also fully acquainted with the use of the tessera
ospitalis

Amongst
l

h?g e

(or tessera hospitalitatis) so well

known
in

to the
Thei institution m Greece
"

lomans.

The system was most

largely

force in

4 Greece, and dated from the time of the Trojan war. or practical purposes, the history of the institution lay be said to commence at about the end of the

xtant

sventh century before the Christian era ; epigraphic texts relating thereto
5

the oldest
are

from

)lympia,
1

Locris,

Corcyra, and

Petilia.

As
t. ii.

regards

Corp. jur. Att. 34.

H.

Schenkl,

De

metoecis Atticis

(Wiener Studien,

(1880), pp.

51-225), P- 213t

Cf. P. Monceaux, Les Proxenies grecques (Paris, 1886) ; Schubert, Proxenia Attica (Leipzig, 1886). 4 Eustathius, Ad Iliad, iii. 204 ; iv. 377; cf. Liv. i. I ; and Plin. (st. nat. xxxv. 9.
5

H. Roehl,
1 1

Inscriptions Graecae antiquissimae (Berlin, 1882), 113,

7,

8.

*lbid. 322.

Ibid.

342.

*Ibid. 544.

148

PROXENIA AND HOSPITALITY


earliest

Athens the

document of

this

kind that we

possess dates from the middle of the fifth century ; but, no doubt, in view of the early poetic and historic references, the institution existed in that city before
this

time.

The system

exerted a great influence in

diminishing Greek exclusiveness and stimulating cos" La mopolitan tendencies. proxenie est un grand
pas
also
fait

par

la

Grece hors de I'isolement

oriental."

It

tended to foster pacific mitigate the horrors of war.

relationships, and

to

Proxenia

and public
hospitality.

Proxenia, in the stricter sense, is not to be confounded with the institution of public hospitality (ew'a, the guest-tie) but the distinction between them was not always a hard and fast one. Thus, certain treaties of proxenia amounted to scarcely more than treaties of public hospitality, e.g. the treaties concluded between 3 Agrigentum and the Molossi, between Delphi and the, towns of Sardes and Ciphaera. 4 Xenia was the more ancient, and represented the purely amicable relationOn the ships between the host and his foreign guest. other hand, the later proxenia took the form of a reacontract, explicitly entered into, and was the natural outcome of the vaguer guest-tie, having been necessitated by the enlargement of pacific relationships generally, and more particularly by the growth of commercia
;

intercourse.
Private

and

public ties of
hospitality hereditary.

o early times, individuals and whole families bond of different States frequently established a hospi-

In

tality

between them,

a bond which became hereditary


i

5 In proces depicted in the episode of Glaucus. was of time the extent of such relationships enlarged S( am families as as to include entire States as well Pisistratida individuals, as, for example, where the

as

is

Bulletin de correspondence hellenique (Paris), vol. i. p. inseriptionum Attlcarum (1873, etc.), i. 27 ; Suppl. p. 9.
2 3
4

303

Corpi

Laurent,

op. clt. vol.

ii.

p. 113.

Cf. C. Carapanos, Dodone

et ses

mines (Paris, 1878),


5

p. 52.

5a//. de corr. hell. (1881), p.

400.

Cf. Iliad, vi.

215

seq.

PROXENIA AND MODERN SYSTEM

149

became the proxenoi of Sparta. Similarly, Romans of 1 distinction became the protectors of foreign cities. Proxenia is, in many respects, the prototype of our Proxenia modern consular system. In modern Greek the word consular* of our word consul, system. Trpo^evos is used as the equivalent But it is not to be inferred that there is a complete identity between the two institutions. They were alike HOW far simllar in that both were adapted to meet the demands o f
'

and

citizens trading with foreign States

the proxenoi, like

our consuls, supplied information to the government that appointed them, and also furnished advice and assistance to the citizens who were subjects of that

government whilst residing temporarily or more permanently in the territory of the other country. The differences between them are due to the differences in Differences between them the constitution and in the very conception of ancient and modern States. The appointment of the proxenoi really arose from the fact that the system of regular and permanent ambassadors or other official and diplomatic representatives was as yet impossible. In the

modern consul is usually a native of the which appoints him ; the proxenus was invaricountry of that country which received the subjects a citizen ably
first

place, the

of the State thus represented. Secondly, the appointment did not necessarily confer on the proxenus any official status in his own country ; but in the country he represented he received various honours and such Thirdly, privileges as almost amounted to citizenship.

government appointing him possessed no regular means of compelling him to perform the duties he undertook, or of punishing him for any breach of faith. Lastly, the modern consuls have not, as a rule, any the proxenoi, on the contrary, fulpolitical functions filled duties of a political description. many In spite of the fact that the foreign countries, on whose behalf the proxenoi acted, had no recognized right of legal action against them in case of default,
the
;

Fidelity of

proxenou

See

infra,

chap,

ix.,

on

hospitium publicum.

150
nevertheless

EXAMPLES OF PROXENOI
we
find

from

the

numerous

examples

reported that they were generally assiduous in their duties and faithful to their trust. The office tended to
hereditary, in the same way as the private institution (the evld) had done, a fact which supplies additional testimony to good faith. Most of the decrees

become

Appointment
of proxenoi.

embodied the formula, avrw KOU thus e/c-yoVof?, referring specifically to their descendants. Proxenoi were appointed either by the foreign government, which was the general rule and the case in Athens and other Greek cities, or by the protecting State, as
respecting proxenoi

was the case in Sparta, for instance, where the king 2 or the people 3 nominated such officials to take cognizance of the affairs of foreigners in general. Xenophon, the
great admirer of Spartan polity, was inspired by this example when, discussing the granting of privileges to
foreign

merchants and the advantages of increased he traffic, suggested the institution of a special magistrate for rather a kind of guardian for foreigners, after the manner of the existing guardians of strangers
orphans.
4

Notable examples of
proxenoi.

As examples of Athenian proxenoi may be mentioned


at

Pindar at Thebes, Thucydides at Pharsalos, Doxander 6 Mitylene ; as Spartan proxenoi at Athens, Cimon,
Syracuse
1

6 Alcibiades, and Callias.

at
iii.
i.

Athens,
2
;

where

Similarly, Nicias represented also Demosthenes and


ix.

Thuc.

v.

43
;

Imcrlp. Att.
2

suppl.

6ia

ii.

Xenoph. Symp. 3, 36, 380 and

39

and

cf.

Corp.

others.

Cf. Herodot. vi. 57: KCU irpo^eivovs aTroSeiKvvvai TOVTOLTI 7r/oo(7Ker$at TOVS av 0eA,a><rt TO)I/ dwrTwv . . . (But here the proxenia took rather the form of a Acirov/yyia, a public charge or burden.)
3

Diog. Laert.

ii.

51

Corp. inscrip. Graec. 1335.

where Xenophon speaks of the fteroiKo^JAa^, overseer and guardian of the (J.CTOIKOI, and of the d/><a]'o<vA.af, guardian of orphans, who had lost their fathers in war.
vectig.
ii.

ZV

7,

166 ; Thuc. viii. 92 ; Arist. Pollt. v. 4. 6 cf. Antid. 29 ; iii. 2. 85 ; Xenoph. Hell. i. i. 35, etc. 6 Andocid. De pace cum Laced. 3 Thuc. v. 43 ; vi. 89 ; Xenoph. Hell. v. 4. 22 ; cf. vi. i. 4.
Isocrat.
ii.
;

Thuc.

Diodor.

xiii.

26.

THEIR PRIVILEGES

151

Thraso represented Thebes. 1 At Sparta, Lichas represented Argos, 2 and Pharax Boeotia. 3 At Delphi there 4 to have been a of official set appears Tyrants proxenoi. also and barbarian countries had their proxenoi. 5
*
'

Greek cities sometimes appointed foreign citizens, who had resided with them as hostages and had made themselves popular and esteemed. Thus the Achaeans nominated as proxenoi the hostages of privileges of various Boeotian and Phocian States, and, in this con- P roxenou
nection, an extant inscription speaks, in a formula which had practically become stereotyped, of their being accorded freedom from special taxation, inviolability on land and sea, in peace and war. 6 Similarly Athens, in

The

approving the treaty with Selymbria (a town of Thrace, on the Propontis), conferred the honour of proxenus on Apollodorus, a liberated hostage of that
a decree

country. It is not

known

any payment rule can be laid down.

definitely whether proxenoi received for their work. In any case, no general

Doubtful
*

There

is

no doubt

that some,

received P ayraent

at all events, acted gratuitously, either after nomination by a State, or on their own offer made voluntarily and

in

the

first

instance to
find

execute the necessary duties.

Hence we
TTpofyvoi,

these officials termed eOeXoone of whom, as mentioned by Thucydides,


Peithias,
;

some of

was a certain
1

who

voluntarily acted as the

Aeschin.

De
76.

kgat. 143

c.

Ctesiph. 138,

2
4

Thuc.

v.

sXenoph.

Hell, iv, 5. 6.

Eurip. Jon, 551, 1039 ; Androm. 1103 ; cf. Pindar, Nem. Od. vii. 63, where he speaks of AeX^ot ^ci/ayerai, though this phrase refers rather to the hospitality of the Delphians than to any specific official
institution.
5
6

Cf.

Xenoph. Anab.

v. 4.

vi.

Corp. inscrip* Graec< no. 87,

TWV BOCWTWV Corp. inscrip. o//,>j/9ois 1542: Kat <&a>KU)v irpo^tvtav Sojuev. . . . KCU e?/Ai/ avrots areAeiav KCU dcrvXtai/ KCU TroXc/xov KCU elprjv^ /cat Kara yrjv KCU Kara OdXarrav KCU raXAa Travra oVa KCU rots aAAois
Graec. no.

... rots

ts
7

[/<a]t

evepyerats StSorat.
i,

C0/A

inscrip. Att.

suppl.

6ia

152

THEIR FUNCTIONS

international
f

prTxenus

1 proxenus of the Athenians and was the popular leader. the most that can be said on this point is that Perhaps at first the office was an honorary one, and afterwards certain emoluments (apart from honours and distinctions) were attached thereto. Obviously the proxenus occupied an important position in international relationships of all kinds. He was the intermediary between the two cities. He was the z of foreigners in general, and protector (^poo-Tar*]?)

Protector of
fnterfsts

and

3 He acted in their favour, as espoused their cause. Cimon the Athenian did for Sparta, and Timosthenes of

subjects

Large

variety

and political assemblies, their also before the local tribunals, in order to ensure 4 If the foreign financial, judicial, and religious interests. in city which he represented was in any way involved
Carystus for Athens, before the
proceedings, he introduced to the court the (TvvtiiKoi, or advocates, who had been despatched to plead
legal
its

functions.

was present, as a witness, at certain civil transactions of his proteges, and particularly at the making of their wills. 6 determined the succession of deceased

cause. 5

He

He

without heirs. 7 He obtained of the strangers under his protection, and even acted as a broker as between the merchants of the two States in question. 8 Only occasionsell the ally, however, did he goods in his own name
died foreigners, security for the loans

who

iii.

70

/cat

fy yap TleiQias IfeAoirpo^evos re


. . .

'

TO>V

TOV
2

BrjfJLOV 7T/ooet(TT^/cet.

to the Trpoo-rdrrjs in connection with the special metoecs, see infra, p. 160.

As

class

of

*Corp.jur. Att. p. 585, note to art. 1257 (Schol. ad Demosth. Leptin. 475. 5) ILpogevoi Aeyoi/rat ot kv rots S/otots TOVS iTrt&^oui'Tas Cf. Schol. in Se^o/Avot, <iAot Tvy\dvovTa<s /cat Koivy /cat tSta. Aristoph. Aves, 1021 Ilpofevoi etcrtv ot rcray/ievot ts TO vn-o8e\(r6(u TOVS ^ci/ovs e aAAtov TroXeiav ^/coi/ras.
: :

See Suidas,
ii.

s.v.
;

7rpo^i/os
iv.

Ad Iliad,
V
5

204

377
.

Schol. ad Herodot. vi. 57 ; Eustathius, ; ... Tr/ao^ci/os pkv 6 UTTO TrdAcws ?}

TQ ax^erepa TrpOLorraardaL f ei/wv. Corp. inscrip. Grace 2353.


Ibid.

6
7

4 Roehl, Inter. Gr. Demosth. c. Calipp. 5 seq.


;

antlq.
.

544.
8

Pollux, t iii. 59;

vii. 4,.

DIPLOMATIC INTERMEDIARIES

153

more frequently, the mere inter) ; he was, and purchaser (ir/oofnTmfe). He seller between mediary was for a State what the private patron (Tr^oo-rcm??, in He the strict sense) was for an individual or a family. received also such aliens as were not provided with any lodging ; and sometimes he was chosen by them (apart from his already existing office) as their private Trpoo-Tarw. At times, if they had no private TTJOOO-TCIT^?, he became theirs by virtue of his office of irp6evos. Apart from these functions, which were usual and understood, Athens often gave her proxenoi special instructions. 1 Further, the proxenus received the foreign ambasrr r sadors and other diplomatic officials, procured for them 2 admission to the assemblies, to the temples, and to the 3 theatres, and assisted, to some extent, in the formulation and conclusion of treaties. When there was a desire on the part of a community to conclude a peace or renew a truce, it was usual to make application or otherwise

111-1

His part
affairs,

in
i

atic diplomats

commence overtures through

its proxenus ; indeed, not he take the initiative did by proposing the infrequently 4 conclusion of treaties.

They played an important part in many departments Sometimes they intervened in of diplomatic activity. cases of imminent war between their own State and that represented. At the time of the Peloponnesian war the Corcyraean proxenoi at Corinth guaranteed the ransom of a large number of Corcyraeans who had been taken 6 prisoners. Along with soothsayers, they occasionally pronounced imprecations against those who would break 6 In a large number treaties that had been concluded. of cases they were despatched as ambassadors to cities which they had represented in their own country. Thus
Callias, the

proxenus of Sparta, was sent to Sparta on more than one occasion by Athens. 7 At the time of the
1

Corp. imcrip. Att.

ii.

86.

Bull. corr.
iv.

hell. v. p.

400.

Pollux,

viii.

59

Eustath.

Ad Iliad,
5 7

207.
iii.

Thuc.

v.

59.
1

Thuc.

70.
Hell. vi. 3. 3-5.

Roehl, fnscr. Gr. antiq.

18.

Xenoph.

154

PRIVILEGES OF PROXENOI

conflict with Philip, Athens sent to Thebes Thraso of Erchiaand Demosthenes, proxenoi of Thebes, as ambas-

sadors to negotiate for an alliance. 1 In the Peloponnesian war Lichas, proxenus of Argos at Sparta, was several times chosen to negotiate between the two cities. 2

Proxenoi, again, often acted as arbitrators in controbetween cities or between private individuals. Thus, Cimon of Athens, the proxenus of Sparta, was
versies

nominated
trators are

as arbitrator

between Athens and Sparta. 3


officiated as arbi-

Numerous examples of proxenoi who


mentioned

in inscriptions found in Laconia, in Boeotia, in Delphi, in Thessaly, in the Cyclades, and

on the coast of Asia Minor. 4


The
character nia

vlned^n
different parts of Greece.

particularly a religious, or a commercial, or a political character in proportion as the activity of the cities concerned was chiefly directed
it

In reference to the different functions of the proxenoi above mentioned, it is to be remembered that the instituin different parts of Greece. As M. tion varied & greatly J v
.

Monceaux says,

assumed more

-11

to religion,
le

commerce, or

"

proxene
est

politics respectively. representait la ville etrangere en


les cites sacerdotales,

Comme
tout, la

proxenie tout religieuse dans

devenue naturellement une institution surcommerciale


politique et

dans
dans
Privileges

les cit6s
les

commer^antes, diplomatique un r61e ont a Etats politique."' qui aspir6 grands

In recognition of their important position and the considerable services rendered by them, many privileges were granted to them which, however, varied
at

These times and in different localities. and were of two kinds, honorary special. privileges The latter, amongst the Ionian peoples generally, varied according to this or that proxenus ; amongst the Aetolians and Dorians both kinds were usually
different
1

Aeschin.

De

legat.

141-3

De

coron.

138.

Thuc.

v. 76.

3 Plut.

Cimon, 14.
;

4
5

Corp. inscrip. Graec.

22640

add.,

2671

Bull. corr. helL vi. p. 139.

In Daremberg-Saglio,

op. at., s.v.

Proxenia.

PRIVILEGES OF PROXENOI

155

Of course, conferred as a whole on each proxenus. the nature and extent of their civic and political rights depended on whether they were or were not If they citizens of the countries in which they acted. had not acquired citizenship, they possessed all such rights as could be obtained by foreigners who had not become naturalized. In a war between their own State
and that which they represented,
their

persons and

As has before been pointed property were protected. out, they enjoyed inviolability, ao-uX/a ; some inscriptions c 1 speak of their enjoying peace in war,' tipfav ev TroXe/mu) ; in a word, they received the general protection (aa-cfrdXeia) of the States concerned. 2 Thus Cleonicus of Naupactus, the proxenus of the Achaeans, having been made prisoner, was not sold, but was liberated even without ransom, e\a/3e <$e KOI JLXeovtKOv TOV NavTrcwcTfoy, o? Sia TO trpd^evos
'.V

TU)V 'A^atWl/ TTCtpaVTO, JULV OVK eTTpdOr], /U.TCL Sc TIVOL

GLTrelOrj

^wpis
is,

XvTpcov?
taxes,

Further, they shared the privileges of areXem and


x,

that

exemption from certain

custom

duties, or other occasional monetary burdens specially imposed on resident foreign subjects, and thus were, in this respect, practically assimilated to citizens. And
also, like full citizens, they were empowered to acquire in land and houses (eyKT^ov?). These immuni-

property
ties

and concessions are

clearly expressed in the following

inscription : TO?? irpoevoi<s eivcu yw KCU oma? fyrnftw KCU i&OTeXetav KOI dcrcpdXeiav KCU dcrvXiav KCU 7ro\eju.ov KCU eipYivrjs

ouvw,

Kara OaXaTTai/. 4 Again, they had the right to have their official cases tried before others (the privilege itself being termed
Kctt

Kara, yfjv KCU

Cf., for

2
cf.
c.

See Corp.

example, Corp. imcrip. Graec. 2330. Inscrlp. Att. i. suppl. 1 16 a ; ii., add.
c.

iv.
c.

54 b

and
i ;

Demosth.
Philocr. 2.
8

Aristoc.

89

De

Halon. 38

Lysias,

Ergocl.

Polyb.

v.

95.

Cf. the pas*Corp.jur. Att. 1239; Corp. inscrip. Graec. 1562-7. sage of an inscription (Corp. inscrlp. Graec. 1542) quoted supra, in note 6, p. 151.

156
irpoiiida,

THEIR IMPORTANCE

and the causes enjoying such priority, TTpoSiKoi). They possessed the right of access to the public assemblies, which they were entitled to address immediately after the completion of the sacrifices,
irpocroSos Trpos rrjv fiov\t]v KOI

TOV

Sfj/mov

7rpd)T(p

JULCTO.

TO.

1 lepd. They were permitted to use a special seal in their official transactions. were from the They exempted to have a obligation patron (-Tr^oo-rar^). They enjoyed 6-TTLj/ofj.ia (the right of pasture on the commons), the right of importing and exporting all kinds of goods by sea and by land, the right of free entry into port even in time of war ; also the privilege of consulting the

oracle before others, TrpojuLavreia ; burial at the expense of the State. 2 In several Dorian States they received
/a,

in

some Ionian

cities

complete citizenship,

importance of

international
reiations.

obvious that owing to the multiplicity and of their functions as permanent intermediimportance ar i es between their own and the foreign city, as the
it is

Thus

latter' s

patrons before their

own

as diplomatic agents,
interstatal

and as

courts and assemblies, the proxenoi arbitrators,

exerted a profound influence on the development of " En Greece. resume, relationships in comme intermediaires permanents entre deux cites,

ancienne.
1 2

comme patrons d'une ville etrangere devant les tribunaux et les assemblies de leur patrie, comme diplomates ^et negociateurs des trait6s, comme arbitres entre les Etats, les proxenes ont joue un role consid6rable dans la vie Internationale de la Grece "3
Pardessus,
op. cit.
i.

p. 52.

For

a fuller

enumeration of the minor


cit.
loc. cit.

in Daremberg-Saglio, op.
3

privileges, see P. p. 738, s.v. Proxenia.

Monceaux

Monceaux,

p. 740.

CHAPTER

VII

THE METOEC. RIGHTS AND DUTIES OF THE


DOMICILED ALIEN 1
of the metoec has given rise to much and writers are by no means yet agreed on controversy, In the first place very few definite texts, the subject. literary or epigraphic, are available ; and secondly, some of the older grammarians and commentators, who have touched upon this question, are mostly inconsistent with each other in their attempted elucidations, and sometimes, indeed, have carelessly misrepresented an observation or reference of the older classical writers. The ancient laws and usages regarding metoecs are of the utmost importance in the whole field of international law, public and private alike. The gradual
position
1

THE

The

position of

controversial
subject,

importance of

rigVtf^n'to
metoecs
-

The

atheniens.
et

present chapter is much indebted to M. Clerc, Les meteques Etude sur la condition legale, la situation morale et le role social

works

Other economique des etrangers domicilies a Athene* (Paris, 1893). maybe consulted as follows: E. Catellani, Diritto intemazionale

privato nell' antica Grecia (in Studi e documenti di sforia e diritto,

Roma,
U. von

1892),
schrift

sect.

iv.

G. Gilbert,

op. clt.

vol.

i.

pp.

195

seq.

Wilamowitz-Mollendorff, Demotika der Metoeken (in Hermes. Zeitfur classische Philologie^ Berlin, vol. xxii. (1887), pp. 107-128, 211-259) ; G. de Sainte-Croix, Memoire sur les Meteques (in Memoires

de litterature tires des Registres de

V"Academic Royale des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres^ t. xlviii. metoecls (1808), pp. 176-207) ; H. Schenkl, Atticis (Wiener Studien, t. ii. For detailed (1880), pp. 161-225). and classified information relating to the position of domiciled

De

aliens in the different Greek States, see Clerc, des etrangers domicilies dans les differentes cites grecques.
universites

M.

De

la

condition

In Revue des
1-32, 153-180,

du midi, Bordeaux, tome

iv.

(1898), pp.

249-274.

158

DOMICILED ALIENS

recognition by States of specific rights and duties conferred or imposed on non-citizens tended to break

the barriers of a rigid national exclusiveness, to modify the old customary attitude of, as it were, an a priori hostility, to mitigate the severity of practices in war. Such recognition promoted amicable international relationships, social, commercial, or intellectual, and was largely instrumental in fostering the conception of international comity, a conception which underlies the whole fabric of the modern law of nations. Of course, this

down

notion was not then as clearly defined and as explicitly expressed as it is now ; but even in its comparatively rudimentary form, it did much to transfer principles from the philosophical and moral to the juridical
consciousness.
Meaning of the

The word /meroiKos is derived from /*era, owce'w, and hence, in its literal signification, means a person who The mere fact of being thus dwells with others. resident or domiciled in a city did not, strictly speaking,
it, from the constitutional point of view, any As Aristotle incidental to citizenship. whatever rights " A citizen is not a citizen he lives because simply says

carry with
:

in a certain place, for resident aliens and slaves share in 1 The term, to which the Latin inquilinus, the place."

and peregrinus more or less approximate, is opposed to (Wo?, TroXn-^? (countryman, citizen) on the one hand, and to eVo? (stranger, foreigner) on the
incola,

other. In the case of the latter, however, the crimination was not always sharp and precise ;
eVo?

dis-

and

was

also generally distinguished

from
*

/3dp/3apo?,

barbarian,
*

non-Hellene. 2

Perhaps the best English

expression corresponding to yaerowco? is resident alien/ In German the Teutonized word or domiciled alien.' Schutzverwandtc has been frequently employed by writers ; but, as it is clearly seen from its constituent of parts, it implies the idea of protection and not that
1

Pollt.

iii.

I,

KCU
2

jap /ATOlKOt

Kttt

o Se TroAt-n/s ov TU> OLKCIV irov iroXiTrjs IcrriV. 8OV\OI KOWtoVOVfTL T

See supra, pp. 40, 127.

DIFFERENT SYSTEMS
domicile; hence and too wide.
its

159

connotation

is

at

once too narrow


to us from
Definition of

The

best definition that has


is

come down

undoubtedly by Aristophanes of Byzantium (born c. 260 B.C.) one of the most eminent Greek grammarians at Alexandria
:

the earlier writers

that formulated

JULCTOIKOS

$'

eVTLV,

OTTOTGLV
e/9

Tt?

OL7TO

^Vt]^

\6u)V
r/i/a?

VOtKtj

Tfl

7ro\t,
TToXew?.
KCU

reXo? T\u)v
"Eft>? yuet/

aTTOTrra'y/xei/a?
fijuicpatv

ovv
eav,

7TO(7Wi>

Trap7rirjfjio$
copiorjmevov

CLT\t]9
fjStj

<TTIV

Se

virepflfl

TOV

1 Here the three yiyvtTai KCU UTroreX^?. necessary conditions are indicated, viz. a definite intention on the part of a foreigner to settle in a city (animus

/meroiKO?

manendi), coupled with his actual establishment therein (factum), residence of a certain length of time, and contribution to certain public charges.

systems adopted by the different States varied to Different he and, in fact, the practice of Gred?cities ; each particular city varied from time to time, in accordance with the oscillations of political power, and with the exigencies of public policy. Similarly, the number of metoecs varied considerably in the different communities. Sparta, for example, for a long time excluded them altogether. Athens, in the days of her greatness, probably contained some fifty thousand out of a total 2 population of about half a million, of which some hundred thousand were freemen. At Agrigentum they formed the greater part of the population. 3 No doubt influence of Athens was largely indebted to them for her commerce and industry ; and, on this account, Xenophon thought it would be well if suitable honours and distinctions
a greater or lesser extent
A. Nauck, Arittophanis Byzantii .fragmenta (1848), frag. 38. Schoemann, Gnechische Alterthtimer, op. cit. vol. ii. p. 3. (It is to be noted, however, that far different estimates of the Athenian population in general have been made by other writers.)
. .

The

Diodor.
fjo-av

/xv

K<ZT' e/ceivov xiii. 84. 4 yap TOV \povov 'AfcpayavTivoi TrXetovs TWI> Sto-vpiuv, <rvv 8k TOIS /carot/covtrt ei>ois OVK
:

\drrois

TCOI/

i6o

PATRONS NECESSARY
"

were conferred on them.

It would be for our advanand credit also such that merchants and shipowners tage as are found to benefit the State by bringing to it vessels and merchandise of great account should be honoured with seats of distinction on public occasions, and sometimes invited to entertainments ; for, being treated with such respect, they would hasten to return to us, as to friends, for the sake, not merely of gain,

but of honour."
Obligation to
on<

Taking Athenian
and

we

practice as the most enlightened, as being fairly representative of that of other cities, find in the Hellenic world that every metoec was

obliged to select some citizen as a patron (wjooo-TaT^), thus establishing a relationship which somewhat re-

sembled that between the


was
public

Roman
as

patronus and diem.

necessary
for their

admission ?

is Probably public authorization, conjectured by 2 first in Athens this was was and Schoemann, required ; effected by the Areopagus. But, it must be admitted, this supposition appears to be based on a passage of Sophocles, which is not quite conclusive, though it certainly shows that the conjecture is not altogether unIn the passage referred to Creon says warrantable. " Such the to Theseus wisdom, I knew, that dwells on the mount of Ares in their land ; which suffers not In that such wanderers to dwell within this realm.
:

faith, I

sought to take

this prize."

TOIOVTOV ctuTois *A/>eos ovd' o? OVK lya> vvjj8r) \66viov ctA^Tas ryS' ofiov vaUiv
'

let

TTt'cmv

apyav.

Attica,
1

Creon here refers to the polluted Oedipus who was in and assumes that if this came to the knowledge
Xenoph. De
ot

vectig. in.

'AyaObv

Se KCU
ITTI

KaXov KCU

7r/>oeS/n'ais

TifAacrBai l^owropovs KCU


Aeicr^ai,
(oo^eAetv

vavKXrjpovs, Kal av SoKwcrtv d^toAoyots Kai


TroAiv.

^vici y' ecrrtv ore KaTrAcuois Kai e/zTropevyaao'tv

T^V

Tavra

ya/o

rt/xw/xevot

ov povov TOV KepSovs

ciAAa Kai
2

cTrto-TrevSoiev av. TT^S TI/A^S cVeKev Trpbs ^>iAov?


/.

O/.

vol.

ii.

p. 3, note 2.

CW//.

Co/.

947-950.

AUTHORIZATION ESSENTIAL

161

of the Council of the Areopagus, it would take immediate Such action would, of course, steps for his expulsion. be within the jurisdiction of the Areopagus, which exer-

moral censorship, particularly so in the earlier of the Athenian democracy. And even after the history reforms of Pericles and Ephialtes we find that court taking cognizance of similar matters, though only by special as, for example, where, having been instructed warrant, the Ecclesia, it inquired into the conduct of a suspect by and reported thereon rov SJJJULOV Trpoa-rdj-avTo? fyrtjcrcu rrjv
cised a
:

6ov\iiv,

KGU

^tjTijcracrav

a,7ro(p>jvai irpos

it/mas,

a7r(f)t]vev

17

be argued that the a to exercise moral censorship and authority constituted to decree the expulsion of suspected foreigners is not
SovX>/
.

On

the other

hand

it

may

same authority which was empowered to grant strangers permission to take up their domicile within its jurisdiction, or to allow them to become
necessarily the

naturalized.

In

any

essential.

case, authorization by special decree was Authorization There are numerous examples where right of decr^TvTas
essential-

domicile was conceded to strangers en masse, especially so There after a war in order to replenish the population.

was a law of Themistocles to the effect that


Ken TOf?
ev
e*V

row

Te^wTa? aT\t$
TTO\IV
2

TTOirjcrai O7T6D9

0^X09
there

Trjv

/careXOfl,

KOI

TrXe/ov?

ev^epw^.

But

in

treaties

were

Exemption

frequently special stipulations to exempt the subjects of {j^s y the contracting from this formality : e.g. in the formalities by & parties treaties. CT i -r treaty between riierapytna and Pnansos, and in the
.
.

treaty

between the Latiani and the Olontani.


to the duration of the period of settleterritory, it was either determinate or
Duration of the

With regard
a

ment within the

Cf. Plut. Sol. 22 : KCU r)v e 'Apciov Dinarchus, c. Demosth. 58. irayov ftov\r)v erafci/ en-uTKOTre.lv, oOtv c'/ccwrros \t rot cTriTijScia /cat rovs d/oyovs KoAa^ctv. See Jebb's Cf. also Isocr. Areopag. 36-55.

lote

on the passage
xi.

in question in his edition

and

translation of

Oedp. Col.
2

Diodor.

43.

162

THE PROSTATES
There was no
fixed rule.
It is signifi-

indeterminate.

cant, however, of the deeply rooted conception as to the antithesis of citizenship to alienage that such a philoso-

pher as Plato is unwilling to depart from the temporary nature of the stranger's residence. "Anyone who likes," says he in the Laws, "may come to be a metoec on certain conditions ; a foreigner, if he likes, and is able to settle, may dwell in the land, but he must practise an art, and not abide more than twenty years from the time at which he has registered himself. But when the twenty years have expired, he shall take his property with him and
. . .

depart."
Names
of the

metoecs
enrolled in
special
registers.

the metoecs were inscribed in special as Plato registers, suggests in the above passage ; and on their leaving the country again they had to appear

The names of

An action, ypa<prj
Liability for

before the magistrate to have their names removed. 2

fraudulent
entry.

ew'a?, lay against metoecs who neglected to get themselves enrolled on the register ; and should they fraudulently procure an entry of their names on the

of citizens, they were liable to a criminal prosecution ypa(pt] ctTrpoarTaa-tovf which applied also in case they If found guilty of wilful neglected to choose a patron. 4 be sold as slaves. of this could law, infringement they The prostates was their intermediary in most of their The prostates their patron. uridical and p O ii t i ca i relationships with the State. It is j
list

probable that in a good many miscellaneous matters metoecs could act on their own behalf without this

customary intervention.

For example,

a prostates

was

usually necessary for the commencement of a suit by them before the tribunals, but when it was once set in motion
1

viii.

8508:

tevat 8e rbi> f3ovX6fj,Vov

cos

ovcnrjs

rwv
/cat
8'

ts TTJV /jerouc^crti/ ITTI pi]Tol TO> /?ouAoyu,ei/<) KCU Svi/a/*ev<p /caroi TrAcoi/ ITWI/ ciKOcrtv a<' iriSrj[j,ovvTt, p.r)

evwv

orav
2

e^Kwcrtv
viii.

ot xpovoi,

T^V avrov \af36vra

ovcria

Cf, Plato, Laws,

8500:

o Se diriw

mo

ra?
TTOO-

diroypa(f>a.Sj

amves

a.v

avrtp irapa rots ap\ovan

repov totriv. 3 See Meier and Schoemann,


p. 391.

cp. cit. p.

390.

METOEC AND PATRON RELATIONS

163

they were allowed to continue the proceedings indepen1 dently. Thus in one of the orations of Demosthenes we
find a metoec making an independent appearance in court; and in a Greek poet 2 of the third century, B.C., we read of a keeper of a disorderly house (TTO^I/O/SOOVCO?) who is a in metoec before a Coan obviously person pleading court of justice. Aliens, in the strict sense, had no right to appear in person before the polemarch, who had special jurisdiction over them; an eligible introducer was Proxenoi possessed this right, but only by necessary. virtue of a special decree of the people. Registered metoecs enjoyed this privilege, simply by virtue of their having been received as metoecs. The functions of the prostates and the nature of the metoecs' dependence on and general relationships with

Relations of

him are not

clearly

known.

The

earliest references to

such a functionary are found in the fourth century texts ; none of the writers of the previous century specifically mentions the prostates of metoecs. Aristophanes, 3 indeed, makes use of the word Tr^oo-rcm;?, as M. Clerc points out, not really in reference to metoecs as such, but * in reference to Hyperbolos, the unworthy chief chosen by the Athenians. The application in the more technical sense is made by the scholiast alone, who unjustifiably extends the force of the text. Other passages making

mention of the prostates are found in Demosthenes, 4 5 6 "Even Hyperides, Isocrates, and Aristotle, who says resident aliens in many places possess such rights [i.e. the right of appearing before the tribunals either as plaintiff or as defendant], though in an imperfect form ; "7 for they are obliged to have a All these patron/
:

'

c.

T>ionysodorum.

Herondas, Mimiami,

2.

*Pax, 683-684:
'A7ro(TTp^)Tat Toy
4
<r.

SrjfMov

ax$o~$r'
7rcy/oa^aTo.

OTI

ovrcu Trovrjpbv TT/ooo-Tarryv

Arutog. 58.
58.

c.

Ar'utog. in Orat. Att.

ii.

385, frag. 26.


oi

6
7

De pace,
Polit. iii.
,

1.4: IIoAA.axov p*v ovv ovSe TOVTWK rcAews

aAAa

ve/xtv di/a-y/oj

64

DUTIES OF METOECS
;

Intervention
prostates

on the subject it is the and lexicographers who have attributed to the prostates the large functions of an intermediary, through whom, as it is averred, not only the metoecs' special and distinctive tribute (the /ULCTOIKIOV) was paid to the State, but all their public and private transactions with the citizens were carried on. 1 of As to most public transactions this was probably
texts give very little information
scholiasts

most private
relationships.

but in regard to the multiplicity of private relationships the invariable intervention of a third party in the person of a specially appointed prostates would seem improbable, if not impossible ; and particularly so, when we recollect that the metoecs according to a common calculation formed nearly half of the free population of Athens. Besides, as WilamowitzMollendorff 2 reminds us, the polemarch, by virtue
the case
;

of

his

specially
official

constituted

juridical

capacity,

was

already an course, in

intermediary (using this word, of a broader sense) between the city and Hence there would be no effective reason, foreigners. especially in matters directly touching his province, to interpose another individual between him and the metoecs. In some of the Greek States, such as the great commercial oligarchies like Corinth, there is no doubt that metoecs were allowed to enforce their private 3 rights in their own names, without the intervention of
and, in many respects, were much in the same position as the cives sine suffragio at Rome. This was so because handicrafts were cultivated there, and foreign artisans were welcomed to stimulate the growth
a
1

TTjOoo-Tcrn/s ,

of industries
Duties of

towards their
prostates.

in general. writers have assumed that they were obliged to render certain services to their patron in return for

Some

his assistance
1

and protection

but as there
:

is

no

infor-

TWI> Cf. Suidas, s.v. aTT/ooo-rao-tov (Corp. jur. Att. 28) IKCKTTOS irpo<rTdrr)V e^ct, Kara vo/xov Iva TWI/ cwrTWi', KCU 6V avrou 7

T fJLTOlKLOV TlOtTOLl KCITO, TOS 2 Demotika der Metoeken, he.


3

Kttl TO,
cit.

CtXAa SiOlKClTCU.
seq.

pp. 225

Arist. Pofit.

iii.

I.

RIGHTS WITHHELD FROM


mation to
this

THEM

165

the available authorities, no definite conclusions on this point can safely be arrived The State maintained these relationships because at. it derived many advantages therefrom ; and the prostates was satisfied to exercise his duties in return for
effect

in

the honours and privileges granted to him by his own community and that represented. Later, in addition to or in place of these distinctions certain emoluments were

Minor services of various kinds were perhaps but volunrendered to the patron by the metoecs, under compulsion of any legal tarily, rather than assume that this It is not provisions. justifiable to institution bore any fundamental resemblance to the mediaeval feudal system.
fixed.
It will

be well

now

to consider briefly the various

Rights and
m^toecs.

specific rights and privileges conferred on metoecs, and

the obligations imposed on them. As to the rights withheld from metoecs residing in

w Athens, they were, in the first place, debarred from t 1 that is, the right to marry an Athenian citizen. NO eTriyafjiia, m The penalty for violating this provision was the seizure and sale of the offender's goods. If the offender was an Athenian male citizen he had to pay, in addition to Demosthis forfeiture, a fine of a thousand drachmas. " If an thenes 2 thus states the law on this question alien shall live as husband with an Athenian woman by any device or contrivance whatsoever, it shall be lawful for any of the Athenians, who are possessed of such And if he is right, to indict him before the judges. convicted, he shall be sold for a slave and his property shall be confiscated, of which the third part shall be awarded to the person who has obtained the conviction.
:

Rights

held

right of

Demosth. In Neaer. 16

'Eai> Sc

^vos

a&rfj crvvoiKy
}

T\vy

r}

^Ttviovv ypa<eo~$a> Trpds TOVS Oca-fj-odtTas A6rfva.i<DV 6 ttl/ & dAto* 7T7rpacr#0> KCU ttUTOS KCU T! /?OvA,0/XVOS, OtS t^&TTW. ovcrta avrov, KCU TO TOLTOV uepos IO-TW TOV eAoVros. "Eo-r<o Se /cai, \<*' xt ,, KCU eav i ~w> T<> ao~T(j> (TWOLKYJ, Kara ravra. o
/x?7X ai/ ??

>'

~''\

In Neaer.

6, as cited in the last note.

i66

RIGHTS WITHHELD FROM

THEM

And the like proceedings shall be taken if an alien woman live as wife with an Athenian citizen, and the citizen who lives as husband with an alien woman shall,
on being convicted, incur the penalty of
drachmas."
NO
right to

a thousand

iifplibScfundis,

a nd h ouses

entitled to hold property in the nor in lands and houses, eyicnjo-is 7*7? KCU public funds, The holding of such property was considered oiKias. an element of sovereignty, so that citizens alone could

Metoecs were not

own immovables,

JUL*]

elvai

eW?

yrjs

KOI oucias eyKTqviv. 1

To

obtain this right a special decree of the people was necessary. They were likewise debarred from all mort-

if exiled, their
!ra*tri LUilJloLctlcU.

Could own
emancipate them.

2 gage transactions. If they were exiled for any reason their property was al ovo-ial Snuevovrai.* TMV (bewyovTCOV Confiscated / They were, however, permitted to possess slaves and to emancipate them, under the same conditions as
/

citizens exercised this right.*

NO right

of
>

pasturage on the commons.

They had no
t

right of pasturage

on the public

lands,

TTlvO^ia.

Could not ubh


act?<?ns.

They could not bring public actions, ypa<pal, except such as directly concerned their own persons, and not a
third party or the State.
:

Excluded from
put
offices!

They were excluded from certain public functions ; for example, they were not permitted to serve as public arbitrators, or umpires, Siamrrai, nor as ambassadors.
Certain exceptions, however, were sometimes made in favour of metoecs of distinction, such as in the case
1 Cf. Demosth. Pro Phormio, 6, where it is stated Corp.jur. Att. 36. that Phormio, when he became lessee of a certain banking house and received the deposits, would not be able to get in the money that

But exceptions

Pasion had lent on land and lodging-houses. * 2 Demosth. Pro Phormio, 6. Corp.jur. Att. 1016.
4 It
is

thus related of one Apollodorus,


;

who was an Athenian


Harpocra768, 772,

metoec from Samos

cf.

tion, s.v. noAc/ia/o^os.

Isaeus, De Apollod. hered. and cf. See also Corp. inscrip. Att. ii. 2.

and 773.
Corp. inscrip. Graec. 1385 ; A. R. Rangabe, Antiquites helleniques, ou repertoire inscriptions et d'autres antiquites decouvertes depuis fajfranchissement de la Grece, ^ vols, (Athenes, 1842-1855), no. 704.
5

CHARGES IMPOSED ON THEM

167

of the philosopher Xenocrates 1 of Chalcedon in 322 B.C., and in that of the Theban philosopher Crates. 2 They were forbidden to speak at the assemblies of the people,
ayopevovra ; and also were excluded from they competing in the public
v

XP*1

vov

KK\vj(Ti(tiv

ywere^efy

aywv TIS evavSpias TOIS Tlava6rjvaloi9 ayerai, 0$ 4 Koivwveiv OVK cj-ea-Ti TO*? ^evois j though not from taking in the dramatic performances and competitions, part
games,

where sometimes, as in the Lenaean festivals in honour of Dionysus, 6 certain more or less onerous charges special charges (\eirovpyiai) were imposed on them, e.g. the the equipping and bringing out of a chorus. As to taxes, metoecs had to pay through their TO pay an ar 6 patrons a fixed annual sum, the /ULCTOIKIOV, amounting to twelve drachmas in the case of men, and six in the case of women, 7 when living in independence, that is, Some not in the house of their husbands or sons. 8 have asserted additional that an writers, e.g. Schoemann,
(i.e. half a drachma), had to be paid. This assertion appears to be based merely on certain texts from Menander, cited by Menander refers to the emancipated Harpocration. slave who paid the /meToiKtov, and an additional rpiwfioXov. And so because the additional half-drachma accompanied the njLeroiKiov in the case of the freedman, it was unwarrantably assumed to accompany it in the case of the

smaller tax of three obols, Tpia>/3o\ov

metoec. 9 At all events, besides the ordinary charges of citizens and the distinctive veroiKiov, they had to pay a special tax when trading in the market-place, and were further subject to extraordinary imposts, levied to meet
1

Plut. Phoc.

27

Diog. Laert.

iv. 2.

8-9.
4
6

Plut. Demetr. 46.

3 5
1

Corp.jur. Att. 33.


Schol. ad Aristoph. Plut. 953.
Corp. jur. Att.

Corp. jur. Att. 440.


Cf. note 7, page 163, supra.
:

871 (Suidas,

s.v.

ftcrot/ctov)

Twv

/xcrot/cwv 6

/xei>

SwSeKa 8/Dax/Aa? rcXti joieTotKtov, ^ 8e yvvr) e. KCU TOV vtov ov reAet, p) reAoiWos Sc avrr) rcAet. Cf. Corf, reXoui/TOS, 17 Ai8oi/rat <$ VTT' aurwv jur. Att. 27 (Harpocration, s.v. ^TOLKLOV) Ka0' eK-ao-rov eras Spaxpal SwSeKa oircp 6vo/xaeTcu /XCTOIKIOV. 8 9 Gr. Alt. vol. ii. p. 53. Cf. Clerc, op. cit. p. 21.
avr)p

M^p

168

MILITARY SERVICE

the exigencies of war or defence, 1 or to meet the ex2 penditure incurred in the public feasts, e.g. the elvfyopd, a 3 property-tax levied on citizens also, but the burden of the metoecs was greater, and the eTmWt?, an ostensibly

voluntary contribution, sometimes in money, sometimes in kind. 4


All

metoecs
5

were

liable

to

compulsory military
territorial

service, and usually played the part of a army for the defence of the city and its

Those who could obtain

ramparts. the were admitted as the ; necessary equipment hoplites others served in the light infantry. Some also contributed to the recruiting of mercenary archers. Military
at

their

own expense

command seems to have been occasionally entrusted to 6 them, as military command abroad was allowed by the 7 As a rule, the metoecs Spartans to their TrepWot. were debarred from serving in the cavalry, the main reason for this being that Athenian horsemen had, in
addition to their military functions, important duties

and in athletic games. There were, however, Athenians, who, like Xenophon, " While proposed their admission into the cavalry. we give a share to foreigners," argues Xenophon, "of other privileges which it is proper to share with them, we would be likely to render them better disposed towards us and increase the strength and greatness of our country if we gave them admission also into Whilst Athens employed her metoecs the cavalry." 8
in religious feasts, processions,
ii. 13; iv. 90. See P. Guiraud, Uimpot sur mondes, Paris, Oct. 15, 1888.

Thuc.

2 le

Schoemann, op. tit. vol. ii. capital a Athene^ in Revue


;

p. 53.

des

deux

4 Cf.

Gilbert,

op.

tit.

vol.
tit.

i.

p.

345

and C. Lecrivain,
6

s.v

Epidosisy

in Daremberg-Saglio, op.
5

See Clerc,

op. tit.

pp.

46

seq.

Thuc.

v.

90.

7
8

Thuc.

viii.
ii.

22.

On

theperioeci, see infra, p. 178.

De

vectig.

TWV

aXXitiv

&v

5 : Kcu fteraStSovTes 8' av /AOI SoKovpev rots ^erot KOI? /caAov yaeraStSovcu KOI TOV ITTTTLKOV evvova-repovs av
ix. 6.

7roiwr$ai
Cf.

/cat

a/xa icr\vpoTepa.v av KOI ^et^to rr)v TTO\IV

Hipparch.

FOREIGNERS AND THEIR RELIGION

169

ordinarily as a reserve force in the army, Sparta was accustomed to place her perioeci ungenerously in the front rank in war. In the Athenian navy the position of the metoecs was Position m more important, as they formed part of the regular
service.
1

in

the

As

exercise

to religion, foreigners in general enjoyed the free of their national worship a favour usually con-

Foreigners and

ceded by special authorization. 2 In the fourth century, B.C., there were numerous foreign religions and assoSome were allowed to exist on ciations in Athens. In the sufferance, others received formal permission. oriental following century, many religious systems had obtained a footing in Greece. Metoecs were excluded

from the priesthood


KCU IJLGTOIKOV

(as

from the magistracies)


ou6'

TOV
. .

evov
3
.

OUT

otyo^a?

ap^eiv

tepaxrvvqv KXtjpovcrdcu

but certain privileges were extended to them in connection with the city's religious practices. Subject to certain restrictions, they could share in the public and private sacrifices, and were allowed to take part in the 4 public feasts and processions of the Bendideia and of 5 u Le the Panathenaea. meteque a le droit d'invoquer lui les dieux de la cite, il ne peut les invoquer au pour nom de la cit6 et pour elle." 6 Probably they were allowed in some cases to be initiated into the mysteries ;
as a general rule, strangers were prohibited therefrom, wSeva evov fjLvetv* but in this phrase the word ei/o?
is

perhaps used in reference to non-domiciled aliens,


already as well as

a supposition which seems to be texts (of which examples have

supported by many been given)

eVo? when it containing the word /ue'rcu/co? is intended that the should extend also to application
1

Cf. Clerc, op.

cit.

p. 71.

See

P.

Foucart,
c.

T>es

associations

religieuses

chez

les

Grecs

(Paris, 1873),
8
5

and Clerc,

op. cit.

pp.

18

seq.

Demosth.

Eubulid. 48.

Demosth. In Neaer. 85.


pp.

Cf. Schenkl,
Clerc, op.
cit.

De

metoecis Atticis,

loc. cit.

204

seq.

p. 150.

Corp.jur. Att. 34.

70

TREATMENT OF METOECS
class.

the former
as a

In any case, this

is

conjecture, especially so as include the


It

eVo9 is

submitted merely often used to

whether
functionswere n
metoecs.

been held by several writers that certain humiliating functions were imposed on metoecs in the " Rien ne city's religious feasts and processions. pretait 1 " a de pareils sarcasmes davantage," says Sainte-Croix, que les fonctions auxquelles, dans les fetes religieuses, on avait voue ces etrangers." In the Panathenaic prohas
cessions they acted as a-Kacpijcpopoi (i.e. carrying for their patrons certain skiff-shaped sacrificial vessels filled with
cakes), their wives as vSpiacpopoi (carrying pitchers for the wives of the citizens), and their daughters as
2

(carrying parasols over the heads of the Athenian women). About the middle of the third 3 described these functions as century, A. D., Aelianus servile ; and this opinion has often been adopted in
(TKiarj(p6poL

modern times, as, for example, by Boeckh, who says " these duties were geringe und ehrenrtthrige Dienste," by Hermann, who makes use of a similar expression
" die 5 erniedrigenden Gebrauche," by A.
clad
in

Mommsen, who

red livery as required by says the metoecs, law, were also compelled to wait on the Athenians at their common meals. 6 But in spite of these adverse
1

Memoire
Variae
.
.

sur

les

meteques, he.
s.v.

cit.

p. 182.
;

2 3

Harpocration,
.

dKa^^opoi
i
:

Pollux,
8e

iii.

55.

historlae,

vi.

'AOrjvaioi

vj3pia-av

KCU eKeivrjv
cv

vftpw

ras yovv irapOevovs TWV fieroiKtov

(rKiaSrjffropeiv

rats

TTO/WTCUS r)vdyKaov rats Javrtov KO^CUS rots Be TOVS Se avSpOLS cri<a<f>r)(f)opiv.


4

yvvcuKas rats

yvvmm

vol.

A. Boeckh, Die Staatshaushaltungder Athener, ^ Bde. (Berlin, 1 886] i. p. 624. 5 K. F. Hermann, Lehrbuch der griechischen Antiquitaten. Ed. by Bliimner and W. Dittenberger (Freiburg i. B. 1889, etc.), vol. i.

"5Antiquarische Untersuchungen ttber die st'ddtischen Feste Heortologle " Die MetSken n2mlich der Athener (Leipzig, 1864), p. 180 mussten, als der gesetzlich bestimmten Livree, hinter ihren in Roth gekleidet
:

Patronen, den Biirgern, Gefasse hertragen,

gefiillt

mit Kuchen und

JURISDICTION AS

TO

ALIENS

171

opinions one fails to see that such duties were of so humiliating a character, especially when one remembers the comparatively extensive and important privileges There is no cogent conferred on the domiciled aliens. evidence to show that they were compelled by law to perform these functions ; probably their services were gratuitously offered to their patrons, in view of the

Of course, aliens were not, protection they received. in any case, considered on the same footing as citizens ;

but that does not mean they were constantly subjected The Athenians were to humiliation and oppression. in their midst, and actually held out have them to glad inducements to alien immigrants, who were always And allowed to depart again whenever they pleased. this condition of things is by no means consistent with As to the carrying of the the views expressed above.
parasols, Wilamowitz-Mollendorff were carried in honour of Athena,
1

argues that they

and that Aelianus was mistaken in supposing them to have been for the an argument convenience of the Athenian ladies,
which
is

not at

all

devoid of plausibility.
and

Metoecs and other foreigners were under the juris- Foreigners Jun diction of a special magistrate, the polemarch, TroXejmapxos, who tried only private suits, Swat idtai, and not public
actions, iuccu
Stjfio(riai.

He

decisions of the arbitrators, SiainjTcu.


cases,

also heard appeals from the In a good many

court.

metoecs could appear in person, and address the 2 liable to give security in private as They were 3 well as in public actions, from which liability citizens were exempt, excepting a few cases of the Skat Srj/moo-iai. In regard to commercial cases (apart from specific conventions arranging otherwise) the domiciled aliens were Thus, they practically assimilated to Athenian citizens. were subject to the jurisdiction of the vavroSucai, judges
Opferbrot und bald aus Erz bald aus Silber gearbeitet" ; and p. 196 " Das souvera"ne Volk sass zu Tisch und Hess sich von seinen Beisassen das Brot und den Kuchen reichen."
cif.
:

Commercial
ca

p.

220.

Isocrat. Trapezlt. 12.

Lysias,

c.

Agor. 23.

i/2

TREATMENT OF METOECS

of the Admiralty Court, the Bea-jULoOerai, the six junior archons who heard causes assigned to no special court,
Criminai cases,

and the etcraywyeis, the magistrates who received informations and brought the case into court. 1 In criminal matters also they were on the same footing as citizens, except that in the case of metoecs, no distinction seems to have been made between involuntary homicide, << e/c aKova-ios, and wilful, premeditated murder, irpoJ 0oVo9 l and also the inflicted on that voias, them, after penalty having been found guilty of this crime, was usually more
'

severe.
Metoecs under
protection.

in and (what is more remarkable) out of Athens, metoecs were pl ace d under the official protection of 2 That the tie established between the Athenian people. the State and the domiciled strangers was by no means of a precarious nature is clearly shown by the fact that even when they left Athens temporarily to travel, or reside abroad, their interests, both in reference to their persons and their property, were safeguarded by the Athenian government. 3

Both

Rewards and
est<

metoefs

From time to time they received various rewards an d privileges. Some of these were of the nature of distinguished honours, e.g. a formal official eulogy and bestowal of a laurel wreath, as in the case of Phidias of 4 Rhodes, a public physician, decrees in favour of Zeno of Citium, the founder of the Stoic philosophy, the right to
appear before the public assembly (TT^OO-O^O?), granted, for example, to Eucles, a herald, 5 and to Nicandros and Polyzelos, exemption from the polemarch's jurisdiction and permission to institute public actions, as extended to
1

Cf.

SiSocwri
2 3

Demosth. Exceptio adv. Pantaenetum, 33 ot Se ras Trapaypa^ds avriXay \dveiv, ire.pl 8>v OVK Clerc, op. cit. pp. 188 seq.
:

vo/xot /cat

TOVTW

tlcrlv etcraycuyeis.

(Paris,

iv. 27 a ; P. Foucart, Melanges d'epigraphie grecq ue 1878), 5 ; and cf. W. Dittenberger, Sylloge inscriptionum Graecarum, 3 vols. (Leipzig, 1898-1901), 348. 4 Corp. inscrip. Attt ii. add. nov. 256 b.

Corp. inscrip. Att.

Corp. inscrip. Att.

ii.

73.

POSITION OF ISOTELES
the Acharnians
battle
1

173

who took

refuge in Athens after the

of Chaeronea,

SiSovat SIKCIS KCU \aju./3dviv KaOdircp

Amongst the positive privileges conferred included eiriyania) were w-oreXeto,* equality never (which with citizens as to taxes and tributes, thus raising the 8 status of metoecs to that of iororeXei?, and 7r/ooew'a, and generally raising their status to that of irpogevot ;
'AOrjvatoi.

accompanying these privileges was the right to acquire a right, moreover, which property in land and houses,
4 might be made hereditary.

rare cases (and proxenoi,

Further, metoecs, in some more often) were exempted from

the public burdens (are'Xeia), for example, from the 5 /xerotVtoi/, or from the Xeirovpyiaif or from the ela-^opa}

Hence,
actually

it

would appear
in

treated,

that occasionally metoecs were regard to certain matters, with

8 greater favour than citizens themselves.

As

to the

more

no information in the classical of their position, and there

privileged class of w-oreAe??, we find texts on the exact nature

isoteks

their

pos tlon *

is no agreement on the Some of these 9 old the lexicographers. subject amongst assert that they were foreigners practically made citizens ; but then they were still subject to the polemarch's

jurisdiction,

which did not concern citizens. Others, 10 to all again, state that they were foreigners admitted a of those of purely political citizenship except rights
nature; but they were, in
l

fact,

not allowed
cf.

Corp. inscrip. Att.

ii.

121,

11.

26 seq.,znd
3

the restoration of the

;text
2

suggested by Schubert, See infra, pp. 173 seq.


Corp. Inscrip. Att.
ii.

De proxenia
5

Attica,

(1886), p. 55.
seq.

See supra, pp. 147


Corp. Inscrip. Att.

41.
P.

ii.

27.

6
7

Demosth.
Ibid.
p.
1

c.

Leptin. 18.
;

seq.

and
cit.

cf.

Monceaux, Les

proxenies grecques (Paris,

1886),
8 9

99.

Cf. Clerc, op.


E.g. Schol. ad

pp. 198, 199.


c.

Demosth.

Leptin. 466.

Suidas, s.v. 'lo-oTeAeis.


others.

10
11

E.g.

Ammonius, Ptolemaeus, Chemnus, and


is

This

also the

(Paris, 1875), i. p. no definite texts in

view of R. Dareste, Plaidoyers civih de Demosthtne 311, though it must be admitted that there are
support of the statement.

POSITION OF ISOTELES
(apart from specific decrees, which were very rare indeed, conferring the right of intermarriage). Probably the truth is that the isoteles were simply metoecs, free from the special taxation incidental to the latter, so that they

were assimilated to citizens not on the basis of the general rights of citizenship, but on the basis of the financial burdens arising therefrom. 1 This was a special
2 honour, and

it

was possible, by means of a

specific decree,

to

make it hereditary. 3 The isoteles are placed by

Aristotle in an intermediate

position between that of the metoecs and that of the Thus, discussing the functions of the poleproxenoi. " The march, he says private suits which he gives are to which the parties are to those permission bring
:

4 metoecs, isoteles, or proxenoi." The number of isoteles appears to have been very

restricted.
isoteles. 5

Thus out of
in

number of

nearly

2,700

epitaphs found

Attica, only

twelve were those of

The honour and

privileges of la-oreXeia

were some-

times granted to foreigners, other than metoecs, who consented to work in the mines, 6 sometimes also to
7 proxenoi, and probably even to

cities

and entire peoples, 8

Merot/cot wra rots acrrois reXry Hesychius, s.v 'LroTeAtis ; Harpocration, citing Lysias as to exemption from the metoikion, rov ptroiKiov a^eo-ts ; and Theophrastus as to exemption from other taxes of metoecs, KOU TWV aAAwv &v ITT/XXTTOV ot jueroi/coi a<eo-iv tlyov. See also the decree, 363-2 B.C., in favour of Astycrates who, having been expelled from Delphi by the Amphictyons, took
Cf.
.
:

SiSdvres

refuge in Athens,
2

Corp. inscrip. Att.

ii.

54.

cf_ in funeral inscriptions and in official documents, Corp. Inscrip. Att. ii. 616 ; ii. 3. 1333 ; ii. 3. 2723-2734; ii. 279,

As shown

3343

Ibid.

ii.

3.

2724.
irpos

4 8tK<xi 8f

Xay\dvovTai
viii.
cit.

avrbv

iSiai /xi> at TC rots /MerotKOi?

KCU TOIS to-oTcXccrt KCU rot?

7r/oof wots yiyvofj.tva.1

(Athenian Constitution,
vectig. iv. 12.

58)
5
7

cf.

Pollux,

91.
p.
ii.
ii.

Cf. Clerc, op.

210.
48.

Xenoph. De
cf.

Corp. inscrip. Att.


Corp. inscrip. Att.

add. 97 c; and

Schenkl,

op. cit. p.

222.

ISOTELEIAHOW CONFERRED
though
partial.

175

in

the latter case


in

the

However,

spite

immunity was only of these privileges the

juridical position

" Ni les avantages confrs de plein droit par 1'isotelie, ni ceux qui s'y ajoutaient souvent, ne changeaient au fond la condition 16gale des isoteles, qui, a vrai dire, ne -cessaient pas d'etre des meteques." Boeckh distinthem from consideration metoecs in of the fact, guishes other that were not under the reasons, they .amongst " Da sie of a prostates. 'necessity having gewiss keinen iPatron (TTpoo-rani?) brauchten, welches ohne Zeugniss sich vom selbst versteht, so konnten sie unmittelbar imit dem Volke und den Behflrden verhandeln, ohne jjedoch desshalb in der Volksversammlung stimmen zu IkOnnen." No authorities are given for this statement, Ibut probably that was the case. Isoteleia was conferred only by a decree of the people. HOW was confer iln the case of Euxenides of Phaselis, for example, it runs " Whereas Euxenides has shown himself tto this effect the Athenian people, that he has towards ^well-disposed all the eisphorai imposed on the metoecs regularly paid by the people, that in the late war he voluntarily equipped rtwelve sailors, that recently he gratuitously supplied -cords for the catapults, that he zealously fulfilled all that he was ordered by the strategoi and the taxiarchi, and that in everything he has shown himself the friend of "3 the Council and of the Athenian people
it
:
;

Clerc points out, 1 was fundamentally the same as that of the metoecs.

of the

isoteles, as

M.

Op.

cit.

p. 209.
vol.
i.

2 3

Die Staatshaushaltung der Athener,


Corp. inscrip. Att.
ii.

p.

627.
hellen.

413

Rangabe, Antiq.

479.

(From

ian inscription

of about 200
cjVlct&f

B.C.)
evi'S^s SiareAct

Erf
KCU

TW

'A077v[a]uoi>
Kttt

ra|s

re
j

[cjwovs ur<opas aTrfacrlas


[c]

oVas

8f)fj.os

e[t](rcvcyKt v rovs /jterot/cov?


<)
j

VTCIKTCDS

StoSe/ca

!/ T^5 7roX[/x] VJ3ij3cuTV, KO.

T^> 7T/3OT/OOV

t
\

vvv
|

is TOI^S

C^cAoVT^S KaraTraAras
V7TO

v[e|v]/3aS

7T8(UKV
KOI
\

Kttl

WTO.

7TTa \6r)

ttVT^)

TCUV

crrparrjyajv

TCOV

Taidp\<i>v

avravra

176
Inferior classes

INFERIOR CLASSES OF POPULATION

of Athenian

population.

Cleruchi.

Slaves.

Freedmen.

From the above considerations it is seen that the metoecs formed an inferior class of the stable population of Athens, but with certain distinctly recognized rights and obligations. The inferior section, as a whole, consisted of men of free origin and those of servile origin. The former included (in addition to the classes above 1 mentioned) the /cA^ot^oi, the natives of the regions where the cleruchi were established, and the allies, 2 of whom there were allies proper, ^yu/xa^ot, and subject Of servile origin were slaves, public allies, v-jnjKooi. 3 4 5 and (oruuLocrioi) private (x^P 19 of/cowre?), and freedmen. Cleruchi were, from a legal point of view, still Athenian citizens, absence from the city depriving them only of
effective citizenship, in its political aspect. these different classes the metoecs bore a greater or lesser resemblance. Thus, like the cleruchi, many

Relation of raetoecs to these classes.

To

metoecs were members of two communities at once ; both are often described as ' being settled in (otWi/,
'

to living Athens, in opposition A O in their own both could sacrifice Athenian to the divinities, country ; and take part in the festivals of Parathenaia and Dionysia ; but the metoecs were not entitled, as the cleruchi were, to be present at the public meals. Further, the metoecs in the allies of the tribute levied ; resembled respect they resembled the slaves, in that certain duties were
OIKOVVTCS)
</

'

J[

ra
/cat

a[A,]

A.a
|

rov
ii.

and cf. Corp. Hermaeos.

inscrip. Att.

360, for a similar example in the case of

1 Plutarch (Flamin. 2) uses the word KXripovyiai to translate "coloniae civium Romanorum." On the cleruchi, see P. Foucart, Memoire sur les colonies atheniennes au cinquieme et au quatneme sticks (in Memoires de F academic des inscriptions et belles-lettres, Paris, 1878,
i

Serie,
2

t.

iv.

pp.

360

seq.).

Cf.

P.

Guiraud,

De

la

condition

des allies pendant la premiere


t.

confederation athenienne (in


1

Ann.

fac. des lettres de Bordeaux,

v.

68
3

seq.).

See E. Caillemer, in Daremberg-Saglio,


Cf.

s.v. op. cit.

Demosioi.

4 5

Meier and Schoemann,

op. cit. p.

751.

See Daremberg-Saglio,

s.v. Apeleutheroi. op. cit.

THEIR RELATION TO THE STATE


;

177

imposed on them from which citizens were exempt and their position was analogous to that of the freedmen l
emancipated slave, corresponding to the Latin libertus] in respect of taxation and the necessity to have patrons (who, in the case of the freedmen, were
(aireXevOepos,

their

former masters). 2

In reference to the Roman institutions, the metoecs Relation of to the resembled the freedmen, the ordo libertinorum, rather %% #**** at least, from the than the peregrini^ or the incolae, of of The libertini view their position. point juridical had not connubium (till Augustus), as the metoecs had not eTrtya/uLia. The Roman freedmen were not admitted into the legions, whereas the metoecs were enrolled in the ranks of the hoplites, though not in the cavalry. Both were debarred from the ius honorum (the capacity to hold certain public offices), from priesthood, and, as a rule, from access to the senate, or /3ov\ri, as the case may be. Differences of opinion have been expressed as to the Relationship of exact relationship of metoecs to the State. Thus state*08 10 the Wilamowitz-Mollendorff holds that they were really clients of the State, as distinguished from those of " Die Metoeken Clienten individuals. sind, aber nicht Clienten eines einzelnen Atheners, sondern des Volkes
*
'

der Athener, als Mitbewohner Athens Mitpfleglinge 3 This statement is founded on Athenas, Quasibiirger."
a passage
prostates,
. . .

from Aeschylus, 4 where Pelasgos, King of Argos, receiving the Danaides, says he will be their
7zy>o<TTaT?7S 8'

eyw,

acrrot

re

whence the Danaides are considered metoecs by the German writer. But it is extremely doubtful whether
the tragedian here uses the
sense.
1

It is

word Trpoa-rdr^ in its technical more probable that it is employed in this

like
2

In Plato's Laws, xi. 915 there is a curious provision that freedmen, metoecs, are not to remain in the city more than twenty years.
Cf. A.

W.
p.

Heffter, Athen'dische Gerichtsverfassung (Coin,

1822),

p.
8

8.

O/.

cit.

246.

*$///. 964.

i;8

CLASSES OF SPARTAN POPULATION


is

1 passage in the sense of protector or champion, as

Final definition ecs


-

done elsewhere. 2 On the whole the most exact definition of metoecs " Les 3 is that given by Clerc m6teques etaient des etrangers, les uns d'origine servile, les autres d'origine
:

libre, fixes a

Athenes, soit pour un temps,


la

soit definitive-

ment, que

octroyant en ouvrait meme, dans une certaine mesure, ses cadres ; de sorte que, sans etre citoyens, ils faisaient partie integrante de
classes of the
^

cite faisait participer a ses charges, leur retour des droits positifs, et a qui elle

la cit6."

As
ts

to Sparta

we find
full

population.

population,

citizens,

three different classes constituting the dependent perioeci,

Helots.

and the serfs or helots (ciXurrei). As in the case of Athenian slaves, helots were sometimes emancipated in recognition of military or other services rendered to the State ; and from them or their children a new
(TreploiKoi),

class

arose,

^09, chised'), who The sons of Spartans and


recent,
fjLoOaices
Perioeci.

neodamodes (i/eo^a/xw^ef?, 4 from i/eo?, new, &7/uo?, the people ; hence, newly enfrandid not, however, obtain full citizenship.
c

helot women were designated or juo'0fc>i/e?, some of whom were endowed with the entire body of civic rights. The perioeci to the Athenian (largely analogous metoecs), whose to some extent the Teutonic resembled position

vassalage,
1

had

to

perform
297.

certain

services,

to

pay

Cf. Clerc,

op. cit. p.

Cf. Aeschyl. Theb. 408,


.
.

where he speaks of the 'defender of the

gateway,'
.

avTiTct^w irpo(TTa.Tr)v

and

cf.

similar usage, ibid. 797-8


. . .

/ecu

TrvAa

<f>padfj,ecr6a /Aovo/xa^otcrt Tr/aocrraTais.

Similarly, Sophocles uses the

and
3

cf.

word as 'protector,' Oed. Tyr. 303 'ATToAAwi/a Tr/oocrTarav (Track. 209), in reference to Apollo.
cit.

Op.

p.

297.
83.-

Pollux,

iii.

Cf.

Thuc.

vii.

58

Xenoph. Helkn.

iii.

3.

v. 2. 24.

THE PERIOECI
special taxes

179

and dues, 1 and to serve in the army as heavy-armed troops. They were not admitted to the in any case, attendance Spartan public assemblies, would have been impracticable owing to their distance from Sparta. But in the communities to which they
belonged, they probably exercised the rights of citizen2 ship. They engaged in various arts and crafts, and in commercial and trading pursuits, which the Lycurgan 3 legislation had forbidden Spartans to follow. Though inferior not to politically they were oppressive subjected measures. As in the case of the metoecs, sometimes the It has been perioeci were entrusted with high functions. calculated that there were in Laconia over 60,000 members of this class ; but it would seem, from various considerations, that the estimate is probably too high.
1

Strabo,

viii. p.

365

Plato, Alcib. 123 A.


cf.

2 *

Herodot.

vii.

234;

Strabo,

viii.

p. 362.

Plut. Lycurg. 4.

CHAPTER

VIII
1

NATURALIZATION IN ATHENS CERTAIN IMPORTANT ELEMENTS OF PRIVATE INTERNATIONAL LAW IN GREECE


in earlier times
difficult.

OWING to the close relationships between the religion of the ancient State and citizenship, and to the exclusiveness of such religion, and owing also to the deeply rooted racial pride (which questions have already been considered), naturalization was made extremely difficult, and for a long time was very rarely resorted to. In the earlier epochs of ancient history, even very long domicile of an alien was not regarded as carrying with it any legal rights and civic privileges ; they were not even thought to have been bestowed gratuitously. Subject
to the restrictions already indicated, a resident foreigner

Modifications

"*"

on commission of an offence was, according to the earlier theory of the municipal law, punishable summarily and without proper trial the State did not admit any obligation on its part to mete out strict justice to him, nor any right in him to claim it. But there is no doubt
;

that actual practice very rarely followed the principles of such uncompromising theory. Plato's provision in his

not merely speculative or visionary, as being applicable only to a Utopian polity, but it truly repre1 On this subject see especially E. Caillemer, La naturalisation a Athlnes (Paris, 1880); the same writer's article in Daremberg-Saglio, practically a reproduction of the first (to op. cit. s.v. Demopoietos

Laws was

which writings a portion of the present chapter E. Szanto, Das griechische BUrgerrecht (Freiburg cit. A. Philippi, Beitrage zu pp. 221 seq. op.
;

is
i.

much
B.

indebted)
;

1892)

Clerc,

einer

Geschichte des

NATURALIZATION

IN

ATHENS

181

" If he sented the spirit and conduct of his age. 1 [the citizen] thinks that some stranger has struck him out of
wantonness or insolence, and ought to be punished, he him to the wardens of the city, but let him not strike him and let the wardens of the city take the offender and examine him, not forgetting their duty to the God of strangers." Later, special legal machinery was established in Greece, as in Rome, to deal with differences arising out of transactions of aliens. In pro- Gradual relaxatlons cess of time various relaxations were further introduced economic and political interests gradually prevailed over religious feelings, ethnic considerations, and traditional observances. And certain formalities came to be devised and conditions laid down, the fulfilment of which placed the alien dwellers practically on the same footing with
shall take
.

2 But, as Aristotle argued, neither residence alone nor the possession of legal rights along with it could suffice to constitute citizenship.

citizens.

Athens was the most cosmopolitan city of Greece, and Athens a On the other symo P olitan granted naturalization the most freely. hand, Sparta was one of the most exclusive States, and Spartan exclusiveness conceded it very rarely. It is stated by Herodotus 8 that till his time Tisamenus and Hegias were the only individuals who received Lacedaemonian citizenship but probably Herodotus here refers only to foreigners in the strict sense, for helots were often admitted to citizenship,
;

thus becoming new citizens admission was not so rare.


'

'

(yeo&z/xa>(W).

Even then

Herodotus himself says 5

attuc hen Bttrgerrechts (Berlin,


titulis

1870); H. Buermann, Animadversiones de

Atticis,

quibus civitas alicui confertur vel redintegratur (Leipzig,

1879).
1

ix.

879 D

evov 8e
Seti/

a.v

TVTTTOVTO,

OI^TCU

ao-TWo/Ltwv aTrayera), TrapaAa/^ovres re KCU


(MVOL.
.
.
.

KoAdcr^vcu, rov TVTTTCLV

da-eXyaivovra KCU Opacrvvoptvov kavrbv \a/3o)v 7r/)bs Trjv dpfflv T<3v


<$

t/>y<T#oo

ot

8'

acrrvvo/tot

dra/</otvavTS,

rbv

CVIKOV a$

debv

V\afiov-

I. 3.

Tisamenus the Elean and his brother): Movi/ot TrdvTuv avfycuTrcuv eykvovro OVTOI 'ZTrapTL^rrj
ix.

35

(as to

Thuc.

vii.

58.

iv.

145.

182
that

DOUBLE CITIZENSHIP
the

Minyae of Orchomenus were

received

as

citizens,

but were perhaps admitted among the perioeci. With such admission may be compared the reception of the Sabine refugees by the Roman people. 1 Tyrtaeus, as
reported by Plutarch, was awarded Spartan citizenship.

Foreign

slaves, in the (TpocpifjLoi)


is

too, brought up as foster-children house of a Spartan seem sometimes to

have attained the citizen rank. 2


Aristotle there

And

according to

Sparta were

a tradition that the ancient kings of in the habit of giving to strangers the rights
3

of
Naturalization

citizenship.

inMegararare.

boasted that they extended this privi^heil they offered citizenship so, as they alleged, on the he that was a grounds god, having been thus saluted of the oracle Ammon and ; they pointed out to him by that they had granted citizenship to no foreigner except Hercules. 4 The same claim is referred by Seneca to the Corinthians. 5
j

The Megarians
.

ege Qn]y tQ thg to Alexander, they did

^^

Sometimes
twofold
citizenship

The

principle

is

individual can

owe

firmly established to-day that no allegiance to more than one sovereign

allowed.

power at the same time, that he cannot be a citizen of more than one State at one and the same moment. This rule was also laid down in Roman law. But the Greeks, if we judge from their practice, frequently
Cicero mentions with surprise allowed the contrary. that the Republics of Greece very often granted citizenship to individuals, who also remained citizens of their own respective countries ; so that it became possible for " multarum people to become citizens of many States,
1

Liv.

ii.
ii.

16.
9.

3 Po/it.

17: Aeyowi

6"

o>s

Xenoph. Helkn. ITTI rwy fjikv

v.

3. 9.

*Plut.
5<De

De

unius in rep. dom. 2.

i. 13: "Alexandra Macedoni, cum victor orientis animos supra humana tolleret, Corinthii per legates gratulati sunt et Cum risisset Alexander hoc officii civitate ilium sua donaverunt. genus, unus ex legatis, nulli, inquit, civitatem umquam dedimus alii

benef.

quam

tibi et

Herculi."

CONDITIONS OF NATURALIZATION
cives civitatum."

183

however,

as

is

According to the legislation of Solon, no foreign pointed out by Plutarch,

individuals were permitted to become full citizens in Athens, unless they had either been exiled for life from
their native cities, or had removed voluntarily to Athens along with their entire families with a view to practising

there their trades


6 TWV
rot?
StJjULOTTOUTTWV

and professions,
l/o'/XO?,

OTl
1

yV(r6ai

Trape^ei S' aTropiav KOI TToAtTCU? OU SlSdXTl 7T\rjV


'

AO^va^e Plutarch adds that the object T^fl. of this policy was not so much to deny citizenship to other classes of people, as to assure those mentioned of
<pevyov(Tiv
t]

aeKpvyla TJV cavTwv

Travea-Tiois

peToiKify/uievois

eiri

a safe refuge in Athens, since it was become good and faithful citizens

thought they would on the ground that

the former had been banished from their own country, and the latter had deliberately abandoned it to find a new abode. 2 These conditions, however, were not

always strictly observed.

There are several cases where Athenian citizenship was offered to distinguished persons, who refused it. Thus Atticus, who removed to Athens in 85 B.C. and lived there a long time, was very fond of the Athenians, but did not accept the proffered honour. 3 In earlier times the Stoic philosopher Zeno of Citium in Cyprus, and Cleanthes of Assos in Troas, to mention no others, refused Athenian citizenship, as they thought
that acceptance would to their native countries

Refusal of

of Soli in of it.

Cilicia

imply injustice and ingratitude 4 on the other hand, Chrysippus 5 accepted it, though he made no use
;

for

to the conditions of naturalization, and the reasons which citizenship was bestowed on aliens (though it must be remembered that very often the main reason
1

As

conditions of
naturalization -

Solon, 24.

Corn. Nep. Atticus, iii. I " Quo factum est ut huic omnes honores quos possent publice haberent civemque facere studerent ; quo bene3
:

ficio ille uti


4

noluit."
Stoic,

Plut.

De

repug. iv. 1-2.

Ibid.

ii.

I.

184

CONDITIONS OF NATURALIZATION
State

from the point of view of the


or
Bestowed
fervdces
for

was scantiness

ffices

population, oXiyavOpwTrla, oXiyavSplcL), the decrees of the usually speak grantee's good offices towards Athens (avSpayaOla, manly virtue/ ew/oia, good-will), his bene1 volence, his devotion and generosity to her ; and in some
cases actually specify certain particular services rendered, Thus, Demosthenes relates especially in time of need.
that the
for
battle

honour was conferred on Peridiccas of Macedon

consummating the defeat of the Persians after the of Plataea, 2 on Meno of Pharsalus for giving twelve talents and other assistance to make war against Eion. 3 Elsewhere, 4 however, Demosthenes says that neither of them received full citizenship, TroXirela, but only immunity from the various charges (areXeia) imposed on non-citizens. Again, Andoleon, King of the was in recognition of his having admitted Peonians, 6 the Athenians at a time of crisis, supplied wheat to the services to and for his medical 286 B.C., Evenor,
citizens

In the case of the latter the decree follows: 6 " Whereas Evenor the runs somewhat has in the past manifested a benevolent disphysician position towards the city and people, and has made himself useful by his art and cured several of the

of Athens.

as

citizens

and aliens, who inhabited the city (commendation and crowning with a green branch) ... let him and his descendants be Athenians, and let him be
.
.

1 2

Cf.
c.

Demosth.

c.

Neaer. 89 (before cited).


3
ii.

Aristocr. 200.

Ibid. 199.

Z)<?

rep. ord. 23.

5
6

Corp. inscrip. Att.

no. 312, p. 136. no.

Corp. inscrip. Att. p. 35, no. 378:


. . .

ii.

187, p. 87;

cf.

Rangabe,

op.

cit.

ii.

tTrtiSr)
/xei/

'Kv^vojp 6 t]ar/)os rrporcpov TC


r\v

[f^-

vvovs

ry

TroJAet

/cat

T<

6^/x<^

/cat

prjartfjiov

tjv t
0)1>
.
.

Kara ryv T6^[vTrajpeor^^/cev TroAXovs Se taro] TWV TroAtrwi/ KCU TWV aA[Aeairrov
iva.L

TWV
.

VOLKOVVT(i)]v Trj 8k OLVTOV 'A^l^vaiwv /cat l/cyo-

7r6\l

vovs,
fj<S,

/cat

e^ctyat avTcpj ypd\j;a.o'6a.i <f>v\/cat

8yjfj,ov

^>paT/)ias

-^s

av] f3ovX.rjrai o [tar-

pos.

ABUSES OF NATURALIZATION
permitted to be inscribed in the that he may choose."
tribe,

185

deme, and phratry

Occasionally, the honour was also conferred for certain distinctions, or for certain acts of a different nature from

those mentioned.
is

Thus

Anacharsis, a Scythian prince,

have been made an Athenian in the time of and was admitted to the mysteries, 1 in spite of Solon, ra reXcvraia KOI c/muriOrj /xoVo? his being a barbarian,'
said to
'

pappdpcov

'A.vd-^apa-1?,

SrjjULOTrolrjTO?

yevojULevos.

And

Pyrrho, a disciple

of Plato, and the founder of the

sceptical school of philosophy, was likewise proclaimed a citizen for having slain Cotus, tyrant of Thrace,
'AOrjvaioi Se KOI TroXiTela OLVTOV eri/uLrjirav
eTTf

KaOd

Korvy TOV QpctKa Sia^pjj^ao-Oai. 2 A very interesting example is the decree of B.C. 369-368, conferring certain honours on Dionysius I. of Syracuse, who had been the It states that the Athenians publicly ally of Sparta.
TO)

(f>rj(ri

A:o/cX$9,

praise

him

for his zeal in maintaining the provisions of

the peace of Antalcidas, and grant


:

him and

his sons the

rights of citizenship, on account of their good disposition towards Athens

vr]cu
ovrja

pv
K[CI]C

Aioi/vcrtov

TO[V]
. .

TOVS vets TOVS [At]ovv[criov


. . .

OTl

t[cT6l>

ai/8/0-

5]

aya$ot

[vrjept

TO
4

Many other similar instances can be found. From time to time there were serious abuses

in the Abuses

in

bestowal of these privileges. About the middle of the fourth century Demosthenes, in one of his orations,

naturalizati

exclaimed that the gift of citizenship had been deprived of its ancient value, and had been dragged down to the

mud,
1

Scopea TTjOOTreTr^Xa/cfcrrai KCU (f)av\rj yeyovev.


2

5
.

Lucian, Scytfia, 8. See Hicks, Gr. Insert^, no. 108.

Diog. Laert.

ix.

65.

For additional examples, see H.


f.

M.

de Bruyn de Neve Moll,

De

peregrinorum apud Athenieme* conditlone (Dordraci, 1839), PP* Z 9 se4'


5

Aristocr. 201.

86

ABUSES OF NATURALIZATION

the same period Isocrates complained of the 1 prodigality in giving to aliens the title of Athenian. freat ut the allegations of the Athenian orators as to the

At about

extravagance in the practice of naturalization during the fourth century are, no doubt, rhetorically exaggerated it In really commenced after the time of Alexander.
;

some instances citizenship was given, at the time of Greek decadence, to many strangers, of whose good
in other disposition the Athenians had no assurance ; instances, for trifling reasons, as in the case of Aristonicus
2

Athenian
e

nd

R?man em p ire.

of Carystus, 3 because he was a skilful ball-player. It was given to Chairephilos, a famous salt-fish merchant, and to his three sons, Pheidon, Pamphilos, and Pheidip4 The comic poets taunted the Athenians that they pos. had shown such great generosity on account of their love of salt-fish, 5 but very probably it was owing to the fact that Chairephilos had supplied the Athenians with 6 provisions at a time of scarcity, 326-5 B.C. Later, under the Roman empire, the Athenian practice appears to have sometimes degenerated into
traffic. Thus, a Greek historian, writing in the latter part of the second century, A.D., says that Augustus prohibited the Athenians from selling their citizenship,

apyvplov TTOieio'Oai j and Tacitus, about a century before this, stated that when Piso entered Athens he delivered a public speech,
GLTrrjyopevcre <T<pi<Ti /ULijoeva 7TO\iTr]V

....

declaiming against the

inhabitants,

saying that

there

were no more Athenians, that the descendants of heroes had been replaced by a vile, heterogeneous mass, the scum of various nations, "... conluviem illam nationum comitate nimia coluisset." 8
1

De pace,

50.
(

Demosth.
i.

c.

Aristocr.

200

seq.

ort 'Apto-roviKov rov Kapvcrrioi/, rbv 'AA.eai/fy>ov OX^CU/OKTT^V, 'A^vatoi iroX.irrjv tTrotrjo'avTO Sia rrjv

Athenaeus, D(ipnosophistae J

34

4
5

Dinarchus,

i.

43

cf.
iii.

Hyperides,

frag.

222

in Orat. Att.

ii.

427.

Fragm. 385, 413, 482. 6 See A. Schaefer, Demosthenes und seine ZV, 3 Bde. (Leipzig, 1885-7), vol. iii. p. 296, note 4.
7

com. Graec.

Dion

Cassius,

liv. 7.

Tacit. Ann.

ii.

55.

NATURALIZATION EN MASSE
There were
individuals.

187

also cases of naturalizing entire bodies of Naturalization en Thus, in the Peloponnesian war, after the

destruction of Plataea, the Athenians offered its inhabitants citizenship, on the conditions that they accepted it at once, that they verified their nationality before a
tribunal, and that they testified to their good disposition towards Athens. 1 Many Plataeans availed themselves of the offer and settled at Scione in the peninsula of In the last years of the war a number of Pallene. 2 metoecs in Athens received citizenship ; and on the expulsion of the Tyrants by Thrasybulus in 403 B.C., following on the conclusion of the war, Cleisthenes enrolled amongst the Athenian tribes many metoecs and

other foreigners, but, as Aristotle points out, this was measure. 3 After the battle of a revolutionary really Chaeronea, 338 B.C., when the independence of Greece

was extinguished by Philip and Alexander, a number of metoecs were naturalized. Again, it is reported that in 406 B.C., after the battle of Arginusae, even the slaves who had served in the fleet were emancipated and awarded citizenship. 4 Andocides asking the Athenians to confirm the decree, voted on the proposition of " I see Menippus, which granted him a pardon, said you often give citizenship and considerable sums of money to slaves, and to foreigners of all kinds, when it
:

Demosth.

c.

Neaer. 89
$2.

seq.,

104

seq.

cf.

Isocrat. Panathenaicus,

94, and Plataicus,


2 3

Thuc.

v.

32

Isocrat. Panegyr. 109.

coming

Aristotle, discussing the essential meaning of citizenship, and to the question whether a citizen de facto is also a citizen de
is

iure, says it

difficult to settle

it

in the case of those

who

have been
l^et olov

made

citizens
CXTOI

after

revolution,

dAA'

Taxus

Keu>o

/-taAAoy

aTTopiav,
'A.6r)Vr)(TlV

p,tTt<r\pv

fj.Ta/3o\fj<s

ycvo/iey^s

TroAireias,

7TOt^(7

iroAAoiJS
2.
4

yap

KA.ICT$V77S //,T<X Tt]V TtoV TVpOLVVUV <vAe/cTV(7 evov<i KCU SouAous /xcTOi/coi's

KJ3oX.r)V.
(Polit.
iii.

3).

stated that the slaves

It is here Hellanicus, quoted in Schol. ad Aristoph. Ran. 706. became Plataeans ; the real fact, however, is they

were granted land in the territory of Scione, which had been handed over to the Plataeans.

i88
is

FORMAL PROCEDURE
And you
are

shown they have done you a service. wise in giving these rewards/' *

that were necessary in was a preliminary vote of the people. If favourable, it was necessary to obtain a confirmation by at least six thousand votes, subsequent in order to render it valid (/o^o?), ballot, given by ^ &/> K ^\ /\~
as

Now

to the formalities
First there

naturalization.

jf

7TIT

fl

7Tldai>

TTeKTUfl

Otl/ULOS

Kdl 060
/u.rj

TY\V

OWpeaV.

OUK

OL

Kvpiav yevea-Oai T^V


2

Troirjcriv,

eav

T#

eiV Trjv eTriovarav XJ/T/^XW

virep e^aKia"^i\Loi 'A.0tjvai(0v


.
.

^l/rjcpicrcovraL

Kpv/3Sr]v

proceeding the naturalized subject was liable to be deprived of his newly acquired right by the indictment ypa<prj Trapavo/uLwv directed against the mover of the decree, for bringing about the proposition of an unconstiThus the /8ouXr/, a tribunal of five tutional measure.
after
this

Even

hundred members

(later, six

hundred) was empowered

to reconsider a decree of the assembly after a twofold Demosthenes inquiry, and six thousand secret votes. it would be tedious to enumerate all the cases says

Resolution by thepeopie.

of taking away citizenship after granting it on account of certain illegality or unworthiness and amongst the later instances he mentions those of Pitholas the Thessalian and Apollonides the Olynthian, who were deprived of their citizenship by a Court of Justice after it had been granted to them by the assembly of the people. 3 This account of Demosthenes, contained in a speech dated about the middle of the fourth century, is borne out by extant official texts of decrees. 4 In the first place the people resolved as to whether there was a just cause for granting naturalization
;
:

f.lva.1

8'avrov

/cat

'AOijvaiov

KOL

e/cyovovs

KCU

De

reditu suo,

23

6/ow Sc v/xas rroAAa/as KCU SovXois

KCU

ei/ois

Sco/oeas,

Tra^ToSaTrots TroAireiav SiSoVras re KCU ets x/ar^ia KCU o? av ryuas (au/(ovTai TTOIO^VTCS TL dyaOov.

ravra

2
4

Demosth.
Cf.

c.

Neaer. 90.
op. cit.

3 5

Ibid. 9

Buermann,

(passim).

Corp. inscrip. Att.

ii.

309.

FORMAL PROCEDURE
After this the formal proposition
TOVS Se Tr/jvrdVet? TOI>S TTJV
T<j>

189
:

is

put to the vote

tcriov<rai/

TT/ovravevovras Sovvai ircpl avrov rr)v


Sri/Ay eis TTJV Trpurrjv
1

KK\r)<riav.
judicial

About 320 B.C., if we may judge from the testimony of inscriptions, judicial examination was customary. At the time of Demosthenes* speech just referred to (c.
Neaeram),
viz.

mvesti s atlon

340

B.C.

-jrapav6fj.wv^ instituted by any citizen who for objection, was more usual. So that

approximately, the action ypaty found cause

we

find that

the intervention of the tribunals, at the instance of the thesmothetae^ soon became a compulsory part of the

procedure
. . .

i(rayayiv

8e

rrjv

So/ct/xao-tai/

TOVS

$eoy>io#Tas

i?

TO

7T/OWTOV SiKO.O'TriplOV KCITO, TOL'S

This became
third century,

a general rule by the beginning of the and a fixed rule about the year 287 B.C.

At about 250
to

appears examination (SoKijuLaa-la) was still in force. Hence, the usual formula for naturalization at the middle of the
third century
is Se

B.C., the second vote in the assembly have been discontinued, but the judicial

to this effect avr^


. . . .

TroXireiav

. .

Kara rbv vopov, TOVS 8e


t?

orav

7rA?//>wcriy

SiKao-rry/otov

c'ra
.
.

KOL Trevra.

KOO-LOVS SiKao-ras, fla-ayayelv

avrw T^V
tfrvXfjs

SoKi/iacrtav
/cat
8r}fj.ov

Kai

cii/at

avT$

^OKLjjLaa-devTL ypd\f;a.<r6a.i

KOL <jfyoaT/Has

B ^S av /3ov\r)Tai.

century later we find that a new condition was required, namely, an express application by the candidate for the favour. The decrees speak of granting citizento the ship petitioner in pursuance of the law
:

Special

SeSocr&xi Se

avrQ

/cat TroAirei'ai/

Kara TOV
last

4
i/o/xov atTTycra/Aei/y.

It

may be
1

pointed out that the

words of

this

phrase

are a conjectural restoration effected


Cf. Corp. inscrip. Att.
Cf. Corp. inscrip. Att.
ii.
ii.

by analogy with the


2

309. 395.

Cf. ibid.

Corp. inscrip. Att.

ii.

no. 455, p. 234.

190

EFFECTS OF NATURALIZATION

tenour of inscriptions relative to the granting, on petition being duly made, of the rights of proxenia, and of acquiring property in land and houses in the city
:

SeSocr0cu Se aura) KCU irpo^tVLav KCU yrys KCU oiKtas

Kara TOV

i/ouov,

Depositor
5es -

from which it is not unreasonably inferred that a similar condition was required in the case of the greater 2 privileges of citizenship. The official texts of all such decrees were placed in the metroon the temple of Cybele, which (Mi/rpyoi/), was near the council-chamber and served (fiovXevrripiov^ as a depository for the Athenian State-archives.

Effects of

The

individual thus naturalized

/xoTro/^ro?

entitled to inscribe himself in

whatever
ypd^aa-Oai

tribe,

was deme, and


KOI (%uov

phratry he might choose;


KCU

(f>v\rj?

av /3ov\rjTai came to be the stereotyped <f>parplas 779 formula in this respect. But there were probably certain
restrictions as to the extent of choice permitted.
4

There

are various inscriptions of the fifth, fourth, and third centuries which show conclusively that the naturalized
citizens

were admitted into a phyle, deme, and phratry of the decree which bestowed the franchise on virtue by
them. 6

Hereditary

For

a long time the privileges conferred

by

naturali-

zation were not confined to the person of the ^/UOTTO/^TO?,


1

Corp. inscrip. Att.


Cf.

ii.

no. 423, p.

206

cf.

no. 438, p. 214.

Buermann,

op. cit. p.

348.

3 With regard to the Athenian citizen population, a distinction was often specifically drawn between the naturalized citizens, 8rjfj.oiroirjToi., or Soope^ TroAtrai (by gift), and the iroi-rjToi, (Arist. To/if, iii. I. 3),

natural-born citizens, <vcrei or

yevei. iroXircu.

Cf.

Demosth.

c.

Steph.

7 8.

As to the political status of the new citizens, especially with regard to their relation to the phratries, see the various theories stated by
4

Philippi,
5

op. cit.

pp. 107

seq.
i.

59 (410-9 B.C.); ii. 54 (363-2 B.C.); B.C.). Apart from epigraphic evidence, see Buermann, in Jahrbuchftirclassische Philologie, 9th suppl.
inscrip.
ii.

Cf. Corp.

Att.
ii.

121

(338-7

B.C.);

300 (295

pp.

597

seq

EFFECTS OF NATURALIZATION

191

but were ipso facto extended to his children and direct descendants. Till the middle of the third century B.C., the decree, in this connection, was usually couched to
this effect:
tlvai
8'

avToy KCU

'

A-Oyvaiov KOI TOVS l/cyoi/ovs avrov,

thus

making no mention of the wife of


1

the naturalized
Children

subject.
citizens along with their father, mother remaining alien or not. 2

Children born before the act of naturalization became irrespective of their


after

and by an Athenian by the common law but if born after naturalization and by an alien mother, then, according to some documents, they remained aliens ; but it appears, according to others,
If born
naturalization

if

bom

after
-

mother they were certainly


;

citizens

naturalization

that they could be easily made citizens by a decree obtainable on a merely formal proceeding. From the point of view of political rights, there was

scarcely any difference between a natural-born Athenian and a naturalized Athenian. The main difference was
citizen was debarred from the 3 and from In the fourth cenarchonship priesthood. this was tury B.C., incapacity only personal, and did not descend to the children born of an Athenian mother

Political status ralized

subject

that

the

naturalized

in

legitimate marriage

but

in

the previous century,


5

this

exemption applied equally to the children. With regard to civil rights, the naturalized citizen
full

civil rights.

enjoyed

juridical capacity.

It

has been held,

how-

he had not full marital authority (icvpioi), an inference which appears to have been drawn from the case of Pasion who married Archippe. But in this case the conclusion, if intended to possess general 6 applicability, is untenable, as Caillemer points out, that Pasion was debarred from marital authority, seeing not by virtue of his being only a Stj/uLOTrohros, but
ever, that
1

Cf.

Demosth.
c.

c.

Steph.

ii.

13.
4 6

Demosth. Pro Phorm.


Ibid.

32.

3 5

Demosth.
Pollux,

viii.

Neaer. 92, 104, 106. 85, 86.

Op.

tit.

pp. 36

seq.

192

JURISDICTION AS

TO

ALIENS

1 in which simply because she was an heiress, eV/KA^o?; case the law specially provided that her estate should pass into the hands of their son, who would himself become her legal protector (

Elements of
mternationai
law.

have already appeared from various consideratne foregoing chapters that certain rudiments of private international law were recognized in Greece. Fuller development was impossible, on account of the very conditions of private and public life in antiquity, the conception of exclusive citizenship, the imperfect notion of comity and of balance of power, the comparatively
It will
ti

ns

small international intercourse, coupled with national instability, and, subsequently, absorption of the conquered races by the 'barbarous' conquerors, and the consequent
citizenship and

severance of the continuity of organic development. Owing to some or other of these conditions and causes, the retention of citizenship was conceived to be dependent on the citizen's continuance of domicile within the territory of the State ; but, of course, temporary absence did not necessarily entail such disqualification.

Allegiance at a distance was considered

inadmissible.

The
#w

nationality of origin

the principle of

sanguinis, veritable basis of citizenship.


in

and

ius sanguinis

depended on was the

In order to belong to a was indispensable to belong political group As the extension of the family was to a family group. the tribe, so the expansion of the tribe was the State. Hence transitory aliens and even, for the most part, such as were permanently resident within the territory, were not regarded (apart from special concessions) as being amenable to the ordinarily established national

Greece

it

juridical

organizations

had perforce to be introduced


jurisdiction as to aliens in
antiquity.
1

so that a special jurisdiction in the interests of justice

and State policy. There are distinct traces of such provisions amongst In the case of the Hebrews, the most ancient peoples.

On

Greek Epiclerusj see Smith's 'Dictionary of


vol.
i.

and Roman

Antiquities

(London, 1890),

p.

746.

MAGISTRATES FOR FOREIGNERS


for example,

193

we find certain applications of the Mosaic law extended to incoming strangers. 1 The Egyptians often allowed foreign merchants to avail themselves of local judges of their choice and even of their own nationality in order to regulate questions and settle differences arising out of mercantile transactions, in accordance with their own foreign laws and customs ;
Greeks especially enjoyed these privileges on 2 The Ptolemies had established Egyptian territory. the office of fyviKol ayopavd/moi, foreign secretaries of And analogous institutions are found the market/ 3 4 This amongst many other nations of antiquity.
the
'

special

jurisdiction

for

foreigners
in

; systematic development results were so beneficial that, in recent writers, even modern legislators could in many " c'est la respects derive useful lessons therefrom,
.
.

Greece and

most and the the opinion of some


received
its

Rome

16gislateurs modernes pourraient, sur plus d'un 5 point, chercher d'utiles Ie9ons."

que

les

(a general term, in Greece, xenodtkat special names were substituted in different localities), were instituted for trying questions in which
for

In Greece special magistrates,

ei/o&'/eat

which

foreigners were involved. were appointed on the


;

Sometimes such magistrates


initiative

of the

particular

in question, sometimes provisions were arranged to that effect by means of special conventions between States. In some cases these judges

national

government

exercised full judicial power in pronouncing decisions as to the matters in dispute, in others they appear to
1

Cf. }. Selden, <De synedriis et praefecturis veterum

Ebraeorum

libri

duo
2 3
les

(London, 1653),
Cf. Pardessus, op.

esp. vol.
cit. i.

ii.

pp. 79, 81.

52.

See Herodot.

ii.

178.

See

G. Lumbroso, Recherches

sur riconomie politique de rJzgypte sous

Lagides (Turin, 1870), p. 248.


4

See Rodiere,

Du preteur peregrin et
a
la sienne

de

r existence plus ou
les
t.

moins latente

fune
5

institution analogue

chcz tous

peuples (in Recueil de

Pacademie de legislation de Toulouse, 1868,

xviii.

pp. 339-351).

A. Weiss, Traite theorique et pratique de vols. (Paris, 1892-1905), vol. v. p. 3.

droit international prive,

194

MAGISTRATES FOR FOREIGNERS

have merely investigated the points at issue, and submitted their results to the ordinary magistrates, who

were to deliver the final verdict. Thus we find, on the 1 testimony of epigraphic documents, ^evoSiKat at Ephesus,
at Stiria
Treaty between

and
th e

in Attica, at Mylasa 3 in Caria, at also in pursuance of the convention


latter

Medeon, 4
between

two Locrian towns of Oeantheia and Chalaeum. 5


B.C. for

The

century of reprisals and for settling claims arising therefrom. It provided that if the Oeantheian plaintiff was a metoec in Chalaeum, the action was to be tried by the ordinary tribunals of Chalaeum consisting of citizens chosen by lot, and that he was entitled to plead through his But if he was not a metoec there his suit proxenus. was to be brought before the specially appointed ^evoSiKai at Chalaeum, and he was empowered to choose from among the leading residents of the town a jury o nine or fifteen citizens according to the importance o the case. Should the action, however, be brought by a citizen of Chalaeum in the interests of public order, the tribunal was then to be composed of an odd number of jurors, nominated by the demiurgi (Stjfuovpyol), th< principal magistrates of the town, and the matter ii 6 litigation was to be decided by the majority.
1

convention was entered into in the fifth the purpose of regulating the practice

Dittenberger, Sylloge inscriptionum


Ibid. 294.
3

344.
1.

Bull, de corr. hellen. vol. v. p. 102,

4.

*Ibid. vol. v. p. 46,1. 38.


5

C. Michel, Recueil d' inscriptions grecque* (Paris, 1900), no.


op. cit.

Hicks,

44.

And

cf. infra,

chap. xvii.

6 This treaty is inscribed on both sides of a bronze tablet, which was found at Galaxidi (Oeantheia), and is now in the British Museum. On account of its special interest, the text (taken from Hicks, no. 44)
is

given in

full

Obverse.

TOV Olavdza JJLrbv XaActea 4' ras Oiai/$t6\)s, at rC crvjJLtjSe xp^ara Awf rbv Se crvXcovra ai/aVa/ (rvXfjv ra ^eviKa, e' Oa\ajcra<s TrAav e' At//,evos T<3 /caret 7roA.ii/ ai K d8tKii> crvAcoi, acrvXov, at 8e irAeoi/ SCK' afj.apav ^ot rb crvAov, ropcs 8/oax/x.at*
\

Tov

evov

fj,rj

ayetv

e'

ras XaAetSos

rj8e

TC-

MAGISTRATES FOR FOREIGNERS


in

195

Again, amongst communities in Crete, and notably The magistrate Gortyna (respecting whose municipal jurisprudence some remarkable documents, the " laws of Gortyna," are now available), we find the foreign magistrate
1 described in several inscriptions as the /coV/xo? Ko-e'wo?, 2 and sometimes more briefly as the Ka-evios (who corre-

sponded practically to the Athenian polemarch). Not only were aliens under his jurisdiction, but also freedmen, aTreXevOepoi, who were in Gortyna, as in many
other Hellenic States, assimilated in the matter of capacity and privileges to the metoecs.
civil

for believing, according to Dareste, that the /coV/xo? /co-eV/o? did not directly decide foreign cases referred to him without " tres prosending them to the national tribunals ; bablement il jugeait directement, sans renvoi a un juge

There

are

no grounds

the view of

M.

3 ((Wto-rd?), toutes les affaires concernant les Grangers." These Cretan foreign courts are mentioned frequently

in

contradistinction to the regular municipal courts, which were, of course, reserved (in the absence of
/udAtov d^Aero) /-o TL 6 XaAetevs ev Otaf&tat
prjvTH).
1(06

<rv\a.arai.
r}
:

At /xTa/-otKOt
V
:

TrAcov prjvbs
Si Kat

r\

OiavOevs

Tov

Trpo^evov,

XaAetau, rat eTTtSa/uat at ^cvSea Trpo^fveot, 8ar\Reverse.

\-

6li)tlj(TT(D.

At K Tw 6
:

dvSt^a^ituvTt evos : wTrd-ywi'


:

rot ^evoSiKat,
:

eTrco/xoras
:

'"eAca-

rav

StKai/

t\do<$ Trpoev<j>

Kat A8ta> ^vo> dpiCTTivSav, : e?rt /xev rats /xvaiaKat TrAeoi/, TreWc Kat SCK' avS/oas, eVt rat? tats
:

ei/vc'

avS/oas*
l

at

K*

6 /-acrcrrbs TTOI rbv /r:

StKa^rat Ka' ra? <rw/3oAas,


:

Sa/xtto/oyov?
TTCTC>I>

TOV?

"o/3K(o//,oTas
:

dpio-rivSav rav

dxocrai/Tas'

TOVS ^oaKCD/xora?

avrb-

v
1

"d/)Kov

cretesi.

See D. Comparetti, Le leggl di Gortyna e le altre iscrizioni arcaiche In Monumenti antichi (Milano, 1893), vol. iii. p. 73, no. 148.
speaks of
is
. .
.

The fourth line here The same document


2

T&V turkviov KOCT/AOV


p.

p.r)

Aayaiv.

. .

given in Dareste, Haussoullier, and Reinach,


iii.
1.

Recueil des inscrip. jurid. gr. pt.

403.

Comparetti, he.

clt.

no. 150,
.

15.

Dareste, etc. Recueil

p.

430.

196

MAGISTRATES FOR FOREIGNERS


aliens)

specific favours to currucal SiKai. 1

for

suits

between

citizens,

in Oeantheia.

elsewhere these foreign jurisdictions are contrasted with the eiriSafuai Swat, the causes between 2 natives, as in the case of the Oeantheian law, or with aarriKov the SiKavTripiov, the court for citizens, as in the case of a fourth century inscription from Amorgos 3
(an island of the Sporades group, in the Aegean Sea). Similarly in Ephesus, amongst other municipalities (some of which have already been referred to), we find the fyvucov StKao-Tripiov* which, though it was originally and more properly a permanent tribunal

And

inEphesus.

dealing with controversies between foreigners amenable or between citizens and foreigners, ultimately it, developed into a general court taking cognizance also of most commercial causes, irrespective of the nationto
in Miietos.

Again, in Miletos, whose interests were mainly commercial, the judges were the five commissioners of the market, TOV ejmTroplov cTrifjLeXtjTai and in Priene (as well as in some other places), they were the regular a-rpar^oi 6 Courts of this description existed in most Greek towns, and more conspicuously, of course, in the larger commercial cities. Thus Aristotle
ality

of the

litigants.

1 The expression in the Gortynaean inscription Cf. Comparetti, he. at. no. 32, 1. 2 ; no. 149, 1. 4. 2

is

aorta

SIKCL.

Cf. the text of the treaty


1.

between Oeantheia and Chalaeum,


(1888), p. 232,
Tt
11.

supra, p. 195,
3 'Bull.

7 of the obverse portion.


xii.

<& corr. fallen, vol.

32-33

......
11.

Set

TO,? SlKCLS

TO (MTTtKO

Similarly,
4

49-50.

Dittenberger, Sylloge, 344 (an inscription of the early part of the first century B.C.).

" C'est une 5 Cf. Dareste, etc. Recueil, pt. i. p. 45 jurisdiction ordinaire et permanente, analogue au praetor peregrinus remain ; son nom lui vient sans doute de ce qu'elle a ete instituee primitivement pour juger les contestations entre etrangers ou entre citoyens et etrangers ; par extension, on finit par lui attribuer la plupart des
:

affaires
6

de commerce."

Cf. the fragment of the treaty between Miletos Newton, Greek Inscriptions, pt. iii. no. 414.

and Priene,

in

MAGISTRATES FOR FOREIGNERS

197

speaks of them as normal institutions, called into operation when matters of aliens were concerned, rov Se ^eviKOv eV /xev eVo/9 TTjOO? eVov9, a\\o ^evois irpos

Their presiding judges were designated by the general appellation of ^evodlicai, or by such special
aa-Tovs.

names as have already been mentioned above. Sometimes it is difficult to discriminate between the
eviKov the permanent court for foreign cases, $iKa(rTripioi>, and special courts of arbitration (referred to by the same name) consisting of foreign judges. Thus, it has been contended by one or two recent writers 2 that the Ephesian court, above referred to, belonged to the latter category ; but no conclusive reasons have been advanced in support of this view. Thus the organization of the %evoSiicai presented the elements of an international jurisdiction exercised in "une 6bauche locale de jurisdiction local territory, " internationale ; 3 but in regard to the importance and extent of issues arising from the relationships between citizens and non-citizens, or between non-citizens amongst themselves, this jurisdiction was soon superseded in Athens by the establishment of the more stable and more clearly defined magistracy, exercised by the 4 " Le polemarch (TroXe/xa^o?). polmarque," says a
l Pol. iv. 13. 2. Pollux refers (viii. 63) to the geviK^v 8iKa(TTtjpiov t but he gives no information on the subject.

In

C. Lecrivain, Une categoric de traites internationaux grecs, les Symbola. 'Bulletin de r Academie des sciences , inscriptions , et belles-lettres de
ii.

Toulouse, vol.

(1898-1899), no.

3,

pp.

150-159;

at

p.

152.

Similarly, it is to the Jtvi/cSv SiKaa-Tijpiov as a court of arbitration that Thalheim refers when he describes it as a tribunal composed of
to be established particularly in times of confidence could not be placed in the im" einen Gerichtshof aus Fremden partiality of the national courts ; gebildet, den man sich namentlich in aufgeregten Zeiten erbat, weil man einheimischen Richtern die notige Unparteilichkeit nicht zutraute" (in Pauly-Wissowa, Real-Encyclop. vol. v. pt. I, p. 573).
foreigners,

which was sought


sufficient

agitation

when

3 4

Weiss,

op. cit. vol. v. p. 4.

See G. Perrot, Le droit public de 1867), pp. 258 seq.

la

republique athenienne (Paris,

198

SPECIAL LAW-TREATIES

recent writer already referred to, " fut pour les isoteles, pour les proxenes, pour les meteques, meme pour les Strangers de passage, et d'une maniere generale pour tous ceux a qui le droit de cite tait refuse, ce que 1'archonte
les citoyens." This magistrate was active in the trial of suits particularly arising out of conventions (<ri//A/3oAa, in earlier language, u/u/3oAa/), 2

6ponyme

etait

pour

The

symboia.

usually (but by no means exclusively) such as were entered into for the mutual protection of commerce, for eliminating or minimizing as far as possible the older process of reprisal (pvoria, a-v\a or o-Acu), 3 and for regulating the jurisdiction over controversies relatIn Athens, in the ing to commercial intercourse. fourth century B.C., they were discussed and concluded by the heliasts, under the presidency of the thesmoThe relationship thus established was cnro thetaet 5 ' Koivwvelv, conventional communion/ and the suits issuing therefrom were called at OLTTO
1

Weiss,

op. cit. vol. v. p. 5.

Corp. inscrip. Att. vol. ii.no. n, 11. 13 seq. Harpocration gives the following definition crvvOfJKai as av aAArjAats at TroAets ^e TaTTOxrt TCHS TroAtrats akrre StSovat Kat \a/j,/3a.veiv ra 8t/cata. Cf.
:

Arist. Pol.

iii.

I. 3.

Probably the word

criy*/3oA,a, as a

recent French
fact

writer points out,

came

to designate a treaty

from the

of the

the signs or tallies (the tesserae hospitalitatis) held by individuals in the case of private hospitality, and by cities in that of public hospitality. The same author also suggests,
(rvfji/3oXov signifying originally

word

with reason, that it was the word o~u/x/5oAa which was translated by " in Livy as "commercium iuris praebendi repetendique (xli. 24), reference to the negotiations, 174 B.C., between the Achaeans and Perseus of Macedon, for an extradition treaty as to fugitive slaves. (See C. Lecrivain, Une categorle de traites internationaux greet, les Symboia. In 'Bulletin de PAcademle des sciences, Inscriptions, et belles-lettres de
Toulouse, vol.
3
ii.

(1898-1899), no.

3,

pp. 150-159.)

to such relationships in the case of the Athenian league, cf. Stahl, De sociorum Athemenslum iudiciis (Mtinster, 1 88 1 ),and see also*'/r<7, chap, xvi., as to Athens and her allies.
4

As

Demosth. De Halon. 9 ; Arist. Ath. Pol. 59 ra cru/Aj8oA,a TO, 7iy>os ras wdXcts KV/oovcrt,
Aristot. Polit.
iii.

Pollux,
/cat

viii.

88
a?

StKaaTas

i. 4.

SPECIAL LAW-TREATIES
c,

199

Thus in a treaty between Treaty between Athens and Phaselis made about 395 B.C.-385 B.C., p^eHs-d uestion of it was stipulated that any controversy relating to9 ' jurisdiction. j A an agreement concluded at Athens between merchants of Athens and those of Phaselis should be brought before the Athenian polemarch ; but that actions arising out of contracts not concluded at Athens
Or
SiKat
1

crujUL^oXatai.

should be tried pursuant to the terms of the previous treaty with Phaselis ; and, further, it provided that if any Athenian magistrate should proceed to hear such suits in contravention of these clauses his judgment was to be void. 2 It would follow from this that under the terms of the previous treaty referred to, the place where the contract was made did not necessarily determine where the action was to be brought ; so that in the
1 Thuc. i. 77. One or two writers (e.g. Boeckh; Goodwin, in Amer. Journ. of Philology, 1880) have drawn a distinction between the 8iKo.L (TVjujSoXaiaL and the St/cat aVo o v/x/:?oAa>i>, to the effect that the former were * commercial suits,' or ' suits arising out of contracts,' and the latter were suits brought by a citizen of one State against a citizen of another under the rights laid down specifically by a convention. In answer to this, it may briefly be said that no cogent reasons have been advanced in support of such a discrimination, and that ancient writers have used the two expressions interchangeably.
r

Cf. Jowett, in his translation of Thucydides (Oxford, 1881), vol. note to Thuc. i. 77, and the introductory note, pp. Ixxxv-lxxxviii.

ii.

s.v. Ephesis, p. 643) was any essential difference in meaning between the words <rv/x/3oAa and <rv/>i/3oAai ; and that the St/cat dirb <rv/*/3oAa)i> were not "les proces issus de contrats commerciaux privet, mais les proces juges en vertu des traites diplomatiques des

M.

Lecrivain emphasizes (in Daremberg-Saglio,

that there never

Corp. inscrip. Att.

ii.

1 1

Hicks,

op. tit.
'

36.

TOtJs ^acr^Airais >a^ai, o rt a/A

]v[/x/3o]Aatov yevrjrai

JtKas yiyvtarOai

7ra[/>-

a TOH
v Sc
at

7rojAe/xapx<oi Ka8a.7Tp

XTW-

tois /cat]
T<XS

aAAo^t aAAwy] oVo


Xttov

/ATjSe

a/iou.

v/Aj8oAwj/ Kar-

rag

t/cas

200
fifth

PERSONAL AND TERRITORIAL


century (that
is,

LAW

prior to the above-mentioned treaty cities) a suit against a Phaselite for a contract not concluded at Athens could not be violating entertained by the Athenian tribunals, he could be sued

between the two

only in the courts of his own city. Accordingly the general principle came to be established, not only in Athens but in Hellenic States generally, that in commer-

The

lex loci

contractus, and the lex domicilii.

was applicable, 1 though sometimes a departure therefrom was made by the adoption of the lex loci contractus conformably to the exigencies of the particular case. With the rapid increase of commercial relationships between more distant localities, the latter principle, that
cial

cases, the defendant's

lex domicilii

the ratio loci^ frequently predominated in the absence, of course, of treaties stipulating otherwise ; so that the tribunal of the place where the contract was concluded possessed jurisdiction in the case of disputes When large interests were at stake, arising out of it. and it was important, by the very nature of the circumstances, to effect a speedy settlement, so as not to put an undue check on business enterprise, it was obviously found, for the most part, more convenient and expeditious to appeal to the lex loci contractus, rather than to
is,

the defendant's lex domicilii^ or to his ius


Personal law
tei
!

originis.

hTvv.

the striking passage of Demosthenes emphasizes distinction between the personal law and the territorial

law in regard to their respective applicability. There was a dispute between Athens and Macedonia concerning Halonnesus, a small island off Thessaly ; and in 343 B.C., an embassy was despatched to Macedonia with a

view to adjusting this difference as well as other subjects of dispute then existing in reference to Amphipolis, " That Potidaea, and the affairs of the Chersonese.
1

See Gilbert,

op.

dt. vol.

i.

pp. 487-8; Wilamowitz-Msllendorff,

in American Journal of (Berlin), vol. xx. p. 240 ; Goodwin, That this was a regular principle in Greece Philology, 1880, p. 10. appears also from the above-stated Oeantheia-Chalaeum convention, in

Hermes

and from the observation of Aeschines,

c.

Timarch. 158.

COMMERCIAL CASES
there
is

201

no need of

a judicial treaty between

Athens and

Macedonia," exclaimed Demosthenes, "past times may Neither Amyntas, nor Philip's father, suffice to show. nor any other Kings of Macedon ever entered into such a convention with our State, although the intercourse between us was formerly greater than it is ; for Macedonia was dependent on us and paid us tribute, and we then resorted to their ports, and they to ours more frequently than now, and there were not the monthly
causes,

sessions punctually held, as at present, for mercantile dispensing with the necessity of a law-treaty between such distant countries." Demosthenes then

" concludes with the important statement: Though nothing of the sort then existed, it was not requisite to enter into a treaty, so that people should sail from Macedonia to Athens for justice, or Athenians to Macedonia ; we obtained redress by their laws and they by ours." 1 In actual practice, however, the great majority of Activity of the suits of this nature would find their way into the quirts-"comAthenian tribunals, when the conventions relating thereto mercial suits were concluded with allies forming part of the confederIn ation, of which Athens assumed the hegemony. the first place, the lex loci contractus (if the contract was not made in Athens) was, in certain circumstances, dispensed with, and the Athenian courts invested with full competence, irrespective of the ius originis of the
-

parties

a provision which applied also to non-allied ; communities. Thus Demosthenes states that in the case of all general conventions relating to mercantile expeditions from or to Athens, and where there was a written contract, the suits (8Uai e/x7ro/>uca/) of maritime traders and wholesale merchants involved therein were to be laid before the courts at Athens 01 VO/ULOI
:

ovanv

TCC?

SIKCIS

etvat

TOI 9

vavKXrjpoi?

/ecu

TO??
KOI
irepl
8>v

De

Ha/onneso, 11-13, *3
(rvfjL/Soka

^AA'

o/xcos

ovSei/os

OVK
TOIS

eAwireA.61

Troi^cra/zevovs

ovr'

'A^va^e St/cas \r]\f/o[j.VovSj ovO' rjfuv ets fKL vo/u/zois Ketvot re rots Trap rjfj.iv Tas

TOLOVTOV OI/TO? TOTC K MaKcSoi/ia? TT\LV MaKe&may, aXX' r}p.i<s re


8t/cas e

202

COMMERCIAL CASES

av wai a-vyypacfial. 1 At first, these causes were decided the the usual judge when either of the polemarch, by

was an alien, as we have seen in the treaty between Athens and Phaselis, concluded at the beginafterwards, at the ning of the fourth century B.C. time of Demosthenes, the thesmothetae presided at the trials. 2 Secondly apart from the above conditions the Athenian tribunals were so active in the hearing of cases of aliens of allied States, that Athens would seem to have arbitrarily arrogated to herself entire whereas, in reality, jurisdiction over her confederates the law of the non-Athenian defendants' domicile might also have ordinarily been resorted to in pursuance of
parties
; ;

the general rule, subject to the modifications thereof

mentioned.

"

It

would no doubt

" that most of such pass," says an American writer, suits would, even by the terms of the treaties, have to

practically

come

to

be tried in Athenian courts. For in most cases the Athenians would be the defendants. The feelings with which the dominant Athenian demos, as a whole, regarded the subject allies, could hardly fail to exhibit themselves in the dealings of individual Athenians with those with whom they had commercial relations ; and so it would come to pass that in the great majority of such cases it would be the citizen of an allied State who was the plaintiff, and he must necessarily, therefore, sue in an Athenian court. may consider also that suits Athenians by citizens of any one of the brought against cities would all be tried at Athens ; whereas the subject suits brought by Athenians against any citizens of their tributary states would be tried one at Rhodes, another The judicial at Phaselis, another at Samos, and so on. of must have the Athenian courts therefore, range, that of the courts of surpassed any one of the greatly allies, perhaps of all of them together ; and thus, even

We

c.

Zenothem.
c.

I.

Cf.

Demosth. In Midiam, 176.


/cat TCHS Ipropois Cf. Demosth. TOVS ^eoyio^eTa?.
.

Apatur. \ : rots yaev KcA-euct 6 vo/xos eivat ras St/cas Trpos Pro Phorm. 45 ; Arist. Ath. Pol. 59.

Demosth.

EXAMPLES OF LAW-TREATIES

203

without any formal infraction of the reciprocity implied by the existence of <rv/uL8o\a, the impression may easily have come to exist, which the statements quoted from the grammarians express, that it was the Athenians who decided, in accordance with the terms of the several 1 <Tv/jL/3o\a y the commercial suits of their subjects."
appears that though the ilxcu OLTTO a-v/mpdXdov and the in the strict sense) e/uLTToptKai (commercial cases, extended much over the same ground, yet there were For example, the certain distinctions between them. Swat /uL7ropiKal (other than those, as above stated, in which Athenian expeditions were concerned) were heard by the tribunals of the country where the contract was entered into, and were decided in pursuance of the general municipal law of that country, and not by the particular, and more or less temporary stipulations 2 In either case prospecially embodied in the <nV/3oXa. vision was often made for appeal,' or, more correctly, for the purpose of renvoi, by the nomination of a third KK\T]TOS, to officiate as a special court of city, Tro'Af? arbitration ; as to give here only one or two instances in the treaty between Hierapytna and Priansos ; 3 between Athens and the Boeotian league ; 4 between Naxos and Arcesine (in the island of Amorgos). 6 In order to supplement and to illustrate further the Examples foregoing considerations, it will be of advantage to' mention concisely a few of the treaties (in addition to those already set forth) which were entered into between two or more communities, not only for the purpose of
It
'
1

of
f

regulating the jurisdiction and judicial machinery with regard to their subjects* disputes arising out of com1

Morris, in American Journal of Philology, 1884,


Cf. the article in Smith's Dictionary

p.

306.
s.v.

of Greek and Rom. Antiq.


4

Symbolon, p. 734.
8

See infra, p. 207, and chap. xvii.


Bull,

See Infra, p. 207.

de corr. hellen. vol.


cv
.
.

viii.

p.

25,

to<t>Xr)KOTtav

rrji
.

e/CKXrjrwt

Kara TO

11. 28-29 : KaOairep SiKrjv <rv/K/?oAov TO Na(t'|ou)i' KCU

'A/OK(riVU>l/.

204

EXAMPLES OF LAW-TREATIES

mercial contracts in particular, but also with a view to providing such measures and procedure as would facilitate the solution of conflicts of law consequent

on
a
'

this nature

convention of be might perhaps conveniently designated law treaty,' by analogy with the German term Rechtstheir

relationships in

general.

The
way

verfrag as used, for example, by a recent German writer. Rechtsvertrag is defined by him much in the same

thus

Between
Sparta and Argos.

been suggested in the present exposition, " Ein Vertrag, durch den zwei oder mehr Gemeinwesen das Verfahren in privatrechtlichen Streitigkeiten ihrer Angehorigen ordnen." l In the second of the two treaties between Lacedaemon and Argos which were concluded in 418 B.C., Thucyas has
:

dides relates that provision was made for the settlement of international differences by arbitration, in accordance with the ancestral customs of the parties, 2 and that for this purpose an appeal should be made to some State considered by them to be impartial ; further, that so far as individual subjects of the signatories were conc ancestral customs cerned, their (which would be tantamount to their ius originis] should as far as possible
'

be permitted to operate. 3
Between Athens and
Selymbria.

Selymbria (a Thracian town), concluded about 408-407 B.C., provided that in disputes arising out of treaties, either those that occurred between citizens of the two States, or those between one of the States and citizens of the other, a settlement was to be effected in pursuance of a previous
H. F. Hitzig, Altgriechische Staatsvertrage liber Festgabe Ferdinand Regelsberger (Zurich, 1907), p. 7.
2
1

The convention between Athens and

l^echtshilfe.

In

Thuc.
Ibid.

v.

79

...

rt

rots tcrots

/cat 6/xotots Si'/cas

StSovras Karra

Trar/Ha.
8
:

at Se

nvi rav iroXiuv

rj

aft^tXoya,

*}

raV

II/TOS

f)

rav
av TWO.
Infra^

IleXoTrovi/acrou, cure ire/at op<uv cure TTC/H aAAov Ttvos, at 8 rts TWV ^v/x/xa^o>v TroAts TroAet epifai, 4s TTO\LV eA.$etv,

urav
4

dfjufroiv

rats TroAtecri

SOKOLTJ.

For the

full

treaty, see

chap. xvii.

Von

Scala, Staatwertr'dge, no. 93.

EXAMPLES OF LAW-TREATIES
agreement (of which nothing
judicial procedure.
[raxri Si'/cas]
(?)i/ai

205

is

here stated) relating to

aVo
Between

2 Treaty between Athens and Samos, 405-403 B.C. After the battle of Aegospotamoi, Samos having remained faithful to Athens, and having offered them assistance in the prosecution of the war, the Athenian

ecclesia passed a decree

(\|/-7J<^crjua)

conferring citizenship

on the Samians without thereby depriving them of their independence, and providing for the due adjustment of controversies between their subjects in conformity
with the prior conventions relating to judicial process
KCU irepl riov ey/cA^arwi/ a ay ytyv^rai irpb 3 t KCU Se^ecr^at ras SiKas Kara ras crv/j/3oA.as ra? ovcras.
\

In reference to the affairs between Athens and Naxos Between and 4 (c. 378 B.C.) there is an inscription embodying an $[! Athenian decree which concerns the competence of the Naxian tribunals, and draws a distinction between the SiKCKmiptov ev Nao> and the SiKacrr^piov 'AO^vrja-i. Treaty between Athens and lulis, together with other Between Cean towns, 363-362 B.C. 5 In 376-375 B.C. Ceos had fuu,, etc. 6 joined the new Athenian confederation, but about 363 B.C. an anti-Athenian revolution broke out in the island. Subsequently, after the disturbance was quelled, it was arranged that offenders were to appear before the strategoi in lulis within thirty days, or at Athens, the KK\rjTo$ TTO'A*?, where certain cases had to be tried.
TCIS
. . . f^eivai avrois evyvryKaTcuTTrjcrao-i 7iy>os [T]OV[S] o-[r/)laT7;yoi>s TOVS 'lovAnyTwi/ T/D-

taKovra

7j/i/)cui/

(rvv6if)Ka<s

Kara T[OV]S opKOVS oKOVS KCU rots StKafs] v[7r]o[crx]eu' [7r]o[creu' [Kajra 7 kv Kecut /cat [ei/ rfji KK]A^TO>t [7ro]Act 'A^rji/r;crt.

TOVS

11.

20-21.
iv. 2.
1

Corp. inscrip. Att.

ib

Michel, 80; Hicks, 81.

3
4

Hicks, he.

tit. 11.

8-20.

Corp. inscrip. Att. Corp. Inscrip. Att.

iv. 2. iv. 2.

88 d.
54 b; Michel, 95
;

5 6
7

Hicks, 118.

On

the Athenian leagues, see infra, chap. xvi.


ibid.
11.

Hicks,

46-49.

206

EXAMPLES OF LAW-TREATIES

Further, apart from the criminal offences which are Ceans undertook to allow all cases sums of more than a hundred drachmas to be involving tried in the first instance at Athens, the
in question here, the
. . .

ras Se

St/cas /cat

as ypa(/>as ras

/car' 'A$r/i/atwv Trot^cro/jat]

[TTracras

KK\ijrov<s [K-

ara ras

(rvvOrjKas,

OTroarat

av &(riv vTrep e/carov

This example, amongst various other instances, shows


clearly that the expression IATCX^TO?
TTO'X*?,

in reference

to international conventions, does not necessarily mean ' a court of appeal,' as most writers have wrongly

Decreeastothe

Between
and

assumed, but simply the city agreed upon in the treaty in question, or subsequently to be agreed upon which is to hear certain causes. Such city was either one of the contracting parties (as was frequently the case in the Athenian leagues, when Athens asserted her predominance), or a third State, officiating pracas an arbitral tribunal. tically Again, as to jurisdiction in the case of certain crimes, we have another inscription 2 setting forth an Athenian decree (c. 445 B.C.) -relative to the Chalcidians of ]7 u boea which was passed when the hegemony of Athens was developing into dominance over the conIt was there decided that federates of the first league. such of the more serious offences as entailed the penalty of death, banishment, or disfranchisement were to be tried in Athens. In the treaty of isopolity between Messene and 3 Phigalia, entered into about the middle of the third
century B.C., there is found a reference to a prospective convention for regulating the jurisdiction as to any complaints of the parties.
/ca Se /cat (rvfj.j3o\dv oi\[v 8o/ct] dp.(f>OTpa.is rats

Hicks,

ibid.

11.

73-75.
a.

2 3 4

Corp. inscrip. Att. supp. 27

Cf. Antiphon,

De

caede Herodis, 47-

Dittenberger, 181

Michel, 187.

Michel,

ibid.

11.

12-13.

EXAMPLES OF LAW-TREATIES
1

207
Between

In the convention between Athens and the Boeotian


league,

concluded

century B.C., city of Lamia was agreed upon to act as the


7TOX<9.

second half of the third for the settlement of their differences, the
in

the

league

e/c/c\)/T09

between Hierapytna and Priansos 2 Between (about the end of the third century B.C.) provided for the interchange of a large number of rights and privileges, and laid down that contractual obligations were to be determined by the principle of the lex loci contractus, that a common tribunal, KOIVOV Sucao-rypiov, consisting of an equal number of judges or arbitrators from each of the parties, was to try all offences against the terms of the treaty, that certain other differences might, if
alliance

The

desired, be submitted for final decision to a third city, KK\I]TO$ 7roX(9, within a month after the convention was
ratified,

within

two

that subsequent disputes should be adjusted months after the appointment of the

which was to sit in the place as the annual arranged by magistrates, and that mutual to were be guarantees given for the faithful despatch of the proceedings.
court,

common

As to we find

the affairs of the Achaean league and Rhodes, 3 Between in the second century B.C. that the Rhodians theAchaean lea-s^ e despatched an embassy to the Achaeans to negotiate
-

for the renewal


o-v]UL/36\ov,

of a previous convention, SidpOwaris TOV which their grievances might be by judicially

settled.

In the treaty between Lato and Olus 4 (two Cretan Between Lato and Olus> towns), in the latter half of the second century B.C.,
certain

regulations were agreed

upon with regard

to

their respective territorial jurisdictions, visits of magistrates to determine questions of law, and, further,

mutual freedom was secured to engage in commercial


1

Corp. inscrip. Att.

ii.

308

iv. 2.

308

b.

2 8
4

See also infra, chap. xvii. Corp. inscrip. Graec. 2556. Bull, de corr. helien. vol. xxvii. p. 243.
Corp. inscrip. Graec. ; Michel, 28.

2554

(esp.

11.

56-76)

Egger, Traites publics,

p.

125

208
transactions

GENERAL CONCLUSIONS
and to enter into contracts
1

in each other's

country, in accordance with the laws

of the two con-

Some stipulations of a similar character tracting parties. Between Rome are embodied in the more recent convention between
and Chios.

Rome

and Chios. 2

Difficulty of the subject.

The subject which has been discussed in the latter half of the present chapter is an extremely difficult one ; in the first place, on account of a large measure of indefiniteness and ambiguity in the original documents, coupled with their frequent fragmentary charso that the safe determination of allusions and references contained therein is rendered impossible ; secondly, owing to the varied practices of States, and modified policy of the same States at different epochs, and under the stress of particular circumstances. Certain conclusions, however, may be drawn, which alone will sufficiently indicate the efforts made in Greece to
acter,

solve conflicts of laws, and to


General
conclusions

promote international

time of peace freedom of especially of engaging in mercantile transactions, e-TrijuLi^la (corresponding approximately to the Roman ius commercii) was permitted between the citizens of different States, subject to the payment of
speaking, in
intercourse,

comity. Generally

and

etc., and, in some cases, to restrictions respecting the exportation and importation of certain commodities, such as oil, corn, etc. In most

customs duties, port dues,

towns, there was a permanent court exercising jurisdicl

Corp. inscrip. Graec.


.
.

2554

Kvpiov

8'

tffj,v

rov re

Kal

'OXovnov

Aarw

X/oao^ta Kal <ivo/ii/oi>, Trdvra crwaAAaTTovra Kara TWS ravra

kv 'QXovri TTOTI rov 'OAoVriov, rov Aartov, /cat TrwAeovTa 8ia TO. Kal Saveifovra Kal Saveifcouevov Kal ra a\\a
TTOTI
vo//,a>s

Adnov

TWS eKartpr)

Ki/xei/o>s.

See
2

infra,

chap. xvii.

Corp. Inscrlp. Graec. 2222,

/r\T

11.

SPOT

15-20: >/"n/

aVrap)(oi>Ta)v, ot

re

Trap

avrol<s

ovres 'Poof/Aaiojt rots

Kovaxrtv vo/xots.

GENERAL CONCLUSIONS
tion

209
;

over causes to which aliens were parties

and

organizations, as well as the presiding judges, were variously designated, so that we hear of the' eviKov SiKacnrriptov (a general name for the foreign
these judicial
(a general name for the presiding judges), the TroXejmapxo? (the Athenian archon, who took special cognizance of the affairs of metoecs), the /coV/xo?

court), the

ei>o<$iKai

gevtos

tions

These institu(of Cretan towns), and the like. and magistracies usually existed apart from express
in
;

Bv/tjSoXo/)

international conventions (a-v/uL/3o\a or but treaties were very frequently concluded either to ensure the due and impartial operation of these tribunals, or to establish a new mixed court of

provision

judges, the KOIVOV

and, at the same time, as a c court of appeal/ in the sense of a tribunal to which the issues were submitted for final decision after a preliminary examination by the court of first instance. As to the law that
SiKaa"rripiov y
7r6\i<?

nominate a third

city,

e/c/cX^To?,

was applied
place

in the
loci

times the lex

settlement of conflicting claims, somecontractus (the prevailing law of the


in question

where the engagement

into) operated, at other times the lex domicilii

was entered of the

defendant, sometimes, again, broad equitable principles were invoked in order to effect a fair reconciliation between the contending legislations of the States concerned, and, finally, an express judicial dispensation might be resorted to in virtue of an ad hoc agreement.

At

ithe

the alien suitor was obliged to plead through agency of the proxenus or his patron, as the case may be ; but with the expansion of commerce and
first

general intercourse, the increase of litigation, and the more generous attitude that came to be manifested 'towards non-citizens, the foreigner was, in actual practice,

and despite strict theory, commonly allowed to appear in person and address the court, and to instruct advocates to plead for him. Finally, provision was usually made for the of suits within a certain fixed hearing period, so as to prevent an undue delay of justice.

CHAPTER

IX
i

ROME AND FOREIGNERS


Roman
citizenship.
2

has already been seen, there was in the earlier period of Roman history a close relationship between The citizenship and the practice of the city's religion.
it

As

enjoyment of political rights was largely dependent on assistance at the sacred ceremonies of lustration. 3 In
the later period certain modifications were gradually introduced, which tended to emphasize the purely civic and political aspect, and to remove to the background, if not wholly to eliminate, the religious side.
Civitas

The expressions civitas Romana and ius Shiiritium have been taken by some writers to be equivalent in their signification of Roman citizenship. Practically they may for most purposes be regarded as synonymous, though the former implies rather a condition, a status,
1 The following, amongst other writings, may be mentioned M. I. G. Rogery, De la condition des etrangers en droit romain (Montpellier,
:

des peregrins chez les Romains (in Recueil de I'Acadtmie de legislation de Toulouse, 1870) ; P. van Wetter, La condition civile des etrangers d'apres le droit romain (Appendix to Laurent's Droit
civil

E. Chenon, La 1886) Memoire sur la condition


;

loi

peregrine

a Rome,

loc. cit.

G. Humbert,

international, vol. i. pp. 667-678). points are indicated in the Bibliography.


2

Further works on special


:

On Roman

citizenship, see the following

W.

Eisendecher, Ueber

die Entstehung, Entwickelung

und Ausbildung

Rom (Hamburg, 1829)


de
cite

F. Lindet,

De

droit de citt romaine (Paris,

a Rome

(Paris,

1879) ; H. Lesterpt 1882) ; G. Grenouillet,

des TSiirgerrechts im alten I 'acquisition et de la perte du de Beauvais, 1>u droit

De

la condition des
;

personnes au point de vue de la cite . . . en droit romain (Paris, 1882) G. de Letourville, Etude sur le droit de cite a Rome . . . (Paris, 1883).
8

Dion. Hal.

iv.

15

Cic. Pro Caec. 34.

LOSS OF
whilst

ROMAN
fact

CITIZENSHIP
reference
to

211
privileges

the latter

usually has

of belonging to the original or Later stock. the term civitas Romana was family * has as been pointed out by Poste generally adopted, and others, in the bestowal of the franchise on a 2 peregrinus, and sometimes also in the case of a Latinus, whilst the term ins >uiritium was used when the same was granted to a Latinus lunianus. 3 The mode and conditions of acquiring Roman citizen- HOW Roman v 4 The civitas Romana ffi"** ship will be considered below.

ensuing from the

might be lost either by voluntary renunciation, or as a Roman result of the infliction of certain punishment. in an advance on Greek that no show conceptions individual was held to be capable of enjoying the 6 so that if citizenship of two or more different States ; a Roman became a naturalized subject of a foreign
State, either

through conferment, he was

his

own

initiative or

by honorary

divested of his former 6 civitas. in earlier times a citizen who avoided Again, the census or escaped from military service was liable to be sold into slavery, an event which would necessarily entail loss of citizenship. 7 The same loss was incurred those who were condemned to exile with c aquae et by
ipso facto

ignis interdictio

those
1

who were

; and, further, under the Empire, by sentenced to deportation, 5 or consigned

'

Gait Inst. p. 54.


Cf. Gaius, Inst.
i.

28.

Cf. Pliny, Epist. x.


ei

des

civitatem, est
. . .

4 (Pliny writing enim peregrinae

to Trajan) : conditionis,

peregrina

Idem
.

Maximillae
"

quod

rogo, des ius a te, petente


et
ius

Quiritium
patrona,

" Quare rogo, manumissus a libertis Antoniae "


;

peto

ibid.

Ago

gratias,

domine, quod
et civitatem

Quiritium

libertis

x. 5 : necessariae

mihi feminae,
sine

Romanam

Harpocrati, iatraliptae meo,

mora

indulsisti."

See chap. xi. Cic. Pro Caec. 34: ". .ex nostro iure duarum civitatum esse possit. ." See note 2, infra, p. 246. 8 Cf. Corn. Nep. Atticus, 3 ; Cic. Pro Balbo, 12.
5
. . .

nemo

Cic.

Pro Caec. 34; Dion. Hal.


i.

iv.

15.
xlviii.

Gaius,

128

Ulpian,

x.

Dig.

19.

17

ibid.

22. 6.

212

LOSS OF
('

ROMAN
ad bestias

CITIZENSHIP
'),

to the wild beasts


('

or sent to the mines


c

in metalla

'),

or to hard labour

servi

poenae

')*

and

also

by those who were delivered (deditio) to the enemy fetial procedure, 2 and those who were publicly by declared enemies of the commonwealth. 3
Cicero
is

Cicero on the
citizenship,

at pains to

only through a voluntary

show that citizenship was lost abandonment of it. It is

asked how, he argues, Roman citizens have frequently departed for Latin colonies, if citizenship cannot be
lost
; they went either voluntarily, or fled to escape the penalty of the law ; whereas, had they submitted to Rome and retained it, they would have remained in if those who have been contheir citizenship. 4 Again,

demned

to exile elected rather to remain in

suffer the rigour of the law, they

only with loss of their


accept exile

life

Rome and would lose citizenship when, on the contrary, they

and are hence received into another city, renounce their citizenship ; it is not themselves they taken really away from them, since by Roman law it is
not admissible to enjoy a twofold citizenship at the same time. 5 Roman, Cicero continues, cannot change his citizenship against his will, and cannot do so by merely desiring such change it can only be effected by actual admission into the roll of citizens of a foreign

community.
l

Dig.
Cic.

(ibid.).

De

orat.
:

i.

40; Pro

Caec. 34.
si

Dig.

iv.

5.

5.

Pro Caec. 33

"... quemadmodum,

civitas

adimi non

possit,

in colonias latinas saepe nostri cives profecti sunt.

aut legis multa profecti sunt ; quam manere in civitate potuissent."


5

multam

si

sua voluntate, sufferre voluissent, turn

Aut

"... qui si in civitate legis vim subire vellent, non quam vitam amitterent quia nolunt, non adimitur his civitas, sed ab his relinquitur atque deponitur. Nam, quum ex nostro iure duarum civitatum nemo esse possit, turn amittitur haec civitas denique, quum is, qui profugit, receptus est in exsilium, hoc
Ibid.

34

prius civitatem,

est,
6

in aliam civitatem."

Pro Balbo,
invitus

ii.

"lure enim nostro neque mutare civitatem

quis-

potest neque, si velit, mutare non potest, quam adsciscatur ab ea civitate, cuius esse se civitatis velit."

modo

ROMAN ATTITUDE TO
It
is

ALIENS

213

obvious that Cicero

his conclusions

on

a priori principles. did not work out on these stringent lines. Madvig says with much truth that Cicero
resorting
to

is here inferring some of His specious ar ument> and ^ theoretical considerations really The law in its practical applications

Indeed,
is

merely

subtlety and specious argument in his endeavour to prove that a Roman citizen could not
lose his citizenship in spite of himself, that exile did not really entail its loss, and that only naturalization in the country of his exile could bring about a deprivation

of his former
*

In point of fact exile, accompanied rights. et by aquae ignis interdictio,' and by a declaration that his exile was in accordance with the law, c iustum ei
exsilium esse,' carried with it loss of citizenship such loss was not essentially the consequence
;

and
of a

deliberate act of naturalization abroad, inasmuch as this proceeding was not bound to be notified to the Roman

government, and, moreover, in view of the fact that the exile could reside abroad as an inquilinus? (sojourner).

The Romans had


whether

less national vanity

than the Greeks, Roman

in regard to religion or in regard to intellectual matters in general. Their attitude to foreigners was

marked by
systematic

and greater liberality of a of the Greek race. Foreign religions and foreign gods were more readily admitted into the Roman commonwealth. Aliens were not held to be necessarily deprived of all juridical In some cases this capacity was taken to be capacity.
less exclusiveness

character

than

that

J.

N. Madvig,

Die
vol.
i.

Verfassung des
p.

romischen

Staates,

Bde.

(Leipzig, 1881-2), Caec. 33, 34, pro

55 note:

" Ciceros Behauptung (pro

Balbo, II, de Domo, 20), keiner verliere das Bilrgerrecht wider Willen, und, wer in die Verbannung gehe, der verliere erst das Biirgerrecht durch die Aufnahme in einen fremden

auf die arge Spitzfindigkeit hinaus, dass man sich durch Selbstmord oder Hinrichtung dem Verluste des Burgerrechtes entziehen konne. Der Verbannte verlor das Btirgerrecht durch die romische aquae et ignis interdictioj durch die Erkterung, iustum id ei exsilium esse, nicht durch die Aufnahme in den fremden Staat, die den RSmern gar nicht notificiert ward, oft gar nicht eintrat, indem der Verbannte in der fremden Stadt als inquilinus lebte."
Staat, lauft

2I 4

THE PEREGRINI

independently applicable and effective, in other cases its potentiality was recognized, but its applicability and operativeness had to be sanctioned and regulated by means of explicit pacts, conventions, treaties. In reference to the question of Rome's relationship to aliens, as in a good many other questions of ancient international law, one must guard against extreme
assertions, or

unwary exaggerations.

Some

writers, for

example, have claimed that the Romans regarded aliens as being on a footing of perfect equality, others have peremptorily dismissed the question by asserting that
they considered strangers as possessing all the attributes of hostility. In the one case, as an Italian writer has is an there it, expressed exaggeration through extrava-

gant idealism, in the other, a rigorous disparagement which would assimilate the Romans to savages, " hanno spesso esagerato o per un idealismo gli scrittori eccessivo o per un rigorismo che avrebbe assimilati i
.
. .

a selvaggi." It is, first of all, desirable to say a few words about the meanings of such expressions as peregrinus, hostis, perduelliS) amicus, and the like.

Romani

has strictly no precise equiva' alien and foreigner It has a larger denotation than c alien/ inasmuch as it implies not only the nationals of foreign States or of colonies, either autonomous or dependent, but also what the Greeks called aTroXtfe, individuals actually without a country, State, or such as city, those who could not be called cives at all,
peregrinus
lent in English. Such terms as are only approximate renderings.
'
' '

The word

the deditidi, subjugated by Rome and deprived of their And, organization, as well as exiles, outlaws. further, before the issue of Caracalla's constitution, the
civic

majority of the subjects of Rome in her provinces were even denominated peregrini. The expression *non1

G.

Padelletti, Storia del diritto romano.

Con

note

dl

P. Cogliolo

(Firenze, 1886), p. 69, note (a). 2 On peregrinus, see further infra, latter part of the present chapter.

MEANING OF HOSTIS
'

215
* '

citizen

alien to inadequate than ' < indicate the position of the peregrin ; for non-citizen would, under the earlier Empire, include the Latini luniani, who were not cives, and yet were not regarded
is
still

more

as peregrini. 1
hostis? like the Greek <=Vo?, presents greater The term hostts has been the cause of much misunderand difficulty, standing and error on the part of most modern writers. and eVo? meant both Just as the word stranger Indeed hostis had this twofold signification. so guest,* the word hostis etymologically corresponds to the Gothic
'

The word

'

'

gast(f)s y

German Cast, English guest. 3 And further, among the Romans hostis came to signify enemy/ Thus Cicero says that in the earlier times an enemy, instead of being called by the more accurate name
c

perduellis,

was termed hostis ; and that formerly hostis had the same signification as the word peregrinus in his
time.

own

"

Equidem etiam

illud

animadverto, quod,
*
'

hostis qui proprio nomine 'perduellis' esset, is rei verbi tristitiam vocaretur, lenitate mitigatam. Hostis is enim apud maiores nostros dicebatur, quern nunc 4 ' Varro writes to the same peregrinum dicimus." effect. Speaking of the obscurity of many origins of words, and also of the many curious transformations in
*

meanings, he gives as an example hostis y which, he formerly meant a foreigner belonging to another nation, and now implies what was then conveyed by the expression perduellis^ an enemy against whom war is
their
'

'

says,

Cf.

Muirhead,
its

op.

dt. p. 105,
cf.

and note.
Romische Gastrecht

On

etymology,

Mommsen, Das

und

die

Romische Clientel (in Romische Forschungen, Berlin, 1864-1879), vol. i. pp. 326 seq.j notes 1-3 ; W. Corssen, Kritische Beitrage zur Lateinischen Formenlehre (Leipzig, 1865), pp. 217 seq. On the ancient conception,
see

Ihering,

op.

cit.

i.

p.

227

C.

Sell,

Die Recuperatio der Rb'mer

(Braunschweig, 1837), PP- 2 se< l* 8 Cf. M. Breal and A. Bailly, Dictionnaire etymologique latin Lefons des mots (Paris, 1882) ; O. Schrader, Sprachvergkichung und Urgcschichte (Naumburg a. S. 1883) (English translation, Prehistoric
Antiquities, p. 350).
offic. i.

12.

216
1 being made.

THE AMICI
meaning
*

the

Virgil uses the phrase hostilis fades with of the 'face of a foreigner.' Hence,
*

because at one time hostis meant stranger/ and at another time enemy/ a good many modern writers,
evincing
practices

disposition

to

vilify

Roman

or

ancient

and conceptions

impatiently contrasted Christian doctrine and civilization, have fallen into the * error of imagining that in antiquity foreigner was ' necessarily synonymous with enemy/ a conclusion
'

general, especially when with the beneficent results of


in

carelessly arrived at,


place. no less justification

regardless of context, time, and


as well reason,

and certainly with that because logical cogency, 2 hostis is structurally allied to guest and probably to hospes (or, at least, appears to have been so regarded by the
and
earlier
c

One may just

writers),

and

also

because

hostis

enemy/
the

therefore enemies were treated in war


as guests, or that guests

meant an on the

same footing
to

were assimilated

the favourite notions of a priori dogmatists, the Romans did not of necessity identify aliens with enemies, especially so at the time of their more systematically developed
belligerent

enemy.

Whatever may be

constitution.

And

this will

be shown more fully below

the different classes of peregrins in Rome are considered. One must guard against confusing aliens,

when

peregrini, with barbarians, in the sense

or
Amid.

marauders, belonging to

no

definitely

almost of pirates organized

State.

Amid were
same way
as

distinguished from hostes

much

in

the

law discriminates between States forming part of the family of nations, and The latter have not peoples held to be outside it.
international
1

modern

2)^ ling. Lat.

v. 3

"
: .

hostis,

nam

grinum, qui
2

suis

legibus

uteretur,

nunc dicunt eum, quern

turn eo verbo dicebant pereturn

dicebant perduellem."

According to Servius, certain ancient authors assimilated the word Ad Aen. ii. 424 " Nonnulli autem juxta veteres hospes to hostis. Inde nostri hostes pro . hostem pro hospite dictum accipiunt.
: . .

hospitibus dixerunt."

HOSPITIUM

21 7

strictly the right to claim the benefits conferred by this law, just as the hostes were originally conceived by the Romans to be outside law, extrarii. " Extrarius est
l But in qui extra forum, sacramentum iusque est." in even the earlier this theoretical times, practice, And, moreover, the severity was scarcely ever applied.

institutions

of hospitium and

clientela,

in

addition to

many express international conventions, were the means of introducing still greater relaxations, preparing the way for the notion (even if of a rudimentary character) of the
comity of nations.

Greece and other ancient communities, the guest-tie played an important part in Rome, where it became more clearly defined from a juridical point of view. It forms the basis of one of the most ancient, if not actually the oldest, of international conventions. 8 Certain laws of hospitality were, no doubt, common to 4 all the peoples of Italy, but there it never assumed the indiscriminate character of the like institution in the Greek heroic age and even in later Greek history. First it took the form of private hospitality, which Development
in
2

As

developed into the hospitium publicum. Thus there was the bond of hospitium between Scipio Africanus and Syphax, King of the Massaesylians, a tribe of the Numidians, as between Hasdrubal the Carthaginian and 5 There was a similar relationship between Syphax. Eumenes, King of Pergamum, and the Rhodians. Private ties of this character were made by the Romans
later
1

P ublic

Festus,

De
s.v.

verb, signif. s.v. Extrarius.

On

hospitium, see
;

Mommsen, Das

Romische Gastrecht, he.

cit.,

pp.

On the commerDaremberg-Saglio, op. dt. cial origin of the institution of hospitality, cf. Ihering, Die Gastfreundschaft im Alterthum (in Deutsche Rundschau, Berlin, June, 1887, pp.
3
1

9-390

hospitium, in

357-397).
8

Cf.

(Paris,
4
5

J. B. Mispoulet, Les institutions 1882-83), vol. ii. p. 10.

politiques des Remains,

2 vols.

Aelian. Par.
Liv. xxvii.

hist. iv.

Liv.

i.

i.

54; xxix. 23, 29

xxx. 13.

2i 8

OBLIGATIONS OF HOSPITIUM

with the inhabitants of the most distant towns. 1 The privilege of being a patron of a foreign people was

Private

itTobilgaUons.

esteemed by the Roman patricians. Thus, Quintus Fabius Sanga was the patron of the Allobroges, who were in many ways much indebted to him, " Q. Fabio " 2 Sangae,cuius patrocinio civitas plurumum utebatur Hospitium privatum assured the foreigner, with whom the relationship existed, the protection of the Roman patron, a kindly reception, and honourable treatment " privata hospitia habebant ; ea benigne generally,
.
.

comiterque

colebant

domusque eorum Romae hos-

3 pitibus patebant, apud quos ipsis deverti mos esset." It involved a certain obligation on the part of the protector to tend him during illness, and even to superintend

his obsequies, 4 it was also his duty to give him advice and assistance in case of legal proceedings 5 instituted by him or against him, in a word, to look after his The person of the guest was held interests in general. to be sacred, and to put him to death was a crime

classed with parricide. 6


Tessera
hospitaiis.

This undertaking was a purely voluntary one, and was usually recorded on a tablet (tessera}? of which a copy or a 8 fragment thereof was retained by each of the parties. The customary formulae of hospitium are preserved in numerous inscriptions. 9 In one of these inscriptions
iDion. Hal.
3
viii. 3.
;

30.
i.

Sallust, Catil. 41.

Liv.

xlii.

cf.

Liv.

58

Plaut. Mil.

Glor.

674

"In bono
and

hospite atque amico quaestus est


4

quod sumitur. ..."


etc.),

Corpus inscriptionum
ii.

Latinarum (1863,
6
cit.

ed.

Mommsen
ii.

others, vol.
5 7

5556.
Cf.

Cic. Divin. in Caecil. 20.

Hor. Carm.
iii.

13,

11.

5-8.

Daremberg-Saglio, op. illustrations of different forms are shown.


8

See
Cf.

vol.

pt.

i.

p.

298,

where

Plautus, Poen.

958:
11.

mecum
9

fero"

and

cf.

1042

"Ad eum On seq.


3 vols.

hospitalem hanc tesseram


tesserae generally, see

G.

F.

Tomasini, T>e
Cf.
J.

(Amstelodami Frisii, 1670). C. von Orelli and G. Henzen, Inscriptionum Latinarum


collectio
. . . .

tesseris hospitalitatis

selectarum amplissima

156, 1079, 3056-9, 3693, 4037; ii. no. 2633. inscrip. Lat. vol.

suppl.

(Turici, 1828-1856), nos. nos. 6413, 6416; Corp.

OBLIGATIONS OF HOSPITIUM
.

219

contained on a brass tablet, the obligation to the posterity ". cum liberis of the parties concerned is indicated,
.

posterisque
II

II

eius
II

sibi

liberis

posterisque suis

tes-

Uti se in fidem seram hospitalem cum eo fecerunt. suam clientelam vel vel posterorum suorum atque
II

II

reciperet.
It is

Atque

ita in

hac

II

re.

."

true that the arrangement did not rest entirely under divine on a juridical basis; but it was universally recognized protectlon< to be under the protection of the gods, especially of
lupiter hospitalis' ; and the sanction of religion was no less effective in practice than that of the law. deliberate violation of the engagement was deemed to
*

subject the offender to divine retribution, as well as to infamia, a censure involving disqualification as to certain
public

and private
hospitium

rights.

was usually a reciprocal obligation P05 undertaking, involving rights and duties of mutual assistance and protection, whether in peace or in war, 3
privatum

The

on

which devolved upon the sons or other heirs of the respective parties, as has already been pointed out. Thus Livy refers to ambassadors who arrived from King Perseus (B.C. 171), mainly through the reliance on relationships of private hospitality subsisting between him and Marcius ; which tie of hospitality had existed <c between their fathers, legati a Perseo rege vene.

runt, privati

maxime
erat."
4

hospitii fiducia,

quod

ei

paternum

:um Marcio

sever such hereditary bond an express renunciation TO sever the was necessary, 6 a proceeding which was ^nuncCSon sometimes resorted to in the case of a dangerous con- necessary,
(renuntiatid)

To

diet

iLivy
1 2

between these obligations and that of patriotism. gives a striking account of such a renunciation
ut supra.
i.

No. 1079,
Cf.
.

Virg. Aen. ocuntur. ."


.

731
13
;

"
:

luppiter, hospitibus

nam

te

dare iura

8
5

Liv. xxv. 18

xl.

Plut. Sy//. 32.


;

4 Liv. xlii. 38.


ii.

Dion. Hal.
xxv.
8

v.

34

Liv. xxv. 18

Cic. In Verr.

6.

79

Sueton.

<*Rg. 36
1
:

cf.

Cic. In Verr.

ii.

36. 89.

220

OBLIGATIONS OF HOSPITIUM

on the part of a Campanian. During the war between Rome and the Campanians (212 B.C.), Titus Quinctius of Badius, a Campanian. Crispinus was a guest
c
'

Badius sent for Crispinus, who thought his host desired merely a friendly interview, seeing that their private bond, as he assumed, would continue even amidst the 1 But Badius challenged him disruption of public ties. to a combat, to which Crispinus replied that each of them had enemies enough to display his valour upon ; " for his own part, even if he should meet him in the field, he would turn aside lest he should pollute his 2 Thereupon right hand with the blood of a host." Badius taunted him with cowardice, and stigmatized him as an enemy sheltering himself under the title of a guest, and so he made a formal renunciation of the tie. " that when u If he considered," he exclaimed, public treaties were broken, the ties of private relationship were not severed with them, then Badius the Campanian openly and in the hearing of both armies renounced his tie of hospitality with Titus Quinctius Crispinus, the Roman. He said that there could exist no fellowship or alliance between him and an enemy, whose country and tutelary gods, both public and private, he had come to fight against. If he was a man he would meet him." Crispinus thereupon obtained permission of his generals, met Badius, and defeated him. This contention on the part of Crispinus that the tie survived even an outbreak of hostilities between their respective States was
1

Liv.

ibid.

"
:

manente memoria etiam


iuris.
2
. .

ratus colloquium in discidio

amicum

ac familiare quaeri,
privati

publicorum foederum
occurrerit,

."

Ibid.

"
:

se,

etiamsi
violet.

in
.

acie
."

declinaturum, ne

hospitali caede
3 Ibid.
:

dextram

" . . . Si parum, publicis foederibus ruptis, dirempta simul esse putet, Badium Campanum T. Quinctio Crispinc iura et privata Romano palam, duobus exercitibus audientibus, renuntiare hospitium,
Nihil sibi cum eo consociatum, nihil foederatum, hosti cum hoste. cuius patriam ac penates publicos privatosque oppugnatum venisset Si vir esset, congrederetur."

PUBLIC HOSPITALITY

221

by no means a novelty ; for it was even in such serious 1 emergencies usually admitted and respected.

form.

was an extension of the private assured the hospitality of the Roman commonwealth either to an individual or to the collective
hospitium publicum
It

The

Public

hos P italit y-

body of

citizens of a foreign

State.

As

to the indi-

vidual, the distinction and privileges were conferred for special services or good offices towards the Roman
for example, in the case of Timasitheus people (394 B.C.), the chief magistrate of Liparae, who protected the Roman ambassadors and their offering to
;

conditions of
**

as,

Apollo from attacks of pirates of the Liparenses, in return for which the Senate decreed that a league of hospitality should be formed with him, and presents also sent to him. 2 And, in this connection, Livy cannot refrain from adding that Timasitheus was a man more like the Romans than his own countrymen, ". iRomanis vir similior quam suis." 3 The honour of public hospes was at times granted
. .

also

by

a foreign State to distinguished


B.C.,

Roman

citizens.

Sparta conferred the century honour on a Roman, and the inscription recording this concession speaks of eW ra jueywra e/c T[WI/
in the third
VO/UL(*)V
. .

Thus

.].*

With regard
ship the

to a whole State a like public relationwas established, when all its subjects were granted

Such bond with


er

privileges in question, in return for similar rights given to Romans visiting or residing in the territory of
that State.

Of
details

the

exact

nature

of the rights and privileges


it

Privileges of
hospitality,

incidental

to hospilium publicum

is

difficult

to state

with certainty.

The few

texts

we have which

the subject are far from explicit, and have been interpreted differently by different investigators. Thus,
relate to

^al. Max.
2

v.
:

i. 3.

Liv. v.

28

"Hospitium cum eo
*Corp.

senatus consulto est factum

lonaque publice data."

Cf. Plut. Cam'ilL 8.


inscrip.

Graec.

i.

no. 1331.

222
in

AMICITIA AND HOSPITIUM


citations given

most of the
3

by

Mommsen
2

the real

implication, as

Willems has pointed out

Walter,

concerns

hospitium publicum ; involving certain common elements, are


identical.

following the ius legatorum rather than the and the two institutions, though
particularly
lays
stress

Mommsen

by no means on the

senatusconsultum de Asclepiade Polystrato 4 (78 B.C.); but this senatusconsult relates to provincials, 5 and confers on them privileges, such as the immunitas, which cannot, from the very nature of the conditions, be extended to subjects of autonomous and independent 6 This senatusconsult appears to indicate that States. there existed a certain specific formula which precisely defined the privileges contained in the hospitium ; but there is no extant text giving such formula.
d

and there was an between and amicitia. But hospitium important the word amicitia^ or rather its content, was somewhat of an elastic character. Sometimes the term was applied to the closest federal relationships, sometimes it indicated more or less vague and undefined associations, suggesting good feeling and comity rather than political or legal adjustments. Thus, it was alike applied to the between those cities which conrelationship existing stituted the military symmachy in Italy, and to that
a certain resemblance,
difference,

There was

Das Rom. Gastrecht, loc. cit. p. 344, notes 35, 36, 37; p. 345, Cf. F. Walter, Geschichte des romischen Recht^ note 39 ; p. 346. 2 Thle. (Bonn, 1860-1) ; 83, note 31.
2

Le

droit public romain, p.


cit.

392.

1 18, where he thus writes, and, to a large " Allein alle von ihm extent, justifiably, of Mommsen's conclusions : angefuhrten Beweisstellen, mit Ausnahme des SC. de Asclepiade, reden von Legaten und fremden KSnigen und das SC. redet von einem

Op.

83, note 31, p.

besonders begilnstigten
hospltes publici
ist

Falle.
;

unzutessig

Ein Schluss auf die gewohnlichen dawider spricht schon deren grosse

Zahl."
4
5
6

Corp. inscrip. Lat. i. pp. 110-112. Cf. Walter, ibid, in the preceding note.

See Orelli and Henzen,

Inscrip. Lat. no.

784.

CLIENTELE AND HOSPITIUM


with the distant Carthaginians, with
naturally
1

223

whom
a rule,

much

less real kinship.

As

there was amid were

considered to be under the public guardianship, in publica tutela, of the State within whose territory they were resident. whether Hospitium, publicum or temporarily was has privatum, generally hereditary (as already been a and was to of extent the nature mentioned), great the paterfamilias being bound by the of patronage, * sanctions of fas if not of a positive /ex, to treat the hospes on terms of equality, whereas the client (cliens) occupied a more subordinate position. Clientela^ implied rather a unilateral relationship,
cliens was in a condition of dependence and tutela which subjected him to the authority of his patron "ad quern se applicaverit "; so that his position bore a certain analogy to that of the filius familias, or to On the other the relationship of pupil to tutor/ was for the most hand, hospitium part of a bilateral
'
'

The

'

nature.

by
in

a client
his

Again, clientele* usually implied abandonment of his former citizenship, and establishment

patron's country where, particularly in his relationships with his patron, certain elements of citizenship

were conceded to him


to a

whereas hospitium appertained


his

foreigner
client

who
his

retained

original

citizenship.

gave patron personal service ; he accomhim to war ; 4 he contributed to the dowry of his panied daughters, to the ransom of any members of his family from captivity, to the discharge of any fines that might be inflicted on him, and to the expenses in magistracies
.

The

Polyb.
8

iii.

22.

On fas

and

lex, see supra, pp.

86

seq.

see Koellner, <De clientela (Gottingen, 1831); J. Roulez, Considerations sur la condition politique des clients dans Fancienne Rome (in Bulletins de I'Academie Roy ale de Bruxellcs, t. vi. pt. i.
clientela,

On

pp.

304

sea.)

Mommsen, Das Rom.

Gastrecht

loc. cit.

M.

Voigt,

Libertinitftt (in Koniglich sfichsischen Gesellschaft dtr Wissenschaften, Berlin, 1878); Ihering, op. cit. vol. i. pp. 236-245;

Uber Clientel und

G.

Humbert
4

in Daremberg-Saglio, s.v. cliens

(and see bibliography

Ithere).

Dion. Hal.

vi.

47;

vii.

19

ix.

15

x.

43.

224

EXTENSION OF HOSPITIUM

or other honours conferred on him. 1

Mutual obligations of fidelity existed between them, so that neither could bring an action or bear testimony against the 2 The client could not strictly take part in the other.
city's

religion,

but he was permitted

to share,

in

In return, measure, the sacra privata of his patronus. the patron was obliged to assist and represent him in
legal proceedings,
Sacred

and generally to aid him in all circumstances where his assistance was desirable. 3 The due observance of these functions was sanctioned by religion, by fas. Violation of faith entailed the imprecation of sacratio capitis, which put one practically in the position of being guilty of treason (perduellio\ though this applied rather to the crime committed by the The XII. Tables enforced client against his patronus. the good faith of the patron towards the client, and had " Patronus si clienti specifically said as to its violation fraudem fecerit, sacer esto." 4
:

Patronage of
re peoples.

In time
ear jj er

at the

em pire

this private institution

end of the Republic and under the assumed a wider

Allegation as

form, so that entire cities sought similar protection of Romans. 5 influential or distinguished Thus, Sicily obtained the patronage of the Marcelli and of Cicero, Messina and the Lacedaemonians of the Claudii the Fabii became the patrons of the Allobroges the Gracchi, of Spanish peoples ; among Cato's clients were the 6 Cappadocians and the inhabitants of Cyprus. There are, no doubt, shortcomings and abuses in every ancient regulative system, no matter how theo;
;

Dion. Hal.
Plut.

ii.

10; Liv.
10

v.

32;
13
;

xxxviii. 60.

2 8

Mar.

Aul. Gell.
: . .
.

v.

xx.

I.

Dion. Hal.

ii.

SIKCLS 0' vjrep TWI> TreAarwi

et TIS /?Aa7TTotTo irfpl ra (rv/x/3oAata, KCU rots e Cf. Cic. De oraf. iii. 33; Horat. Epist. ii. i. 104: vjre^tiv. clienti promere iura . "; Plut. Cato. 23 ; Plaut. Menaech. 475.

Aayxai/etv,

4 Cf. Serv.
5

Ad Aen.
iii.

vi.

609

Festus, s.v. safer.

Tacit. Ann,
Cf.

55.
Sc. I,

W.

A. Becker, Callus (Berlin, 1883),

Excursus

4.

HOSPITIUM PUBLICUM
retically
;

225

sound and well-intentioned it may be but modern systems free from abuses and deficiencies ? There were admittedly in Rome some cases of hardship
are

patronage of individuals as of cities ; but we are no means warranted, on this account, in going to by u Le the extent of Laurent's assertion patronage des
in the
:

clients fut trop souvent,

comme
. .

la

suzerainete feodale,

a statement which une oppression mal deguisee .,"* he does not prove, and in which the expression " trop

may be taken to represent widely different conditions amongst different people according to their
souvent
attitude.

"

Now

to return to the question of public hospitality,

H
;n s
obliga

Hos2 as to Mommsen assured the pitium publicum, says, individual hospes, or to the subjects in general of the foreign community with which the tie was established, on any occasion when they might take up their residence in Rome, in the first place locus, aedes liberaef a gratuitous lodging ; secondly, lautiaf strictly the various utensils necessary for the bath, but ordinarily including also those used in the kitchen ; and thirdly,
as distinguished
this relationship
clientele*.
1 2

from

of

Hist,

du droit des gens, vol


rom. Gastrecht,
;

iii.

p. 78.

Das

loc. cit.
;

pp. 343-4.
xlii. 6.

Liv. xxx. 17

xxxv. 23

Cf. Liv. xxx. 21

xxxiii.

24

Val.

Max.

v. i, la, E.

Sometimes

a private

house was taken, Liv.

xlv. 44. 4 In

Greek, Trapox?},
xiii. 2. 2.

Ad Att.

Polyb. xxii. I; xxv. 6; xxxii. 19; cf. Cic. Charisius describes it as supellex (furniture), and

the glossators speak of ei/So/Acvta

(Mommsen's note to pp. 345-4 * Das rom. Gastrecht, loc. cit.). The word lautia appears originally to " Dautia have been daufia ; cf. Festus, Ep. p. 68 quae lautia dicimus dantur legatis hospitii gratia"; explained by a glossator as evSo/xevtcu, evry ra Kara rr/v OIKIOLV, that is, certain household furniture which a traveller could not carry about with him, e.g. lectl (beds), as men:

tioned by Cicero (Ad Att. vi. 1 6. 3). Mommsen insists that the relation with lautus, lavare is inadmissible, in view of the alleged ancient

form dautia, which, he thinks,


(outgoings, expenditure).
(Cf.

Mommsen,

perhaps cognate with daps, Scnravrj yet remains mere conjecture. Rb'm. Staatsrecht, vol. iii. pt. ii. p. 1152, note 2.) p
is

But

all this

226

HOSPITIUM AND TREATIES

gifts of gold or silver ware (but held usually whilst the residence continued), also clothing, arms, only etc. "Das offentliche Gastrecht begriindet einen horses, auf Anspruch Gastverpflegung sowohl fur die befreun-

munera^

deten Individuen selbst wie fur die als deren Vertreter, oder als Vertreter der befreundeten Gemeinde abgesandten Boten. Dies schliesst eine dreifache Leistung in sich, deren Beschaffung in Rom zunachst den stadtischen Quastoren obliegt
;

freies Quartier,

wozu

in der

Regel der
feld

Gemeindehof (villa publica) auf dem Marsbenutzt ward das sogenannte Badegerath (lautia),
;

das heisst alle Ausriistung, welche der Gast braucht urn den Badekessel zu erwarmen und sich die Speisen zu bereiten ; endlich eine Gastgabe, nicht ein freies Geschenk, sondern wie schon der Name sagt, eine

Public

nd
inte?nat!onai conventions.

Leistung (munus), durchgangig in Gold- oder Silber2 ," gerath gewahrt. This public hospitality formed the basis of the
.
.

provisions

Objections to

Mommsen's
opinion.

and represented the and obligations laid down rights in an international compact. According to the conclusion of the eminent writer just quoted, this relationof ship was not essentially distinguishable from that
in
treaties

generally,

minimum of mutual

amicitia.

But

to

his

conclusion

there

are

several

In the Willems. 3 objections, which are well urged by between distinction a certain first the sources draw place them ; for example, in the Digest, where postliminy in time of peace, and enemy character are considered, the amicitia, hospitium, and foedus are specifically enumerated, not as equivalents, but as denoting the " In different degrees of alliance pace quoque postliminium datum est nam si cum gente aliqua neque
:

amicitiam neque hospitium neque foedus amicitiae causa factum habemus, hi hostes quidem non sunt, quo
1 Hence the word munlceps which, as is suggested by Rudorff, derived from munus capere, in the sense of receiving presents individuals in the capacity of hospites.

2
3

Das
Le

rom. Gastrecht

droit pub. rom. p.

pp. 343-4. 391, note.


.

loc. cit.

POSITION OF ALIENS IN
homo
est,
si

ROME
fit,
;

227
et liber

autem ex nostro ad eos pervenit, illorum


noster ab eis captus servus
fit

et

eorum

idemque

ad nos aliquid perveniat." 1 Secondly, the historical examples of hospitium publicum are rare, 2 Willems especially between Rome and a foreign State. as an additional an mentions, argument, example of Rome and the between Aedui of Gaul, public hospitality " Aeduos fratres of which relationship Caesar says
ab
illis
:

consanguineosque saepe numero


:

and Tacitus " Soli Gallorum fraternitatis nomen cum 4 But it is doubtful whether populo Romano usurpant." his inference can be drawn from this particular case. More probably the expressions quoted in its support indicate a patronizing attitude on the part of the Romans towards the barbarians ; and this would be
applicable in the case Thirdly, the hospitium publicum

a senatu appellatos,"

equally

of a tie of amicitia. was not necessarily a

bilateral

granted as a

but was frequently a privilege reward by the Roman people to a foreign If it were always subject or to an entire community. of a reciprocal character, are we to maintain that such relationships existed between the whole Roman people and a single foreign individual ? <c Comprend-on, sans cela, un hospitium publicum entre tout le peuple remain 5 et un seul etranger ?" Lastly, it is hardly possible to admit that all the amid and socii of Rome enjoyed the full rights and privileges of hospitium.
obligation,

chapter will consider further the relationships between Rome and other States as established and regulated by treaties and conventions.
later

In the consideration of the position of foreigners 6 in Rome, the different periods of her history must be care1

Position of aliensin R<

Dig.
2 4 6

xlix.
2.

(de

captivis
8
5

et

de postliminio
bell.

et redemptis

ab

hostibus), 5.

Liv. v.

28 and 50.

De

Gall.

i.

33.

Ann.

On

Cunus

Droit pub. rom. p. 392, note. 25. the development of the conception of peregrinus, cf. Puchta, der Institutionen, vol. ii. p. 105 ; Madvig, op. cit. vol. i.
xi.

228

POSITION OF ALIENS IN

ROME

Roman law of comparative exclusiveness. Juridical capacity of an individual was recognized in ancient legislations, only in direct relation to the duly constituted State of which he was a subject. Hostis and peregrinus were then closely correlated terms, if not almost synonymous, for all practical purposes. With the development of Rome, there were gradual and continual relaxations of the early stringent exclusiveness. In this and respect Rome was much more liberal than Greece she borrowed from the Greeks various institutions, 1 when recognized to be advantageous to the community
fully distinguished.

In her earlier times,

was marked by a

spirit

and to the State

policy.

Polybius, discussing the

army

of the Romans, its constitution, arms, etc., says they copied and introduced innovations whenever they con" For no sidered them to be beneficial in any way.
has ever surpassed them in readiness nation," says he, to adopt new fashions from other people, and to imitate what they see is better in others than themselves,"ayaOoi yap
fieXriov
el KOI rives

"

erepot imeTaXapeiv

eOtj,

KOI

fyXuxrai

TO

KOI 'Pwjuiaioi. 2

quered peoples, and

readily assimilated conwith free independent States she

Rome

Practical entered into various kinds of relationships. of the over the letter law, as necessity prevailed well as over inveterate tradition, and facilitated the The early recognition of the rights of peregrini. notion of peregrinus ultimately disappeared ; and the denotation of the name became modified so as tc harmonize the better with a broader system o jurisprudence, and with the conception of the juridica personality of foreign sovereign communities, find the rise of political and j uridical, or quasi-juridical
institutions
like
clientela,

of different kinds,

treaties

amicitia^ hospitium, alliance! on a basis of equality witf

their usual provisions for ensuring a


S.

reciprocal

lega.

Gianzana, Lo straniero neldmtto civile italiano (Torino pp. 58 seq. ; 68-86 "La condizione giuridica dello straniero 1884), vol. i. pp. " vols. i. and ii. passim. ; Voigt, Das ius naturale presso i Romani
: .
.

Catil. 51.

vi.

25.

POSITION OF ALIENS IN

ROME

229

protection, and for the enjoyment by the contracting parties of certain civil rights in each other's country.

municipal law was more and more extended for Modification of friendly aliens, in the first place by municipal law. conceding recuperatio, connubium and commercium, then by granting the ius nexi mancipiique^ until we get the evolution of the elaborate body of the law of nations, the ius gentium?find distinct germs of the profoundly important conception of a comitas There are to be found numerous examples gentium. of conventions securing an interchange of the rights of private law, as in the case of the (VoTroXn-e/a 2 of the Hellenic peoples, but resting more firmly than
the
benefit

The

We

did the

There

Greek isopolity on specific legal dispositions. are to be found provisions regulating the com-

is usually made to depend, so far as contractual transactions are concerned, on the

petence of the tribunals, which


lex loci contractus.
B.C.), a

Cassianum (493 treaty stipulating perpetual peace between the Romans and the Latin cities, there was a provision that suits arising out of private contracts should be determined by the Courts of the place where the engagement was concluded T>V re iStayriKosv <rv/j,/3d\aiu)v at Kpiveis ei/ 3 yiyvearOwcrav Sexa, Trap' of? av yevtjrai TO <rvfjL/36\aiov.

Thus,

in the foedus

Das ius naturale . . vol. ii. 65 seq. 5, 13 seq. See supra, pp. 141 seq. 3 Dion. Hal. vi. 95. For the full treaty as reported by Dionysius, see infra, the latter part of chap. xvi.
Cf. Voigt,
.

CHAPTER X
ROME AND FOREIGNERS. DIFFERENT
As
CLASSES,

AND

THEIR JURIDICAL POSITION


Classes of
aliens.

to them,
classes

to the rights allowed to peregrins and those refused it is important to distinguish between the three

The
barbarians.

barbarians ', ordinary peregrins, and Latin peregrins. The barbarians l (frequently referred to as alienigeni) were conceived to be those people inhabiting territories distant from the Roman world, taking no cognizance of
aliens,
its

of

no regular

laws, living in independence of relationships with her.

Rome, and having They were usually

regarded as not living under a duly organized political constitution, and consequently as being, in many respects, outside the family of nations. At first the term c barbarian was applied by the Romans, as by the Greeks, to persons speaking a foreign language, then to such as were outside the limits of Graeco-Roman civilization. Much later, under the Empire, a distinction was drawn between the gentes ex ferae non foederatae^ and peregrini or provinciates. They were not admitted on Roman territory, except by an extraordinary concession granted but
'

and only in individual cases and, occasionally, by special compacts some of them were prohibited from settling in certain districts, even when these were beyond
rarely,
;

1 On the condition of the barbarians, especially those residing within the territory of the later Roman Empire, cf. E. Leotard, Essai sur la condition des barbares etablis dans Vempire romaln au quatrleme siecle

(Paris, 1873).

THE BARBARIANS
the bounds of the

231
restrictions

Roman Empire.

Large

were, under the later emperors, placed on the com2 mercial relationships of Romans with the barbarians.

In theory,

Roman jurisprudence granted them no

rights

they were even held to be incapable of the provisions of the im gentium. They existed enjoying Their property, like that of only to be subjugated. regular hostes, was considered to be res nullius^ which

whatever

When anyone might acquire by simple occupation. 4 be to reduced Their they might slavery. conquered, 6 less protected than those of slaves, and were graves were not res religiosa hence they could be violated with at least, theoretiimpunity, since the barbarians were
3
;
* '

in the eyes of the Romans in the position cally speaking of enemies. 6 In 365 A.D., a constitution was issued by the Emperors Valens and Valentinian to the effect that marriage between Romans and barbarians was a capital 7 offence. Indeed, as Ortolan expressed it, barbarians were in theory regarded by the Romans as existing out" hors de la civilisation side civilization and geography, In practice, however, this rigid et de la geographic." attitude was somewhat modified ; in most cases we find Peacethis seemingly extreme rigour largely mitigated. ful association between them and Romans was by no means uncommon. Under Marcus Aurelius, they were even admitted into the Roman army as auxiliary forces ;
1

Dion

Cassius, Ixxi. II, 15, 16, 19


iv.

Ixii.
;

13.

2 8
l

Cod. Just.

40. 2

iv.

41.

and

iv.

63. 2.

Dig. xlix. 15 (de captiv. et de postlim.), 5. 2.


lbid.
. :

".
."

et

liber

homo

noster ab eis captus

servus

fit

et

eorum.
5

Dig.

quo
6

xi. 7 (de religiosis et sumptib. fun.), 2. pr. servus sepultus est religiosum esse Aristo ait."

"Locum

in

no

Dig. xlvii. 1 2 (de sepulchre violate), 4, action would lie against anyone who

enemies'

tombs

where Paulus says that removed stones from "Sepulchra hostium religiosa nobis non sunt
:

ideoque lapides inde sublatos in quemlibet sumus ; non sepulchri violati actio competit."
1

usum convertere

pos-

Cod. Theod.

iii.

14.

i.

232

THE DEDITICH

under Claudius, the successor of Gallienus, we find them in the legions ; and under Constantine actually in the
imperial body-guard.

Almost on an equality with the condition of


barians was

the bar-

of the dediticii} People who were conquered and reduced to this condition were necessarily regarded as having been divested of all their former rights and privileges, and as enjoying no political or civil capacity whatever beyond what the conquerors were pleased to concede to them. 2 They were obliged to surrender to their conquerors themselves, their arms,
frequently that
their
cities,

their

territory,

their

property
agros,

all

aquam,

things human delubra, terminos,


3

temples, and their and divine " urbem,


.

But of the barbarians, the severe theory of the law was from In the development time to time considerably relaxed. of legal institutions in all countries and at all times we constantly find the strict letter of the law giving way to broader conceptions and more accommodating practice. Sometimes the Roman conquerors allowed their dediticii a certain measure of autonomy, leaving them all or hence designated the ius part of their former laws, 4 and on some occasions even granted them dediticiorum ; 5 a iusprivatum, as, for example, in the case of Capua. It is to be noted that the term dediticii denotes also the lowest class of freedmen, which had been established

humanaque omnia."

utensilia, divina in their case also, as in that

by the
et

"pessima libertas eorum Their position was assimilated to that of slaves. They differed from ordinary peregrins, inasmuch as they did not belong to any city, whose laws they might otherwise be capable of
lex Aelia Sentia (4 A.D.),

qui dediticiorum numero

sunt."

Cf. Voigt,

Karlowa,
as to
2
3

1 Dasjus naturale . vol. ii. pp. 255-302 pp. 884-91 ; pp. 282 seq. ; pp. 292 seq.\ and see infra, chap, xxiv., the Roman practices in war with regard to the peregrini dediticii
. .

op. cit.

Gaius,
Liv.
i.

i.

14.
;

38

iv.

30
i.

vi. 8
;

viii.

xxviii.

34
6

xxxvii.

45
2.

xl

41

Caes. Bell. Gall.


Liv. xxxiii. 5, 9.

27

ii.

32

Polyb. xx. 9. 10; xxvi.


20.

Liv.

ix.

Gaius,

i.

26,

THE PEREGRINl
1

233

They could never acquire Roman citizenenjoying. or even the rights of latinity ius latinitatis. ship,
the

important to recollect that used by the Roman jurists, includes various classes of individuals (i) Prior to Caracalla's constitution, the inhabitants of most of the Roman provinces ; (2) the subjects of foreign States
it is
:

As

to the peregrins, term peregrini, as

Peregrin*.

who had

existing in friendly relationships with Rome ; (3) Romans 3 lost the civitas by capitis deminutio minor ; (4)

freedmen

who were

dediticiorum

numeral
Ordinary P* 1 **" 115
-

Ordinary peregrins (comprising mainly those of the second class above) were, apart from special concessions by convention or otherwise, and apart from subsequent extensions, also deemed to be outside the sphere of the
as a

The ius civile was regarded jurisprudence. of law reserved for citizens alone. Its politisystem cal rights, such as the ius suffragii^ the right of voting in the popular assemblies, and the ius honorum, the capacity

Roman

civil

Rights
eId
fr

^eSll

to occupy the praetorship, the consulship, and other Roman magistracies, were strictly denied to peregrins, as were also the most important private rights. Thus,

they were debarred from the ius connubii ; they were incapable of iustae nuptiae on Roman territory unless
specific grants

Ulpian says
civibus
si
1

to that effect were formally made. " Connubium habent cives Romani

As cum

concessum
2

Romanis; cum Latinis autem et peregrinis ita est." 6 Absence of connubium naturally

Ulpian, Regulae, xx. 14.


:

Cf. Voigt, op. cit. vol. ii. pp. 8 seq. ; Voigt, XII. Tafeln, vol. i. " La condition civile des 24, 28 ; Van Wetter etrangers d'apres " le droit remain (appendix to Laurent's Droit civil international
(Brussels,
la condition

1880),

vol.

i.

pp.

667

seq.);

G. Humbert, Memoire sur

des peregrins chez,

ks Remains (in Recueil de F Academic de

legislation
8

On
iv.
ii.

Dig. Verr.
4 5

de Toulouse, 1870). the deprivation of civic rights and its varying degrees, see 5. ii ; Just. Inst. i. 16 ; Cic. De Orat. i. 40 ; Brut. 36 ;
2.

40 4

Top. 4.
;

Ulpian, Regulae, xx. 14


Reg.
v.
cf.

Gaius,
57.

i.

13.
see
in

Gaius,

i.

As to such formal concessions,

the Trivilegia militum veteranorumque de civitate et connubio

Corp.

234

THE PEREGRINI

implied the absence of the corollary rights of manus (marital power), patria potestas (power over the filmsfamilias\ adoption, agnation, inheritance ab intestato. Similarly, peregrins were debarred from the ius comdominium en iure Quiritium mercii) and its corollaries,

and certain modes of acquiring such as mandpatio (imaginary alienation by property, means of the scale and ingot), cessio in iure (surrender before a magistrate), usucapio, adiudicatio in one of the actions communi dividundo and familiae erciscundae (claim(Quiritary ownership),

ing partial ownership and partial succession), andjinium If a peregrin was granted commercium, he regundorum. thus obtained an express right to enter into bilateral engagements (mancipatio, nexum, usucapio\ to acquire, hold, and transfer property of all kinds in accordance with the provisions of the civil law ; and it included also the testamenti factio, the capacity to institute or be
instituted an

important to remember did not necessarily mean absence of daily intercourse, commercial or otherwise, with foreigners, for it proceeded in conformity with the regulations established by the praetor peregrinus.
heir.

But

it

is

that absence of commercium

The

incapacity as to

Quiritary ownership, mentioned

above, did not apply, however, to the case of provincial 1 land, for which purpose the possession of the ius italicum

being acquirable and transferable Finally, tutelage of by mancipation and usucapion. as minors was denied to them, well as the different modes of emancipating slaves, the use of the form 2 spondesne spondeo in entering into engagements, the u
sufficed
;

Italic

soil

inscrip.

Lat. vol.

iii.

843-919
;

L. Renier,

Recueil de

diplomes miliconcessions

1876), passim connubium (Paris, 1891).


(Paris,
1

talres

and

cf.

Piccioni,

Des

du

As

to the ius italicum^


etc.) vol.
i.

cf.

1849,

pp.

29-80

Savigny, Vermischte Schriften, 5 vols. (Berlin, E. Beaudouin, Etude sur le jus italicum ;
t.

du droitfranfais et etranger, (in Nouvelle revue historique pp. 592 seq.}\ R. Beaudant, Le jus italicum (Paris,
2

v.

pp. 146
J.

j<?f.,

1889);
i.

Marseq.

quardt, Romische Staatsverwaltung (Leipzig, 1881), vol.

pp. 89

Gaius,

iii.

93-4.

1US
of nomina

GENTIUM AND PEREGRIN LAW

235

form a persona in the substitution or exchange of a debt personam (that owed by C to B, in discharge of a debt owed by B 1 to A).
is,

transcriptitia (transcriptive credit in a journal), at least or the

entries of debit or

the ius gentium, the posiBut with the development The praetorian tion of peregrins became ameliorated. as the greatest of Roman jurisconsults, jurisprudence, Papinian, said, arose out of the necessity to assist,

of

Rights allowed

supplement, or rectify the civil law, in view of public u Ius praetorium est quod praetores introutility vel supplendi, vel corrigendi iuris adiuvandi duxerunt, 3 civilis gratia, propter utilitatem publicam." (There is no need to trace here the rise and development of the
:

praetor's jurisdiction and legislation, which is a subject treated more appropriately in works on Roman private

law.)

The

ius

" docile aux praetorium was

enseigne-

ments de la philosophic "; 4 and through its instrumennumber of principles continued to be tality an increasing embodied in the ius gentium, recognizing, on the basis of natural equity and public utility, various rights in alien subjects, and even in those who were without any certa civitas. And, further, where such new provisions were found in practice inadequate for the determination of the rights and duties of peregrins, and for the settlement of conflicts that might arise amongst them, an application of their law of origin (lex peregrinorum) was
therein

P61 6^"" law to peregrins consists, as Girard has pointed out, partly of certain Roman civil provisions expressly extended
1

infrequently made, and the principle involved was, if not detrimental to public interest, materialized in the ius gentium. Thus the law relating
not

Nature of
"

Ibid.

iii.

130.

Cf. Weiss, Droit inter, prive, vol. ii. pp. inapplicability of Roman laws to peregrins,
Processgesetze (Leipzig,
3

26
cf.

seq.

M.

On the general Wlassak, Romische

1888-91), part
I.

ii.

pp. 141-182.

Dig.
4

i.

(de

iust. et iure), 7.
ii.

Weiss,

op. cit. vol.

p. 27.

236
to

JUS

GENTIUM AND PEREGRIN LAW


where a decree of the senate rendered
to

them

(as

them the rule in the lex Aelia Sentia, void such manumissions as were effected in making fraud of creditors 1 ), partly of their own national laws, and partly of the law of nations. " Leur droit est constitue, en dehors des rares lois romaines dont 1'application leur a et expressement etendue par
applicable
.
.

leurs

lois

nationales et par

le

droit

des gens.
laisse

Les

peregrins vivent sous 1'empire de leurs

lois nationales,

dans
la
Marriage

la

mesure ou
2

1'exercice leur

en a ete

apres leur

soumission,

notamment au moment de

1'organisation de

province."

Peregrins could contract marriage taking the form f matrimonium non iustum, non legitimum to which of the civil law were many provisions applicable. They

were capable of adoption if carried out in accordance with the formalities of their law of origin ; and, under the same conditions, they were capable of tutela* (guardianship), and of curatela* (curatorship of a minor
after

dominica potestas

They were allowec wardship). with regard to their slaves, and its corollary rights, viz. acquisition per seruum, the power of life and death (ius vitae necisque\ and the right o
release

from

Acquisition of
.

manumission by their respective national laws. 5 They were permitted to acquire property by the various modes of the ius gentium^ e.g. by traditio (delivery o: possession), occupatio (of things which previously had no
owner)
1
;

as

substitute

for

the

civil

usucapio,

the

Gains,

i.

47

"...

lege aelia sentia


liberi

cautum
fiant,

sit,

ut creditorum

fraudandorum causa manumissi


grines pertinere (senatus
2

non

ita

censuit ex auctoritate Hadriani.


elementalre

hoc etiam ad pere"


.
.

.)

P. F. Girard,

Manuel

de droit romain (Paris,

1901),

p.

no.
3

Gaius,

i.

peregrins chez
4
5

Its

189, 193. Remains,

Cf.
loc. cit.

Humbert, Memoire
p. 19.

sur la condition des

Gaius,

i.

197, 198.

See Corp. imcrip. Graec. vol. ii. p. 1005, no. 211-j.bb; Plin. manumiuionibui Epist. x. 4 ; and cf. Dosithaeus, Disputatio forensis de
(in P. F. Girard, Textes de droit romain,

12).

IUS

GENTIUM AND PEREGRIN LAW

237

praescriptio longi temporis (possession for ten years the presence of the previous owner, and for

years during his absence) was organized in and, in like manner, with regard to fideicommissa (trusts ; dispositions in the form of entreaty, precativo

during twenty their favour ;


Trusts,

mo do}.

On provincial territory, peregrins were able to Rights ot exercise the rights of personal or predial servitude, jovfndai territory. emphyteusis (grant of land in perpetuity, or for a term
of years, for an annual rent), superficies (right to perpetual enjoyment of anything built upon land, on 1 payment of an annual rent), hypotheca (mortgage). They were admitted to successions ab intestato in Rome, when proceeding conformably to the laws of their nation. The majority of the contracts of Roman were open legislation, appertaining to the ius gentium^
loan.

them, e.g. sale, hire, partnership, mandate, deposit, " The law of nations," we read in the Institutes of Justinian, " is the source of almost all contracts, such

to

as sale, hire, partnership, deposit, loan for

consumption

and very

many

others."

They could

enter into con-

with the exception of the formula spondesne and hence they were capable of fidepromissio spondeo ; (suretyship by stipulation, attachable only to a verbal contract), andjideiussio (suretyship by stipulation, attachable to any contract) and also of novatio (transvestitive As regards and facts), acceptilatio (release of stipulation). the contracts litteris^ they could enter into chirographa and syngraphae* (detached written affirmations and acknowledgments of debts), and probably transcriptio a re in when the sum which you owe me on a personam ("
tracts verbis,
;
. .

contract of sale, or letting, or partnership is debited to 4 you in my journal as if you had received it as a loan" ).

Thus
1

Gaius
ii.

says
;

" Whether

transcriptive
et releg.),

debits

Gaius,
i.

31

cf.

Dig.

xlviii.

22 (de interd.

15,/r.

sunt,
3

hoc iure gentium et omnes paene contractus introducti ut emptio venditio, locatio conductio, societas, depositum,
:

"Ex

mutuum

et alii innumerabiles."
iii.

Gaius,

134.

Gaius,

iii.

129.

238

IUS

GENTIUM AND PEREGRIN LAW

constitute a binding obligation in the case of aliens ha been doubted with some reason, for this contract is an institution of civil law, as Nerva held. Sabinus anc
Cassius, however, held that transcription from thing t( person forms a contract binding on aliens, though no
transcription from person to person." They wen allowed the cautio damni infecti 2 (giving security agains apprehended damage), and also to enter into pacts anc
*

innominate contracts, sanctioned by the action praescripti verbis (an equitable action to recover not merely th value conveyed, but also compensation for the los suffered through the defendant's default of specifi
Extinction of

performance). Respecting the extinction of obligations, the variou modes thereof were likewise related to the ius gentium so that apart from novatio and acceptilatio, the peregrin could resort to actual performance (solutio), to mutuu
dissensus, to compensation, to prescription, according t( the circumstances of the particular case. The imaginary 3 payment per aes et libram was never allowed to them. As to the right of bringing actions, the institution o recuperatio* was at first organized for the benefit o

Rights of

8
actions.

peregrins.

But when this had disappeared (as it hac done by the time of Gaius), the praetorian jurisprudenc

introduced modified actions (actiones utiles, or jicticiae which, by a legal fiction considering the peregrins fo the time being as Roman citizens, enabled them t< bring penal actions of the civil law, such as the actiofurt
(for theft), the actio iniuriarum^
1

and

actio

de lege Aquilu

iii.

133:

"

Transscripticiis vero

nominibus an obligentur pere


iuris
civilis

grini,

merito quaeritur,

quia
placuit.

quodammodo

est

tali

obligatio ; si a re in
obligari
;

quod Nervae
fiat

Sabino autem

et Cassio

visum

est

transscripticium, etiam peregrine personam Cf. E. Chenon si vero a persona in personam, non obligari."
(Paris, 1881)

nomen

fatudes stir les con traverses entre Proculeiens et Sabiniens

no. 19.
2

Cf. Corp. inscrip. Lat.

i.

p.

116

and

see Voigt,

Das jus

nat. vol.

pp.
3

732

seq.
iii.

Gaius,

173, 174.

See infra, chap,

xvii., latter part.

IUS
(for

GENTIUM AND PEREGRIN LAW


"
:

239

to property). As Gaius states An alien is feigned to be a Roman citizen if he sue or be sued in an action which may justly be extended to aliens. . . If an

damage

alien sue for theft or sue or

law
It

be sued under the Aquilian for damage to property, he is feigned to be a


citizen."
1

Roman

has been held by writers, like Keller, Mommsen, certain others, that the concession of commercium to peregrins carried with it the right to

Van Wetter, and

resort to the legis actiones (statute-process), by means of the actiones ficticiae^ or the intervention of a procurator.

But there are certain difficulties involved in this view. In opposition it may be urged, as Muirhead has argued, 2 that the fictitious actions were first introduced by the praetors, when the legis actiones were already becoming obsolete, that the system of legis actiones recognized no
such general institution as the procuratory
1

(because

it

agat aut

"Item civitas Romana peregrine fingitur, si eo nomine cum eo agatur, quo nomine nostris legibus actio constituta est, si modo iustum sit earn actionem etiam ad peregrinum extendi Item si peregrinus furti agat, civitas ei Romana fingitur. Similiter si ex lege Aquilia peregrinus damni iniuriae agat aut cum eo agatur, ficta civitate Romana iudicium datur." In connection with this
iv.

37

system of recuperatio, by which criminal proceedings against Roman citizens, and distinguishes between the special forms of delictual actions by and against aliens in the earlier epoch from the substituted " Als fictitious actions of the later period. Beispiele werden die Diebstahls- und die Sachbeschiidigungsklage activ und passiv angefdhrt.
passage,
refers to the earlier

Mommsen
could

peregrins

take

certain

Daraus folgt, dass die Privatdelictsklagen an sich nicht von einem oder gegen einem Peregrinen haben angestellt werden kOnnen,
aber

keineswegs, dass bis zu der verhaltnissmMssig wohl spaten Epoche, wo sie durch Fiction ihnen eroffhet wurden, es fllr Falle dieser Art keine Rechtsverfolgung gegeben hat. Vielmehr finden wir schon im sechsten Jahrhundert die Diebstahlklagen von Peregrinen ohne Zweifel gab gegen R5mer durch Recuperatoren entschieden es dafttr in alterer Zeit besondere Klagen, die nachher durch das
.

Eintreten jener Fiction Uberfltissig


vol.
2
3
iii.

wurden" (Dat

romische Staatsrecht,

p.

606
iv.

note).
op. cit.
iv.

Note

3,

pp. 103-4,

Gaius,

82.

Cf. Just. Inst.

10

pr.,

in
in

which representation was allowed


usu fuisset alterius

in statute-process

where cases are mentioned " Cum olim


:

nomine

agere,

non

posse, nisi pro populo, pro

240

POSITION OF LATIN PEREGRINS

stopped short at pronuntiatio, and hence was not able


to substitute the procurator's name for the principal's), that the indicia legitima of which the legis actiones in

personam were the earliest forms required both parties and judge to be Roman citizens, 1 and finally, that if the legis actiones had been applicable, recuperatio would have been superfluous.
Rights allowed
peregrins.

By

treaties

between

reciprocity of times even ius

and foreign countries, a ius and commercii, and somerecuperatio for the subjects of secured was connubii,

Rome

In the alliances with the Latin the contracting parties. cities usually all the three rights were stipulated exor conceded impliedly. Thus in the case of the pressly
foedus Cassianum

of the year 493 B.C., no mention was specifically made of connubium, on the grounds that it was Similarly wide rights and priviclearly understood. leges were provided for in the treaty with the Hernici, 486 B.C., when they were admitted into the Latin confederation, in that with the Campanians, 340 B.C and in some cases with the Samnites, as, for example, ii 290 B.C. In the majority of cases, however, connubiun
(the

most important private right), was not included and commercium being alone agreec In other instances, only amicitia formed th upon. basis of treaty relationships securing for the most par
ii

treaties, recuperatio

certain privileges of commercial intercourse.


Judicial position of

The
proper.

Latin peregrins

Latin
peregrins.
Classification

cal position

occupied an intermediate juridi between the Roman citizens and peregrin From the point of view of their origin, the
classes,

of Latin
peregrins.

may

be divided into three

the Latini veteres (o


luniani.

prisci\ the Latini coloniariiy

and the Latini

The Latini
vetercs.

The

Latini veteres were the inhabitants of Latium


That
an
is,

libertate, pro tutela." well as in actions by

in public actions

it

was permissible, as
a

assertor libertatis,

and those on behalf of

ward.
1

Gaius,

iv.

104, 109.

As

to the foedus Cassianum, see infra, chap. xvi.


ii.

Cf. Weiss, Droit inter, prive, vol.

pp. 38

seq.

THE LATINI VETERES


the

241

members of

(nomen latinum) consulship of Spurius Cassius, and after the battle of

with

the league of the thirty Latin towns whom, at the time of the second

Lake Regillus, a treaty of alliance was concluded by Rome. At the end of the Latin war, in 338 B.C.,
this

confederation was destroyed.

Thus
less,

their history

their presents two phases, firstly, on a footing of equality, more or


their subjection. In the earlier epoch, special
civil rights,

alliance with

Rome

and secondly,

conventions secured them both These important public and private. Latin were not necessarily debarred from the ius suffragii, for those who were present in Rome at the time of the meeting of the comitia tributa were allowed to vote 1 in a tribe designated by lot. They had access to the 2 Roman legions. It appears they had connubium? but undoubtedly it was so with certain limitations ; for they would not have been allowed to occupy in this respect a footing of perfect equality with Roman citizens. Probably the privilege consisted simply of a right of intermarriage,* enabling a Roman citizen to marry an
i

alien

woman, and

vice versa, so that in the respective cities

union was acknowledged as iustae nuptiae. But the husband did not possess manus over his wife, who,
the

remaining a peregrina, made it impossible to adopt the modes of confarreatio or coemptio ; his children by
1

Appian,

De

bell. civ.

i.

23

Dion. Hal.

viii.

72

KCU /AT7r//,7rTo
rrjv
\f/rj<f>o-

aru'wv TC
<o/Hav.
2

/ecu

'E/aviKWj/ ocrovs e8vi>a,TO TrAetCTTOVs orl

Cf. Liv. xxv. 3.


1

Liv. xl.

cf.
i.

C. Accarias,
note
2.

Precis de droit romain, ^ vols. (Paris,

11879,
8

etc.), vol.

p. 93,

i. pp. 140 seq.\ J. Marquardt, Rb'mische 24; Walter, op. cit. 227 ; E. Beaudouin, Le majus et le minus Latium (in Nouvelk Revue historique de droit s denied It franfais et 'etranger, 1879). by C. A. von Vangerow

Cf. Voigt,

Das jus

nat. vol.

Staatsverwaltung, vol.

i.

p.

(Uber die Latini Juniani.

Eine

rechtsgeschichtliche

1833, pp.
it

21), relying on the text of Gaius, appears the lex Minicia was applicable to them.
1

8,

Abhandlung, Marburg, i. 79, from which

But

cf.

Weiss,

0/.

cit.

vol.

i.

p. 35.
op. cit. p.

Muirhead,

107.

242
her,

THE LATINI COLONIARII


1

however, were in his potestas. They enjoyed commercium^ had the capacity to enter into contracts litteris? and could avail themselves of the procedure of recuperatio (which was often described as actio in the
treaties).

In the later epoch, after the dissolution of the Latin confederation, those to whom civitas was not extended

conquered peoples. They had no and no connubium, and at first no political rights, " Caeteris Latinis commercium. populis connubia com3 inter se et ademerunt." But they concilia merciaque

were regarded

as

The Latini

the ius commerciif which, henceforth the ius Latii, pointed to the distinction characterizing between the Latin peregrins and the ordinary peregrins. The Latini coloniarii were the first Latin colonists that date back to the time of the Roman alliance with the acquired
cities

soon

of the Latin league.


firstly,

three classes,

those

They may be divided into who voluntarily emigrating

of necessity renounced Roman citizenship, secondly those individuals who having been condemned to pay a fine avoided payment by expatriating themselves, anc
thirdly, the filiifamilias^ who by their father's orders All these acquiring names in a colony. 5 the ius Latinitatis at the same time lost the ius civile.

enrolled their

As to their condition, it was very much similar to that of the later Latini veteres, that is, after the breaking up of the Latin league. So that they were debarrec
from
all

political

rights,

and from connubiumf but


testamentifactio
;

enjoyed commercium? including


1

hence,

See Karlowa, R'om. Rechtsg. vol.


Liv. xxxv. 7.
Liv.
xli. 8.

ii.

p. 70.

Liv.

viii.

14

cf.

also Liv. ix. 24, 43.

note 5, who, relying on " Dies this passage of Livy, says geht namentlich daraus hervor, dass ein Latiner seine Kinder einem Romer mancipiren konnte."
Cf. Marquardt, op.
:

cit.

p. 53,

Olim quoque quo tempore Cic. Pro Caecina, 33 ; Gaius, i. 131 : populus Romanus in Latinas regiones colonias deducebat, qui iussu
in potestate parentis in coloniam Latinam nomen dedissent, desinebant parentis esse, quia efficerentur alterius civitatis cives."
6

"

Ulpian,

v. 4.

Ibid. xix. 4.

THE LATINI COLONIARII


their position

243

was somewhat above that of ordinary Girard points out that their family relationperegrins. were regulated by their national laws, varying ships somewhat according to local legislations, and that, owing to their common origin, they bore a great resemblance Roman institutions. " Leurs rapports de the to sont famille re"gis par leur droit national, qui peut varier suivant les statuts locaux, mais qui, par suite de la communaut d'origine, prsente, sauf un caractere
d'archa'isme plus prononce", une similitude a peu pres * complete avec les institutions romaines."
2 however, been maintained by Savigny that Had the Latini no commercium. He bases his the Latini coloniarii had contention on a passage of Cicero, according to which, as he interprets it, commercium was conceded only as a reward to the twelve (or eighteen, xnx) Latin colonies that remained faithful to Rome during the Second Now the passage of Cicero runs to this Punic War. " He effect [Sulla] wants them [viz. the Volaterrani] to be treated on the same juridical footing as the inhabitants of Ariminium ; now who is not aware that the latter enjoy the same rights as the twelve colonies, and that they can inherit from Roman citizens?" 3 Nothing is here said or even implied as to a new 4 concession of ius commercii ; the passage simply states

It has,

that Sulla deprived Volaterra (as well as other municipia)

of

many of the rights and privileges of citizenship, and allowed them to retain only commercium, thus placing
"La elem. de dr. rom. p. 108. Ibid. p. 108, note I de Salpensa cc. 21, 22, 23 prouve par exemple un regime tres analogue a celui de Rome pour la patria potestas, la manus, le mancipium, les affranchissements." The laws of Domitian organizing the government of Salpensa (a Latin colony in Baetica, between Hispalis (Seville), and Gades (Cadiz)), and that of Malaca were
1

Man.

table

discovered in 1851
2
8

cf.

Corp.
i.

inscrip. Lat.

1963.
vol.
iii.

Vermuchte
Pro
Caec.

Schriften^ vol.

pp. 20-26

pp. 301, 302.

enim eodem iure esse, quo fuermt 35: Ariminenses, quos quis ignorat duodecim coloniarum fuisse, et a " civibus Romanis hereditates
capere potuisse
p. 40.
?

" lubet

Cf. Weiss, op.

cit.

vol.

ii.

244

THE LATINI IUNIANI

them on the same basis as the twelve Latin colonies, to whose condition that of Ariminium was assimilated. 1
2 Besides, it appears from Ulpian that the Latini pos" sessed commercium : Mancipatio locum habet inter

cives

Romanos

et

Latinos

coloniarios,

Latinosque

iunianos eosque peregrines quibus commercium datum est." And, further, the right was enjoyed by the 3 Latini luniani, whose position, as Gaius says, was based

on that of the Latini


The Latini

coloniarii.

Latini luniani obtained their name in the first orbana (c. 1 8 A.D.) which jun ^a pj ace from determined their legal character, and, secondly, from the Latini coloniarii, to whom they were largely assimi-

The

^^

lated.

They were manumitted slaves, in whom their master had not quiritary property, or to whom he had of given liberty in a manner outside the solemn forms the lex Aelia or conditions by imposed emancipation, Their position resembled that of the Sentia (A.D. 4). Latini coloniarii, inasmuch as they had commercium and not the ius suffragii and connubium ; and also differed from it in that the Latini coloniarii had by their commercium certain privileges from which the Latin Thus the latter could not make luniani were debarred. wills or benefit under another's will, and could no 5 Hence be appointed guardians under a testament. sue lineal immediate heredes neither sui (i.e. having as eventua collateral nor (i.e. relatives, cessors) agnates u iure successors), their property went to their patrons quodammodo peculii," by the title of quasi peculium?
As to the inequality of rights of Latin colonies, cf. Mommsen, Geschichte des rom. Mtinzwesens, pp. 182, 309, etc., where he deals with the relationship between independence and the right of
1

coinage
p.

30
2
5

vol. ; Marquardt, op. cit. vol. i. p. 55; Rudorff, op. cit, and the other works, previously referred to, on the Latini.
3
i. i.

xix. 4.

22.
8.

Ulpian, xix. 4.

Gaius,

22, 24

Ulpian, xx.
iii.

Gaius,

iii.

56

Just. Inst.

7. 4.

CHAPTER

XI

ROME AND FOREIGNERS. DOMICILE. NATIONALITY.


NATURALIZATION
TOWARDS
the end of the Republic, and in the earlier of the Empire, when the Roman constitution had period attained to its fullest development, the various perhaps constituent parts of the Empire in Italy included
civitates
Parts of the

various

from Rome), municipia, 1 colonies, and Each possessed its secondary communities.
(apart

own

constitution,
its

providing for a greater

or

lesser

independence, magistrates, and even its special legislation. 2 The It was possible at this time (as it is in our own age) for an individual to be attached to a community by two different ties, origo and domicilium. Through the first he was a civis or municeps as the case may be ; by virtue of the second, he was an incola, so that the ' * incola esse and ' domicilium habere are, expression
'

own

its

own jurisdiction,

ties

of

3 for practical purposes, equivalent.

Individuals became

by became
J

cives

birth, adoption, emancipation, admission ; they " Cives incolae by domicile. quidem origo,
(xvi.

Aulus Gellius

13) thus defines mtmidpesi

"

Municipes

sunt cives

Roman! ex municipiis legibus suis et suo iure utentes, muneris tantum cum populo Romano honorari participes, a quo
munere capessendo
ulla

populi

Romani

appellati videntur, nullis aliis necessitatibus neque lege adstricti, nisi in quam populus eorum fundus

factus est."

Cf. Savigny, System des heutigen romischen Rechts, 9 Bde. (Berlin, 1840-1851), vol. viii. 351 seq.

*&g.

1.

i.

5.

246

ACQUISITION OF DOMICILE
.

Double
citizenship.

manumissio, allectio, vel adoptio, incolas vero domicilium facit." 1 The Roman jurisprudence did not recognize the capacity in an individual to be a elms or municeps in two cities at one and the same time.
.

civitatum," as Cicero says in " civis esse nostro iure already referred to,
2

"Duarum

passage

civili

nemo

potest."

But

modern law of

Cum country and an origine, incolam autem apud Berytios esse proponis, merito apud utrasque civitates muneribus fungi com3 So that in the latter case a peregrin could pelleris." avail himself of two different systems of law, viz. that of the city of which he is a civis and that of the city in which he is merely domiciled. Hence conflicts of legislations would naturally arise ; and it will be considered later whether such conflicts were adjusted by the ius originisy or by the lex domicilii, in those cases where the Roman law admitted the application of the peregrin
,

possible, as it is by the nations, to be a civis or municeps in one " Incola in another. te Byblium
it

was then

law.
Acquisition of domicile.

Factum and
animus.

An independent individual could acquire a domicile of choice by the actual fact of residence (factum), combined with the intention of permanent (or at least residence (animus manendt). These two indefinite) elements were insisted on by the Roman law, as much
as

states

they are in the modern legislations. " Domicilium re et facto


:

Thus

the Digest

contestatione
Married

ad munera, married

transfertur, non nuda sicut in his ; exigitur, qui negant se posse 4 ut incolas vocari."

woman.

woman

'

generally

acquired

the

same

.*

Cod. Just. x. 30 (de incolis), 7.

Pro Balbo,

1 1

cf.

on Zouche ("The Great


Society

Pro Caec. 34. See the present writer's article in Journal of the Jurists of the World,"
1

of Comparative Legislation, London, April,

909,

New

Series,

no. xx. pp. 281-304, at pp. 291-2).


3

Just. Cod. x.
;

39 (de municipibus
Ulpian, in Dig.
1.

et originariis), I,
i.

(Imp. Antonius

A. Silvano)
4
1.

cf.

4. 3.

(ad municipalem et de incolis), 20.

SEVERAL DOMICILES
domicile as her husband (domicilium matrimonii).
rescripserunt mulierem, quamdiu nupta est, eiusdem civitatis videri, cuius maritus eius est, et unde originem trahit, non cogi muneribus fungi." *

247
" Item incolam
ibi,

widow preserved her domicile

so long as she did not

marry again, or acquire a different one in some other manner. "Vidua mulier amissi mariti domicilium
retinet
factae
;

exemplo clarissimae personae per maritum sed utrumque aliis intervenientibus nuptiis
Children,

permutatur." Legitimate children took their father's domicile ; but later they could relinquish their original domicile and choose another. 3 Natural children assumed the domicile of their mother.
provision applied in the case of manumitted 4 they had the domicile of their patron ; and later they were at liberty to acquire a different 5 one. An individual could have more than one domicile at the same time, a fact which is also possible in modern
slaves.

A similar
At

Emancipated
slaves '

first

Plurality of dc

The law of nations regarding warfare has for a time long recognized a trade or war domicile, in addition to the domicile of origin ; though, it must be admitted, a < commercial domicile/ or a forensic domicile does not fully amount to domicile in the proper sense of the
times.
c
'

Dig.

1.

i.

nu pt')
uxoris
x.

"
5
:

38. 3.

domum,
1. i

Cf. ibid. v. i (de iud.), 65 ; xxiii. 2 (de ritu deductione enim opus esse in mariti, non in quasi in domicilium matrimonii." See also Just. Cod.

38 (de
2

incolis),

ibid. xii.
i.

(de dignit.), 13.

Dig.
3 4

(ad mun.), 22.


(ad mun.),
3, 4,

Dig. Dig.

\.

i i
i

6
;

i,

17

1.

1.

(ad mun.), 6. 3
(ad mun.), 22

and

ibid.

22, pr.
;

that a peer of England, who of Scotland, and has estates in both countries, who comes to Parliament to discharge a public duty, and returns to Scotland to " enjoy the country, is domiciled both in England and Scotland (In

Dig. "I

1.

2, 27, pr.

37

I.

apprehend," said Pollock, C.B.,

"

is

also a peer

re Capdevielle
ville

(1801),

(1864), 33 L.J., Ex. 306, 316. Cf. Somerville v. SomerVes. 7493, 786 ; 5 R.R. 161, per Arden, M.R.).

248

ABSENCE OF DOMICILE
In any case, probably in

word.

Rome,

as certainly in

the view, say, of the British courts, no individual could have more than one domicile for the same purpose, that

one and the same class of In the later Roman law, however, the principle rights. of the simultaneous possession of two or more domiciles was less frequently applied, and was admitted only in
is,

for the determination of


1

NO

domicile.

it is not possible to be without but in Roman legal theory this was not impossible, though in practice the contingency was naturally rare. It might occur in the interval between the renunciation of an acquired domicile and the acquisition of another (as, for example, when servants and workmen go in search of new employers), in the case also of such travellers as, having abandoned their original domicile, do not take up a residence of a permanent nature, or for an indefinitely long period, Thus, the and, finally, in the case of vagabonds. Digest^ referring to the difficulty of determining the

exceptional cases. In modern legislations


3
;

a domicile altogether

"

The

facts

to establish a

or forensic,

and circumstances which might be deemed sufficient commercial domicile in time of war, and a matrimonial, or political domicile in time of peace, might be such as,
fail

according to English law, would

to establish a testamentary or

* There is a wide difference,' it was observed in principal domicile. a judgment delivered in a recent case before the Judicial Committee

of the Privy Council, ' in applying the law of domicile to contracts (Sir R. Phillimore, Commentaries upon International Law, 4 vols. (London, 1885) sect. 54; and referring to Croker v. Marquis of Hertford (1844), 4 Moore, P.C. 339).

and to wills'"

Labeo indicat eum, qui pluribus locis Dig. 1. I (ad mun.), 5 ex aequo negotietur, nusquam domicilium habere ; quosdam autem dicere refert pluribus locis eum incolam esse aut domicilium habere ;
:

"

quod

verius est."
1.

" Viris prudentibus placuit duobus locis posse aliquem habere domicilium, si utrubique ita se instruxit, See also ibid. ut non ideo minus apud alteros se collocasse videatur." and Just. Cod. iii. 12 (de sepult.), 2,/r. 1. i. 27. 2
Cf. Dig.
i

(ad mun.), 6. 2

E.g. as to the English tribunals, cf. Bell

v.

Kennedy (1868), L.R.

App. 307 ; Udny v. Udny (1869), L.R. i Sc. App. 441, 453, Lord 457, where the rule is clearly laid down by Hatherley, C., Westbury, and Lord Chelmsford.
i

Sc.

NATIONALITY OF ORIGIN
domicile of an individual

249

who

appears to reside equally

in places, goes on to enumerate instances where it " Celsus libro is possible to have no domicile at all. si quis instructus sit duobus primo digestorum tractat, locis aequaliter neque hie quam illic minus frequenter commoretur ; ubi domicilium habeat, ex destinatione

two

animi

esse
sit

destinato

accipiendum. ego dubito, si utrubique an animo, possit quis duobus locis domiet

cilium habere.

verum

est habere, licet difficile est

quemadmodum
quam.

difficile

est sine domicilio esse

quem-

puto autem et hoc procedere posse, si quis domicilio relicto naviget vel iter faciat, quaerens quo se conferat atque ubi constituat ; nam hunc puto sine
domicilio esse."
1

Now

as to the question of nationality, original

and
Nationality of
01

acquired. As has been fully explained in a previous chapter, the nations of antiquity were keenly jealous of their citizen-

According to strict conceptions the ancient city was an organized association of families, where " the nationality of the father had to answer for his children's 2 At Athens, the child was a citizen if patriotism." both the father and the mother were citizens. In Rome the theory of the ius sanguinis and the ius soli was With the Romans, legisapplied with less stringency. lation as well as politics possessed that elasticity which
ship.

rendered rules and prescriptions adaptable to the varying circumstances of time and place. The Roman ideas as to the determination of the
nationality of origin, as approaching modern conceptions and in contradistinction to the more exclusive

Hellenic notions, are pointed out by a sixteenth century writer in the following terms : " Recte Romanum interpretamur Roma oriundum, et in iure nostro semper
1

Dig.
2

1.

(ad mun.), 27. 2.

Weiss, op. cit. vol. i. p. 33 (to which present chapter is indebted).

work

this portion

of the

250
notatur

NATIONALITY OF ORIGIN
origo
l

paterna,

non origo propria

et

natale

solum."

cases are distinguished by the Roman jurists the child is issue of iustae nuptiae ; secondly, if the child is issue of a marriage or union which is not
:

Two

if firstly,

iustae nuptiae.

As

to issue ex

iustis nuptiis.

In the first case, when the child is born ex iustis nuptiis, of a marriage sanctioned by the civil law, he assumes his " father's nationality, as Gaius says Semper connubium
:

2 As a qui nascitur patris conditioni accedat." rule this nationality will be the same as that of the mother also, inasmuch as the iustae nuptiae usually obtains between Roman citizens. The exceptional cases occur where the conferring of the connubium to Latins,

efBcit, ut

rarely), renders their union marriage, iustae nuptiae.


Marriage of

and even to peregrins proper (though much more a regular and legitimate
If a

Roman with Latin or alien

woman.

enter into legal marriage with a Latin or issue will, according to the general Thus Gaius " If a rule, be of Roman nationality. Roman citizen takes to wife an alien with whom he has
alien

Roman

woman, the

connubium, he thus contracts a

son
Soldiers of the

praetorian

and

urban cohorts.

civil marriage, and his and subject to his power." The right was generally conceded to soldiers of the praetorian and urban cohorts, after the expiration of
is

born a

Roman

citizen

their service, to

enter into a iustum matrimonium with

Latin or peregrin

women.

"... Veterans often obtain

by imperial constitution a power of civil wedlock with the first Latin or alien woman they take to wife after
the discharge from service, and the children of such
J. de Cujas (Cujacius), Observationum (Coloniae Agrippinae, 1598).
2
i.

et

emcndatimum

libri

xxviii.

80

cf.

Ulpian,

v.

" Connubio interveniente,


i.

liberi

semper

patrem sequuntur";
3
i.

Dig.

(de statu

hominum), 19:

"Cum

legitimae nuptiae factae sunt, patrem liberi sequuntur."

est,

76 "... Si civis Romanus peregrinam cum qua ei connubium iustum matrimonium contrahitur ; et tune ex uxorem duxerit
: . . .

his qui nascitur, civis

Romanus
to the

Gaius,

i.

56,

which

is

same

est et in potestate patris erit." effect.

Cf.

NATIONALITY OF ORIGIN

251

marriages are born citizens of Rome and subject to l In such cases a formula to the paternal power."
following effect was permission given to
Qui

commonly found in the official them " Nomina speculatorum,


:
.

in praetorio meo militaverunt . . subieci fortiter et pie militia functis ius tribuo conubii

quibus dumtaxat
;

cum

singulis et primis uxoribus, ut etiam si peregrini feminas matrimonio iunxerint, proinde liberos tollant ac si ex duobus civibus Romanis natos." 2
iuris

Again, if a Roman woman enter into legal marriage with a Latin or peregrin proper, it would appear from the general principle that the issue was to be Latin or peregrin, as the case may be, and, of course, was conAnd from the time of Hadrian, the sidered legitimate.
issue

Marriage of

peregrin

was likewise legitimate even though there was not connubium between such parties. " If a Roman woman," u says Gaius, marry an alien with whom she has capacity of civil marriage, her son is an alien and a lawful son of his father, At just as if his mother had been an alien. the present day by a senatusconsult passed on the proposition of the late Emperor Hadrian, even without civil marriage the offspring of a Roman woman and an alien is a lawful son of his father." 3 In the second case, if a child is born of any union AS which is not ius foe nuptiae, the rule is that he assumes " his mother's partus ventrem sequitur." nationality,
<c
. .

to issue of

When
i.

there
" Unde

is

no capacity of

civil

marriage
solet princi-

Gaius,

57:

et veteranis

quibusdam concedi

palibus constitutionibus

connubium cum

primas post missionem uxores nascuntur, et cives Romani, et in potestate parentum fiunt."
2

his Latinis peregrinisve, quas duxerint ; et qui ex eo matrimonio

Corp.inscrip.Lat.
op. ctf.
8
i.

t. iii.

no. 10

t. ix.

nos. 261, 2995.


cit.

On
and
ei

military
Piccioni,

and kindred concessions

in general, see Renier, op.

77

" Item
si

si

civis

Romana

peregrino

cum quo
is

connubium

est,

nupserit, peregrinus sane procreatur et

iustus patris filius est,

tamquam
fuerit

senatusconsulto

ex peregrina eum procreasset. hoc tamen tempore (ex) quod auctore divo Hadriano factum est, etiamsi non
inter

connubium

civem

Romanam

et

peregrinum, qui nascitur,

iustus patris filius est."

252

NATIONALITY OF ORIGIN

between parents, their offspring follows the mother's status by the law of nations." 1 And Cicero says that if a woman, married to a man when there is no connubium between them, successfully sues for a divorce, the husband is not to retain the dowry for the children's 2 maintenance, since they do not follow his condition. Similarly, the Digest states that under these circumthe
stances the issue belongs to the mother's condition by ' law of nature,' unless there be a special legislative

The

principle

measure to the contrary. 3 The same rule applies in the case of a child whose father is unknown, and also in that of certain other " irregular unions, qui patrem demonstrare non 4 vel habet potest, quern habere non licet." According to the general principle of the law of c nations, viz. partus ventrem sequitur,' it would follow ^at the offspring of an irregular union of a Roman woman with an alien was a Roman citizen ; but by the lex Minicia (of uncertain date) it was generally provided that where one parent was a non-citizen, the issue should also be of that condition. 5 This lex Minicia appears to have applied in some cases at least before Hadrian's senatusconsult even where connubium existed between so that the son of a Roman woman and of the parties a Latin belonging to the class of Latini veteres followed his father's condition. But the child of a Roman woman
.

"... Ex eis inter quos non est connubium, qui Gaius, i. 78 nascitur iure gentium matris conditioni accedit." Similarly Ulpian " Non interveniente connubio matris conditioni accedunt." v. 8 :
1
:

Topic.

"
:

Si mulier,

cum

fuisset

nupta

cum

non

esset,

nuntium

remisit,

quoniam qui
:

nati

eo quicum connubium sunt patrem non

sequuntur."

" Lex naturae haec 3 est, ut qui Dig. i. 5 (de statu hominum), 24 nascitur sine legitimo matrimonio, matrem sequatur, nisi lex specialis aliud inducit."
4 5

Dig.

Gaius,

cives
is

hominum), 23. "... Qua lege effectum est ut si matrimonium inter Romanes peregrinosque non interveniente connubio contrahatur
i.

(de statu
:

i.

78

to Krueger's restoration of the text.)

qui nascitur peregrin! parentis conditionem sequatur." Cf. Ulpian, v. 8.

(According

NATIONALITY OF ORIGIN

253

and of a Latinus coloniarius or of a Latinus lunianus was probably Roman at birth in conformity with the " Cest tout au moins ce qui ressort, general rule. lacune et en d'une de de"pit croyons-nous, quelques l These sections obscurits, des 79 et s. de Gaius." are to the following effect (though it is to be remembered they are given according to conjectural restora2 " By the law of nations the offspring a by Roman citizen with whom she has no capacity of civil marriage is a Latin, though statute, the lex Minicia, did not refer to those now termed Latins ; for the Latins mentioned in the statute are Latins in another sense, Latins by race and members of a State." u the same the
tions of the text) of a Latin woman
:

foreign

By

principle, conversely,

son of a Latin and a Roman woman is by birth a Roman citizen, whether their marriage was contracted under the lex Aelia Sentia or otherwise. However, the law on this point is now determined by the senatusconsult passed on the proposition of the late Emperor Hadrian, which enacts that the son of a Latin and a
. . .

Hadrian's

amendment

under every hypothesis a Roman Consequently herewith Hadrian's senatusconsult provides that the offspring of the marriage of a Latin freedman with an alien woman, or of an

Roman woman
"

is

citizen.

"

Weiss,

op. cit. vol.


i.
:

i.

p. 35.

ita est, ut ex cive Romano et Gaius, 79 Latina qui nascitur Latinus nascatur, quamquam ad eos qui hodie

" Adeo autem hoc

Latini appellantur, lex Minicia

non pertinet
in

nam comprehendantur

non solum exterae nationes et gentes, sed etiam qui Latini nominantur ; sed ad alios Latinos pertinet, qui proprios populos propriasque civitates habebant
quidem peregrinorum appellatione
"
ea
lege
et

erant

peregrinorum numero
i.

(Mommsen's
:

restoration

in

the

earlier part of the section), Latino et cive Romana, sive


fuerit

80

" Eadem ratione ex contrario ex


aliter

ex lege Aelia Sentia sive


.
.
.

contractum

sed hoc iure utimur matrimonium, civis Romanus nascitur ex senatusconsulto, quo auctore divo Hadriano significatur, ut quoque modo ex Latino et cive Romana natus civis Romanus nascatur."
i.

81

"His

convenienter

etiam

illud

senatusconsultum

divo

Hadriano auctore
contra (qui) ex
sequatur."

significavit, ut (qui) ex Latino et peregrina, item peregrine et Latina nascitur, is matris condicionem

254
alien with

NATURALIZATION
a

IN

ROME

Latin freedwoman, follows his mother's

condition."
issue of union

womanaad

A special case of the second category is where the child was issue of the cohabitation (contubernium) of a Roman woman and a slave. If the general rule c partus sequitur ventrem were allowed to operate, such offspring would thereby become a Roman citizen ; but the senatuscon'

sultum

Claudianum provided

that

Roman woman,

cohabiting with another's slave, contrary to the wishes of his master, should be herself reduced to the servile condition ; should she, however, obtain authorization, her liberty was preserved, but her children of such union became slaves. 1 Hadrian restored, in this connection, the application of the general rule, so that a child of a Roman woman and a slave acquired the nationality of the mother. 2
Naturaiization in

Rome,

in Greece, citizenship was granted by Rome to individuals, or to greater or lesser masses of The conindividuals, or even to entire communities.

As

of Caracalla marks the final stage of this extension of citizenship, a movement which synchronizes with the expansion of the Roman Empire.
stitution
Conquered
nations.

citizens

conquered peoples could become naturalized on condition of their becoming permanently established on Roman territory, that is in the city or in But with the increase of conits immediate vicinity. and the subjugation of larger and larger bodies quests of people, this condition naturally became impossible to
first

At

fulfil

so that towards the fourth century, after the

dissolution of the Latin


Municipia.

League in 338 B.C., their counwere constituted municipia, and citizenship was, in greater or lesser extent, bestowed on them. It seems that the earliest municipia received full
tries
*

citizenship,
1

civitas

cum

suffragio,' the political as well


i,

Paulus, Sententiae,n. 21,

13, 17.

Cf. Tacit. Ann.

xii.

53.

Gaius, i. 82, 83, 84 ; cf. Just. Cod. vii. 24 ; Just. Inst. iii. 12. i. For other less important provisions on this subject, see Gaius, i. 85, 86 ; and cf. Weiss, op. cit. vol. i. p. 37.

NATURALIZATION
as the private privileges

IN

ROME

255

of the

ius civile*

Later munidpia

were debarred from


to

all

citizenship,

and

the political privileges incidental were thus reduced to a kind of


'civitas

passive

citizenship

sine

suffragio'

so

that

were allowed to enjoy only a 2 the first examples of this Among partial independence. 3 was Caere in Etruria. But by the sixth century policy the munidpia sine suffragio had almost disappeared.
communities of
this nature

In 90 B.C. the lex lulia* granted citizenship to all the Allies and Latin allies who had remained faithful to Rome, provided they adopted the Roman jurisprudence ; 6 and in the following year a plebiscite, the lex Papiria Plautia, Lex Pla carried by Carbo and M. Plautius Silvanus, extended this concession to the people of the federate towns, including practically all the inhabitants of Italy. According to Cicero's statement of this enactment, admission to civitas required the prior fulfilment of certain conditions, to be a citizen of an allied town, to be domiciled in e.g. Italy, and to make a declaration to the praetor, within 6 sixty days, of the intention to acquire citizenship. In the later period of the Republic grants of citizen- Later period
ship became
:

of

still

more frequent.

The

privilege

given to the inhabitants of Gallia Transpadana, and to 'the Veneti 7 (49 B.C.), to the people of Gades, of Sicily, and other countries. Sometimes it was capriciously "data cunctis promisgiven or sold to entire peoples, cue civitas romana." 8
1

g rants

Liv. vi.

26

viii.
cit.

14; Cic. Pro


vol
i.

Plancto, 8.

2 3

Cf. Weiss, op.

p.

286.

Caerites esse factos accipimus

municipes sine suffragii iure concessumque illis, ut civitatis Romanae honorem quidem caperent. ..." 4 On the political situation of the Italian towns after the lex lulia,
;ee
5
6

Aul. Gell. xvi.

13:" Primes autem

Marquardt, op. Cic. Pro Balbo,


Pro Archia, 4
:

cit.

vol.

i.

pp. 58

seq.

8.

" Data

est civitas Silvani

lege et Carbonis

si

qui

"oederatis civitatibus adscript! fuissent, si turn, cum lex ferebatur, in talia domicilium habuissent et si sexaginta diebus apud praetorem
:ssent professi."
7

Dion

Cassius, xli. 36.

Aurel. Viet.

De

Caesaribus, 16.

256
Lavish

NATURALIZATION

IN

ROME

early Empire,

Similarly, the less comprehensive but important privig es of Latinity (Latinitas, or Latium) were lavishly bestowed on peoples in the early Empire, thus
le

preparing

for the conferring of full citizenship. Tacitus reprovingly refers to the frequent grants

the

way

Thus made

caracaiia's on<

" Latium multis civitatibus dedit," and also by Vespasian, who extended the concession to the whole of Spain. 3 Finally, the growth of Roman cosmopolitanism, the development of the imperial policy, the strivings to attain to harmony and stability of universal dominion, more fiscal considerations rendered posand, especially, sible the extension of citizenship, by the constitution of 4 all to the free Caracalla, subjects of the Roman Empire. As a French writer observes, it was the fiscal policy of Rome which facilitated the realization by a despot of a democratic ideal which had cost the lives of men like the two Gracchi and Drusus (whose intention it had been to give the Roman franchise to the Latins and the

The same was who the policy pursued by Hadrian, gave right to
by
Vitellius,
1

"Latium vulgo

dilargiri."

numerous

cities,

"

Socii).

L'esprit fiscal etait

devenu

le serviteur incon-

scient

du progres.

Un despote avait realise paisiblement

et avec plus d'etendue la pensee democratique qui avait valu une mort violente aux deux Gracchus et au tribun

Drusus." 5
Roman
f

It

must be noted,

careless bestowal

Romans

in view of the seemingly lavish and of these rights, that at no time did the consider the gift of small consequence. Even

during their most universalizing tendencies they carefully discriminated between the citizen and the noncitizen, between the individuals who had duly acquired citizenship, and those who had not done so, or those who
l

Hist.

iii.

55.
3

Spartian, Had. 21.

Cf. Plin. Hist. nat.

iii.

4.

Dig.

peratoris
5

5, 17 Antonini
i.
:

"In
cives
vol.

orbe

Romano

qui sunt ex constitutione imCf.

Romani
i.

effecti sunt."

Dion

Cass. Ixxvii. 9.

Accarias, op.

tit.

p. 94.

LATIN PEREGRINS' CITIZENSHIP

257

had fraudulently exercised its rights. Thus Claudius 1 prohibited foreigners from adopting Roman names, especially the nomina gentilicia ; and those who falsely pretended to be citizens of Rome he caused to be beheaded on the Esquiline.

Apart from slaves of thirty years' service on whom HOW Latin manumission in due and proper form conferred citizen- ^quK
5

the Latin peregrins could obtain it in various (It has already been pointed out that when a ways. Latinus receives citizenship he is usually described as obtaining the ius Quiritium? and when it is conceded to a peregrin proper, the term generally employed is
ship,
civitas.}

citizenship,

Ulpian enumerates several methods

3
:

" Latins
:

obtain

Roman

grant of the
a

citizenship in the following ways emperor, by children, by iteration

by
(or

by military service, by a ship, by building, by the trade of baking ; and, besides, in virtue of a senatusconsult, a woman obtains it iby bearing three children." (" Latini ius Quiritium
remanumission),

consequuntur
iteratione,

his

modis

beneficio principal}, liberis,


;

militia,

nave, aedificio, pistrino


sit

praeterea

ex senatusconsulto, mulier quae

ter enixa.")

This method applied Eeneficio principali* Latini coloniarii than to Latini luniani (that
*ularly

more
is,

to

irre-

manumitted

slaves, or those

emancipated by a

naster deprived of quiritary property). In the case of the Latini coloniarii succession dell

^olved

according

to

the

civil

law

but as to the

l^atini luniani, naturalized by imperial grant, citizenKhip became extinct with their death, so that their

property went to their patrons, iure peculiiy unless the fatter had consented to their previous naturalization.
3

Sueton. Claud. 25

"
:

Peregrinae conditionis homines vetuit usur-

I
*

tare

Romana nomina dumtaxat gentilicia. Civitatem Romanam surpantes in campo Esquilino securi percussit."
2
3

In Gaius,
Reg.
iii.

i.

32
2.

b, for

example,
i.

civitas

is

used in reference to Latins.

I.
iii.

Cf. Gaius,

28.

Ulpian,

258

LATIN PEREGRINS' CITIZENSHIP


a

" Sometimes

u who has Gaius, enjoyed the full citizenship dies in the condition of a freedman," says
:

Latinus lunianus as, for example, a Latinus lunianus has by imperial grant acquired citizenship, without For, by a conprejudice to the rights of his patron. stitution of the Emperor Trajan, a Latinus lunianus

who

who

receives

the

quiritary status

by imperial grant

without his patron's consent or knowledge, resembles during his lifetime other fully enfranchised freedmen, and begets legitimate children, but dies in the condition of a Latinus lunianus, having no children who can inherit ; and he has testamentary capacity only to the extent of instituting his patron heir, and naming a substitute to him in case of his renouncing the inheritance." "But as the effect of this constitution," he continues, " seemed to be that such a person could never die in possession of the full citizenship even though he subsequently acquired the title to which 2 the lex Aelia Sentia or the senatusconsult annexes the right of Roman citizenship, the Emperor Hadrian, to mitigate the harshness of the law, passed a senatusa freedman who received a grant of from the Emperor without the knowledge citizenship his of or consent patron, on subsequently acquiring lex Aelia Sentia or the senatusthe the title to which consult, if he had remained a Latinus iunianus, would have annexed the rights of citizenship, should be consult
that
to have originally acquired citizenship, by the title of the lex Aelia Sentia or the senatusconsult."
5

deemed

iii. 72 Aliquando tamen civis Romanus libertus tamquam Latinus moritur, velut si Latinus salvo iure patroni ab imperatore ius nam, ut divus Traianus constituit, si Quiritium consecutus fuerit. Latinus, invito vel ignorante patrono ius Quiritium ab imperatore

"

consecutus

sit

[quibus casibus]

Romanis

libertis similis est et

Latini iure, nee habet testamenti factionem, ad patronum heredem instituat eique, heres esse noluerit, alium substituere possit."
2
3

vivit iste libertus, ceteris civibus iustos liberos procreat, moritur autern ei liberi eius heredes esse possunt ; et in hoc tantum
si

dum

The "Et

Cf. i. 31. senatusconsult passed in the reign of Vespasian. ne umquam quia hac constitutione videbatur effectum, ut

HOW
Liberis.

LATINS BECAME CITIZENS


*

259

Junian Latins could obtain the status of Li the procedure erroris causae probatio,' which Gaius 1 attributes to the lex Aelia Sentia y and 2 Ulpian to the lex lunia Norbana. It was incumbent on the Junian Latin to prove that he had married " " uxorem liberorum quaerendorum causa ducere a woman whose status was either superior or equal

Romans by

to

his

own

(that

is,

either

Latin), and that of

this

or a executed in accordmarriage,
a

Roman woman

ance with certain specified formalities, a child was born and had reached the age of one year (anniculus). In this way he acquired citizenship not only for himself, but also for his wife and children.

by remanumission, which, of course, also Should there have been to the Junian Latins. applied in the inherent defect original manumission of a any
Iteration i.e.

slave,

either

could be remedied by a second emancipation, on the part of the quiritary owner, if the first manumission had held the slave only in bonis (i.e. in bonitary or natural ownership as distinguished from
it

statutory,

civil,

or quiritary

ownership),

or

effected

by any of the solemn modes


dication), censu (registry

by
3

vindicta (fictitious vinthe censor), or testamento

(testamentary disposition).

By the following the franchise:


Militia.

methods every Latin could obtain HOW an Latins

SSSi"""
Visellia,
Militia.

introduced by 1L. Visellius Varro in the time of Claudius, a Latin was awarded citizenship if he had served six years in
isti

In virtue of the lex

homines tamquam

cives

Romani morerentur, quamvis eo

iure

"postea usi essent, quo vel ex lege Aelia Sentia vel ex senatusconsulto :ives Romani essent, divus Hadrianus iniquitate rei motus auctor fuit

;enatusconsulti faciendi, ut qui ignorante vel recusante patrono ab mperatore ius Quiritium consecuti essent, si eo iure postea usi essent, }uo ex lege Aelia Sentia vel ex senatusconsulto, si Latini mansissent,
:ivitatem

Romanam

ege Aelia
'enissent."
1
i.

consequerentur, proinde ipsi haberentur ac si Sentia vel senatusconsulto ad civitatem Romanam per2 8

29.

Reg.

iii.

3.

Cf. Gaius,

i.

35

Ulpian,

iii.

4.

26o

ACQUISITION OF CITIZENSHIP

Nave.

Aediftcio.

the Roman guards ; later, this term was by a senatusconsult reduced to three years. 1 Nave. By an edict of the Emperor Claudius, a Latin having built a ship of the burden of at least 10,000 modii, and imported corn in it to Rome for 2 six years, received Roman citizenship. when a Latin possessed 20,000 sesterces, AedificiO)

and devoted half


suburbs. 3
Pistrino.

to building a

house

in

Rome

or

its

Pistrino

supplying
Mulier
enixa.
ter

Rome

by building a mill and a bakehouse, and with their produce for three years.*

Mulier ter enixa. By a senatusconsultum, a Latin mother who had given birth to three children acquired 5
the franchise.
Magistratibus
c

Magistratibus
gestis.

gestis.

By

the
in

lex

lulia,

had exercised magistracies


(

their

Latins who own communities


')

magistratibus

in

sua

civitate

gestis

acquired

the

6 rights of citizenship.

How ordinary peregrins acquired


citizenship.

Not so well favoured as the Latins, peregrins proper could avail themselves of only two methods for the individual acquisition of the Roman franchise firstly, by the procedure of 'erroris causae probatio,' and secondly, by an act of a properly constituted Roman
:

authority.
Militia ius Quiritium accipit Latinus, (si) inter 5: sex annis militaverit, ex lege Visellia. Praeterea ex vigiles senatusconsulto concessum est ei ut, si triennio inter vigiles mili1

Ulpian,

iii.

"

Romae
ius

taverit,
c. 3,

Quiritium consequatur."

Cf. the statute, 13 Geo.

II.

by which it was provided that every foreign seaman who in time of war had served for two years on board an English vessel, as well as all foreign protestants having served two years in a military capacity in the American colonies, were naturalized. " nave Latinus civitatem Romanam 2 si iii. 6
Ulpian,
:

accipit,

non minorem quam decem milium modiorum navem fabricaverit, et Romam sex annis frumentum portaverit ex edicto divi Claudii."Cf. the English law by which all foreign protestants who had been
engaged for three years in whale-fishing were naturalized, except the capacity for holding public office.
3
5

as to

Gaius,

i.

33
iii.

Ulpian,

iii.

i.

4 6

Gaius,
Gaius,

i.
i.

34
95.

Ulpian,

iii.

i.

Ulpian,

i.

BY ORDINARY PEREGRINS

261

Erroris causae probatio. This procedure dates from Erroris causae ^a the lex Aelia Sentia (4 A.D.), according to Ulpian, 1/>r 2 though Gaius refers it to a later senatusconsult. When at the time of his marriage a Roman citizen was mistaken as to the nationality of his wife, whom he believed to be a citizen, when she was in reality a Latin or a

peregrin proper, he could, by proving his mistake before a magistrate after the birth of a child, transfer his

marriage
nuptiae,' children.

('

iure

gentium

')

into

the

civil

iustae

and thus acquire

citizenship for his wife

and

This provision was not extended, however, to peregrini


dediticii.

Act of Roman authority. At the time of the kings, By Act Roman people voted as to the admission of new citizens proposed by the king. After the reforms of
the

of

Servius Tullius, the right which had before vested in the comitia curiata was transferred to the comitia
centuriata.

Under the Republic similar principles were in force, under the Re Pubhc Naturalization was granted on a vote by the people, in earlier times in the comitia centuriata^ and later in the comitia tributa? It is uncertain whether the senate,
-

under the Republic, shared with the people in the right to grant citizenship, or whether the censors could admit
4

peregrins. On certain occasions, however, this power was dele- DeiegationW authomygated to magistrates, as, for example, to the triumvirs in

and

the founding of colonies ('tresviri coloniae deducendae'), also, at times, to the military commanders. Thus, Q. Fulvius Nobilior, founder of the colonies of

Pisaurum
(184

and

Potentia,

inscribed

in

B.C.) in order to confer citizenship


2

one of them on him, the

Mii. 4.
3

i.

67.
i

Cic.

Pro Balboj 24;


ii.

Liv.

viii.

17, 21

xxiii.

31

xxvii.

Velleius leius Paterculus,


4

16.
i.

Cf. Weiss, op.

cit.

vol

pp. 290, 291,

who

denies

it

in each case.

262

ACQUISITION OF CITIZENSHIP
1

On the motion poet Ennius, a native of Calabria. of the tribune Appuleius Saturninus, the people passed a decree authorizing Marius to bestow citizenship on three individuals in each of the colonies which he was charged to establish (101 B.C.) after the war with the 2 Cimbri. similar authorization, but of a more extensive character, was made to Pompey at the time of his

command

number of

in Spain, to grant the franchise to a certain In this case, however, he was individuals.

obliged to get the opinion of his council of war. " Nascitur, iudices, causa Corneli ex ea lege, quam L. Gellius Cn. Cornelius ex senatus sententia tulerunt qua lege videmus satis esse sancti, ut cives Romani sint ii, quos Cn. Pompeius de consilii sententia singillatim 3 civitate donaverit." It is very probable that Pompey obtained a like authority in the case of other countries besides Spain. Thus in Sicily where he was commander after Sulla's return from Asia, he bestowed the privilege
:

on

certain people,

who thereupon assumed

his family

under

the

Again, later when sent against Mithridates he conferred citizenship on the historian Theophanes of Lesbos. Cicero mentions other cases of generals who exercised the same functions, but 5 When these go back to the time of the Social War. entire communities, and sometimes even provinces (as in the case of Gallia Transpadana), were awarded the franchise by a general, there is no doubt that such grant had to be subsequently ratified by an appropriate of which an example is seen in legislative measure ; the case of the people of Gades. 6 Under the Empire, the will of the emperors was

name (nomen

gentilicium)*

Empire.

They became all-powerful in this as in other respects. virtue of the the sole By practically legislative organ.
1

Cic. Brut. 20, 79.


: .

Cic. Pro Balbo, 20, 2 1 ". . qua lege Saturninus C. Mario tulerat, ." ut in singulas colonias ternos cives Romanes facere posset. Cf. Plut. Mar. 28.
. .

Cic. Pro Balboy 8.

Cic. In Verr.

ii.

Pro Balbo, 22

cf.

Pro Archly 10.

iv. 8, 42 Dion Cass.


;

1 1,

22. 24.

xli.

BY ORDINARY PEREGRINS
<

263

(referred to above), they could either to individuals or to entire cities, citizenship grant 1 to dediticii liberti. however, except,

beneficium principale

'

time to time additional methods were adopted Further means the admission of peregrins. Thus by ftStftJSBL10 disposition of the lex Acilia repetundarum* (123-2 B.C.)
for securing

From

was awarded to a peregrin, through whose instrumentality a conviction was obtained of a magisIn like manner it was trate accused of peculation.
citizenship

granted to Latins by the later lex Servilia (in B.C.). Women, equally with men, could in certain cases
receive

Grants to

won citizenship, apart from marriage relationships. Cicero mentions a law, carried on the proposition of the praetor urbanus, conferring citizenship on a woman, who came from the allied Greek town of Velia, in the
Italy, in order to permit her to become 3 of Ceres. priestess Emancipated dediticii (that is, those who had been slaves and had taken up arms against Rome, and had been defeated and surrendered 4 ) were entirely debarred from the privilege of Roman citizenship, as well as from Latinity, " nunquam aut cives Romanos aut

south

of

Emancipated
debarred,

5 Latinos fieri dicemus. ." Certain classes of foreigners were sometimes subject to special regulations. Thus, the Gauls were admitted to citizenship on the condition (apart from the other
.
.

Special rules as

necessary qualifications) that they renounced their national religion, the druidical worship ; and the
See supra, p. 232, and infra, chap. xxiv. ad Jin. to the lex Acilia,tf. Girard, Textes de droitromam (Paris, 1890), pp. 40, 41. 8 Pro Balbo, 24 "... proxime dico ante civitatem Veliensibus
2
1

As

datam de senatus sententia C. Valerium Flaccum praetorem urbanum nominatim ad populum de Calliphana Veliense, ut ea civis Romana Cf. Orelli, op. cit. no. 3038 "Valeria C. L. Lycisca esset, tulisse."
:
||

XII.
dedit
4

annorum
et
||

nata

||

Romam
.

veni

||

quae mihi iura dedit


.

civis.

mihi vivae

quo
1

inferrer

turn

||

cum

parvola
i.

facta

ceinis."

Cf. Gaius,

i.

14, 15,

6.

Gaius,

i.

15.

Cf. Ulpian,

14.

26 4

EFFECT OF NATURALIZATION

Egyptians, only after previously being enrolled citizens of Alexandria. 1


Records.

of naturalization were usually engraved on tablets, and set up in the public place and sometimes in temples (as the Greeks did). Livy relates that after the defeat at Trisanum (B.C. 340) of a tumultuary army by the consul Torquatus, and the surrender of Latins and Campanians, the Campanian horsemen were exempted from punishment, because they had not revolted, and the rights of citizenship were granted to them ; and as a memorial, a brazen tablet was hung up in the temple of Castor at Rome. 2
acts

The

bronze

Effect of
lon *

naturalized alien was placed, with regard to both private and public rights, practically on the same footing as natural-born citizens. was capable of the same

The

He

Full
citizenship.

of the Romans, of quiritary ownership (dominium ex iure Quiritium\ the right to vote in the comitia (ins suffragii), the right to institute public actions before the assembly of the
regular marriage
(iustae nuptiae) as that

people, the right to occupy the various magistracies, with the probable exception, in earlier times, of the In later times, naturalized position of senators. it were, foreigners appears, even admitted to the dignity

of senators.

Thus, Tacitus reports

a speech

of Claudius

in the senate, on the admission of foreigners to citizen" Without ship, to this effect : searching the records of

antiquity,

of Etruria, of have been incorItaly, 3 into the senate." And, porated again, speaking of the of Rome in the year 22 A.D., Tacitus degeneration
that

we know

the
all

nobles

Lucania, and, in short,

of

6 " Sed cum annos eius et censum, sicut praeei ceperas, ederem, admonitus sum a peritoribus debuisse me ante Alexandrinam civitatem impetrare, deinde Romanam, quoniam
1

Plin. Epist. x.

esset
2

Aegyptius."
viii.

Liv.

"
:

mentoque
3

ut esset,
xi.
:

Equitibus Campanis civitas Romana data, monuaeneam tabulam in aede Castoris Romae fixerunt.
et

Ann.

omni

Italia

" Et ne vetera scrutemur, Etruria Lucaniaque 24 senatum in accitos."

EFFECT OF NATURALIZATION
"
:

265

At the same time a new race of men from observes the municipal towns, the colonies, and the provinces found their way not only into Rome, but even into the
senate."
l

obtained citizenship without the citizenship political privileges (cimtas sine suffragio) shared many ^SJS rights important civil rights (apart from the positive rights included in their grant), such as the right to appeal to the assembly of the people from the decisions of magistrates (jus provocationis), the power of escaping from penalties inflicted upon them by voluntary exile (jus exsilifyy and they also received the protection of the lex Portia, which enacted that a Roman citizen must not be beaten to death, and that of the lex Sempronia (123 B.C.), which provided that no attempt should be made on the life of a citizen without the permission of
those
the people. As a general rule, the grant of the franchise was an The
exclusively personal privilege, operating only in favour of the individual designated in the act. To extend the
privilege to his wife and children, sert a special clause to that effect.
grant

Even

who had

p^S

are frequently 2 naturalization,

found in and especially so

was necessary to inSuch clauses, however, extant documents relating to


it

in certificates conferring

citizenship term of service.

on peregrin 3

soldiers at the expiration of their

The present chapter has shown that certain important elements of private international law were clearly recognized by Rome, and that these elements, moreover, furnished the fundamental basis of the law and practice <of modern States with regard to questions of domicile, have seen that the nationality, and naturalization.

We

1 Ann. iii. 55:" Simul novi homines e municipiis et coloniis atque etiam provinciis in senatum crebro adsumpti." p 2 " Cf. Plin. Epist. x. 6 (C. Plinius Traiano Ago Imperatori)
:

gratias,

domine, quod
et

et

ius

Quiritium

libertis

necessariae

tfeminae
3

civitatem

Romanam
vol.
i.

Harpocrati, iatraliptae

mihi meo, sine


no. 9 (a

mnora indulsisti."
Cf.
Orelli, op.
dt.

no.

2652; Renier,

op.

tit.

266

FUNDAMENTAL

PRINCIPLES

Romans carefully discriminated between the ius originis and the ius domicilii, matters which were in and for our own age developed with such fruitful results by the great jurist Savigny. We have seen the extent of our indebtedness to the Roman conception of factum and animus in the acquisition of domicile ; to the treatment of plurality of domiciles ; and to the regulation of the domicile of a husband's wife and children. We have
seen the gradual development of rules relating to the nationality of origin, in conformity with the demands of the ius gentium ; and the establishment of a systematized practice as to concessions of citizenship, and the formalities and public authorization necessary thereto.
portion

of the

first

outside

Gragnano in 1750, and now " Ti. Claudius Caesar

at the

page of such a certificate found at Naples Museum)


:

Aug(ustus) Germanicus, pontifex maxim(us), trib(unicia) pot(estate) XII, imp(erator)

XXVII,

pater patriae, censor, co(n)s(ul) Trierarchis et remigibus, qui militave-

V,

runt in

classe,

quae

est

Miseni sub Ti.


sub-

lulio, Aug(usti) lib(erto), optato, et sunt dimissi

honesta missione,

quorum nomina

scripta sunt, ipsis, liberis posterisque eorum civitatem dedit, et connubium

cum cum

uxoribus, quas tune habuissent


est civitas iis data, aut, si

caelibes essent,

cum

iis

qui quas postea


.
.

duxissent,

dum

taxat singuli singulas,


.

."

etc.

CHAPTER

XII

ROME AND FOREIGNERS. JURISDICTION. PERSONAL AND TERRITORIAL LAW. CONFLICTS OF LAWS
development and the applicability in general of the Gradual gentium and the legal position of the different jJ^J classes of peregrins have already been considered. It aliens has been pointed out that in the earlier epochs of ancient States the attitude to foreigners was marked by
ius
-

THE

severity, that a

more or less rigid exclusiveness then that the ever-increasing intercourse obtained, usually and communication, in warlike as well as in peaceful relationships, tended to promote the adoption of various relaxations, that the institutions of hospitium and clientela
possible, and soon exerted a profound on the conceptions and ideals of international conduct, so that a universal desire was fostered for entering into formal treaties of peace, of alliance, of it has commerce been pointed out that the institution of recuperatores^ was established to examine the disputes in which foreigners were involved, and thus

were

made

influence

finally

in

xenodikai

in

the praetor peregrinus (somewhat like the Greece), a more permanent and more
efficacious jurisdiction

comprehensive and
to

was

set

up
of

meet

the

growing

demands

of

all

classes

peregrins.

Becker has pointed out, that the shorter The title title, praetor peregrinus, is first found in inscriptions of the time of Trajan (98-117 A.D.). In the older laws
It appears, as
1

On

recuperatores, see infra, chap. xvii.

adfn.

268

THE PEREGRIN PRAETOR


c

is more fully designated praetor qui inter peregrines (as also inter cives et peregrines) ius dicit,' and the urban praetor is likewise described as

the alien praetor

Origin of

praetor qui inter cives ius dicit.' The date of the origin of the praetor peregrinus 1 is not certain ; but it would seem from a passage in 2 Lydus that the office was first instituted in 247 B.C.

'

In the view of Niebuhr, this came about merely through reasons of political necessity, the main cause
being the desire to destroy or mitigate the excessive

power of many Roman citizens of aristocratic stock, who had become the patrons of large numbers of But the explanation given by Pomforeign clients. ponius is more probably correct, viz. the inadequacy
of the urban praetor to cope with the necessities of the constantly increasing multitude of foreigners, which, consequently, brought about the appointment of a
special official for that purpose.

"...

Non

sufficiente

Appointment
410

**

peregrin
praetor.

eo praetore quod multa turba etiam peregrinorum in civitatem veniret, creatus est et alius praetor qui peregrinus appellatus est ab eo, quod plerumque inter peregrinos ius dicebat." Like the praetor urbanus, whose province became practically confined to affairs between citizens, the
;

praetor peregrinus was nominated every year by the comitia centuriata^ on the day following the election of
sortitio proLater, at the time of the his elected and he was lot, vinciarum,' department by

the consuls.

'

and jurisdiction were specially assigned. 4 He enjoyed the same rank as the urban praetor, save that the latter had the prior right to discharge the functions of consuls
1

the praetor peregrinus and his influence on the development F. C. Conradi, De praetore peregrino ; Rodiere, loc. dt. ; C. de Boeck, Le preteur peregrin (Paris, 1882); F. Faure, Essai historique sur le preteur romain (Paris, 1878), pp. 92 seq.

On

of the

ius gentium, see

De magistratibus
Dig.
i.

populi romani libri

tres.

2. 2. 28.

Liv. xxii.
ii.

35;
pt.
i.

Staafsr. vol.

30; pp. 208 seq.

xxiii.

xxxii.

28.

Cf.

Mommsen,

Rom.

HIS JURISDICTION
in their absence,
1

269

and

also could alone celebrate certain

games and

sacrifices.
other duties n
hTm.

the praetor peregrinus from time to time other duties. Thus the command various performing of Roman legions was occasionally entrusted to him ; 2 and, as Livy tells us, he was sometimes engaged in the
find
in the raising of troops, in the equipping of ships, 6 of At times servile insurrections. he acted as quelling
8

We

master of the mint, as superintendent of the distributions of corn (frumentationes), and as guardian of the 6 temples and public monuments. Again, he was, on certain occasions, charged with diplomatic missions or For example, in other functions of a like character. 181 B.C., he introduced to the senate deputies from 7 in 172 B.C. he took charge of the transalpine Gaul; installation of the son of the king of Cappadocia, 8 in 179 B.C. he conveyed Ariarathes, and of his suite ; to the Ligurians the ambiguous pronouncement of the
9 senate in reply to their request for perpetual peace ; he was sent to Numidia to bring Jugurtha back to

Rome. 10
exercised

And,
by him,

arising out of such

duties, a

certain

international

again judicial as when he investigated the complaints made against the Illyrians of acts of brigandage, 11 and decided as to the expulsion of foreigners whose presence
12

function

was

now and

was deemed to be detrimental to public


1

safety.

On

Cf. Girard, Histoire de


t.
i.

F organisation
;

judiciaire des Remains (Paris,

1901),
2 3 5

210, n. 3. Liv. xxi. 26. 43 ; xxvii. 7


p.
xl.

xxviii. 10.
4

Liv.

18

xlii.

27
6

xliii.

9.
ii.

Liv. xxvii. 22
i.

xlii.

27.

Liv. xxxiii. 26.


Liv.
xlii.

Cic. In Verrem,
10

50.

Liv. xxxix. 54.


xl.

19.

Liv. xl. 18.

Sail.
vii.

lug. 32.

n Liv.

37

seq.

"Neque illis 19; xv. solum temporibus nimis rudibus necdum Graeca disciplina expolitis philosophi ex urbe Roma pulsi sunt, verum etiam Domitiano
:

12

Liv. xxxix. 3.

Cf. Aul. Gell.

imperante senatusconsulto eiecti atque urbe et Italia interdicti sunt. tempestate Epictetus quoque philosophus propter id senatusconsultum Nicopolim Roma decessit." Val. Max. i. 3 ' Chaldaeos igitur Cornelius Hispalus urbe expulit et intra decem dies Italia abire iussit, ne peregrinam scientiam venditarent."

Qua

270

THE PEREGRIN PRAETOR


B.C.)

one ^occasion (187


compelled to leave

"

Rome,

twelve thousand Latins were as a result of his decision


:

conquisitione duodecim milia Latinorum domos redierunt, iam turn multitudine alienigenarum urbem

Hac

onerante."

jurisdictions of the two praetors were never at least till the time of the determined, clearly emperors, and scarcely ever sharply discriminated. The competence of the praetor peregrinus extended to ordinary peregrins, as well as to Latins or munidpes when in Rome. When the Latin peregrins remained in their

The

they were amenable to their local tribunals, praefecti iure dicundo appointed by the to administer civil justice in a certain urbanus praetor number of towns. 2 It was possible to proceed before the praetor peregrinus by the sacramentum (which was at first an actual stake or deposit liable to forfeiture, afterwards security Thus Gaius in his section on offered by the litigants).
or
to

own towns

the

fictions

says that only

two

cases

were

set

apart for

process, namely, apprehended damage and centumviral causes, and adds that the latter were still preceded by the statute process of sacramentum before the urban praetor or the peregrin praetor, as the case <c Tantum ex duabus causis permissum est may be. lege agere ; damni infecti et si centumvirale iudicium futurum est. sane quidem cum ad centumviros itur, ante lege agitur sacramento apud praetorem urbanum
statute

vel peregrinum (praetorem)." 3 this passage mainly bases his conclusion that peregrins had the " Sacraright to resort to the legls actiones in general

On

Mommsen

mento actum
est

apud praetorem peregrinum, id lege agere potuisse peregrinos quoque confirmat Gaius." 4 It is questionable, however, whether the
1

esse etiam

Liv. xxxix. 3.

Cf.

Mommsen, Rom.

Staatsr. vol.

ii.

p. 218,

Gaius,

iv.

(certain

minor

restorations of text have been

made

in this passage).
4

In

his

commentary on

Corp. inscrip. Lat. vol.

i.

p. 66, no. 23.

HIS JURISDICTION

271

sources referred to warrant the drawing of a generalization to this extent.

Usually the praetor peregrinus referred the litigants the recuperators, who have been described as the successors of the international judges of early Rome, " he>itiers des juges internationaux de la Rome
to "
l

Recuperators,

primitive.

He

applied the provisions of the ius gentium


it

and
'

The

praetor

by means of
law
till

his edicts gradually expanded this c gentile attained to a fully-developed system, which,

constantly enlarging its applicability and furnishing equitable solutions ultimately assumed a predominating As a French writer observes, in reference to position.

growth of the ius gentium and its final triumph over and absorption of the civil law, it was at first " Stranger aux rapports des citoyens entre eux, puis devenu le droit commun a tous les hommes libres qui ont acces aux tribunaux romains, envahit le domaine originairement rgi par le jus civile, engage avec lui un
the

combat victorieux, le supplante et 1'absorbe, sous le nom de jus romanum ce droit, a la


et universel,

et constitue, fois humain

2 qui a travers les siecles." But under the emperors, with their subtle and rigorous invasions into established institutions, with their all-transforming policy, the importance of the

Decline of

the

praJto^und Em P ire

praetor peregrinus began

to decline, and his judicial became more and more diminished. His competence office was subordinated to that of the praefectus urbi, instituted by Augustus and by the time of the Antonine constitution with its universalized franchise, it has so that what practically sunk into insignificance was formerly a magistracy of great power had (to use an expression of Boethius) declined to an empty name, " atque praefectura magna olim potestas, nunc inane "3 nomen.
; ;
.
.

In the application of the peregrin law in the classical


1

Weiss,

op. cit. vol. v. p. op. cit. p.

29.

C. de Boeck,

210.

De

consolatione,

iii.

4.

272
Application of

PEREGRIN
before
Caracalla's

LAW
of the

period

extension

Roman
less
it

franchise, different rules

involved.

And

and systems were more or


their application

in

considering

is

important to bear in mind that not only were peregrins proper subjected to this regime, but also people who

were

in alliance with Rome liberi et foe derail and preserved their autonomy, and who therefore were, in regard to the Romans, aliens (extern?). As Proculus says in " non dubito the Digest quin foederati et liberi nobis externi sint." x Again, sometimes communities
:

without being strictly liberi were permitted, in virtue of a formal concession by the lex provinciae, to retain their private law. By a senatusconsultum promulgated in 196 B.C. on the conclusion of the Macedonian war, this was the position of the Corinthians, the Phocaeans, the Locrians, the Euboeans, the Magnetes, the Thes2 salians, the Perrhaebi, and the Achaeans of the Phthiotis, a district in the south-east of Thessaly. From about
also the Chalcidians, 3 somewhat later 4 the Macedonians, in the time of Cicero (167 B.C.) Byzantium, Mytilene, Smyrna, Dyrrhachium (in Greek Patrae (in Achaea), Thermae, and most of the Illyria), Sicilian towns, under Trajan Amisus (on the coast of

the

same date

Pontus), and

many other cities besides enjoyed their which were either their original laws, or such laws, as had been conferred upon them by the Roman 5 As to the generals who had secured their submission. the the were civitates foederatae Carnuti, Gauls, amongst the Aedui, the Remi, the Lingones, the Vocontii ; and amongst the civitates liberae were the Santones, the Turones, the Bituriges Cubi and Bituriges Vivisci (or

own

Dlg. xlix. 15,/r.


Liv. xxxiii. 32.
:

Liv. xxxv. 46.

" omnium 4 Liv. xlv. 29 primum liberos esse iubere Macedonas, habentes urbes easdem agrosque, utentes legibus suis, annuos creantes
magistratus."
5

For

a full account of this

tion des

fdmmhen

organization, see Marquardt, OrganisaReichs (in Romische Staatsverwaltung).

PEREGRIN

LAW

273

1 And to these Ubisci), the Arverni, the Viducassi, etc. must be added the numerous cities which received the

thus forming a privileged class amongst foreign colonies are to be excepted from this category, as the Roman law was almost entirely 2 applied to them. It will be evident from these considerations that there were bound to be different systems and rules in force amongst the aliens in their respective countries. Under the circumstances, the contrary is scarcely conceivable. In many of the departments of private law there were differences, greater or lesser, between the Roman law and peregrin law, 3 and also between the various systems of peregrin law themselves. Thus in the Italian towns special rules prevailed in regard to marriage ; but these
ius latii,
cities.

The Roman

Peregrin law

n f a

^_

oman

divergence,

were, of course, abandoned when Roman citizenship was conferred on them. 4 Paternal authority was nowhere organized exactly as the patria potestas was in Rome ; nor was dominical power. In some communities, tutelage of minors could not be determined by testamentary disposition. Tutelage of women, in the strict
obtained.

was generally unknown ; at most a quasi-tutelage There were differences in the methods of and succession. adoption Conceptions of property and
sense,

possession varied considerably.

The Roman

distinction

was hardly anywhere 5 The adopted. provisions relating to wills varied from 6 to There were differences in contracts, in place place. the conception of their binding force, in the obligations imposed by them. Some contractual obligations were enforced in peregrin countries, and not admitted in Rome. And so on with other differences in the several branches of private jurisprudence.
in

between dominium and

bonis

For more detailed information, see Klipffel, fitude sur le regime municipal gallo-romain (in Nouvelle Revue histori que de droit fraitfais el efranger, Paris, 1878 and 1879, PP- 2 ^3 "?)
2

Cf.

Chenon,

be.

cit.

p.

216.
5

Cf.

Chenon,
6

op.

at. p. 217.

4 Aul. Cell. iv. 4.

Gaius,
S

ii.

40.

Ulpian, xx. 4.

274
Law
applied

PEREGRIN

LAW

The
plicity

to peregrins resident in

important question arises, in view of the multiof such variations and inconsistencies, what law

Rome.

is applied to the peregrins when residing temporarily or permanently in Rome ? The rights refused to aliens in Rome by the ius civile, and those conferred on them 1 The by the ius gentium have already been mentioned. principles of the ius gentium as administered by the praetor peregrinus were deemed to be applicable to

peregrins in general, either in disputes amongst themselves or between themselves and Roman citizens ; so that in regard to those matters covered by this special system there could scarcely arise conflicts of But Laurent goes too far when he says in his laws. u Les usual manner of rapid generalization Remains, aucune idee d'un les n'avaient Grecs, pas plus que droit personnel. Quant au droit des gens, c'etait un
: .

droit

a toutes les nations, le meme partout. Cela rendait tout conflit impossible entre les deux droits,

commun

But car le droit des gens faisait partie du droit civil." 2 his that conflicts made at the same admission, time, by were possible between peregrins belonging to different
Peregrin law
in

Rome.

communities, he undermines the very basis of his theory. Now peregrins when in Rome enjoyed many private

though exercised in a somewhat different manner, yet possessed the same substantial significance as the corresponding rights of the Roman civil law, and the same validity in respect of their legal sanction. So that in conformity with certain determined laws, aliens were enabled to contract marriages, to exercise of paternal and dominical authority, to avail themselves the rights of adoption, tutelage, of testamentary rights, " En un intestate succession, and so forth. mot, ils avaient eux aussi, leur jus civile peregrin, correspondant au jus civile remain." 3 As Gaius says in a passage where, however, a wider application is intended, the different people were governed partly by their own
rights which,
1

See supra, pp. 233

seq.
i.

Le

droit civil international, vol.


loc. cit.

102, 104.

Chenon,

p.

225.

POSSIBLE CONFLICTS OF
particular laws, partly by

LAW
to
all

275

those

common
et

men

populi, qui legibus partim suo proprio, partim communi omnium hominum And Justinian repeating the statement iure utuntur." to be in order more explicit, that civil law derives adds, its name from the State where it prevails, as, for example,
the civil law of Athens, it being quite correct thus to 2 designate Solon's or Draco's legislation.

Omnes

moribus reguntur,

We

side with the

therefore get a peregrin civil law existing side by Roman civil law. The two systems could

Possible

JUJ2J the

regulate
j

common
,

expressed,

the

institutions ; and, if it may be so peregrin law and the r ,. r totality or their points or coincidence Roman,
i

But as there represents the sphere of the ius gentium. and under the circumstances there could not was not,
possibly have been, a perfect analogy between the two systems and corresponding provisions relating to all

departments of civic and private life, a conflict of legislations would necessarily occur when there arose such i dispute, as to matters recognized in the Roman civil or exclusively in the peregrin civil law, that ((law only, :he existing ius gentium was incapable of application. Thus we find in Rome questions of the nature of private
nternational law, and deliberate attempts to provide a iolution to the difficulties involved.
3

In

some

cases
in

conflicts

were obviated by

special

HOW conflicts

>rovisions

anticipation of the possibility of such lifficulties arising, as, for example, when a treaty of lliance was entered into with Rome, or when the lex

lata

ome

was imposed by the Roman conqueror ; so that in cases more or less of the native law of the peoples oncerned was swept away, in other cases it was less
laborately modified or

supplemented by dispositions
Occasionally provincial

!>t>f

the
Dig.

Roman
i.

jurisprudence.

i. 9.

Inst.

i.

2.

" Sed

ius

quidem
;

civile
si

ex unaquaque civitate
quis
velit

ppellatur, veluti Atheniensium >raconis leges appellare ius civile


8

nam

Solonis

vel

Atheniensium, non erraverit."

Cf.

Chenon,

he.

cit.

p. 225.

276

HOW

CONFLICTS OBVIATED

governors were authorized to dispense with the peregrin civil law that prevailed in their districts, and regulate certain matters by means of special edicts intended to In this way new regulations were apply to everybody. laid down respecting the constitution of States, debts, usury, contracts, and various other matters, as Cicero mentions in one of his letters x "... Edicto Asiatico, extra quam si ita negotium gestum est, ut eo stari non
:

oporteat ex fide bona, multaque sum secutus Scaevolae, in iis illud, in quo sibi libertatem censent Graeci datam, ut Graeci inter se disceptent suis legibus. Breve autem

edictum

est propter
est

hanc

meam

dialpevtv

quod de duobus

generibus edicendum putavi, quorum


vinciale, in

unum

est pro-

de rationibus civitatum, de acre quo alieno, de usura, de syngraphis, in eodem omnia de ." publicanis. Again, Cicero relates, with regard to
.
.

the Sicilian towns, for instance, that if a dispute arose between two citizens of the same town, it was triec

common laws ; but if it were between of different towns, the praetor appointed judges by lot, in virtue of the decree of P. Rupilius, viz. the lex Rupilia. And should there be any difference betweei a private individual and an entire community, tl senate of a third city was to be chosen as judges arbitrators, in case the senates of the towns in questioi
according to their
citizens

are objected to. In any action by a Roman citizen again* a Sicilian, the judge was to be a Sicilian ; if the action is brought by a Sicilian against a Roman, the judge was

to be a Roman be selected from


iure sunt, ut,

other matters the judges were to among the Roman citizens (" Siculi hoc
in

quod civis cum cive agat, domi certet suis legibus ; quod Siculus cum Siculo non eiusdem civitatis, ut de eo praetor iudices ex P. Rupilii decreto, quod is de decem legatorum sententia statuit, quam legem illi
Rupiliam vocant, sortiatur. Quod privatus a populo a privato, senatus ex aliqua civitate, petit, aut populus
qui iudicet, datur,

quum
1

alternae civitates reiectae sunt.

Quod

civis

Romanus

a Siculo petit, Siculus iudex datur;


Attic, vi. i. 15.

Ad

1US

GENTIUM AND PEREGRIN LAW

277

quod Siculus a cive Romano, civis Romanus datur ; ceterarum rerum selecti iudices civium Romanorum ex " These provisions, based conventu proponi solent *).
largely

on equitable considerations, were (Cicero adds) overthrown under the praetorship of Verres.
Again, in the case of aliens in

Rome,

the ius gentium, The

where found inadequate or inoperative, was frequently supplemented or replaced by the lex peregrinorum, the law of origin (ius originis) of the peregrins in question. This concession to foreigners was due to the desire on the part of the Romans to grant them justice and equitIt was able treatment, as well as to political reasons. often bestowed on people who were subjugated and The work of brought under the Roman dominion. assimilation proceeded the more easily and thoroughly when such measures of tolerance were adopted, and respect for the national customs of the conquered were " Ita multae civitates shown. Thus Cicero writes omni acre alieno liberatae, multae valde levatae sunt
: .

omnes
their

" Graeci vero exsultant, quod pere3 grinis iudicibus utuntur." Pliny refers to the city of Amisus as being allowed to enjoy its own judicial system:

suis legibus et iudiciis usae avrovojULiav adeptae, " 2 and again as to the Greeks retaining revixerunt ;

own judges

lAmisinorum
bus utitur"
4
;

civitas et libera et foederata

suis legi-

and Livy enumerates many communities 5 mentioned (already above) treated on the same footing.

This policy explains the active coexistence within the Empire of Roman law and divers peregrin bodies of 6 law, and their application in accordance with the varying needs and changing conditions.
1

In Verrem,

ii.

z.

2 3.

Ad

Att. vi. 2. 4.

3
5

Ibid. vi. i. 15.

^Epist. x. 93.
.

xxxiii. 32 Senatus Romanus et T. Quinctius imperator Philippe rege Macedonibusque devictis liberos, immunes, suis legibus esse iubet Corinthios Phocenses Locrensesque omnis et insulam
: . .

"

Euboeam
6

et

Magnetas, Thessalos, Perrhaebos, Achaeos Phthiotas."


des internatlonakn Privatrechts,
p. 20.

von Bar, Theorie und Praxis Bde. (Hannover, 1889-1890)^0!. ii.


Cf. L.

278
When
an
to

LAW OF

ORIGIN AND OF DOMICILE

individual

belonged
different

communities

It has already been explained that an individual could be attached to a town by a twofold tie, origo and To belong to a town involved in general domicilium.

by

origin domicile.

and

subject to certain munera, to the local But in case a jurisdiction, and to its positive law. in to virtue of origo or several towns, person belonged domicilium^ he was liable to the munera and jurisdiction
his

being

and the same time to the

Savigny's view as to application of the law of


origin.

but he could not, of course, be subject at one legislations of the different As a rule, the defendant could be made communities. to appear before different magistrates at the election of But when brought before this or that the plaintiff. tribunal the question arises, in view of the coexistence of two or more systems of law, what particular body of rules is to be resorted to ; for the ius originis and the lex domicilii may provide different or even contrary To solutions to the particular matters in litigation. meet such a contingency, the territorial law adopted to adjust differences of this character was determined by Thus the law of origin and not by the domicile. an that when it as an fact held indisputable Savigny individual possessed citizenship and a domicile in different towns, the law of his own city governed the " Ich halte es nun fur application of the local law. unzweifelhaft dass das ortliche Recht, dem jede Person unterworfen seyn sollte, wenn diese Person in zwei verschiedenen Stadten das Biirgerrecht und den Wohnsitz hatte, durch das Biirgerrecht bestimmt wurde, nicht durch den Wohnsitz." 1 The reason for this is, as the same eminent writer points out, that origo is an older, earlier tie, originating with the birth of the person, as well as a stricter and superior one, since domicile is neces-

of each

will sarily subject to his arbitrary

and varying
engere,

"Erstlich war das Biirgerrecht das hoher stehende Band, verglichen mit

an

caprice. sich

dem von

Willkiir

und Laune abhangenden Wohnsitz.


das friihere

Zweitens war es Band, da es durch die Geburt gekntlpft


viii.

^System des heut. rom. Rechts, vol.

357, p, 87,

LAW OF

ORIGIN AND OF DOMICILE

279

wurde, der anderwarts vorhandene Wohnsitz erst spater durch eine freie Handlung entstanden sein konnte, weshalb das fur die Person einmal begriindete territoriale Recht hatte umgewandelt werden sollen." l There are
several texts that confirm this view.
. . .

Thus we

find in

et alio iure civitas eius utatur," where he Gaius " of no successor of the sponsor or fidepromissor speaks being bound, except the successor of an alien fide2 promissor in whose municipality such a rule prevails ; in

ut secundum leges civitatis suae testetur," 3 Ulpian ". where he refers to the validity of wills when made in conformity with the laws of the city ; in Justinian's Code, we find the rescript of Diocletian pointing out the applicability of the provisions of the municipal constitu" si non tion to the execution of testaments speciali
.
.

privilegio
testes

patriae
in

non

tuae iuris observatio relaxata est et conspectu testatoris testimoniorum officio


4

functi sunt, nullo iure testamentum valet." If this rule be admitted to be true, certain cases, as

Exceptional

Savigny observes, present themselves which do not a^pilc^ti^n* it. When an individual where appear to be covered by J plurality of enjoyed citizenship in several towns at the same time, citizenship e> t.g. in one by virtue of his birth, in another by adoption or admission, his oldest citizenship, that is, the one resulting from origo, was regarded as pre-eminent (" In einem solchen Falle wurde ohne Zweifel das friihere Borgerrecht, also das durch Geburt entstandene (die 5 there ," ). origo) als vorherrschend behandelt Again, if an where n< individual had no citizenship at all in any town, and possessed only a domicile in some country, then his ius domkilii was the determining factor (" Zweitens konnte Jemand ganz ohne stadtisches Biirgerrecht sein, wahrend er einen Wohnsitz hatte. In diesem Fall

......

is

Ibid.
:

2
si

Hi. 1 20 "... Sponsoris et fidepromissoris heres non tenetur nisi de peregrine fidepromissore quaeramus, et alio iure civitas eius
4
3.

utatur."
3

xx. 15.

Cf. infra, p. 292, note

Cod. Just.

vi.

23. 9.

Op.

cit.

357, p. 88.

280

APPLICATION OF PERSONAL
als

LAW

musste der Wohnsitz auf ihn anwendbare

Bestimmungsgrund fur "das personliche Recht gelten *). Further, as to an individual possessing no citizenship at all, but having a domicile either in several towns or
in

none

at

all,

we have no

direct evidence as to
(

Romans

treated such a case

u Wie die

bei ihnen gewiss seltene Falle lasst sich aus unsern Rechtsquellen nicht "2 telbare Zeugnisse nachweisen ).
Applicability

how the Romer solche, beurtheilt haben mogen r


durch unmit-

This personal or national law 3 was mainly applicable to tnose peregrins invested with the same origo it could scarcely be operative in the case of those of different nationality, and in the relationships between Roman citizens and peregrins. Further, as Girard 4 points out, it had no validity in the case of such dediticii as were exempted from the local juridical system, which was of rare occurrence under the Empire, the only instance being that of the Jews, after the 5 nor in the case of those who taking of Jerusalem, were condemned to deportation at the time of the
;

Emperors.
1

Savigny,
3

op. tit.

357, p. 88.

Ibid.

On

Roman
1891).
4

the relationships of the various systems of national law to the civil law under the Empire, cf. L. Mitteis, Reichsrecht und

Volksrecht In den ostlichen Provinzen des romlschen Kaiserreichs (Leipzig,.

Manuel

elem.

de dr.

rom. p.

in

" Elle

etait

surtout relative

aux rapports des peregrins de meme cite ou tout au moins de meme Elle etait a peu pres sterile pour ceux des peregrins de nationalite. Elle 1'etait race differente, pour ceux des peregrins et des citoyens. tout a fait pour les p6regrins qui ne faisaient partie d'aucune cite,, c'est-a-dire pour les etrangers annexes qui, apres leur capitulation n'avaient pas re9u de statut local et qui etaient assez rares (dediticii) pratiquement, dont il n'y a pas d'exemple sous 1'Empire, sauf peutetre les Juifs depuis la prise de Jerusalem, et pour les citoyens qui avaient perdu la cite a titre de peine sans en acquerir une autre r comme c'est le cas des deportes de TEmpire."
5

On
Dig.

the

condition

Zeitschrift
6

(Munich, 1890),
seq.

of the Jews, p. 424, n.

cf.

Mommsen,

in

Historischf

i.

xlviii.

19 (de poenis), 17.

i.

On

loss

of citizenship, see

supra, pp. 211

CARACALLA'S CONSTITUTION
With
the Antonine constitution
1

281

the application of Effect of the the local systems of law was naturally to a large extent camSia the application diminished, but they can by no means be said to have of the local i-ij 'TM ^ The question whether Cara-iaw. been abolished entirely. calla's gift of the Roman franchise changed the personal

law is a subject of controversy. Savigny, for example, Savigny's view. held that it did not, whilst Von Bar's view is to the von Bar's view In the opinion of the former, the personal contrary.
'

rights of a municeps who enjoyed Roman citizenship, as well as his native rights, were not determined by his

Roman

citizenship, but

by

his

ius originis.

The

later

writer maintains, however, that this opinion is impaired, in the first place, by the fact that a prominent meaning

was attached to

Roman

citizenship in relation to private

rights towards the end of the Empire, and, secondly, by the fact that the real object of the Antonine constitution was to extract succession duties from aliens as well as from Roman citizens. And how could the Roman law of succession, asks Von Bar, have been extended to the citizens of the municipia y if the laws of the family and of legal and commercial capacity were not also (" Dieser Ansicht regulated by Roman jurisprudence ? widerstreitet in der spateren Kaiserzeit, wo feste politische Rechte des Einzelnen wenig in Frage kamen, die vorherrschend privatrechtliche Bedeutung der Civitat, und vollends der bekannte Zweck der Constitution von Caracalla, welcher namentlich die von rftmischen Erbschaften bezahlten Steuern auch von denen der PereWie hatte aber das romische grinen beziehen wollte. Erbrecht auf die Burger der Municipien angewendet werden konnen, wenn nicht auch ihr Familienrecht und ihre pers6nliche Rechts- und Handlungs-fahigkeit nach romischen Rechte beurtheilt ware ?" 8 ) The same writer urges, as an additional argument against Savigny,
1

On
230

the rights allowed to peregrins before Caracalla, see supra,


sej.
viii.

pp.
2 8

System des heut. rom. Rec/its, vol.

357.

L. von Bar, Thccr.

u.

Prax>

d. int.

Privatr.

n,

p. 21, n.

6.

282

CRITICISM OF

MODERN VIEWS

the fact, recorded by Aulus Gellius, 1 that when Roman citizenship was conferred on Latin towns they lost their marriage laws at the same time.
Criticism of

Savigny's opinion.

In reference to these two opposed views there is little doubt that the view of Savigny inclines too much to The bestowal of the Roman franchise the extreme. had a certainly great modifying influence on the applithe of ius originis of the many peoples absorbed cability under the Roman dominion. A good many of their native laws were by the Roman authorities deprived of their operativeness, and provisions drawn from the civil law were substituted therefor, when such native laws were conceived to be prejudicial to the fundamental aims of the Roman policy, and when their maintenance would seriously interfere with the judicial organization.

And
Von
Objections to
Rar's Bar's

yet
is
/-

Von

Bar's generalization
in
T-<
i

is

much
r
i

too wide,

and

far

from being tenable

view of several im-

-opinion

rLven if the marriage portant facts to the contrary. laws of the Latins were largely supplanted by those of the Romans, it does not follow that every other department of the peregrin legal systems was necessarily

swept away. It is quite possible that from a theoretical and more abstract point of view the law of succession

may be shown

to have relationships with other depart;

ments of private law so that to modify one of them would necessitate a counterbalancing modification of all But the entire body of private law is not a the others. marked system by absolute unity and harmony. In
an practice, its parts are not so rigidly connected that alteration in one would inevitably produce an alteration

changed

The practical necessity of time and place throughout. but little homage to strict logical consistency, or to pays It is the theoretical demands of an abstract system. is that view the more correct that submitted, therefore, be it extremes. these two between Further, urged may that even if Caracalla's extension of the franchise then entirely the ius originis of the people
l

Noct.

'//.

iv. 4.

Cr

infra, p.

285.

CRITICISM OF
existing, part of the
arise

MODERN VIEWS

283

sequently vested with the Roman citizenship ; so that to them, at In least, the alleged new regime could scarcely apply.
in the confines

new population that would subwould not be, through various causes,

point of fact there were large numbers of people living of the Empire, who were not citizens, in

of the new constitution, but were none the less 1 Moreover, dispensations were from subjects of Rome. time to time granted by the emperors to various cities, permitting them to make use of their original laws. Severus and Antoninus allowed in one case a certain divergence from the established Roman law on questions 2 Severus recognized relating to the contract of sale. the juridical force of long-established custom (' longa consuetudo '), which he instructed the provincial " Praeses provinciae governors to observe (224 A.D.)
spite
:

probatis his, quae

in

oppido frequenter
causa

in

eodem genere

controversiarum sunt, cognita statuet. et ratio nam et consuetudo praecedens quae consuetudinem suasit custodienda est, et ne quid contra longam consuetudinem fiat, ad sollicitudinem suam
servata

and similarly in a ; praeses provinciae rescript of the year 231 A.D. the disturber of old laws, as he has Constantine " been novator described, turbatorque priscarum "4 tried to destroy the juridical validity of legum custom (319 A.D.); 5 but the theory of Julian was
revocabit

"

Justinian antagonistic to this revolutionary measure. also recognized the legal importance of custom, and, in
1

Cf.

Mommsen,
526
seq.

Ostgotische Studien, in

Wattenbach's Neue Archiv,

xiv. pp.
2

Just. Cod. xi. 32. i.


I.

*Just. Cod. viii. 52.


4

Amm.

Marcell. xxi. 10. 8.


:

" Consuetudinis b Just. Cod. viii. 52. 2 ususque longaevi non vilis auctoritas est, verum non usque adeo sui valitura memento, ut aut rationem vincat aut legem."
6

Dig.

i.

3 (de legibus senatusque consultis et longa consuetudine),

32.

284

RISE

OF CONFLICTS OF LAWS

his time, inveterate usage was frequently allowed to override the Roman civil law. 1 More examples and details to the same effect will be given below ; but the considerations already advanced are, it is believed, quite sufficient in themselves to show that the ius originis of the numerous peoples under the Roman sway was not
at all

demolished, nor even very largely superseded by the ius civile.


fall of the Roman Empire, of a number of establishment subsequent European autonomous and independent States, characterized by different local customs, actuated by different

Subsequent
ts

It is,

of course, after the

Gnaws.

and

the

lations,

needs, and, in consequence, originating different legisthat the more rapid development of private
international law

became

possible.

The

conflict

of laws

resulted from the antagonism of personal to territorial 2 Thus, in the Middle law, each claiming predominance. in the same country, and frequently even we find Ages
in the

same

city,

the

Lombard

living

under the

Lom-

bardic law, and the Roman under the Roman law ; and the same distinction applied to the different races of

Germans, Goths, Franks, Burgundians, and divers other peoples who, though residing in the same territory, yet
enjoyed their respective national laws. Nevertheless this later and more systematic evolution of private international law was an outcome of the
1

Cf.

J.

Gilson,

V etude

Fantiquite (Paris, 1899), pp.


2

du drolt romain compare aux autres 182 seq.


ii.

droits

de

Cf.

U. Huber, Praelectionum
est

juris chilis tomi tres secundum Insfifulib.


I, tit. 3, p.

tiones et

"

Digesta Justiniani (Lovanii, 1766), vol.


et

25

porro, leges partibus discrepare, posteaquam dissipatis Imperii Romani provinces, divisus est orbis Christianus in populos ferme innumeros, sibi mutuo

Notum

statuta

singulorum populorum multis

non

consortes. subjectos nee ejusdem ordinis imperandi parendique In jure Romano non est mirum nihil hac de re extare, cum populi Rom. per omnes orbis partes diffusum et aequabili jure gubernatum Imperium conflictui diversarum legum non aeque potuerit esse

subjectum." 3 See Savigny, Geschlchte des romischen Rechts im Mittelalter, 7 Bde.


(Heidelberg, 1834-1851), vol.
i.

chap.

3.

EXAMPLES OF CONFLICTS
the

285

more rudimentary regulative systems obtaining under


So that it will now be well what particular cases different rules and legislations were applied, and how far conflicts of laws were involved, and solutions for them attempted. But
administration.
to consider in
in this connection, as in many others, it is important to Wrongattitud bear in mind that ancient methods were not marked by

Roman

that scientific cogency which characterizes the

modern.

When, by comparison with our modern conceptions, the ancient ideas and practices are found to be deficient in this or that respect it does not therefore follow that they are of no value or that they bear no fundamental relationships to the ideas and practices of a later age or of our present time. This caution is really necessary in view of the fact that so many modern writers are
disposed to condemn ancient systems and doctrines because they do not exactly fit in with their prejudgements or with their interpretation of the conditions
prevailing in
their

own

perhaps even

worse than

Such an attitude is epoch. the contrary tendency to


all

apotheosize indiscriminately and uncritically

that

is

found

in the past.

Sponsalia marriages. ea parte Italiae, quae Latium appellatur, hoc more atque iure solita fieri, scripsit Servius Sulpitius. Hoc ius
:

Before the lex Inlia (90 B.C.) conferred on the Latin Examples of c cts of Socii full citizenship, they had already a wj observed certain special rules in regard to contracting Manage, Thus Aulus Gellius writes " in

towns and on the

sponsaliorum observatum dicit Servius ad id tempus, 1 quo civitas universe Latio lege lulia data est." Peregrins in general not enjoying the ius connubii with Rome, or even with peregrin cities, could enter with the one or the other only into a matrimonium iniusium ; but peregrins of the same city or of different cities, between which there was connubium, could marry as Gaius according to their own civil law and custom,
l

Peregrins

Nocf. Att.

iv. 4.

286
<c

EXAMPLES OF
:

" l leges moresque peregrinorum ; and such marriages could, under certain circumstances, be tranformed into iustae nuptiae? The offspring of

says

secundum

union between peregrins in conformity with their national laws and customs was considered in Rome a

Where there was no connubium patris? the condition of issue was held to follow that of the
Justus filius
ius gentium.* certain passage in the Digest has been considered to have provided a solution to a possible conflict of laws regarding the property of husband and wife.

mother by the

to be regulated in pursuance of the laws of their domicile (as held by some writers) does not, however, distinctly appear ; for the passage says that in an action for the recovery of the dos, the law of the husband's domicile is applicable, and not of the place where the dotal contract was concluded, as regard must be had rather to the place which the woman herself would have naturally made her home in consequence of the marriage. (" Exigere dotem mulier debet illic, ubi maritus domicilium habuit, non ubi instrumentum dotale conscriptum est ; nee enim id genus contractus est, ut (et) eum

Whether such property was

locum
factum
mulier

spectari
est,

oporteat,

in

quo instrumentum dotis


cuius domicilium et
ipsa

quam eum,

in

5 per condicionem matrimonii erat reditura." ) Nevertheless, it would appear probable that, when the husband and the wife were of different nationality, their property was regulated by the lex domicilii,

since their iura originis might present provisions of an incompatible nature. Judging from a decision of the year 124 we find
1
i.

92.

to the status of i. 28 seq. (dealing with the rules relating the offspring of parents of unequal status), and 65 seq. (on the modes by which Latin freedmen could become Roman citizens) ; see supra>
2

Gaius,

pp. 257
3 5

seq.
i.

Gaius, Dig.

77. 65.

See supra, pp. 251

seq.

vi. i.

Cf. Savigny, Syst. des heutig. rom. Rechts,

370.

CONFLICTS OF LAWS
that in

287
Marriage
in

Egypt there was a system of marriage quite from the Roman, and based on the distinction between written and unwritten marriage contracts. 1 At
different

and

the end of the second century marriage between brothers sisters does not seem there to have been considered
2

illegal.

Amongst
somewhat

the Galatians, a paternal power existed in Paternal power e different form from that of the Roman SliafSIs!
filios
.
.

f atria potestas. qui talem in nos habemus ;

(" Fere enim nulli alii sunt homines, suos habent potestatem, qualem
.

nee

credere, in potestate

praeterit Galatarum 3 parentum liberos esse." )


,

me

gentem
Tuteia and curatela of
peregrins.

Most of
.

the peregrin communities had institutions


?

analogous to tutela and curatela. datio tutelae for his minor children

A An

i*

alien s testamentary

was recognized if he was a subject of a city where the datio was allowed for the wardship of children under the age of puberty, u sed says Gaius, is prescribed by every legislation impuberes quidem in tutela esse omnium civitatum iure
;

contingit."
a wife was not permitted wife's conthe law of Bithynia By ' ' r tract by law ,1 ^i to enter into a contract without the concurrence or Kthynk
.

of

husband or her son above the age of puberty, as u case may be. Apud peregrines non similiter ( ut apud nos in tutela sunt feminae sed tamen plerumher

the

que quasi in tutela sunt


aut filium eius

ut ecce lex Bithynorum,

si

quid mulier contrahat, maritum auctorem esse iubet,

puberem." ) After release from wardship a minor's estate was managed by a curator until he reached the age at which he was competent to administer his own affairs, and, adds Gaius, the same rule is found amongst other
1

Minor's estate,

See Girard, Textet ... p. 784.


Cf.

Wilcken, Benchte (Berlin, 1883), p. 903 ; and, in the same as to marriage in Athens, see Mommsen, Rtimisches Itrafrecht (Leipzig, 1899), p. 1 1 6, n. 3, where he refers to Seneca, *tulus de morte Claudii, 8, and quotes Wilamowitz-Mollendorff to the
:onnection,
r

ame
8

effect.
i.

Gaius,

55.

i.

189.

Gaius,

i.

193.

288
"
peoples,
diri.
.
.
.

EXAMPLES OF
.

sicuti

apud

peregrinas

gentes

custo-

,"

Adoption by a

Adoption by a peregrin in accordance with the laws of his city was recognized as valid in Rome. Thus
Cicero writing to Servius Sulpicius Rufus in reference doctor of Patrae, with whom he had a " Without long-standing tie of hospitality, says going
to Lyso, a
:

you his entire establishment, them his and among young son, whom my client, Cn. Maenius Gemellus, having during his exile been made
I

into details,

commend

to

citizen of Patrae, adopted in accordance with the I would ask laws of that town. you, therefore, to "Quae support his legal claim to the inheritance."

in

ne singula enumerem, totam his adolescentem filium


Gemellus, cliens meus,

tibi

domum commendo,
quern
C.

eius,

Maenius

quum

in calamitate exsilii sui

Patrensis civis factus esset, Patrensium legibus adoptavit, ut eius ipsius hereditatis ius causamque tueare." 2
Emancipation

In the emancipation of a slave by a peregrin the laws of the manumissor were recognized as valid ; so that should any dispute arise in this connection in Rome, it was determined by the personal law and not by the
lex loci?

Emancipation

has sometimes been held that there is a case of of laws recognized in the following passage " Si lex of the Codex municipii, in quo te pater duumviris dedit, ut etiam potestatem emancipavit, liberos suos emancipare possint, id quod alienigenae a patre factum est suam obtinet firmitatem." * 5 Baviera, for example, is of the opinion that this text is an exemplification of the rule locus regit actum.' The facts of the case are that a man had emancipated his son before the duumviri of another town, and the
It

conflict

'

i.

97.

Cic.

Ad

Fam.

xiii.

19. 2.

" Praetor [tamen


nisi aliter lege

Dosithaeus, Disputatio de manumlsslonibusj 12 (in Girard, Textei),


vel proconsul] non permittet peregrina caveatur."

manumissum

servire,

*Just. Cod.
6

viii.

48 (49) (de emancipationibus liberorum),

i.

Loc.

cit.

sect. vi.

CONFLICTS OF LAWS

289

question was whether such act was valid, as the municipal magistrates had ordinarily had no competence
in respect

of

legis actio y

here

pronounced
is

by

The decision statutory process. the Emperors Diocletian and

the validity of the act depends on whether the municipal law gives the legis actio to the duumviri, and allows them to extend it to strangers. Hence this case does not afford an instance of conflict" Von einer as Savigny remarks ing legislations, Collision ortlicher Rechte ist hier keine Spur." l It would seem that peregrin fathers in certain

Maximian

that

countries could

sell

2 their sons as slaves.

to the law of property the rules obtain- Examples g to ing in the provinces were in many respects different faw of from those prevailing amongst citizens in Rome. For property.

With regard

example, the Roman distinction between dominium ex lure Quiritium and in bonis, between quiritary ownership and bonitary, as has already been pointed out, was not there recognized. As Gaius says, for aliens there was only one dominium and only one definition of a proprietor, "... apud peregrines quidem unum esse dominium ; nam aut dominus quisque est, aut

Quintary and

^Sip.

dominus non
at
first

intellegitur."

And

it

is

probable that
at
is
it

least

the praetor admitted this As to respecting movables.

unum dominium^
immovables,

uncertain.

has sometimes been inferred, on the basis of certain Movable property passages in the Digest* that the different questions relating to movable property were to be determined
It

'

by the law of the owner's domicile. But it is doubtful whether this inference may justifiably be drawn, at least from the data furnished in these texts. Thus,
1

same

System des heut. rom. Rechts, vol. viii. effect L. von Bar, op. c'tt. 1 2, no. 6.

382, p. 362.

Cf. to the

2 Cf. Mommsen, BUrgerlicher und peregnnucher Freiheitschutz Im romischen Staat (in Festgabe fir Beseler, Berlin, 1885, pp. 255 seq.).

ii.

40.
I

E.g. Dig. xx.

(de pignor.), 32

xxviii. 5 (de hered. instit.), 35.

290
in the first
1

EXAMPLES OF

of the passages referred to in the last footthe note, question under consideration is simply what are the pertinents of any And in the second subject. the fundamental is how is a testament to passage question
be interpreted when two individuals are instituted heirs, one for res Italicae, the other for res provinciates, both of which kinds of property belonged to the deceased. 2 Before hypothec had been adopted in Roman law, it was customary on provincial territory, e.g. in Greece, and was admitted by the praetor. 3 Similarly the contracts syngraphae and chirographa (written acknow-

ledgments of debt or promises to pay, not accompanied by stipulation) were not valid between Roman citizens 4 in the classical epoch, and were peculiar to peregrins, 5 though valid also between them and Roman citizens. Even at the time of Gaius they constituted a literal obligation in Greece, being ground to support an action, whatever the subject or form might be. So that in
such cases the praetor usually adopted the personal law of the debtor, that is the ius peregrinorum and not
the ius gentium. 6
It

would seem that


is

in regard to the interpretation

of

a contract there

to be

found

special

provision in

1 Dig. xx. i. 32 : "Debitor pactus est, ut quaecumque in praedia pignori data inducta invecta importata ibi nata paratave essent, pignori essent ; eorum praediorum pars sine colonis fuit eaque actori suo colenda debitor ita tradidit adsignatis et servis culturae

necessariis.
2

."

Cf.

Von

Bar, op.

cit.

12.
xiii.

Cf. Cic.

Ad

Fam.

56

" Praeterea Philocles Alabandensis


1
.

vTToB-rJKas
4

Cluvio debit."
iii.

Pro

Flacco, 2

Gaius,

chirographis

134: "Praeterea litterarum obligatio fieri videtur et syngraphis ; quod genus obligationis proprium
.
.

peregrinorum est." 5 For examples,


iii.

cf.

Cic.
2,
3

De
;

6;

Ad

Att. v.

I,

v.

harusp. resp. 13. 16; Pro Rabirio, For further particulars as to 21.

syngraphae, see Voigt,


6

Das jus

nat. vol. iv. pp.

326-332.

(Des conflits de legislation relatifs a la forme des actes civils, Bordeaux, 1882, p. 10), maintains that the ius gentium alone applied as between citizens and peregrins; but the cases mentioned by Cicero in the preceding note directly contradict this contention.

M. Duguit

CONFLICTS OF LAWS
the

291

Thus it is laid down, in view of any Digest. conflict of laws, that the question is ordinarily to be
determined by considering the express intentions of the but that if they are not clearly expressed then parties, the custom of the locality in which the engagement was
entered
into

must decide the matter.

"Semper
actum
si

in

stipulationibus et in ceteris contractibus id quod actum est ; aut, si non pareat quid
erit

sequimur,
est,

consequens, ut id sequamur,

quod

in regione in

qua

actum

est

regionis mos minimum est, redigenda summa

frequentatur. quid ergo, appareat, quia varius fuit ? ad


est."
1

neque

id,

quod
Obligations by oath
'

There were special provisions amongst aliens as to the establishment of obligations by oath alone. Gaius, speaking of the cases in which an obligation is contracted

by a declaration of one of the parties without any previous interrogation, says that the only instance in Roman law is the promise of a freedman to his patron, but that other cases could be found in the particular laws of 2 foreign communities. In various provincial territories there were also special rules relating to the bona vacantia of persons dying 3 intestate, as also in reference to liens and other matters. Liens. Thus at the time of Trajan several towns of Bithynia and Pontus could exercise certain rights over their
debtors' property, as provided
1

by

their respective laws.*

Dig.
2

1.

rSm. Rechts, vol. viii.


iii.

7 (de div. reg. iur.), 34. 372, 374.

Cf. Savigny, System des heut.

96

" Sane ex

alia nulla

causa iureiurando homines obligantur

iitique
iuris

cum quaeritur de iure Romanorum.


singularum
civitatium
iura

nam apud peregrines quid


aliud
intellegere

sit,

requirentes

poterimus."
3

Plin. Epist. x.

88

"
:

:oncessam vindicationem
4

bonorum

Nicensibus, qui intestatorum civium suorum a divo Augusto affirmant."

Plin.

Epist.

x.

109-110:
iis

"Quo

oonticae civitates in

pecuniis, quae ex
:

iure uti debeant bithynae vel quaque causa reipublicae

lebebuntur ex lege cuiusque animadvertendum est." See also Dig. " Antiochensium Coelae ilii. 5 (de reb. auct. iud.), 37 Syriae civitati, juod lege sua privilegium in bonis defuncti debitoris accepit, ius >ersequendi pignoris durare constitit."

292

EXAMPLES OF

In the case of fidepromissw, too, the peregrin law was Thus in Roman law the obligation of a admitted. fidepromissor was not transmissible to his heirs ; but it was otherwise if he was an alien, and if the law of his municipality was in that respect different from the Roman. " Praeterea sponsoris et fidepromissoris heres

non

tenetur, nisi si de peregrine fidepromissore quae* from which it ramus, et alio iure civitas eius utatur,"

appears that in
cases adopted

Rome

even

if it differed
loci

the personal law was in such from the local law ; in

other words the lex

gave way to the

ius

originis.

of opinion as is, however, by no means unanimity to such interpretation of this text. Thus Walter maintains that the provisions mentioned by Gaius applied to 2 peregrins when residing on provincial territory.

There

Testamentary
provisions.

Again the rules concerning

wills varied

according to locality, but they were

more or less deemed valid in

executed in conformity with the personal law Ulpian, speaking of the testamentary of the Junian Latins and of the dediticii, incapacity in the case of the first the disability was that says lex lunia^ and in the case of the second the imposed by it was due to the fact that the dedilicius could not make a will either as a Roman or as a peregrin, since he was
if

Rome

of the

testator.

for not a recognized subject of any ascertained State a given State could of who those were only subjects 3 exercise the right in accordance with its laws.
;

Gaius,

iii.

120.
the

As to 1 i. relationship, 15, p. 162. Ius chile, or ius provinciate, and ius gentium, Voigt says (Das jus nat. vol. iv. p. 322) : "Das ius gentium und das ius civile oder ius provinciale stellen direct widerstreitende RechtsGesch. des rom. Rechts,vo\.

in this respect,

between

satze auf.
ius

Dieser Fall

kommt

regelmassig nicht vor, da,

wo

zwischen

die gentium und ius civile ein solcher Widerstreit entstand, alsbald Rechtstheorie zu Gunsten des einen oder anderen entschied und den Widerspruch vermittelte, wahrend in den iura provincialia in gleicher Weise die dem ius gentium direct widerstreitenden Rechtssatzungen wahrscheinlich sehr friih zu Gunsten des Letzteren beseitigt wurden."
5

Reg.

xx.
est,

numero

is qui dediticiorum 14, 15: "Latinus lunianus, item testamentum facere non potest [cf. Gaius, i. 22-25].

CONFLICTS OF LAWS
It

293

be here noted that the rescript of Diocletian, 1 Diocletian's 2 already referred to, does not, strictly speaking, supply ^"raflict a solution to conflicts of legislation respecting the form ** to wUk of wills. For, as Savigny has observed, if this text dealt with a veritable case of conflict, then the words * patriae tuae would apply to the law of the domicile of the heiress ; and a pronouncement to this effect could It would accordingly follow that scarcely be good law. the passage is to be constructed on the obvious understanding that the domicile of the heiress was the same as that of the testator, and in that domicile he had executed his testament. " Allein dieser Schein [referring to the semblance of a conflict] verschwindet wieder, wenn man erwagt, dass doch unmoglich die patria der Erbin entscheidend seyn konnte ; wo das Testament gemacht war, wird gar nicht gesagt. Wahrscheinlich hatte der Verstorbene in seiner Heimath testirt, die auch So that the rule ' locus die Heimath der Erbin war." 3 is not here really concerned ; the only regit actum conflict is between the particular law and the common law, and the former is made to prevail over the latter, " dass in der Collision das Particularrecht dem gemeinen

may

'

'

Recht vorgeht." 4 Another case that has been advanced as offering a Publication Wllls 5 solution to a collision of laws is the provision that wills
'

of

autem

Latinus quidem, quoniam nominatim lege lunia prohibitus est ; is qui dediticiorum numero est, quoniam nee quasi civis Romanus testari potest, cum sit peregrinus, nee quasi peregrinus,

quoniam
1

nullius certae civitatis civis est, ut

secundum
2

leges civitatis

suae testetur."
Just. Cod. vi.

23 (de testam.),

9.

Supra, p. 279.

3 5

System des heut. rom. Rechts,


Just. Cod. vi.

382, p. 361.

^Ibid.

aperiantur testamenta et inspiciet Galienus, an. 256 : Testamenti tabulas ad hoc tibi a patre datas, ut in patria proferantur, adfirmans potes illic proferre, ut secundum leges moresque locorum insinuentur, ita scilicet, ut testibus non praesentibus adire prius vel pro tribunali vel per libellum rectorem provinciae procures ac permittente eo honestos viros adesse facias, quibus praesentibus aperiantur

32

(quemadmodum
"
:

antur et describantur), 2

Impp. Valerianus

et

ab his rursum obsignentur."

294
are

CONFLICTS OF LAWS

opened and made public in accordance with the custom of the place where this proceeding takes place. This enactment, it is true, makes no mention of different legislations, and has little kinship with the private law of obligations, 1 but, along with several other provisions, it clearly indicates that the Romans were not at all
blind to the claims of different legal systems, that they were by no means ignorant of the rule locus regit
*

actum,' and that they frequently attempted adjustments of the difficulties arising from antagonistic or inconsistent legislations by applying this rule ; at all events it shows a recognition on their part of the necessity to limit the application of the principle of personality, inasmuch as the ius originh was not infrequently superseded by the
lex loci,

Further, in reference to intestate succession the Cicero relates that peregrin law was similarly applied. an inheritance of 500,000 sesterces was left to Epicrates, the most notable citizen of Bidis, a small town near Syracuse ; the testatrix, he says, was so near a relative that had she died even without having made a will, Epicrates would have been considered her heir in
2 pursuance of the laws of his town. And it has been claimed by some writers that a certain

text in the Digest*

shows that where a question involvof succession should arise, it was to laws ing conflicting be settled by applying the law of the domicile of the deceased. The passage, however, does not really bear
1 2

Cf,

Von

Bar,
ii.

op. cit.

2, no. 6.

"Bidis oppidum est tenue sane non longe Verrem, Huius longe primus civitatis est Epicrates quidem. Ei a Syracusis. hereditas HS quingentorum millium venerat a muliere quadam propinqua, atqui ita propinqua ut, ea etiamsi intestata esset mortua, Epicratem Bidinorum legibus heredem esse oporteret." Cf. Cic. Ad Fam. xiii. 30. As to intestate succession in Egypt, cf. a decision of the year 135, in Girard, Textes, p. 787. " Heres absens ibi defendendas est, 8 Dig. v. i (de iud.), 19, pr.
/
2.

22

ubi defunctus debuit, et conveniendus, proprio privilegio excusatur."

si

ibi

inveniatur, nulloque suo

SOVEREIGNTY OF LOCAL LAW


this interpretation.

295

It simply provides that actions for of debts due the recovery by the deceased must be his heir in the place where the former brought against 1 for there the was domiciled; heir is liable, as Ulpian says, if he is not protected by any special ground of

exemption peculiar to himself.


Again, does a conflict
arise in

regard to the rules of AS to

in the Digest! Paulus says ju jurisdiction mentioned officer who exercises jurisdiction outside his that an local limits may be disobeyed with impunity, and that the same rule holds good should he affect to exercise

jurisdiction

beyond

his prescribed

competence.
this passage

Here

we have merely
of the native

a question relating to the jurisdiction

Roman

judge.

With

may

be

compared the observation of Ulpian that if a prefect goes beyond the bounds of the city his authority does not hold, though he can appoint a index outside the bounds. 8 And elsewhere the same jurist says that as soon as the proconsul passes the gate on entering Rome, he
lays aside his imperium.
4
to recognize the territorial sovereignty of the AS Rome's 1111 law ? It cannot be claimed that the Romans systemati- JJfSS cally emphasized this principle and invariably acted in 2J^Sgj|ty As they usually permitted aliens of the law. conformity with it. to have recourse to their own particular legal systems and customs, the solution of real conflicts of legislation was ip so facto avoided. 5 In comparison with the legis-

Did

Rome

policy of modern nations, Rome undoubtedly concerned herself but little with the task of effecting a
lative
1
2

Cf.

Von
ii.
i

Bar, op.

cit.

12.

Dig.

(de

iuris.),

20
et

" Extra territorium


si

ius dicenti

impune
velit

paretur. dicere."

non

idem

est

supra

iurisdictionem

suam

ius

3 " Praefectus urbi cum terminos urbis exierit, Dig. i. 12. 3: potestatem non habet ; extra urbem potest iubere iudicare." *Dig. i. 1 6. 1 6 : "Proconsul portam Romae ingressus deponit

imperium."
5

Cf.
op.

Von
cit.

Bar, op.

cit.

12, no. 3.

See Weiss,

vol. in. p. 126.

296
reconciliation

LOCUS REGIT ACTUM

between personal law and territorial law, between personal sovereignty and territorial sovereignty, by determining the limits of their respective applicability.
rule
c
'

Locus

regit

The

actum.'

locus regit actum that is, the recognition of the form of a juridical act if it be in accordance with

the law of the place where the act was executed, even though another form be prescribed by the law of the 1 never place where the legal relation has its seat obtained distinct and regular acceptance. Where there

was any incompatibility between the ius originis and the of the parties concerned, the former, as has been shown, was usually applied ; but, considering the various cases that have already been brought forward, it cannot be maintained that it was exclusively applied. Considerations of State interest and public policy (which will be further exemplified below) conduced largely to
ius domicilii

these
Local custom

somewhat

irregular oscillations in practice.

and

conflicts,

In addition to the examples which have been given to

show

that an effort was

made by

the

Romans

to adjust

peacefully conflicts of laws, one may recall a case in the twenty-fifth book of the Digest*

noteworthy This states

that the praetor will not necessarily allow the omission, caused through ignorance or inadvertence, of certain prescribed formalities to prove detrimental to the heir,

and emphasizes that to determine certain facts relating to the alleged existence of an unborn heir, it is necessary " mos regionis to follow the custom of the place,
.
.

inspiciendus est."
Local custom

Again, in connection with the usury laws

it

was

laid

down

that a

judge
the

in a bona-fide action

must decide
where the

according
1

to

custom of the
381.

locality

Savigny, System des heut. rom. Rechts,

1.15: praetor ait causa cognita se possessionem non daturum vel actiones denegaturum, eo pertinet, ut, si per rusticitatem aliquid fuerit omissum ex his quae praetor servari Quale est enim, si quid ex his, quae leviter voluit, non obsit partui. observanda praetor edixit, non sit factum, partui denegari bonorum possessionem ; sed mos regionis inspiciendus est, et secundum eum
et observari

Dig. xxv. 4.

"

Quod autem

ventrem

et

partum

et

infantem oportet."

FORCE OF LOCAL CUSTOMS

297

contract in dispute was entered into (lex loci contractus\ but on condition that this custom is not contrary to the " iudicio bonae fidei disceptatur arbitrio law.

Cum
1

usurarum modus ex more regionis, ubi contractum est, constituitur ; ita tamen ut legi non
iudicis
it is seen that the principle of public and made to predominate even on, utility when in opposition to the doctrine of territoriality.

offendat."
is

Here

insisted

important instance indicating a distinct Local custom for provision solving a conflict of laws is found in the summoning of witnesses. twenty-second book of the Digest^ where, after saying
that

Another

witnesses

are

not to be

summoned when

their

homes

are situated at a great distance from the court, or under the pretext of calling away soldiers from their

Antoninus

a rescript of the Emperors flags or posts, laid down that in the matter of

Severus and

summoning

witnesses the judge must carefully examine the custom of the place where he exercises jurisdiction, " diligentiae iudicantis est explorare, quae consuetude in ea

" and if it be proved ; provincia, in quam iudicat, fuerit that witnesses, domiciled in another town, have often been summoned, there is then no doubt that such as

are

Justinian's Code, where regions where there are


to the

furnished in the sixth book of Local custom it is provided that in those ShriSi** illiterate inhabitants incapable requirements. of fulfilling the technical requirements of the law relating
further case
is

by him deemed necessary

in the case

may be

called.

making of wills, their long-established custom " In illis vero be allowed to prevail. locis, in may raro inveniuntur homines litterati, per praesentem quibus
i, i,/r. " Testes non temere evocandi Dig. xxii. 5 (de testibus), 3. 6: sunt per longum her et multo minus milites avocandi sunt a signis vel muneribus perhibendi testimonii causa, idque divus Hadrianus Sed et divi fratres rescripserunt 'Quod ad testes evocandos rescripsit.

xx.

pertinet, diligentiae iudicantis est explorare, quae, consuetude in ea si provincia, in quam iudicat, fuerit.' probabitur saepe in aliam

Nam

civitatem testimonii gratia plerosque evocatos,

non

esse

dubitandum,

quin evocandi
qui iudicat."

sint,

quos necessaries in ipsa cognitione deprehenderit

298

LOCUS REGIT

ACTUM

The
principle of
territoriality in treaties.

Between

Rome and
Carthage.

legem rusticanis concedimus antiquam eorum consuetudinem legis vicem obtinere." 1 to return to an earlier age in the first treaty Again, between Rome and Carthage (c. 509-8 B.C.) there is a clause which shows that even at that early date both the Romans and the Carthaginians had some notion of the principle of the territoriality of the law, as a means of reconciling conflicting legislations. This clause, as given

by Polybius,

is

to the following effect

" That those

land for traffic shall not conclude any bargain except in the presence of a herald or town-clerk. That whatever is sold in their presence, the price is to be secured to the seller on the credit of the State, that is in the case of such sales as are effected in Libya or
Sardinia."
Between Rome and Chios.
2

who

The Romans
recognized the rule
'

locus regit

actum.'

between Rome and Chios 3 (as in the Greek treaty between Lato and Olus) 4 the existence of a similar conception is apparent. From these considerations, and having regard to the totality of their significance, it is evident that the Romans not only knew well the principle of locus regit actum,' but that at times they deliberately applied it in No doubt their recognition of it, as in practice. the case also of the Greeks, did not manifest itself to 5 the same extent as in modern times ; but it is equally
in the treaty
'

And

Jusf.

Cod.

vi.

23 (de
:

testamentis

quemadmodum

testamenta

ordinantur), 31.
2 rots Se KO.T tpiropiav Trapayii/o^ci/ot? ftrjBtv Icrrw Polyb. iii. 22 rt rcAos TrXrjV KrjpvKi r) y/oa/i/xarei* oVa 8' av TOVTIDV Trapovrwv airoSofJitvo), ocra av ry kv A.i/3wj TrpaOfj, 8r)fj.o(ri<jt. 7rto~Tt o<eiXe<70a> T< ev 2a/oSovt TrpaQrj. For the entire treaty, see infra, chap. xvii. r)
3

Corp. Inscrip. Graec. 2222,


viii.

11.

15-20.

Cf. supra, latter part of

chap.

*Corp.

inscrip.

Graec. 2554,

11.

56-76.

See supra, chap.


:

viii. in fin. ,

and
5

Infra,

chap. xvii.

"Non Tavranno conCf. Baviera, loc. cit. vol. ii. fasc. 3, p. 439 cepito in tutta la sua estensione datale ai nostri giorni, ma ne ebbero Chenon, loc. cit. pp. 239-241, and Weiss, per6 una nozione chiara." incline to the view that the Romans did not op. cit. vol. iii. p. 126, recognize the principle \ but the examples above set forth are, it is
submitted, sufficient refutation of this view.

DOCTRINE OF PUBLIC ORDER

299

indubitable that our fuller, more systematic ideas on the subject owe their origin to the more rudimentary notions of the ancients.
Similarly, the Romans had thorough cognizance of Recognition the doctrine of public order. (This is here mentioned doctrine of in view of the fact that the principle appears to be Public orderinsisted
Italian, as a

law

writers, especially French and criterion in private international necessary it must be confessed that it is somewhat though

on by many

1 vague and ambiguous. )

In the application of com-

the ius peregrinorum was frequently peting the Roman ius civile, and also by the displaced by the interest of State or public ius gentium, when 2 Thus in 193 B.C. the usury usury was morality endangered. laws, which till then applied only to Romans, were
laws,

laws,

extended to peregrins ; and the measure proved a salutary one in view of the growing influence of In this way the Sempronian foreigners in Rome. 3 lex Sempronia de fenore] subordinated (the plebiscite In conthe personal law of aliens to public utility. nection with the same subject the principle is again

emphasized five centuries later by Papinian. In 143 B.C. the lex Didia de sumptu extended to peregrins, in the Lex Didia & sum interests of public morality, the provisions of the lex Fannia cibaria (161 B.C.) passed some twenty years earlier for Roman citizens. A senatusconsult of Hadrian's Hadrian extended to peregrin debtors the prohibition consult. to manumit slaves, under cover of good faith, in fraud of their creditors. 4 The laws relating to theft, as also
1

On
Cf.

the significance and applicability of this principle,


cit.

cf.

Von

Bar, op.
2

30.
he.
:

Ch6non,

cit.

pp. 241 seq.

Liv. xxxv. 7

"

M.

Sempronius tribunus plebis ex auctoritate


scivit,

patrum plebem
4

rogavit, plebesque

ut

cum

sociis et

nomine
esset."

latino pecuniae creditae ius

idem quod cum civibus Romanis

Gaius,

i.

missi liberi

" ut creditorum fraudandorum causa manu47 non fiant, hoc etiam ad peregrinos pertinere (senatus ita
:

censuit ex auctoritate Hadriani)

."

300
Lex Aquilia.

FEW
lex

CASES OF CONFLICTS
by
legal
fictions,

the

likewise
Restrictions

made

Aquilia (287 B.C.) were, to apply to aliens. 1

as to the ius gentium.

Again,
certain

public

interest
in

in

some

cases

necessitated

Lex Minicia.

ius application 2 Thus the lex Minicia provided that the gentium. issue of a peregrin husband and Roman wife should be 3 peregrins, although the principle of the ius gentium

restrictions

the

of the

Sc.

Claudianum.

Restrictions

as lofideicommissa.

was 'partus sequitur ventrem.' The Senatusconsultum Claudianum decided that offspring of a Roman woman and another's slave, in spite of his master's assent to the union, should be of servile condition but later Hadrian reversed this provision. 4 Certain restrictions in regard to fideicommissa were also placed on peregrins proper (though not on Latins),
;

probably to prevent their acquiring excessive wealth, which might prove detrimental to Roman citizens. Thus Gaius says that by a decree of the senate, passed on the proposition of Hadrian, property devised in trust for the benefit of aliens was to be confiscated. " Nunc ex oratione divi Hadriani senatusconsultum factum est ut ea fideicommissa vindicarentur." 5
.

>

Few
laws.

cases of

conflicts of

Reasons
this.

for

cannot be denied that in the very large mass of Justinianian compilations we find comparatively few direct references to conflicts of laws. One reason for this is, as Von Bar points out and at the same time suggests an additional argument against his own conIt

tention, at least so far as the earlier Roman praetors are concerned that such questions would have been

regarded as relatively antiquated by the compilers and Another reason operating, of jurists of the time.
1

Gaius,
Gaius,
Gaius,

iv.
i.

37.
;

Chenon,
v. 8
;

loc. cit.

pp. 243

seq.

3 4 5

78

Ulpian, Reg.
see supra, p.

and

see supra, p.

252.

i.

84

253.

Not long ago in England land purchased by or Gaius, ii. 285. And similarly in devised to an alien was forfeited to the Crown. France, an alien formerly did not possess testamentary capacity, his * droit property at his death escheating to the Crown by the
d'aubaine.'

REASONS THEREFOR

301

lies in the centralizacourse, in the later Roman law tion of the Roman Empire, the gradual extension of citizenship and adoption of the civil law (which conse-

quently mitigated the tendencies to establish local and customary laws), and the application of bona fides to the solution of matters where differences did actually

This being so, relationships between Roman tribunals and those of foreign communities were miniexist. 1

the Empire, supreme jurisdiction was over all courts on Roman and and such peoples as were not subject imperial territory ; to Roman dominion were of so low a grade of civiliza-

mized.

Under

exercised

by Rome

tion that the question of adjusting conflicts of laws 2 could scarcely arise. Now this contention of Von Bar is, it is submitted, Von of too extreme a nature, in view of the considerations and examples advanced above. No one has attributed to Rome a perfect system of private international law.

Bar's

But it is impossible to deny that Roman jurisprudence had rules for limiting the application of the personal law of different peoples involved, and for regulating the conflicts regarding the rights and duties of persons subjected to different legislations and systems of deterthis
1

minate States vested with juridical personality. And is the vital substance of private international law.
:

Von Bar, op. at. 12, p. 22 "Die von Justinian veranstalteten Rechtsbttcher konnten ihrem ganzen praktischen Zweck nach, wenn etwa tiber die Collision der verschiedenen Gesetze in den Schriften der classischen Juristen sich noch ErOrterungen fanden, diesen bereits
lange veralteten Stoffum so weniger aufnehmen, als sicher im romischen Reiche der grossen Centralisation wegen, und weil das romische Privatrecht als Vorrecht der Biirger gegeniiber den unvollkommenen
Freien, den dediticus und Latinis Junianis, geachtet und bewahrt wurde, nur unbedeutende particulare Gewohnheitsrechte, vielleicht nur was den Inhalt der obligatorischen Rechtsgeschafte betrifft, sich In letzterer Hinsicht aber konnte bei der grossen gebildet hatten. Ausdehnung, welche das Princip der bona fides in spaterer Zeit erlangte, im Einzelnen leicht geholfen werden."
*

Ibid. I 12, fin.

CHAPTER

XIII

AMBASSADORS THEIR FUNCTIONS; THEIR RIGHTS AND DUTIES


the peoples of the most distant antiquity there were practices, more or less systematic, relating to the interchange of embassies. As soon as human

AMONGST

beings

begin

definitely
tribes,

groups tween them become regularized


families,

to arrange themselves into or nations relationships be-

intertribal

or.

interstatal

existence.

At

and diplomacy and ; law consequently come into more advanced stage of evolution,

we

find regular treaties established for the deliberate organizing and controlling of certain clearly-defined to relationships ; and such treaties are not always

use a phrase of Montesquieu 1 merely the voice of nature claiming its rights, but are frequently the outcome of a spontaneous feeling, on the part of the
respective groups, of self-insufficiency,

and of a conto

sequent desire, universally experienced, intercourse, to give an impulse to national

promote

development,

and to define more clearly the extent of national rights and obligations regarding matters that were before then " La doubtful and of precarious applicability. diplomatic
est
vieille

comme

le

" et ne La Bible, perira qu'avec lui. les Egyptiens, les Grecs ont un droit international et II sufBt diplomatique. que deux socites coexistent elles font aient des a regler interets pour qu'elles

monde," says

modern

French

writer,

la
1

paix, guerre, par consequent Lettres penanes, xcvi. "... la voix de


:

la

et
la

meme

les

insti-

nature qui

reclame

ses droits."

UNIVERSALITY OF AMBASSADORS

303

tutions Internationales reprsentent, malgr leurs fragilits apparentes, ce qu'il y a de moms variable et de

plus

indelebile." 1
of

In the ancient States of China we hear of the inter- Exchange change of embassies accompanied by established cere-

monies and

indicating a consciousness of of the the importance proceedings, which were always extreme characterized by Questions of precourtesy. determined were cedence regarding envoys by settled had The ancient Hindoos a similar system, i n ancient principles. and also employed special officials, in addition to the India usual heralds, for any necessary relationships with 2 The Mdnava Dharmdsdtras (the enemy countries. Institutes of Manu), the origin of which has been ascribed to different dates varying between 1200 B.C. and 200 B.C., contained a code of diplomatic regulations.
formalities
-

[The ancient Egyptians

undoubtedly possessed something


the

of the same kind.


aces

And amongst

more

primitive
Amongst

of to-day we find practices of a like nature. Thus in the Islands intercourse between group and group, Fiji whether in peace or in war, is conducted through the nedium of heralds, who are considered inviolable at all
3

iimes;
lot

similarly,

amongst the Australian

tribes.

In Greece and Rome diplomatic relationships, though in R based on the institution of permanent embassies in he modern sense, yet attained to a very high state of From one point of view, however, the Development.

Greece and

^oman

fetials may be regarded, in reference to certain uestions arising out of war or relating to extradition nd demands for satisfaction in general, as permanent
1

R.

D
aris,
2

de Maulde-la-Claviere, La diplomatic au temps de Machiavel


1892),
t. i.,

avant-propos, p.

I.

Cf. Haelschner,

De

lure gentium

quale fuerit

apud

gentes Orienfes

tfalae,

1842), p. 37. S F. Ratzel, Volkerkunde (Leipzig, 1885), vol. ii. p. 283: "Der erkehr von Stamm zu Stamm ist in Fidschi Herolden tlbertragen,

elche auch da, id."


4

wo

sie als

Kriegsanktlndiger auftreten, unverletzlich


tribe

Cf.

G. C. Wheeler, The

and

Intertribal relations In Australia

x>ndon, 1910).

304

KINDS OF ENVOYS

1 The ambassadors, though rather potential than actual. of embassies was introduced permanent really impermanent practice embassies. after the Peace of Westphalia (1648), which secured the independence and autonomy of European States, and at the same time promoted commercial and diplomatic relationships between them. And yet in many matters relating to the proceedings of ambassadors and

to their rights and obligations, these ancient peoples had quite as comprehensive ideas as the modern nations.
less extent in that
Richness of
diplomatic terminology.

In the language of Greek diplomacy, and to a somewhat of the Roman, we find a remarkable

of terminology. 2 There were some dozen terms used to designate the different kinds of treaties that could be concluded, and the same number to differentiate between the various kinds of ambassadors and envoys, according to the nature and purpose of
richness
their respective missions.

Kinds of
Ambassadors,
ar/eXos.

In Homer and Herodotus the word ayyeXos is used with the general meaning of messenger or envoy, 3 much j n t h e same way as legatus is used in Latin ; and so we
get the phrase ayyeXirjv \9eiv* (as also ee<rtV eXOelv) 6 ' In as equivalent to the Latin legationem obire.' 7 is used also like the Latin nuncius Polybius ayyeXo? 8 In Pausanias is found again for the message itself. In a trace of the older meaning of ayyeXo? as legatus.
the later usage, a frequently employed term for ambas1

Legatus.

On
Cf.

the

fetials, see infra,


viii.

chap. xxvi.

Pollux,

ambassadors and

137 as to the terminology respecting other envoys and their functions ; and see the
II.

1 copious notes on the passage in the Amsterdam folio edition, 706. Pollux there mentions, amongst other kindred words and expressions, Latin minister), servant, at7iy>r/3eis, Trpecr/StvTai, also SKXKOVOS (in used by Dionysius of term tendant, ayyeAos, rfpv, a-7rov8o<j>6po<s (a Halicarnassus for fetialis], and also a large number of expressions to

indicate their functions.


3 4

Cf. Iliad, v.

804
;

xi.

286,

etc.
5

//zW,xi. 140

cf.

Odyss. xxi. 20.


.

lRad, xxiv. 235.


ii.

6 Cf. P.
7

C. Buttmann, Lexilogus
72. 4.

(Berlin, 1837, 1860),


8

p. 202.

E.g.

i.

vii.

i.

2.

KINDS OF ENVOYS
sadors

305
ff

is its 7rpe<r/3et$, singular form Trpea-fivs being v ^ usual in the poets, 1 whilst Trpeo-favTw 2 is more common in the prose writers ; the plural TrpearfievTal

more
is

also

found in prose writings.

And

so

we have
to

the corresponding verb Trpea-ftevetvS signifying on an embassy, to negotiate (as an ambassador).

go

" Ora tores ex Festus says missi ad graeco apavOai dicti," quod reges nationesque, decs solerent testari 6 ; and Livy 7 and Virgil 8 already use the word to signify political envoys. In French, it appears, orateur had the meaning of ambassador until the end of the fifteenth century. In the sense of plenipotentiaries ambassadors are
so that,
in
this

is used as synonymous with legatus? orator orator though generally suggests rather an envoy sent to beseech, to pray for certain things or conditions ;

Sometimes

orator

respect,

sometimes

termed avTOKpdropc? especially so when charged with the conclusion of a treaty. (The adjective avTOKparcop means one's own master in the same way as the Latin sui iuris ; as applied to States, it means
free
1

and independent. 10 )
728
7}
:

Cf. Aeschylus, Suppl.


ticrcos

(where
2

Tts rj Trp(r/3vs /xoAot Ktfpv he speaks of the arrival of some herald, Kijpv, or ambassador).

yap

E.g.

Thuc.

v. 4, etc.;

and

cf.

Corp. inscrip. Grace,

i.

1237, 1239,

1240,
3

etc.
;

Thuc. viii. 77 Andoc. De pace, 41. Andoc. De pace, 34 ; Plato, Hippias Major, 281 B ; Charm. 1 58 A; Xenoph, Cyr. v. I. 2 ; Eurip. Heracl. 479; and similar usage by Demosthenes, Dinarchus, Isocrates, etc.
4
5

Ulpian, in Dig.

xlviii. 6 (ad leg. lul. de vi publ.), 7. Cf. Terence, Pro!. Hecyr. 9 : " Orator ad vos venio ornatu prologi ;
.

7 8

." Sinite, exorator sim " Veientes oratores Romam mittunt." 15: pacem petitum Aen. xi. 331 " Centum oratores prima de gente Latinos Ire placet pacisque manu praetendere ramos."
.

i.

9 Cf. Aristoph. Pax, 359: avro/c/oaro/oa Tiva eAccrflat Aves, 1595, where it is used with 7r/oeo-/3eis. 10

Aristoph.

Thuc.

iv.

63

Xenoph. Memor.

ii.

i.

21.

306

KINDS OF ENVOYS
in

The head of an embassy is,


described
as
^Prmcep*
legatioms.'

the later Greek writers,

ap^nrpeG-pevTw, the corresponding Latin But this Greek term, used being 'princeps legationis.' l such writers as Diodorus and Strabo, 2 was unknown by in more classical times, and is not found in inscriptions. On the other hand, apx/iQeoopos* is frequently used as

the head of a sacred embassy (Oewpia), the Oecopos 4 (and 5 o-wOecopos, colleague in the mission) being an ambassador sent to consult an oracle, to present some offering, or to perform some religious rite at the games ; but exceptionally the word was used for TrpearpevTw as a mark of distinguished regard or flattery, as in the case of the deputies sent by the Athenians to Antigonus

and

his son,

Demetrius Poliorcetes. 6
preliminary proceedings relating to specific
to

The more
marshals
Caduceatores.

embassies were usually in the hands of heralds or


(/o/p/ce?),

whom
less

the

Roman

praecones or

Legati and correspond. fetiales* were also employed for the same purpose, the latter being, in the time of the Roman Republic, the usual envoys in warlike relationships. 9 From the earliest heroic times they were conceived to be under In Homer they are the immediate protection of Zeus.
caduceatores^
10 and Ato? (piXoi, frequently spoken of as Oeioi, A 11 the messengers of God and ayyeXoi ^e KOI avSpwv,

more or

men
,

and accordingly they were employed to convey ; 12 Later their functions were messages between enemies.
1

xii.

53. 2

xiii.

52. 2

xiv. 25. i.

p.

7960.
;

Arist. Eth. Nic. iv.

2.

Andoc. De
Cf.,

myst.

132

Corp. inscrip.

Grace.

3656 (decree of the Rhodians).


inscrip.

^Corp.

Grace. 1693.

however, no. 2271, a case where


religious
as

a 7r/>e<r/?vnjs mission.
5 7

was charged with a

well as a political

6 Plut.Demefr. 1 1. Corp. inscrip. Grace, vol. ii. p. 226. Quint. Curt. iv. 2 : "... caduceatores, qui ad pacem eum com(But here the word is used in a somewhat wider pellerent, misit."

sense than that of


8

mere
viii.

herald.)
9

See

infra,

chap. xxvi.

Dig.
Iliad,

i. i.

8 (de
334,

rer. divis.), 8. I.

10

"Iliad, iv.

12

Iliad, ix.

192; 170 ;

517.

ll

etc.

xxiv. 149, 178

Odyss. x. 59, 102.

KINDS OF ENVOYS
of a

307

somewhat similar character, and distinguished from Trpearfieis in that the


sacrosanct

they
KijpvKe?

were were

of their having been merely to and without any further the office, appointed whilst the a recognized formalities, 7rpea-/3et$ enjoyed so far as this was to the purposes indispensable security, The icqpvices, again, for which they were despatched. were messengers between States only, or at all events, usually, when a state of war existed between them ;* and 2 they always carried a staff, as symbol of their office. The Romans did not make such a distinction between heralds and ambassadors proper. An ambassador who was sent to a congress as select commissioner sitting in council took the special title of arvveSpo?. If the envoy was sent specially with the object of demanding satisfaction for an offence, and to expound the necessary representations for that purpose, he was sometimes termed KSuco? and his function was &cSuda

by virtue

Again, in reference to the Roman legatio, this word sometimes used in the abstract sense of mission, and sometimes in the sense of envoy (' mittere legationem ad aliquem' 4 ), or legation, comprising all the as when Cicero speaks of persons attached thereto, 'orba legatio' ('orphaned legation'), owing to the death of the head. 6
is

It

is

panied the praestaes provinciae (provincial governors), from the legati Augusti who from the time of the Empire were sent to the provinciae Caesareae vested with proconsular power in their respective provinces,
1

j^i

important to distinguish the


./
.

legato
.

who

accotnN
distinction.

Cf. Schol. ad Cf. C.

Thuc.

i.

29.

praeconibus passim, esp. pp. 16 seq. 9 p. 93.


3

Ostermann, De

Graecorum (Marburg, 1845),


x.

See Cic.

Ad

Fam.

xiii.

56;

Plin.

Epist.

in;

Corp. inscrip.

Graec. no. 356.


4

Quinctil. Insf. x.

i.

Phil. ix. i.

308

KINDS OF ENVOYS
legati legionum
c

and from the


the
libera.

who were commanders

in

field.

Legatio libera^ free legation/ was permission granted to a senator to visit the provinces on his private affairs,

under the semblance of an ambassador, but without 1 It was called taking part in any diplomatic functions. free because he could return to Rome and leave again without necessitating his resignation. In the time of Cicero there was such a scandalous abuse of the legatio lib era that in his consulship he endeavoured to bring about an entire abolition of the practice he succeeded, in a senatusconsult however, only obtaining by which such legations were limited to one year. 2 Legatio vofiva was a free legation assumed for the purpose, which was frequently a mere pretext, of paying
* '

a
municipiorum.

vow

in a province. 3

Legati municipiorum (or nuntii) were merely mesj j* j i v i sengers, and did not possess any real diplomatic
character.

From make a
<c

a practical point of view


bipartite classification

we may conveniently
firstly,

of the various uses and


;

applications of the

word legatm

as indicating

an envoy despatched by a magistrate, under the advice of the senate, for some object of diplomacy, inquiry, or " "a person organisation ; and secondly, as signifying
formally attached to a general-in-chief or provincial 4 But in view governor, as lieutenant or staff-officer." of what is said below relating to the exemption from the local jurisdiction, and having regard to the civil provisions of the Digest which in some cases are not clearly
x

Cic.

Ad Fam.
est

xii.

21

"C.

Anicius

negotiorum suorum causa


. .

Cf. Ad Attic, xv. 1 1 Africam, legatione libera." " qui libera legatione Ulpian, in Dig. \. 7 (de legationib.), 14 abest, non videtur rei publicae causa abesse, hie enim non publici

legatus

in

commodi
2 3

causa, sed sui abest."


xv.
iv.

Cic. Cic.

Ad Att. Ad Att.

11.4; De
2
;

leg. iii. 8.

18

iii.

3. 9.

xv. 8

xv.

1 1

4 Sir

William Smith
vol.
ii.

(ed.), Dictionary of Greek


p. 23.

and Roman

Antiquities

(London, 1891),

RIGHT TO DESPATCH

309

or specifically referred to the one or other, it is well to recollect that from the point of view of Roman constitutional law scarcely any discrimination is made between

them.
right to send ambassadors was conceived both Greece and in Rome to be a right inherent only in In Greece, federal States did not in sovereign powers. the theory possess right, which could be exercised only

The

Right to send

in

am^Ssadors
Federal states,

by the central authority


that

in practice,

however,
their

we

find

some

cities that

were, for example, confederates of

the Achaean

League sent ambassadors of

own

to

principles of federalism were inevithe to deep-rooted desire of indepentably antagonistic dence and political exclusiveness, so that no systematic schemes of federalism, political or juridical, were ever worked out. Besides, this right was in no sense an absolute right ; it had to be expressly recognized in a treaty on the basis of a bilateral obligation, or, failing this, it was necessary to obtain a special concession from In the State consenting to receive representatives. either case States could regulate the admission of

foreign States.

The

ambassadors, their residence in the city, and their return to their country ; and should there be any even, in some cases, of a technical charinfringement from acter, apart any of a substantial nature of such which were considered to be accepted regulations, or implicitly, the envoys could be perempexpressly treated as enemies. torily In case of refusal by the competent authorities to receive legations, any treaties at the time subsisting between the States concerned were broken off ; and this
rupture
to

Effect of

J^etve envoys,

might, and usually did, signify

preliminary

war. Where there was no existing treaty, steps refusal implied an intention to continue hostile relationships that may already have been commenced, or where hostilities had not yet been begun, it might imply a

determination to remain without any regular systematic relations with the other community. Thus in

310

LEGATION AND SOVEREIGNTY

169 B.C. the Romans indicated their intention to discontinue relationships with the Rhodians by refusing to " receive their ambassadors. Consulti ab M. lunio
. .

consule patres stantibus


lautia

legatis, an locum nullum senatumque darent, hospitale ius in iis servandum censuerunt, egressus e curia consul, cum Rhodii gratulatum se de victoria purgatumque civitatis

in comitio

crimina dicentes venisse petissent, ut senatus sibi daretur, pronuntiat, sociis et amicis et alia comiter atque hospitaliter praestare Romanos et senatum dare consuesse Rhodios non ita meritos eo bello, ut amicorum sociorum numero habendi sint." * Again in 161 B.C., when
:

Menyllus was sent by Ptolemy Philometor to plead his cause against his younger brother Physcon, the senate, being in favour of the latter, refused to listen to the envoy, and by a decree ordered the embassy to leave Rome within five days, and cancelled the treaty of alliance with Ptolemy. *E(5oe r# a-vy/cA^ro) row Trepi
Mei/iAAoi/ ev irevO'
rjfjLepais 2

CLTTOT

pencil/

e/c

rfjs 'Pco/xi;? /ecu

TIJV

avaipeiv.
in

Rome right
n

In

Rome, more than

in

aiiieTto

gn caTcTt

^e strict right of legation was w **k tne possession of sovereign

any other ancient community,


capacity.

indissolubly associated In the later

epoch, when the Roman constitution was elaborately 3 developed, there was express legislation on this matter. Interchange of ambassadors could take place only with a free and independent State. Thus, as Polybius relates/ after Aegina had been taken by the Romans (208 B.C.), those inhabitants who had not effected their escape begged Publius, the pro-consul, to allow them to send ambassadors to cities of their kinsmen in order to obtain
Polyb. xxxii. I ; cf. Diod. xxxi. 23. " Dig. 7 (de legation.), 2, pr. Legatus contra rempublicam, " ibid, cuius legatus est, per alium a principe quid postulare potest ; 1. sine libellum "Is, qui legatione fungitur, 7. 15 permissu principis " de aliis suis negotiis dare non potest ^ and cf. Dig. 1. 4 (de muner. et 1 8. lust. Cod. x. 12; 63 (de legat.), I. honor.),
Liv. xlv. 20.
1.

4 ix.

42.

Cf. A.

Thurm, De Romanorum
1883), pp. 92
seq.

legationibus

ad

exteras

nationes missis (Lipsiae,

OBLIGATION TO RECEIVE ENVOYS

311

ransom. The answer of Publius was at first harsh ; the time for sending ambassadors, said he, was when they were their own masters, not when they were slaves
or captives,
fievecrOai
.
. .
.
. .

ore ycrav avrwv

Kvpiot,

Tore

Setv

SidTrpea--

vvv 3ov\ovs yeyovoras.

The

next morning,

however, he called the Aeginetans together, and gave them leave to send ambassadors for procuring ransom, cirei TOUTO since that was the custom of their country
.
.

evTLv Trap' avrois eQos

right to send implied the right, as well as the The right to obligation, to receive ; and this obligation rested on the the^bHgaTioi sanction of the law of nations. Thus Hannibal, as Livy to receive
-

The

reports, was reproached for acting in contravention of the ius gentium in refusing to receive ambassadors from
. . the allied States (220 B.C.) legates ab sociis et pro sociis venientes bonus imperator vester in castra non
:

"

admisit

ius

gentium

sustulit." 1

The

ius

gentium laid

was not to be lightly denied to u Oratorem audire oportere iuris gentium envoys, est." In case of refusal good cause must be shown. Rome often claimed the right ; and sometimes notification to that effect was made beforehand by other peoples as well as by Rome. To advance an inadequate cause or to assume an attitude of arrogance in this respect might provoke war. Livy states that the Veientian war was due to an insolent answer of the Veientian senate in informthat a hearing

down

Cause

to

be

refusal

ing the ambassadors, who came to demand restitution, that if they did not speedily quit the city and the territory,

they would give them what Lars Tolumnius had given them, whereupon war was declared against the Veientians 3 by the Roman senate (406 B.C.). Again, after the conclusion of the alliance with the Lucanians (300 B.C.) fetials were despatched to the Samnites to demand the withdrawal of their troops from Lucanian territory ; and the envoys having been threatened as to their safety
1

xxi. 10.

Donatus,

Liv.

iv.

58

"... Veiens bellum

Ad prolog. Hecyrae, Terent. i. motum ob superbum responsum

Veientis senatus, qui legatis repetentibus res, ni facesserent propere urbe finibusque, daturos quod Lars Tolumnius dedisset. ..."

3 I2

RECEPTION BY GENERALS

should they venture into Samnium, war was declared by 1

Rome.

Cases of refusal by

Rome.

On some occasions the Roman senate offered an absolute refusal to admit ambassadors, as, for example, in the case of those sent by King Perseus, in view of the fact that war had already been declared against him (171 B.C.); 2 as also in the case of the Carthaenvoys, on the ground that the Carthaginian 3 in Italy. was army Similarly the Emperor Justinian would not receive the envoys of Totila, on the ground of the frequent violation of faith by the latter and those of Belisarius were rejected by the Goths for a like 4 When ambassadors were thus rejected, notice reason. was usually given to them to leave the territory within a certain time ; thus, the envoys of Jugurtha were
ginian
;

ordered to quit Italy within

ten

days,

" Senatus a

Bestia consultus est, placeretne legates lugurthae recipi moenibus ; iique decrevere, ... uti diebus proximis

decem
Ambassadors
sometimes
received
generals.

decederent." 5 Commanders in the field were sometimes authorized


Italia

by

by the senate to receive enemy envoys in regard to such matters as were closely connected with the war. "... P. Licinium consulem brevi cum exercitu futurum in Macedonia esse ; ad eum, si satisfacere in animo est, 6 In cases of this kind the transactions mitteret legates." of the general, especially in such matters as were of an important character, were subject to ratification by the He was not considered to possess plenary senate.

power in negotiations in general with the enemy, apart from express recognition thereof by the senate. When
1

Liv. x. 12:

"...
;

si

quod

adissent in

Samnio concilium, haud


ab rege Perseo venerunt.
iussisset.

inviolatos abituros"
2

cf. ibid,

xxxvii. 12.
legati

Liv.

xlii.

36: "Per idem tempus


intromitti

eos in
et

oppidum Macedonibus
Cf. Servius,

placuit, et senatus decresset et


. .

non

cum iam bellum


populus

regi in

eorum aedem

Bellonae in senatum introducti


3

."

Ad

Virg. Aen.

vii.

168.
ii.

4 Cf.
5

Grotius, Dejure

belli et pads, lib.

18. 3.
xlii.

Sallust, lug. 28.

Liv.

36.

DIFFERENT EPOCHS AND PRACTICE


the

313

commander was not

sure of his competence, in any

and to negoparticular case, to receive enemy envoys tiate with them, he referred them to Rome, fixing at
the same time a term during which the said embassy was to be despatched, and the necessary business completed. An example of this is seen in the action of the praetor

T. Aemilius with regard to the Samnites (338 B.C.). 1 Similarly, T. Quinctius Flamininus stipulated in the case of Philip's embassy to Rome, as a result of the congress at Nicaea, 197 B.C., that the mission was to be finished within the two months' truce he had granted for the
2

purpose.
and, sometimes, the disconambassadorial of tinuance relationships were usually as herald when the leaders of the announced by a ;

The commencement

Herald

in

Libyans in the mercenary war, 238 B.C., sent a herald to Hamilcar to obtain permission for the despatch of an TreV^avre? ovv KripvKO. KOI Xa/3oWe? crvy^coprjfjia embassy, 3 And after the defeat of Antiochus Trepl 7rpecr/3eias by the Romans (190 B.C.) he sent a messenger to the Scipios to announce that he desired to send envoys to treat on the terms of peace, and that, therefore, a safeconduct (aa-<pd\ia) should be given them, /3ov\ea-0ai
.

7rpe(r/3evTa$ TOV$ StaXe^Orjorojuievov^

VTrep

In this department of international law, as in so many TO distinguish it is necessary to distinguish between the prac- jS^fn first tices of Rome in the first period of her history and those of her second period. In the former, conditions usually obtained which were more of the nature of reciprocity, In the latter period, she often political and juridical. sent envoys rather in her supreme capacity than on a
others,
1

Liv.

viii.

" Foedere

icto

cum domum

revertissent,

extemplo

inde exercitus

Romanus deductus annuo

frumento accepto, quod quoad legati redissent." 2 Aovs yap a.vo\as Si/x^vous avT<j> T Polyb. xviii. IO /?iav TT)V eis rrjv 'Pw/uryv ev TOVTW r<2 xpovcp crvvrtXtiv eT
:

stipendio et trium mensum pepigerat consul, ut tempus indutiis daret,

Poly b.

i.

85.

Polyb. xxi. 16 (13).

314

RECEPTION OF ENVOYS

IN

GREECE

and on several occasions repudiated ; terms for the admission of ambassadors, advanced any as, for instance, in the case of the legation of Q. Caecilius Metellus despatched to Philip and to the Achaeans in 184 B.C. 1
footing of equality
Reception of
r

i^Greece.

In Greece envoys were received and despatched by the 2 assembly of the people. They were, as a rule, introduced in the first instance by the proxenoi 3 of their

The Oewpol, the envoys on a sacred respective cities. mission, were received first by the OeapoSoicoi (or OecopoSOKOI), officials specially appointed for the purpose ; the
reception itself was termed

Every member of the assembly or council had

or OewpoSoKia* the right to make suggestions relative to the instructions given or message brought. Such permission was announced by the magistrates, as Livy states, through the herald, in
OeapoSoKta
5 accordance with the customs of the Greeks. During the debates arising out of the mission the foreign ambassadors retired, and reappeared at the conclusion. Thus, in 220 B.C. in Sparta, at a time of trouble and dissension, Machatas, an ambassador despatched by the Aetolians, was allowed by the ephors to address a public assembly ; and in a long speech urged the people to embrace the " alliance with Aetolia. Upon his retirement there was a long and animated debate between those who supported the Aetolians and advised the adoption of their 6 In alliance, and those who took the opposite side." were of the the arrival on ambassadors, they Sparta,
1

in Sparta.

Polyb. xxii. 15
Liv. xxxii. 19.

Liv. xxxix. 33.


3

See supra,

p.

153.
ubi

4 Cf.
5

Corp. inscrip. Grace, nos. 1193, 1693, 2670. "... postero die advocatur concilium Liv. xxxii. 20
:

quum

per praeconem, sicut Graecis mos est, suadendi, si quis vellet, potestas a magistratibus facta esset nee quisquam prodiret, diu silentium aliorum
alios
6

intuentium
iv.

fuit."

/ACTouTTavTos Se TOVTOV TroAA^s afJi^io-^ri^ irpa-yp -' rives {J^v yap arvvrjyopovv TOIS AiroAois <rw/Ti0(T0ai TT/OOS avTOV<s Traprjvovv TTJV crv/A/Aa^iav, wot Se TOVTOH

Polyb.

34:

ervyx ave T0

avreAcyov.

RECEPTION OF ENVOYS IN ROME

315
1

obliged to report themselves immediately to the ephors. In Carthage they were, in the first place, presented to the council, and afterwards brought before the assembly

in Carthage.

of the people. Thus Polybius relates that some transports under Cn. Octavius having been wrecked in the Bay of Carthage and taken possession of by the Carthaginians in spite of a truce that had been made,

203 B.C., Scipio despatched three envoys (Lucius Sergius, Lucius Baebius, and Lucius Fabius) to go to Carthage to remonstrate ; and that on their arrival in Carthage they first obtained an audience of the senate, and then were presented to the popular assembly, ol TO u.ev irtoTOV i$ Ttv crvKtTOV
jj.Ta $

TavTO,

TraXw

eirl

TOV$ iroXXovs

Similarly

we

find a

Rhodian legate setting forth com-

plaints, as to severe

practices in the sacking of a city, before an assembly of Aetolians at Heraclea, 207 B.C. 3

With

regard to

Rome,

foreign envoys were obliged

Reception of

to announce

their arrival to the senate, through a prior the praetor or quaestor urbanus at the to notification
first

temple of Saturn.

Plutarch suggests that they gave of all to the quaestors, because in their names the latter supplied them with the necessary eW (Lat. 5 In this way they munera) or Xai/re/o (Lat. /autia).

obtained permission to be received in audience. Some- Lautiatimes such permission was granted by other officials. Thus the consul Marius gave the ambassadors of

Bocchus,

king

of Mauretania,

leave

to
fit

Rome,

"legatis potestas

Romam

eundi

a consule

proceed " to
;

and the envoys from Carthage and from Philip were notified by the dictator, on the authority of the senate,
2
3

Polyb. xv.

i.

Polyb.
4
5

iii.

20, 23

cf.

Liv. xxviii. 7.

ri

Staatsr. vol. iii. pt. 2, pp. 1148-1158. 43 Ata ri 8e ol Tr/occr/^evovTcs ets 'Pw/^i/ OTTO&I/OUV, rov TOV Kpovov vabi/ /3aStbvTs, a7roypa<ovTcu TT/OOS TOVS 7rdp\ov<s

Cf.

Mommsen, Rom.
:

Quaest. Rom.

rov Tafiuov.
6 Sail.

See supra, p. 225,

as to lautia, etc.

lug. 104.

316
that

FOREIGN ENVOYS AND


an

SPIES

to them. 1

audience of the consuls would be granted Until the proper authorization was obtained

they had to wait in a place specially appointed for the purpose, as in the case of the ten Locrian 2 If the permission was accorded envoys, 204 B.C. them there was, it would seem, a solemn introduction 3 In 183 B.C. we find by the praetor or by the consul.
the praetor peregrinus presenting to the senate deputies from Transalpine Gaul ; " introducti in senatum a C. Valerio praetore," 4 Valerius having been in the

same year elected peregrin


in the later

praetor.

In the later days of the Republic, as a rule, oral messages brought by envoys who were received in Rome were delivered to the consuls in the presence of the senate, which took cognizance of the affairs in TWV 'jrapayevoiJievwv el<s 'Pco/myv Trpea-jBeicov, o> question,
.
.

Seov GOTTLV e/cacrrot? ^prjirOai, KOI cog Seov cnroKpiOfjvai, Trdvra ravra ^eipt^erai Sia rifc a-vy/cA^rou. 5 Written communica-

tions were addressed to the magistrates who were then entitled to preside over the proceedings relating thereto in the senate. Thus foreign envoys were at this

epoch regarded primarily as envoys to the senate, and even as guests of the senate, " vorzugsweise als Sendboten an den Senat und also auch als Gaste des
. .
.

Senats."
Foreign envoys et a
If,

however, the ambassadors did not duly obtain the

p ermfssion
liable to

be

treated as
spies.

necessary permission to be received in audience, they were li a ble to be considered as spies (speculatores\ / and treated accordingly ; or, at the least, they might
i

be entirely disregarded in respect of their diplomatic


capacity.
1

Thus,
40
"
:

Illyrian legates

having arrived

in

Rome,

quoque venerant
:

nam ii legatis Carthaginiensium et Philippi regis petentibus, ut senatus sibi daretur responsum iussu patrum a dictatore est, consules novos eis senatum daturos esse." Cf. Liv. xlv. 20 "... cum Rhodii, gratulatum se de victoria purgatumque
Liv. xxx.
civitatis
2
8

crimina, dicentes venisse, petiissent, ut senatus sibi daretur.'


1

Liv. xxix.
Liv.
xlii.

6
;

cf.

Plin. Hist. nat. xxxiv. 24.


4

xliii. 6.

Liv. xxxix. 54.


iii.

Polyb.

vi.

13.

Mommsen, Rom.

Staatsr. vol.

pt. 2, p.

1149.

WHAT ENVOYS NOT


174
B.C.,

RECEIVED

317

and having

the customary manner, were subsequently denied an audience by the It was not thought fit, says Livy, to senate. give them any answer as delegates, on the ground that they had not applied for an audience of the senate, " responsum tamquam legatis, ut qui adire senatum
declare
their

diplomatic

failed to report character in

themselves and

non postulassent, dari non placuit." 1 Similarly when Carthaginian envoys had arrived to treat for peace, 05 B.C., M. Valerius Laevinus endeavoured to convince that they were really spies, and not amtie senate assadors, and urged that they ought to be ordered to .epart from Italy, and that guards should accompany hem to their very ships, <c speculatores non legates
.
. .

enisse arguebat,

um iis usque When the


leave

excedere et custodes iubendosque 2 ad naves mittendos ." negotiations were completed, or for any when
Italia
.
.

nego-

eason broken

off,

Rome
time.

or

the foreign envoys were obliged Italy, as the case may be, within

^f^ or
broken

"

off.

given ^lacedon
p

Thus ambassadors from Perseus of


B.C.)

[nmediately, and

were ordered to leave Rome within ten days ; and they were Italy uarded till the moment of their embarkation. 3 imilarly, Aetolian ambassadors were notified to quit 4 talian territory within fifteen days.
(171

A Roman
States

law of 166
to

B.C.,

Hied
s

come

in

forbidding the kings of Kings of allied person to Rome, operated ^bfcicien to


States to establish i-i 11 m relationships through the

jji inducement j*i nd develop


a great
J

to

foreign

ome

to

Rome

person.

diplomatic

nedium of ambassadors. 5
Liv.
Liv.
xlii. xlii.

But
2

at

times

the

senate

26.

Liv. xxx. 23.

8
1

diem
4 5

Ita dimissis, P. Licinio consuli mandatum, intra iuberet eos Italia excedere et Sp. Carvilium mitteret qui,

36

"

onec navem, conscendissent, custodiret."


Liv. xxxvii.
I.
:

Liv. Ep. xlvi.

" Eumenes rex


si

-idicatus videretur,

rretur, in

commune

Romam venit . . ne aut hostis exclusus esset, aut liberatus crimine, si admitlex lata est, ne cui regi Romam venire liceret."
.

-Cf. Polyb. xxx. 20.

HOSPITALITY TO ENVOYS
admitted exceptions to this rule, probably, as Mommsen observes, in virtue of its power to grant exemptions from general laws, " vermuthlich durch Entbindung von dem allgemeinen Gesetz." l Thus, shortly afterwards (164 B.C.), both Ptolemaeus Philometor and Ptolemaeus Euergetes of Egypt were received in

Rome. 2
How envoys
of friendly States were
received.
'

Ambassadors of friendly
the

States

Locus.

'

Lautia.'

great respect, ' ' ' 3 locus 4 or (' city furnished houses, hospitia publica ' ' 5 loca ), free quarters mraXu/xa, as Polybius terms c 6 7 and board of various it, kinds, Trapo-xt ( lautia '). gifts

Romans with

were received by and obtained in the

Aedes

liberae.'

General
hospitality.

'

Comitas

gentium.'

Admitted to
best

Roman

families.

Honours

at

public feasts.

Livy points out that they and their attendants were installed in the city in an aedes liberae,' that is, a house not inhabited by any other person, " ades quae ipsum comitesque eius benigne acciperent, conductae." The city to which they were accredited bestowed In hospitality, and all the privileges incidental thereto. the observance of usages of politeness and courtesy towards them, as being the representatives of their governments, we see the beginnings of the important principle of comitas gentium/ which was to exert in They were succeeding ages such a profound influence. admitted to the households of the most aristocratic Roman families, and sometimes were on terms of great On the occasion of public feasts intimacy with them. certain additional honours were conferred on them. Thus, as public guests also, they were then treated like
'

'

Rom.

Staatsr. p.
1

1150, n.
Val.

I.

2 3

Polyb. xxi.
Liv. xlv. 22

8
;

Val.

Max. Max. v.

v.
I.

I.

I.

I.

Liv. xxviii. 39.


19.

Liv.

xlii.

26.

6 xxxii.

Cf. Diod. Sic. xiv. 93,

where he speaks of

Cf. supra, pp. 225 seq., as to the treatment of Polyb. xxxii. 19. see V. Ferrenbach, Die Amid Populi Romani and ; public guests republikanlscher Zelt (Strassburg, 1895), pp. 65 seq.
7

Liv. xlv.

44

cf.

Liv.

xlii.

19

Val.

Max.

v. I.

i.

ENVOYS OF ENEMY STATES


senators,

319

and therefore had access to the senaculum. 1 iUnder the principate similar honours were bestowed ion the ambassadors of kings or of independent comOccasionally foreign ambassadors also courted favour in other directions. Thus the Athenian public and Carneades, Critolaus, ^envoys despatched Diogenes, to Rome in 155 B.C. for the purpose of deprecating the fine of five hundred talents which had been imposed on their city for the destruction of Oropus, delivered
J

munities. 2

there public lectures in philosophy.

the foreign envoys were introduced to the message, and were liable to DC questioned thereon by the senators individually. Cum more tradito a patribus potestatem interrogandi, 3 ;i quis quid vellet..." Pending the deliberations -:hat ensued, the ambassadors (as in the case of Greece)
senate, they delivered their
'

When

Foreign envoys

questioned by
the senators.

etired.
:alled

When
pere

Varro says they were conducted to a platform, the Graecostasis, which was outside the Curia. 4 the reply of the senate was ready, either they

recalled and received it from the presiding senator n person, or it was conveyed to them by a magistrate 5 pecially appointed for the purpose.

Ambassadors of enemy States, however, were usually ound to get the previous permission of the nearest
Loman general to proceed to
rere liable to

Ambassadors
7
states

Rome ; otherwise they be treated as enemies. 6 They were not jived in the city, but outside the Pomerium (the space
De
ling.

" Locus substructus, ubi nationum 155: ad senatum essent missi." Cf. Justin, xliii. ['onsisterent legati qui " . . Immunitas illis 10 to the Massilians] decreta et locus [i.e. :taculorum in senatu datus."
1

Varro,
:

Lat. v.

Sueton.

Claud.

21

"Germanorum
*

legatis

in orchestra sedere

:rmisit."
8
5

Liv. xxx. 22.

De

ling.

Lat. v. 155.

Cf. supra, n. i.

Liv. xlv. 20.

Thus
idors,

Livy, xxxvii.
:

49,

says

in reference to the Aetolian

am-

"... Denuntiatumque si qua deinde legatio ex 191 B.C. itolis nisi permissu imperatoris qui earn provinciam obtineret et legato Romano venisset Romam, pro hostibus omnes futures."

320
Received
outside the
city.

GENERAL TREATMENT OF ENVOYS

originally along the city-wall within and without which was left vacant and regarded as sacred). " Legati si

quando incogniti venire nuntiarentur, primo quid vellent ab exploratoribus requirebatur, post ad eos egrediebantur magistratus minores et tune demum senatus extra pomeria postulata noscebat et ita, si visum fuisset, admittebantur." l They were, as Servius here states,
probably the they obtained an audience of the senate. The envoys of the Macedonians, when the latter were at war with Rome, were conducted outside the city to a villa publica in the Campus Martius, and were there supplied with the customary requisites, which amounted practically to the same as those allowed 2 to ambassadors of friendly countries. In regard to treatment generally a certain distinction
first

visited

by the minor magistrates

quaestors

before

'

'

Treatment
generally
distinction

between
friendly hostile

and

legations.

was often made between legations that came to establish amicable relationships and those that came to effect a rupture of negotiations. In the case of the latter we find that they were forbidden to enter the city, they did not receive the full hospitium in the villa publica, and obtained an audience of the senate only in the u temple of Bellona or of Apollo, quibus vetitis in villa publica, senatus ad urbem, hospitium ingredi
.

aedem Bellonae datus


167
B.C.,

est."

The Rhodian envoys

in

complained that they were treated almost like enemies, that they were ordered to remain outside the and conditions of the city, and that the arrangements
inns allotted to
4

position.
1

them were an insult to their office and In this respect, however, reciprocal treatment
Aen.
vii.

Servius,

Ad

168.
extra
;

Liv. xxxiii.
;

24: "Macedones deduct!


iis

urbem

in

villan

ibique senatus datus."


3

publicam

locus et lautia praebita

et

ad aedem Bellona

Liv. xxx. 21.

And

cf.

the

last

note in the case of the Macedonia

ambassadors.

"... Ex sordido deversorio, vix mercede recepti, a Liv. xlv. 22 prope hostium more extra urbem manere iussi, in hoc squalor venimus
4
: .

FOR WHAT PURPOSES DESPATCHED


obtained.

321

Roman envoys despatched to foreign States, Reciprocal with which amicable relationships had not been established, were liable to receive the same brusque treatment. Thus the Roman ambassadors sent to the Dalmatians reported that they refused to grant them an audience, that they said they had nothing in common with the Romans, and that they refused to supply the ordinary 1 On other occasions necessaries incidental to hospitium. Roman envoys were made to wait a long time before they obtained an audience ; as, for example, in the case of a legation despatched to the King of Macedon, " . cum ad regem pervenissent, per legati Romani multos dies conveniendi eius potestatem non factam,"
tri
. .

and only after this long delay were they solemnly At times, indeed, ambassadors introduced to the king. from Rome failed to obtain an audience altogether, as, for example, those sent to Perseus, 173 B.C. " Principio huius anni legati, qui in Aetoliam et Macedonian! missi sunt, renunciarunt, sibi conveniendi regis Persei potestatem non factam." 2

Greek and Roman ambassadors were employed


3
:

for For what


despatched. in time of P6* 06
*

a large variety of purposes. Some of these were, in time of peace, as follows (i) the conclusion of treaties

of friendship,
(3) a PP ea l f
r

alliance,

help

commerce, etc. (2) mediation ; (4) conveyance of grateful acknow; ;

ledgments and delivery of gifts for services rendered or for good disposition towards the State (5) effecting
a delivery of fugitives ; (6) conveyance of messages for the adjustment of sacred affairs. Still more important were their functions in time of war, as, for example ( i ) the conclusion of peace and negotiation as to terms (2) delivery of prisoners, demanded or offered ; (3)
:

in time of war.

1 ... tacrre ovSe Aoyov eiribkyowro KaOoXov Trap' Polyb. xxxii. 19 l avruv, Aeyovrcs, ovSw avrots eivcu /cat Pw/>taiots KOIVOV. wpbs 8e
:

2 3

Liv.

xlii. 2.

Cf. Liv.

iv.

52.
to the different

See supra, pp. 304

seq., as

names given

to envoys in

virtue of their special functions.

Cf.

Thurm, De Rom.

leg.

pp. 38-72.

322

THEIR CREDENTIALS
to the burial of those fallen in
;

offer, as the case may be, of the capitulation (5) adjustment of other relationships in of the course the war, or out of it, between arising the belligerent States.
;

the war

making arrangements as (4) demand or

Number

of

The number of ambassadors

sent varied from time

envoys sent.

to time according to the importance and gravity of the In the case of Rome, when fetials matter in question.

were employed for demanding redress of grievances, or


for declaring war, the number varied, five or four being In missions other than frequent, three or two rarer.
these, there were, in earlier times, sometimes ten envoys, sometimes five, or three. Ten were generally sent to

the Roman commanders in proceedings relating This was the usual the work of pacification. number less number after the second Punic war. 1 than three was very rarely found.
assist

to

Powers and
instructions.

credentials.

The powers and instructions of ambassadors were sometimes consigned to writing, sometimes delivered to them merely in an oral form. In Greece their credentials,

commonly designated
to

</x/3o\a

(often

corre-

sponding
specifically

the

Roman

mentioned in Athenian decree (B.C. 372-360) engraved on a marble stele, which was found on the Acropolis, and is now preserved at Oxford, we find the cn/^oXa mentioned in connection with the conferring of honours on Straton, King of Sidon, Troirja-dvQw Se KGU (rvfji/3o\a /3ov\tj TTpo? 2 A similar use of the word is found in /3ao-*Aea.
r\
.
. .

tesserae hospitales '), were decrees. Thus in an extant

'

Liv. xxxiii.

24

xxxvii. 55
ii.

xlv. 17.
;

Corp. Imcrlp. Att.


;

86

Corp. inscrlp. Grace. 87


11.

Michel,

Recueil,

93

Hicks, Gr. Imcrip. no. in,


<$

18

seq.\

KCU o~vfi.j3o\a ^ f3ov\rj

irp-

5s TO v f3a<ri\a TOV StSwvtwv av o 8f)[j.os o 'AOrfvaitov elSfJL


S 7ToA.WS,
t8r)i

6V MS
eai>

oVa//,

KCU 6 ^8cMTlA,t'S O 2nva OH TTCfj/rrrji


'^

avrov 6 Srjuos o

POWERS AND INSTRUCTIONS

323

an oration of Lysias delivered about the same period 1 This application of the term arv/uL/3o\oi> (387 B.c.). to have been overlooked by the majority of appears
lexicographers. In Rome, though

we find several examples of envoys' mandates being merely verbal, 2 they were generally in written form. The same practice obtained also in
other countries. Livy relates that when Perseus, after the conference with the Romans (173 B.C.) had retired

verbal

mandates

Macedon, he despatched ambassadors to Rome to resume the negotiations for peace commenced with Marcius, and gave them letters to be delivered at 3 And so Suetonius says that Byzantium and Rhodes. after the tribunitian authority was conferred upon Tiberius a special commission was also entrusted to him to settle the affairs of Germany (A.D. 4).* There are also cases where letters of credit were added to the On certain occasions, a docufull powers conferred. ment containing a senatusconsult took the place of the
into

senatorial

Thus Polybius relates that ordinary letters of credit. ten Roman envoys arrived in Corinth (B.C. 196), to effect the settlement of Greece, and brought with them the decree of the senate relative to the peace with 5 and this decree at the same time determined Philip ; their competence in their mission. Roman ambassadors were obliged to adhere strictly to the terms of their
1

credit

Powers
specified
-

Lysias,

De
s

boms Aristophanis, 2 5
Kwr/oov,
8e>7#7
fj.ov

A^os

ya/o

Trpoa-eXOciv avT<p,

Xcywv on
.

A.a/?

Trapa. /?ao-iA.ea>s
2 8

TOV pcyaiXov
;

<f>ia.\r)v \pvarr)V.

Cf. Cic.

Ad Alt.
46
:

i.

12

Liv. xxiii. 33.

Liv.

xlii.

"

Perseus,

cum ab

conloquio

Romanorum

in

de incohatis cum Marcio recepisset sese, legates condicionibus pacis misit ; et Byzantium et Rhodum litteras legatis

Macedonian!

Romam

ferendas dedit."
4

Tiber.

".

delegatus pacandae Germaniae status II ; xlv. 25 ; Tacit. Ann. i. 57.


5
: .

data rursus potestas tribunicia in quinquennium, ." Cf. Liv. xxvii. 5 I ; xxxiii.
. .

Polyb. xviii. 44 ^KOV *K Trj<s 'Pto/xTjs ot Sc/ca 6V \ipiccr6ai TO. Kara TOVS "E>\\r)va<s /co/u'ovTs TO T/S TO TTCpl T7JS 7T/OOS ^lAlTTTTOV tp7JV7/S.
.
.

<5i>

324

WHAT

PERSONS APPOINTED

'

Mandata
'full

libera

powers.

commission, the extent of which was, as a rule, clearlymarked out for them ; though in certain urgent cases, where circumstances made it difficult or impossible to circumscribe their authority in this manner, unlimited full powers of mandata libera were negotiation conferred upon them. Thus, in connection with the negotiations commenced with the States of Asia (191 B.C.) ten ambassadors (or commissioners) were appointed
'
'

by the senate with

full

powers

libera

mandata

'

to

decide as they thought necessary ; so that they acted in the capacity of plenipotentiaries. " His, quae praesentis
disceptationis essent, libera senatus constituit." l

mandata

de

summa rerum

who

chosen
'

in Rhodes the admiral.

Ambassadors were chosen from amongst the most Sometimes those distinguished and honoured citizens. who already had high civil or military appointments were nominated for legations, as an additional mark of honour and in recognition of their able services. Thus we find a Rhodian admiral coming to Rome as an ambassador. A speech of the Rhodian Astymedes
having incensed the Romans (167 B.C.), the Rhodians, threatened with war, despatched to Rome Theaetetus as navarch and head of an embassy TrpecrftevTrjv a/ma 2 KOI In Greece to propitiate the senate. vavapxov who had proxenoi acquired adequate experience and of knowledge foreign affairs were frequently sent on missions to countries which they had previously represented or whose interests they had protected in their
or quasi-official capacity. 3 In some Hellenic communities wide experience of affairs was so much insisted on as an essential qualification for taking part in diplomatic negotiations that a minimum age was fixed for ambassadorial candidates. Thus there was a law of the Chalcidians that no individual under the age of fifty could officiate as an ambassador (or as any magisofficial
a

Proxenoi.

Minimum age
fixed.

Liv. xxxvii. 55, 56.

Cf. Liv. xxxiii. 24.


3

Polyb. xxx.

5.

See supra, pp. 153

seq.

WHAT
trate)
VOIJLOS
<$e

PERSONS APPOINTED
fj.rj

325
7rpecr/3ev<rai

yv XaXKiSevari

ap^at nySe

vewrepov

CTU>V Trevr^KOin-a. 1

In Rome at the time of the Kings envoys were chosen from the college of fetials in matters relating to the declaration of war, to the conclusion of treaties, and to extradition (deditio) ; but outside these questions other distinguished individuals could be appointed.

under

the

*%$**
despatched.

The Rhodians,

as

Polybius

relates,

considered

it

grossly

disrespectful on the part of the Roman commander, Gaius Lucretius, for sending to them as an envoy one
Socrates, an athletic trainer (aAe/Tm/?) ; they pointed out that it was not customary for the Romans to

employ messengers of

this

character

for,

on the
.

contrary, they were inclined to act with elaborate care and dignity in the despatch of missives, . . owe

TOVTO
Kctl

TTOieiv 'PajyUdiW,

aXXa

KCLI

\iav /uera TroAAi??

T<OV TTjOoo-racr/a? &a7rey(X7rojueVa>i> VTrep

TOIOVTWV*

Such conduct on the part of the Romans (or other ancient peoples) was exceptional ; the usual practice was to employ only persons of birth, distinction, and ripe age. Forty years was generally the minimum age. Minimum Ulpian says in the Digest that twenty-five years was the
lowest age for any public official. 3 Under the Republic, when the religious element Under the in public life was declining, the senate selected senators?"

age

ambassadors

from

among

its

number. 4

Thus,

in

205
1

B.C.

ten senators were appointed envoys by the


Tre/n

Heraclides (Ponticus),
Polyb. xxvii. 7.

(in Historic. Graec.fragmenta, ed.


2 3

TroAiTciwv (De rebus publicis), C. Miiller, t. ii. p. 222).

c. 3 1

1. 4 (de muner. et honor.), 8 "Ad rempublicam administrandam ante vicesimum-quintum annum, vel ad munera quae non ." patrimonii sunt, vel honores, admitti minores non oportet

Dig.

1158 "Aber in Folge der Zurtickdriingung des sacralen Elements im Staatswesen, welche einen der wichtigsten Gegensa*tze der republikanischen Entwickelung gegeniiber dem koniglichen Rom bildet, bleibt den Fetialen in historischer Zeit nur das religiose Ceremoniell und werden
Cf.

Mommsen, Rom.

Staatsr. vol.

iii.

pt.

ii.

p.

mit der eigentlichen Verhandlung anfangs vorzugsweise, bald ausschliesslich Mitglieder des Senats beauftragt."

326
consuls,

WHAT
"
.
. .

PERSONS APPOINTED

in later
often chosen

consules decem legates, quos iis vide1 ex senatu And after Philip's defeat retur, legere." in Thessaly, 198 B.C., by Titus Quinctius, it was decreed, says Livy, that in accordance with ancient practice, ten ambassadors should be appointed, and that, in council with them, the general should grant terms of peace to Philip. 2 Similarly, ten commissioners of high rank undoubtedly senators were despatched, 196 B.C., to arrange the settlement of Greece in con3 In the later period of the junction with Flamininus.
by

Members of

Sde r

e questrian

Abie ex-

Republic there was a departure from the earlier custom that the election of envoys appears to have been determined by lot (sortitio) from the various senatorial orders, such as consulares, praetoriiy etc. Cicero, writing in 60 B.C., gives an account of this procedure in the case of the appointment of legati to proceed 4 and Tacitus writes, indeed, as though this to Gaul ; method had once been common, " vetera exempla, 5 quae sortem legationibus posuissent." In certain cases of urgency, or through the insufficiency of senators (as, for example, in 413 B.C.), members of the equestrian order were added to the number of diplomatic agents to co-operate with or " consules take the place of the senators, . 6 As in the case coacti sunt binos equites adicere." of Greece, such persons as had satisfactorily fulfilled other public duties in foreign States were frequently
in
.
.

these States on diplomatic missions. Thus, connection with the appointment of the ten ambassadors to discuss terms of peace with Philip, a clause was added in the decree of the senate that Publius Sulpicius and Publius Villius, who in their

sent to
in

Liv. xxix. 20. Liv.


xxxiii.

24
42
:

" Decem
...

consilio
3

T. Quinctius imperator
xviii.
17

legati more maiorum, quorum ex leges pacis Philippo daret, decreti."

Polyb.

TO>V (ruy/cAi/ros ai/8/oas Sc/ca /caracrT^cratra


.
.

CTTK^aVWl/
4 6

^7T/X7T
i.

TOV? \lpLOVVTaS
5

Ad Att.
Liv.
iv.

19. 2-3.

Hist, iv. 6. 8.

52.

Cf. Liv. xxxi. 8.

AMBASSADORS SUITES
1

327

consulships had held the province of Macedonia, should be included in the number. 1 Likewise ex-magistrates,

who had had other The embassy which

public

experience, were

chosen.

negotiated terms of peace with Antiochus in 189 B.C. consisted of three consulares^ four praetorianiy and three quacstorii.* In important it was a to include at least legations general practice

one
c

consularis

if

there
3

the senior

consularis

were more than one, then was the head of the embassy,

princeps legationis.' In the earlier history of


a

Rome, when
public
life

religion played

Later

more prominent part

in

and was more

closely in touch with her jurisprudence,

members of the of fetials (as has been observed above) already college were sent as diplomatic envoys. The first case mentioned by Livy of individuals chosen outside the college occurred in 456 B.C., when three envoys were despatched to the Aequi to complain of injuries and demand reparation, "questum iniurias et ex foedere 4 res repetitum," Henceforth, legato seem to have been reserved for the functions of negotiation and diplomacy generally, whilst the fetials themselves took part in the actual declaration of war and conclusion of
peace.
It
is

in

this

sense

that

between the
5 or oratores.

offices

of the

fetials,

Varro distinguishes and those of the legato


ambassadors were

Both

in

Greece

and

in

Rome

suites

accompanied by suites, speaks of negotiations in which heralds took part (that of course, in the preliminary proceedings), and is,
plenipotentiaries accompanied
KOI

aicoXovOoi.

Thus Thucydides

by

their suites

xypvici

KOI aKO\ov9oi<f. Trpeo-flela


Liv. xxxiii. 24.
Cf. Sail. lug. 16.

Cicero calls these O


2

Liv. xxxvii. 55.

8
5

Liv.

iii.

25.

Varro, ap. Nonium, p. 529 : "... priusquam indicerent bellum iis a quibus iniurias factas sciebant fetiales, legates res repetitum mittebant quattuor, quos oratores vocabant."

Thuc.

iv.

1 1

8.

328
asseclae

THEIR RIGHTS AND DUTIES


1

In an epigraphic document of an ambassador mentioned. 2 In Roman embassies there were attaches, comites, legati (in the narrower sense of this word), as well
(or
asseculae).

we

find also the secretary

' as the ordinary suite. Thus, in the Digest comites are, in regard to the privilege of inviolability, specified

along with the


legatos,

'

'

oratores

and

'

legati

" item quod ad

oratores, comitesve attinebit, si quis eorum 3 And quern pulsasse et sive iniuriam fecisse arguetur." the the solemnities incidental to Livy, describing

conclusion of a treaty, refers to the formula employed by a fetial on his appointment as a delegate of the Roman people, this formula including a reference to the sacred vessels of the appointed envoy and " Facisne me tu to his attaches or attendants regium nuntium populi Romani Quiritium, vasa comitesque " meos ? 4 The same historian also mentions elsewhere c the comites legatorum of a foreign State. 5 These * comites were also appointed by the Government. The suite attached to Roman embassies comprised a larger number of individuals than that of modern legations. This was due partly to the difficulties of the
: '

'

journey itself, necessitating more work and attendance, and partly to the practice on a much larger scale of ceremonies and formalities in the actual fulfilment of the particular mission concerned. Like the plenipotentiaries and attaches, the minor members of the suite bore a
6 public character.

Rights and

Everywhere
inviolable.

in antiquity

ambassadors were considered

ambassadors,

Even among primitive races the persons of envoys are deemed to be sacred. 7 It is frequently
stated

by the Greek historians and other writers that heralds, ambassadors and their suites are sacrosanct in all
1

In Verr.

ii.

I.

25, where Cicero speaks of

legatorum

asseclae.*

-Corp. inscrip. Graec. no. 1837, in addendis.


3

Dig.
Liv.

xlviii.

6 (de
xlii.

vi

publica), 7

cf.

Ibid, xlviii.

1 1

(de leg. JuL

repet.), 5.
5
i.

*Liv.

i.

24.
1

30;

19.

Liv. xxvii. 5

r
.

See/^r^,p. 303.

INVIOLABILITY
matters regarding their
their duties.
office,

329

and

in the execution

of

go anywhere, whether by land or by sea, in all proceedings concerning Thus in the truce between the peace and justice. Athenians and the Lacedaemonians, according to
Thucydides, the
fifth

They enjoyed

liberty to

clause

is

to the effect that there

agreed upon, passing to and fro between Peloponnesus and Athens to arrange about the termination of the war and about the arbitration of matters in dispute. KripvKi Se
KCU 7rp(r3eia KOU aKoXovOoi? OTrotro*? ay
I
'

shall be^a safe-conduct both by land and sea for a herald, and envoys, and as many attendants as may be

(Ww,
** *

Treoi
I

KaraXva-ews

rov
eivcu

TToXe/uiov KCU StKwv e? IIeXo7roj/i/>7<TOJ/ KOI 'AOrjvcu^e (TTrovSas


lovcrt

Kara 6d\a(rcrav. 1 Four centuries later Strabo, speaking of the perfidy of the Persians, similarly emphasizes that it is unlawful to interfere in any way with ambassadors in the exercise of
KCU
aTriovcri, KCU

Kara

yrjv

KCU

their duties. 2

Herodotus gives a striking account of the remorse Maltreatment 5 b and expiation of the Spartans for having maltreated the expired 3 Persian envoys of Darius. The latter having despatched to demand earth and heralds to Athens and Sparta the Athenians them threw into the barathrum water/ and the Spartans into a well, telling them to carry earth and water to their king from those places. Subsequently, however, two Spartan nobles offered their lives as an atonement to Xerxes for the violence done to the envoys of Darius. But Xerxes replied that he would not act like the Lacedaemonians, who, by killing the heralds, had broken the common laws of mankind and, as he blamed such conduct in them, he would never be 4 This shows a clear recognition of guilty of it himself.
1 '

Thuc.
xvii.

iv.
:

1 1

8.

19

Kal rov<s Ilepcras 8e Ka/cajs ^yto-#cu TOI? irp&rfit&t, ras l Bia


vi.
vii.

3
4

Herodot.
Herodot.
fjiev
,

48.

136

yap (rvy^eat ra

... OVK tyrf 6/xotos ecr<r$ai Aa/ccSat/xovioicri* TTO.VTWV dvOpwTrwv vo/Mi//,a, aTroKruvavra.^
ri7rA^or<ri,

avros Bf

TO. e/ceti/oicrt

ravra ov

7roir/(Ttv

330

LOCAL JURISDICTION

an obligation, sanctioned by religion and law alike, even towards those who were considered barbarians and outside the pale. 1

There are, indeed, very few instances recorded o violence offered to the persons of ambassadors, even in case of offences committed by them in the territory o] the foreign State to which they were accredited. For it
Not amenable sovereigns and communities were not local jurisdiction, but that they were

was an established rule that the representatives of foreign amenable to the


triable

jurisdiction,

only by

by Cornelius and that Theban ambassadors Ismenias, Pelopidas Nepos accredited to Alexander, tyrant of Pherae in Thessaly (366 B.C.), having been suspected of intrigues against the independence of the Thessalians, were accordingly arrested and thrown into prison. Though the evidence
their

national

tribunals.

It

is

related

Envoy
personality of the state.

against Pelopidas pointed to his guilt, yet Thebes declared war as a reply to this outrage, which consti2 tuted an infringement of the law of nations. In Rome the ambassador was recognized as, in a & .~ r or a the certain sense, personification sovereignty an< of the State he represented. When the Roman majesty
.
.

Precedence,

ambassadors were senators, there was no question o: precedence, all being regarded as of equal rank in virtue Suetonius relates that the of their senatorial dignity. " conEmperor Galba assumed the name of legatus
'
' :

sultatusque imperator, legatum se senatus ac popul Romani professus est." 3 Of Popilius, a Roman envoy, Cicero says he bore with him, as it were, the personality of the senate, the authority of the republic, " Senatus
* faciem secum attulerat, auctoritatem reipublicae." From the earliest times the ambassador was looked upon as the personal representative of the king, as well as of the
1

The
39
;

illegal

treatment of the heralds


iii.

is

also referred to
vii.

by Polybii

ix.

Pausanias,

12.
5
:

and Stobaeus,

70.

Corn. Nep.

Pelop.

"Cum

norum cuperet redigere, legationisque quod apud omnes gentes sanctum esse
3

Thessaliam in potestatem Thet iure satis tectum se arbitraretur,


consuesset
viii. 8.

..."

Sueton. Galba, 10.

^Phllipp.

FORCE OF

IUS

GENTIUM

331

1 Hence any offence against an envoy was an people. offence against the State, against the sovereign Power. " . . Item quod ad legates oratores comitesve attinebit,
.

si

quis

eorum

pulsasse et sive iniuriam fecisse arguetur."

Unless due reparation was made, an offence of this kind offence against a just ground for declaring war. If during furnishe^i an existence of armistice between two States pre- war the offence should be at war committed by one any viously State against the ambassadors of the other, it necessarily entailed a discontinuance of the armistice. Thus in B.C. 202 a treacherous attempt made on the lives of the Roman envoys who had been sent to Carthage to remonstrate on the conduct of some Carthaginians was, says Polybius, a signal for the immediate resumption of war with a fiercer and more determined spirit. 3
-

Any injury to envoys or heradls was considered a All ancient deliberate infraction of the ius gentium*
writers are

Sanction of the ius fen 'ium '

unanimous on

this matter.

Some

relatives

of Tatius, the king of the Sabines and the colleague of Romulus, having committed a gross outrage on the envoys of the Laurentes, the latter commenced proceed5 Dionysius says that not only ings iure gentium.' from Lavinium but also from other States ambassadors arrived, who denounced this infringement of the law of nations, and threatened war if due satisfaction were not
'

offered.
e

Mera TOUT' e/c Te A.a/3iviov Trpearfieis a(piKO/ui.voi KOI a A Aw y iroXeutv crv^ywv KaTqyopovv T^? TrapavojULia?, KOI
TrapqyyeXov,
el
/JL*]

TroXejuLov

rev^ovTai T^9

6 SiKtjs.

Tatius was

afterwards killed in a tumult at Lavinium, whereupon Livy observes that he suffered the punishment which " illorum was due to his in se
relatives,

poenam
me

Cf. Liv. i. 24 (previously referred to) nuntium populi Roman! Quiritium ? "
2 iv. 3

"
:

Rex, facisne

tu regium

Dig.
1

xlviii. 6 (ad legem luliam de vi publica), 7. 8 (de pub. iudic.), 8.

Cf. Just. Imt.

Polyb. xv. 2.
Cf. Liv.
i.

14

ii.

iv.

17, 19, 32
G

vi.

19
ii.

ix.

IO

xxi.

25

xxxix. 25.
5

Liv.

i.

14.

Dion. Hal.

51.

332
vertit."
l

RIGHTS OF ENEMY ENVOYS


Romulus
did not declare war

Consensus as to
inviolability.

but in order ; and the murder of the king might be expiated, the treaty was renewed between the cities of Rome and Lavinium (c. 747 B.C.). Amongst the many other pronouncements of the Roman writers as to the inviolability of diplomatic agents, the " Annius, tanquam victor following may be referred to arm is Capitolium cepisset, non legatus, iure gentium "2 " ."' tutus Legatis, qui iure gentium sancti sint " Sacrum etiam in exteras ius et fas."^ gentes legatorum " Cum legationis iure se tutum arbitraretur, quod apud omnes gentes sanctum esse consuesset." 5 "Violavit
that the offence against the ambassadors
: .

legationes, rupto
Privilege of attaches.

The same

gentium iure." privilege was extended to the attaches


7

(comites) of ambassadors, but probably not so to their suite and family. Correspondence and all things essen-

Accessories to
legations.

to the regular performance of their duties were In the earlier times the likewise considered inviolable.
tial

various accessories incidental to legations were referred to specifically on the appointment and despatch of the envoy, such appointment practically taking the form of
a contractual transaction.

Thus the customary formula by the nominee was: "Rex, facisne me tu regium nuntium "populi Romani Quiritium ? Vasa
uttered

The

privilege

extended
equally to enemy envoys.

8 comitesque meos ? as those of Enemy envoys were just as inviolable Thus Cicero says " Legatorum ius a friendly State. divino humanoque vallatum praesidio, cuius tarn sanctum
:

et venerabile

nomen
:

esse

debet, ut

non modo

sociorum iura, sed et hostium tela incolume versetur ; " Hostium and Tacitus ius, sacra legationis et fa 10 there is found a Further specific provisio gentium."
1

inte "

Liv.

i.

14.

Liv.

viii. 5.

4 Tacit. Hist. iii. 80. Liv. xxxix. 25. 5 referred Corn. to) Nep. Pelop. 5. (Previously 7 Cf. 6 Seneca, De ira, iii. ^. supra, p. 328.
3

Liv.

i.

24.

Cf. In Verr. In Verr. iii. " incolumes esse debent ?


10

i.

33

"Nonne

legati

inter

hoste

Ann.

i.

42.

POSITION OF THIRD STATES


:

333

" Si to this effect in the Digest quis legatum hostium contra ius pulsasset, gentium id commissum esse
l existimatur, quia sancti habentur legati." The principle was, of course, equally applicable in the case of ambassadors remaining within the territory

of

a foreign State if war should break out between the latter and their own country. Thus Ulpian says

" ... si cum been declared were no less protected, legati apud nos essent gentis alicuius, bellum cum is indictum sit ? responsum est, liberos esse manere ; id enim iuri gentium conveniens esse." 2 During the second Punic war, Scipio's envoys had been subjected to ill-treatment at the hands of the those violators of alliances Poeni Carthaginians, 3 as Cicero called them. But when a foedifragi fell into the of the consul, Carthaginian legation power he deemed it unlawful to adopt against them measures of reprisal or retaliation, and consequently sent them back safe to Carthage. 4 Strictly speaking, the privilege of inviolability was
'
'

in the Digest that, in pursuance of the law of nations, the envoys of a community against which war has

scipio's respect e P f ilese d ur?n g thI

^ nd

Punic

Position of

valid only for the Government to which the legation was accredited, and not necessarily at least, in its full extent to third States. But the Romans held

of inviolability.

such obligation binding on even third parties ; so that protection was afforded to ambassadors not only during the time of their official residence within the but also during their journey to the territory,
1

Duration of

Dig.
Dig.

1.

7 (de legationib.), 17.

1.

7 (de legationib.), 17.


belli

Cf. Liv. xxiv. 33


iura relicta erant."

"Legatis in

periculum adductis ne
*Deoff.\. 12. 4 Diod. Sic. xxvii. 12

quidem

TWV Kapxr)8ovL<Dv

Ot yap ets 'Po>/7i> aTroo-raXevrc? Trpeo-^evTai avao-T/3e<ovTes v?rb ^ei/xwvos KaTrjvf^Orjcrav ts TQV
:

*ftv dva^Ocvrwv CTTI rbv 2/a7ri<oi/a, KCU vav<TTa@fj.ov. /3oaWa>v a/Awatr&u TOVS acre/Jets, 6 2/ct7rtwv OVK <f>ij Seiv a TOIS K.ap^rj8ovioLS eyfcaAovcrtv. Ovrot pev ovv dfaOevres
ets

TTJV

Kap^rjSova,

^av/Aafovres

TI)V

TWV

'PcD/iaccov

334

POSITION OF THIRD STATES

country to which they were despatched, and during


their
is

return home. The Digest states that a man considered to be absent on State service as soon as he has started from the city, though he may not yet have reached the province ; and when he has once departed, he remains absent until his return to the l< Abesse rei publicae causa intellegitur et is, city. ( qui ab urbe profectus est, licet nondum provinciam
accesserit [taking this reading instead of ' excesserit '], sed et is qui excessit, donee in urbem revertatur." l It is added that this rule applies to proconsuls and their

legates,
(tribuni

to

imperial

procurators,
comites

to

military

officers

mi/itum), to This legates), etc.

legatorum

(assessors

of
not

mention

provision ambassadors proper, but there is


particular

does

no doubt

that the rule applied equally to them. Thus, when in 189 B.C. Aetolian

way demanded

their

to

Rome,
on

envoys were, on intercepted by the Epirotes who

ransom, an

immediate

Rome

insisted

their release. 2

despatch from Again, a convention

of representatives of the States that were at variance with Philip having been summoned at Tempe, in amongst the Thessaly, 187 B.C., the Thessalians said that that he did laid complaints against sovereign not even scruple to offer violence to ambassadors who by the law of nations are everywhere held inviolable ; for he had laid an ambush for their envoys who were
Sacred
embassies.
3 proceeding to Titus Quinctius. Ambassadors despatched on purely sacred missions were protected by all States, whether they were directly concerned in the embassy or not. 4 But the obligation to observe this privilege was not

Usual to obtain

^"through*

necessarily

imposed on States through whose


those
2

territory

enemy
l

ambassadors, or
iv. 6.

of doubtful character,

Dig.

32.

Polyb. xxi. 26.

Liv. xxxix.
sint,

25

"lam

ne a
;

sancti

violandis

abstinere

legatis quidem, insidias positas

qui iure gentium euntibus ad T.

Quinctium." 4 Diod. Sic.

xiv.

93

cf. ibid. xvi.

57.

PUNISHMENT OF OFFENCES

335

were passing without previously having obtained permission. Thus, in 215 B.C., Philip sent an embassy, with Xenophanes at the head, to Hannibal in order to negotiate for an alliance whose object was to be the subjugation of Italy. The king's envoys were descried at sea by the Roman fleet which was guarding the coasts of Calabria, and were overtaken and captured. They tried to make up some fictitious tale, but their purpose was discovered, and they were conveyed as

Rome. 1 occurred much earlier,


prisoners
to

somewhat

similar

example

in

495

B.C.,

when

the Volscians

having sent ambassadors to stir up Latium, the Latins (reports Livy), in view of their recent defeat received at Lake Regillus, could scarcely refrain from offering
violence to the instigators, seized them and conveyed them to Rome where they were kept as prisoners. As
for this conduct the Latins obtained the 2 of privileges hospitality and other favours from Rome.
a

reward

nations

Similar rules obtained, in this respect, amongst other of antiquity ; as, for example, in China,

in ancient
I

where envoys, though held sacred, were arrested as spies if they passed through the dominions of a third State, without having first provided themselves with passports. 3

^ nevertheless

n
.

s po7t s

Punishment for offences committed against foreign Punishment n eJ ambassadors was very severe. Any complaints that agahS ambassadors. were made, for example, to Rome were submitted " Fetiales Judicial to the college of fetials for investigation. function of ,. qui vigmti, qui de his rebus cognoscerent, mdicarent et the college of
.

fetials.

33, 34. Justin's account (xxxix. 4) is different: legatum deinde ad Hannibalem, iungendae societatis gratia, cum epistolis mittit ; qui comprehensus, et ad senatum perductus, incolumis dimissus est, non in honorem regis, sed ne dubius
Liv.
xxiii.
.

"

Philippus

adhuc indubitatus
2

hostis redderetur."

Liv.

ii.

Latinos via

22: "...sed recens ad Regillum lacum accepta odioque eius quicunque arma suaderet, ne ab
;

clades
legatis

quidem
8

violandis abstinuit

comprehensos Volscos
In

Romam
cit.

duxere."
1
.

Martin, Traces of Int.

Law

Ancient China, kc.

p. 7

336

PUNISHMENT OF OFFENCES
x

statuerent, constituerunt."
guilty, sufficient

If the offender was found

the

fetials

then

decided

whether there was

Delivery of offender by
fetials.

cause for his delivery to the outraged State ; and if the decision was in the affirmative, his surrender was effected by the fetials themselves, both as satisfaction to the offended State and to appease the " ad Thus Varro states " Si gods, placandos deos." cuius legati violati essent, qui id fecissent, quamvis
:

nobiles
Examples.

Livy

essent, ut relates 3 that L.

dederentur

civitati

statuerunt."

Minucius Myrtilus and L. Manlius

having committed an offence against the Carthaginian ambassadors were surrendered by the fetials and taken to Carthage. Again, it is reported that Q. Fabius and Cn. Apronius, aediles, had, on account of a tumult that occurred, assaulted certain ambassadors who came from Apollonia to Rome, 266 B.C. Whereupon the senate ordered them to be delivered up by the
fetials to

to

the injured ambassadors, and sent a quaestor convey them to Brundisium to protect them from

any attempts that might be made on them by the 4 " Could such friends of the surrendered culprits.

Provisions in the Digest.

a court as that," asks the historian, " be said to be a council of mortal men, and not rather the temple " The Digest contains an express provision of faith ? " to the same effect, itaque eum qui legatum pulsasset Quintus Mucius dedi hostibus, quorum erant
.
.

legati, solitus est

respondere."

With

surrender there was a similar When delivery was not decided on, other States also.
1

respect to such practice amongst the

Varro,

De

vita pop.

Liv. xxxviii.

42

Rom. iii. 8. " L. Minucius Myrtilus

et L.

Manlius, quod
Cf.

legates Carthaginienses pulsasse dicebantur, iussu

M.

Claudii praetoris

urbani per
Liv.
4
ix.

fetiales traditi

sunt legatis et Carthaginem evecti."

10.

Val.

Max.

vi.

6.5:" Legatos
ire iussit,

ab urbe Apollonia

Romam

missos

contentione pulsaverunt, quod ubi comperit, continuo eos per fetiales legatis dedidit quaestoremque
aedilicii orta

Q. Fabius, Cn. Apronius


his

cum
5

Brundisium

ne quam in itinere a cognatis deditorum


Cf. Dig. xlix. 15. 4.

iniuriam acciperent."
Dig.
1.

7 (de legationib.), 17.

PRINCIPLE OF EXTERRITORIALITY
the culprit, in
1

337

Rome, was sentenced

to death, or to

deportation, according to the gravity of the offence. Not infrequently the foreign government to which Roman
"*

Roman
them.

offenders were surrendered immediately liberated In such cases they were seldom regarded in
.

ofte n

jyo-e

themselves, and having sufficiently on the often were, contrary, deprived of citizenship
as

Rome

/Y

"berated.

cleared

on

their return to the city. "Quia quern populus semel iussisset dedi, ex civitate expulsisse videretur,

sicut faceret

cum aqua

et igni interdiceret."

The
from

principle of exterritoriality follows naturally The latter represents the that of inviolability.

Extemtoriahty
*

of protection ; the former, implying in regard to the foreign State, judicial independence It was a represents the negative aspect. universally recognized rule in antiquity, as has already been pointed out, that delinquent ambassadors were not subject to the tribunals of foreign countries to which they were accredited, but only to their own national jurisdiction. In the case of Rome such legati as were permitted to waive this privilege and submit to the territorial jurisdiction were not ambassadors in the proper sense, as recognized by the law of nations, but were simply delegates despatched by the provinces or the towns with petitions to the emperor ; they were more of the nature of instruments of mere communication than of diplomacy proper. from the local civil jurisAmbassadors were exempt L ,. r n ..,..,.*'. diction as well as from the criminal jurisdiction, Their houses, however, were not held to possess such independence, and could not, as a rule, legitipositive

aspect

Exemption from local


civil

and

mately furnish an asylum to criminal fugitives. When Jugurtha came to Rome, at the time of his The case of war with the Romans, a plebiscite ensured his safety " " interposita fide publica by extending to him and
equity.
1

Dig.

xlviii. 6,

7 (quoted supra, p. 331).

Cf. Paulus, Sentttttiae, v.

26. i, 2.
2

Dig.

1.

7 (legationib.), 17.

338

PRINCIPLE OF EXTERRITORIALITY
immunities of ambassadors. 1

his suite the

stay

During his one of his companions was accused of murder and found guilty. The proceedings were instituted
against the offender, says Sallust, rather by reason of " fit reus equity than by the law of nations, magis ex 2 ex iure Mommsen aequo bonoque quam gentium."

Mommsen's

observes that the question of ambassadors' immunity from the local criminal jurisdiction is an uncertain " one " bedenkliche Frage 3 and refers, in order to confirm his view, to the case of Jugurtha as one which
objections

clearly negatived the claim to any exemption of this nature. But in this connection, it must be recollected,

Eariy example

dmg
envoy's unity
fr

suggestion Sallust distinctly the immunity obtained generally and was based on the ius gentium, but that in the case of Jugurtha's companion an exception to this rule was made on account of special and exigent circumstances. An earlier example may here be recalled. After the expulsion of Tarquin, certain envoys of
^ monarch were despatched to negotiate for his or for the cession of his estates; but at least, return, their efforts proving futile they entered into a conspiracy with some of the young patricians for the restoration

as against implies that

Mommsen's

iocS
jurisdiction,

^ e ex^ ec

The plot was discovered ; their were thrown into chains, but the fellow-conspirators some deliberation, were after envoys themselves, liberated conformably to the law of nations, although they had deliberately placed themselves in the position of enemies. The supremacy of the law was thus acknowledged ; the law of nations, as Livy says,
of the monarchy.
" Proditoribus extemplo in vincula coniectis, de legatis paullulum addubitatum est et quamquam visi sunt commisisse, ut hostium loco essent, ius tamen
prevailed.
;

gentium
at
first

valuit."

Livy

also

mentions a case that


in

sight

appears to

be

principle of exemption
1

from

contradiction to the the local tribunals,


z

Sail.

lug. xxxii. 33.


Staatsr. vol.
iii.

lug. xxxv. 7.
Liv.
ii.

Rom.

pt. 2, p.

1153.

4.

PRINCIPLE OF EXTERRITORIALITY
as

339

where a foreign envoy, one Phileas of Tarentum, was punished in Rome. But the historian adds, " diu iam per speciem legationis Romae quum esset," thus indicating that there was a strong suspicion as to whether he was vested with ambassadorial capacity. 1 Should any litigation arise out of the civil transactions civil of diplomatic functionaries, the Roman law afforded S them to a large extent the privilege of resorting to officials
the

home

ambassadors (as well as certain Digest other individuals) were permitted to have cases transferred for trial to the courts of their domicile, if the question turned upon any contract entered into by them before their appointment was made. Other persons could not have the cause transferred if they made the contract where they were sued ; but ambassadors were not compelled to defend their case in Rome so long as they remained there in the character of ambassadors, even though they entered
into the contract there, provided they made it before the mission was undertaken. 3 The privilege had no

tribunals, 2 that says

the

ius revocandi

domum.'

The
law
*

reference to contractual transactions which took place both during the continuance of the embassy and at

Rome. 4

On

the contrary

if

they brought an action

themselves they were obliged to defend any consequent


action brought against them. This did not, of course, apply to their proceedings relating to some iniuria,

or theft, or damage inflicted on them where they were resident for the time being ; otherwise (as the Digest says) they would have to bear insults and loss without obtaining redress ; and, further, it would be in any
1

Liv. xxv. 7.

Dig. v. i (de iudiciis), 2. 3 : "Legatis in eo quod ante legationem contraxerunt . revocandi domum suam ius datur."
. .

. . 4: Exceptis legatis, qui licet ibi contraxerunt, ante legationem contraxerunt, non compelluntur se Romae .defendere, quamdiu legationis causa hie demorantur."

Dig.

v. i. 2.

"

dummodo

4 Cf. iv. 8 (de recept. arbit.), 32.9, as to certain Dig. v. i. 2. 5. similar exemptions in the case of references to arbitration.

340

PRINCIPLE OF EXTERRITORIALITY

Loans advanced to
foreign envoys.

Voluntary
submission.

Other
provisions in the Digest.

individual's power, by attaching them, to make them amenable to the Roman jurisdiction the moment they took action for redress. 1 It is worthy of note that in consequence of acts of committed corruption by foreign envoys when residing in Rome, and owing also to abuses of usury, the Senate, in 94 B.C., deprived all persons who advanced loans to them of the right of action thereon. 2 This measure was followed more preliminary up decisively in 67 B.C. by the lex Gabinia? In the case of non-contentious matters the immunity did not necessarily apply. And, further, the ambassador could, if he chose, voluntarily submit to the local tribunals, in which case his independence was not deemed to be impaired. It may be added that there are certain other pn

Digest relating to the principle oi but it is doubtful if exterritoriality, they are applicabl< to diplomatic envoys. Thus it is stated that legates were amenable to the Roman jurisdiction in respect of delicts committed during the period of their legation, whether such delicts were committed by themselves or by their slaves. An action in rem, founded on the fact of prescriptive possession, against a legate was allowed (as Cassius held), if it would deprive him of only one slave out of a large number, but not allowed if it would deprive him of his whole suite of attendant slaves. But Julian's view was that no action could be
visions
in

the

Sed si agant compelluntur se adversus omnes Dig. v. i. 2. 5 : defendere ; non tamen si iniuriam suam persequantur vel furtum vel damnum quod nunc passi sunt ; alioquin, ut et lulianus eleganter ait, aut impune contumeliis et damnis adficientur aut erit in potestate
1

"

cuiusque pulsando eos subicere ipsos iurisdictioni,


2

dum

se vindicant."

Cf.

Asconius,

p.

57

" Rettulerat ad senatum

ut,

quoniai
(

exterarum nationum legatis pecunia magna daretur usura turpiaque famosa lucra ex ea fierent, ne quis legatis exterarum nationun

pecuniam expensam
3

ferret."

Cf. Cic.

Ad

facere vellent,
ibid. vi. 2. 7.

" Salaminii cum Romae versurai v. 21. 12: non poterant, quod lex Gabinia vetabat." And se
Att.

NEUTRALITY OF AMBASSADORS
allowed at
all
;

341

opinion, as the object

it is stated, was the better of disallowing the action was to prevent the legate from being called away from the duties of his post. 1

and

this,

was a universally recognized rule that ambassadors Neutrality of such were to be strictly neutral. Their functions ambassac*ors were deemed to be purely diplomatic and not military ; so that they were necessarily debarred from engaging A violation of this obligation to preserve in hostilities. neutrality was an offence against the State to which As a reparation to the injured they were accredited. country, the unneutral envoy had to be surrendered ; be justly declared. violation of failing this, war could In 390 B.C. the Senonian Gauls, under their leader war Brennus, were marching against Clusium, when the
It

as

Romans, foreboding the danger, despatched as envoys three distinguished members of the Fabian gens to arrest their advance by means of negotiation. The
Gauls, however, rejected the overtures made to them, and pursued their attack. So that fate now pressing hard on the Roman city, as Livy expresses it, the ambassadors, contrary to the law of nations, took up arms to assist the Etruscans in their defence, " ibi,

iam
ius

urgentibus

Romanam urbem
2

fatis,

legati

contra

gentium capiunt." recognized Quintus Ambustus, one of the sons of Fabius Ambustus, as he slew a Gaulish warrior, and (according to the statement of Plutarch) called the gods to witness his violation of the common law of all nations, in coming to them as an ambassador and fighting against them as
an enemy,
TOV
l

arma

Brennus

d>?

S'

eTn/c^cmJcra?

777

MX#

K
e

CLvSpci,

6 yvo)pi(ra$ "Legati ex
"...lulianus

BjOei/z/0?

avrov

Dig.
Ibid.
v.

v.

I.

24.

delictis

in legatione commissis
servi

coguntur iudicium
i.
:

Romae
2:
;

pati, sive ipsi

admiserunt sive
distinctione
actio,

eorum."

24.

sine

denegandam

actionem
2

merito

ideo

enim non datur

ne ab

officio suscepto

legationis avocetur."

Liv. v. 36.

342
Oeov$
t

REWARD AND PUNISHMENT


ft>?

Trapa TO. KOIVOL KCU yevo JULIO-jmeva.

Tracriv

ocna KCU
1

SIKCUO.

Trpe<r/3evTOV jnev rJKOVTO?, TroiXeJULIO.

then demanded the surrender of the Fabii, prepared to regard the crime as a public act 2 on their part. At the meeting of the senate to consider the question, the conduct of Fabius was censured by many ; and the fetials, to whom the matter was then referred, urged his delivery to the offended people, so that the rest of the city might be
/jLevov.

He

av6pu)Troi$ Se eipyaar-

unless the

Romans were

ev Se 'Yaw rfc cleared from participating in his guilt, aXXot re TroXXo* TOV /SouXi;? (rvva-^Oeia-rjs <&a/3iov KctTrjyopovv

KOI

KCU TU>V lepewv ol KoXovjacvoi <&t]Tia\ei$ evfjyov eTriOeid^ovreg K\evoi>T$ Tcov TreTrpaynevwv ayo$ Ttjv orvyKXyrov et? eva

TOV amoi/ rptyacrav virep rcov aXXcov a(j)O(riw(ra(r6ai. z The senate, however, shirked the difficulty by submitting the question to the assembly of the people, who disregarded the demand. Subsequently, at the battle of the Allia, the Roman army that was sent against the

Gauls was completely routed.


Reward and

Both
usually

in Greece and in rewarded for their

Rome

ambassadors were good services, and not

punished by their own States for the commission of offences. There is an extant inscription presenting a fragment of a decree in favour of Demetrius Phalereus (born c. 345 B.C.) for having effected a reconciliation between the Athenians and the inhabitants of the Attic demus Aexone. In 317 B.C. Demetrius was appointed governor of Athens by Cassander, and the document probably
infrequently
iplut. Camill 17.
2

Appian,

Z>

rebus

7T/00-/3VOl/TS,

TTtt/Ott

Gallicis, 3 atTo/A6vos TOVS 4>a^tovs, OTL, TOV? KOll/OVS VO/XOVS TTO\fJir](raV. rJTl T TOVS
:

KOLVOV av8/oas es SIKTJV c/cSorous ol ytvecrOai, ei firj OkXovtri 'Pco/xatot Cf. Diod. Sic. xiv. 113: Ew/fie/^o-avTos Se avrwi/ ivai r5 epyov. Oarepov r(av TrpecrfievTiov K.OJL riva TWV cvSo^ore/owv 7rdp^v aTTOKTftvavros, yi/ovres ot KcA.Tot TO yeyovos, ts *P(o/ir^j/ 7r/3r/?ets aTrecrretAav
efatT^o-ovras TOV 7rpo-/3vrrjv TOV dSinov iroXtpov 7r/oo/cara/>^aPint. Camill. 18.

OF AMBASSADORS
dates from about this time.
scription
lost

343

The

perhaps

stated

that

portion of the inthe Aexonians

bestowed certain honours upon him, and erected to him one of the three hundred and sixty statues. 1 The "To part remaining runs somewhat to this effect the auxiliary gods Callicrates, the son of AristoWhereas Demetrius, the son of phanes, said Phanostratus of Phalara, is a man devoted to the Athenians and to the Aexonians, and the enemy being in the country, and the Aexonians having severed themselves from the town owing to the war, he re. and conciled them with the Athenians restored Athenians and the to been chosen ; having peace by ." 2 the people as administrator of the country. Similarly Poseidippus who had accompanied an embassy accredited to King Cassander was, in recogtowards the nition of his benevolent disposition Athenians and his services rendered to them, publicly commended in a decree and crowned with a garland of green branches. 3
:
!

Cf. Diog. Laert. v. 75

Cic. Rep.

ii.

Corn. Nep. Milt.

6.

(e-

O~TIV
/cat

ay)a#os irtpi TOV orjfjiov TWV TOV 8)fj(jLov Ttov Ata>Vwv, /cat
/cat

7roAe/x(ta)-

v evdvTcav) kv TQ

Atu>vecov)
ov,
TT/OOS

xwpa, /cat TOV "Acrrews Sia TOV

<rc/>)as

StcAwe
cts

'

A6r)vaiov(<s
*'
. .

TO avTo /cat a)yr? (?) 7ra/oor^TO 'A) patois, *at Trj X^PV

......

TrtfteA^T^s at)p^cis VTTO TOV

8rjfj.ov.

The last two lines Antiquites helleniques, vol. ii. no. 422. are inserted according to Rangabe's conjecture, based on the passage
(Rangabe
:

of Diodorus,
3

xviii. 74.)

Rangabe, Antiq. hell. no. 2298 (marble stele found in 1853 near the banks of the Ilissus) 7rciS^ ot Tr/oeo-^ets, ot aTroo-TaAei/Tes TT/OOS
:

TOV jSao-tAca Kdcro-avSpov,


o*avTa, fjL0' lavrwi'
^/)7ycrijOtov

d7roc/)atVovo-i,

IIoo-ctStTnrov a'VvaTroSrjfi'tj-

/at cairrots, dzroSet/ci/vfievov TTJV

vvotav

fy l)(t
II.

Trpos TOV of}p.ov

Twv 'A

KOI o"T<^avwo~ai avTbv OaX.Xov

344
Punishment
misconduct.
for

PUNISHMENT OF AMBASSADORS
the

hand, severe punishment overtook guilty of any acts of malversation, treachery, prevarication, or other misconduct. Plato provides in his Laws l for the misconduct of heralds or ambassadors any envoy bearing to or from Athens a false message was to be indicted for a violation not only of the law but of the commands and
other
as

On

Suc j1

envO y S

were found

duties
ypa<pai
Kal

imposed on him by Hermes and Zeus,


/caret

TOVTCOV CCTTWV
VOJULOV

o>?

T&p/mov
.

KCLI
.
.

A*o? a*yyeXiap

Ambassadors
forbidden to
receive gifts.

and if found determined he was to suffer a by the penalty guilty State. Ambassadors were forbidden to receive presents .. 1*1 which might in reality amount to bribery as clearly appears in a law quoted by Demosthenes, and probably due to Solon. Thus, Demosthenes attacking Aeschines
7riTdet$ irapa
a<Te/3t]ardvTcov
,

......

11

and Philocrates for receiving presents on their embassy the question of corrupt says, when he comes to discuss motive "I am sure you will all agree that to accept a reward for acts which are detrimental to the commonThe legislator wealth is shocking and abominable.
:

indeed does not make use of such express terms, but he absolutely prohibits the taking of bribes in any way, considering, as it appears to me, that a person who is once bribed and corrupted ceases to be even a 3 safe judge of what is useful for the State." 2 Xenophon 4 and Plutarch relate that Timagoras, an Athenian ambassador accredited to Artaxerxes of Persia, was condemned to death and executed for having received and if it was for the amount of presents, presents ; adds Plutarch, the sentence was right and just, el v.ev

em TW
1

7r\ij6ei Ttov Soopewv, 6p6u)$ KOL SiKaiti)?.


A.
:

Philocrates

xii.

941

'AAAa p?i/ vir'ep yc rov 7r/ootKa, *} py, TO per &v fj TroAis /2A.a7TTTai, TravTes otS' ort IK TOVTWV Aa/z/3aveiv, 4 6 /xevrot rov T) av ctvat Setvov KCU TroAArjs opy^ acov. ov 8tw/ot(T TOUTO, aAA' cbrAws wr
T>e Falsa Legat. 7
a>s

e/AOt

8o/<et,

TOV a7ra
rutv o~vfj.(f)p6vT<DV ao~(^aA7j /xeveiv

ovSe KpiTrjv

en

ry

*Heflen.vi\. I. 33-38.

*Pekp. 30.

PUNISHMENT OF AMBASSADORS

345

was impeached by Hyperides before the Athenians and condemned for corruption, amongst other traitorous 1 Epicrates accused of corruption on the dealings. occasion of his embassy to Artaxerxes escaped death

by voluntary exile. For a false assumption of the


for acting in
capital penalty in reference to Aeschines'

title

of ambassador, or

False

that capacity without

was awarded.

due authority, the Thus Demosthenes says


to Philip that he

wf

tioa of

ambassador.

went off

embassy ambassador without having been appointed by either the council or the people ; and that the law the penalty of death for such misconduct, provided \ ~ f * /
as
\

OVKOVV o>X eTO

M ei/

irapa rov

VOJULOV,

d/l' uavarov
09

KeXevet

TOVTMV

etvai.

In the trial of offences committed by ambassadors, special U P a special procedure before the tribunals was adopted, t riaT?f envoys' ISiw Se, rj Kara ru>v 7rpea-/3evTU)v ypacj)*!, Trapcnrpea-Pelas offences.
Quinctilian says that among the Greeks there were frequent prosecutions for offences relating to diplomatic
missions.
raised

In such indictments the question was often it was at all permissible for an ambassador to act otherwise than was laid down in his instructions, and also as to the extent of the period during which the accused retained his capacity as ambassador, since some envoys terminated their office with the delivery In this connection Quinctilian of their message. 5 mentions the case of Heius, who was at the head of

whether

Aeschines,
2 3
4

Hyperides, Pro Euxenippo, 30 c. Ctenph. 79.

cf.

Demosth. De Falsa Leg. 116


c.

Demosth. T)e Falsa Leg. 315; Lysias, Demosth. T>e Falsa Leg. 126, 131. Pollux, viii. 46 ; and cf. Ibid. vi. 154
Inst.

Epicrat.

viii.

137.

4. veris causis frequens ;

Orat.

vii.

36

"Male

gestae legationis

apud Graecos

et

ubi
sit

iuris loco
liceat, et

quaeri solet, an

omnino
;

aliter

agere
alii

quam mandatum

quousque

sit

legatus

quoniam

Cf. Cic. *De Invent, ii. 29. 42, whose renuntiando desinunt." propositions here set forth are based on Greek doctrines.
in

346

PUNISHMENT OF AMBASSADORS

the legation despatched by the Sicilians to Rome ; l here the question was whether he ought not to have returned to Sicily and reported the result of his embassy
in

Rome,

of auctoritas.' occasion of their declaring in the senate the results of their mission. Sometimes after submitting their report severe censure was passed for departures from Roman usage and tradition, or for any crookedness in their proceedings ; as, for example, in the case of the embassy
to Macedon (171 B.C.) of Marcius and Atilius, whose conduct was disapproved by the older members, as Livy says, and those who retained the ancient simplicity " of manners, " veteres et moris antiqui memores, 2 They declared they saw nothing of the Roman genius in the conduct of that embassy, that their ancestors did

before he proceeded to give evidence against Verres. In Rome legati were liable to an impeachment for anv serious infringement of their auctoritas,' on the
*

not glory more in cunning than in real valour.

Those

senators, however, who were actuated by considerations of utility rather than of honour, prevailed and passed
a vote in approval of the conduct of the envoys, " vicit tamen ea pars senatus, cui potior utilis quam Sallust 3 gives a case of a successful honesti curat."

impeachment
Quaestio txtraordinaria.

(no

B.C.)

of

legato

by means of
(an

a lex

which established a

quaestio

extraordinaria

extra-

The law de
repetundis.

ordinary inquisition) to try them ; but these legato were The law not really ambassadors in the proper sense. de repetundis passed in 59 B.C. provided for the punishment of offences committed by legato and other public
chiefly in respect of acts of corruption or " Lex lulia extortion. repetundarum pertinet ad eas
officials,

pecunias, quas quis in magistratu potestate curatione legatione vel quo alio officio munere ministeriove publico cepit, vel
i

cum ex
iv.

cohorte cuius eorum est."


8.
2 4

Cf. Cic. In Verr.


lug. 40.

Liv.

xlii.

47.

Dig.

xlviii.

u.

I.

CHAPTER XIV
RIGHT OF ASYLUM. EXTRADITION
FOLLOWING on what was
said in the preceding chapter

of those individuals who committed any breach of the law of inviolability of


as to the surrender (deditio)

be convenient here to consider briefly what other offences entailed a surrender or delivery of delinquents, to what extent the practice of extradition in general obtained in Greece and Rome, and how far the right of asylum was recognized.
ambassadors,
it

will

The right of asylum occupied a prominent place in the religious, in the political, and in the legal history o Commanded by the gods who zealously antiquity.
punished
all

importance

infractions of this obligation,

sense above the

common

law

it

it was in a was not necessarily

Divine
sa

antagonistic thereto, but was its supplement, its extension. It was a tutelary right of the ancient peoples,

and manifested itself with comparative conspicuousness even in the very earliest development of society. As a " Ce droit French writer says plac au-dessus du droit commun, non pour le combattre, mais pour le garder,
:

suppleer quand il fait defaut et le redresser devie ; droit tutelaire des societs naissantes, quand et qui semble meme avoir presid a leur formation. ." l It was a universal recognition, spontaneously and unarrived at, of the necessity to alleviate the consciously of the and of the obligation to extend mercy, law, rigour under certain conditions, to those in distress, and more

pour

le

il

particularly to suppliant fugitives.


1

Wallon, <Du

droit tfasile (Paris,

1837).

348
Right of

RIGHT OF ASYLUM
right of

IN

ANTIQUITY

The

asylum existed amongst the ancient

Egyptians.

Thus Bulmerincq, referring to the authority Egyptians. o f earlier writers such as Fulgentius, Benhardus, Sixtus
Senensis,

and Alphonsus Tostatius,

states

that

King

Assyrophernes had erected a statue of his son, and decreed that offenders fleeing thereto should be pro" Der tected. Konig Assyrophernes habe seinem Sohn
eine Bildsaule errichtet, die den zu Verbrechern Schutz gewahrt." * Some that this king was the veritable founder tion ; but there is no doubt that its roots
ihr

fliehenden
2

writers

claim

of the institualready existed

before his time.


In Assyria.

Similarly, it is related that in Assyria King Ninus erected a statue of his father Belus, which also afforded 3 a safe asylum under similar circumstances.

Further

The

Israelites

were the

first

people to develop the

development by the
Israelites.

protection, which was soon whose priests, proximity conferred the to their then But certain distincprivilege, dwellings. and tions, exceptions relating thereto, were made, as the unconditional and absolute operation of the principle was thought to be contrary to the interests of the community. Thus, a fugitive who committed manslaughter was protected at the altar, but not a deliberate and guileful murderer. 4 Certain cities of the Levites

institution systematically. temple afforded a secure

First the sacred altar in the

extended to the

were places of refuge 5 for involuntary homicides. 6 It is noteworthy that these provisions applied equally to 8 7 aliens and to slaves.
Bulmerincq, Das Asylrecht und die Auslleferung fliichtiger Eine Abhandlung aus dem Gebiete der unwersellen Rechtsgeschlchte und des positiven Volkerrechts (Dorpat, 1853), p. 12. 2 E.g. Simon, Des asy/es (in Hist, de Facad. des inscrip. et belles lettres, Paris, 1746, p. 36) ; cf. Otto von Gerlach, Das alte Testament
1

A.

Verbrecher.

(Berlin, 1847), p. 199. 3 Cf. Helfrecht, Hlstonsche


p.

Abhandlung von den Asylen (Hof, 1801), 9 ; Simon, loc. cit. (These references are given by Bulmerincq, op. cit.) 5 Numb. xxxv. 6, and 22-25. *Exod. xxi. 12-14.
6 Josh.
8

Deut. xix. 1-5. Deuf. xxiii. 15, 16.


xx. 1-4
;

Numb. xxxv.

15.

ASYLUM

IN

GREEK TEMPLES

349
in Greece,
15

Coming to Greece we find that suppliants were there likewise considered to enjoy inviolability, oon/X/a, and to be under the direct protection of Zeus. There were
1 In the express legislative measures in their favour. Hellenic world the right of asylum was of the utmost It exercised a importance. particularly beneficial influence in view of the constant interstatal conflicts and

enfo^ed" <^v\ia.

intestine party strife, together with the universal practice

of forced or voluntary banishment. Theseus, as Plutarch says, was buried in the midst Theseus' tomb as a sanctuaryof the city, near the site where the Gymnasium was afterwards erected ; and his tomb served as a place of sanctuary for slaves, and for all who were poor and
oppressed,
yv/u.vd<riov'

KOI KCITOU jmev ev

/mea-jj

ry

Tro'Xet

Trapa TO vvv

ea-n Se <pvfyov oucerai? KCU Tra<n TO??


Greek temples

Similar refuge was found in the Greek temples. Polybius mentions, for example, the temple of Artemis, situated between Cleitor and Cynaetha, which was regarded by the Greeks as offering an inviolable refuge, TO TJ?? 'AjOreytu^o? iepov, o Keirai /ULCV fj.Tay

est Apollinis particular, ubi et in fano lucoque ea religione et eo iure sancto quo sunt templa, quae asyla Graeci ap4 . ." pellant. Polybius, again, speaking of the impious nature (jrpay/uLa TTOLVTWV aar/3(TTaTov^ of the murder of the Ephors by the Spartans in the temple of Athene of the Brazen-house, says that the enormity of the crime will be realized when it is recollected that the sanctity
in

And Livy of Apollo


Delium
.

refers to these asyla

and to the Delian temple

"... templum

of
to

temple was such that it gave a safe asylum even Traa-t Kairoi rot? sentenced to death, *av TO TVJV iepdv, KCLTGKfiwyovcri a<r(f)d\iav Trape&Keval^e this obligaof Qa.vd.Tov Tig ft The sanction KaTaKeKptjuLevos.
this

criminals

Diod.
7T6/01

Sic. xiii.

TOV9

26 TWV IKTWV

ofrrot Trpcurot

TOV? Karcu^vyoiras
TTaCTLV

VO/XOVS
3 iv.

TTtt/Ja

aV^/3(U7TO4S i<r\V<TO.l TTO.pt-

36.

18.

*xxxv. 51.

350
tion

ASYLUM
TWV
EXXrJi/ow

IN

GREEK TEMPLES
1

was imposed by the "common laws of the Greeks/'


v6/unjj.a.

KOiva
It

would seem
}

that strangers

and

slaves, as well as

intentional

other fugitives, had access only to the public temples, TO. St]jmoT\fj and not to the temples consecrated for the use of a particular community, ra SWOTIKOL ; 2 and, further, those who were an/moi (corresponding to the capite deminuti of the Roman law), that is, deprived of civic rights, were excluded. As in the case of the ancient Hebrews, it was frequently insisted on by the Greeks that altars afforded an asylum only for involuntary offences, and not for intentional crimes. Thus in a dispute relating to the of Boeotians accused the Athenians the Delium, temple of sacrilege, and of drawing the sacred waters for common use. The latter' s defence was based on the ground that they could not help themselves with regard to the water ; that its use was a necessity they had not incurred wantonly, being due to the exigencies of selfdefence when the Boeotians attacked their territory. Finally, the Athenians reminded their accusers that only those who committed an involuntary offence obtained a refuge at the altar, and that they alone were trans'

'

gressors
Temples
and

who

and not such

deliberately committed a wrongful 3 as presumed a little in their distress.

act,

frequently, however, temples in Greece gave security even to robbers, besides rendering inviolable ecm fugitive slaves, and those flying from the enemy, TWV KOI TroXXa SovXw 6(777 Xt](rrai$ a/3e/3tj\a /3ft>jUO9,

Very

(J)VI/ULO$ lepCOV KOi TToXcfJUOVS (pl>yOVT<5,

OLV

ayoXyUttTO?

\d/3(i)VTCll

vaov, Oappova-iv*
1

Diod.
Cf.

Sic. xix.
S.

63.

"Peregrinis Leges Atticae (1635), p. 77: servisque licere publica Atheniensis"populi templa adire, vel videndi cf. ibid. p. 84. ; causa, ibidemque supplicibus sedere
Petitus,
3

Thuc.

iv.

98

/cat

yap TWV

a/cowttui/ d^a/oT^/jtarcuv Kara<j>vyrjv

etvat TOV?

/3a>/xoT;s,
irl

KCU OVK
4

irapavofiiav re tirl rots prj dvdyKy Kaxots TOtS (XTTO T0)l> iyA(o/XOV TL ToA/Z^CrCKTll'.
4.

Plut.

De superst.

SUPPLIANTS INVIOLABLE
row

351

Oracles often pronounced suppliants to be inviolable, suppliants t/cera? JULOV e/c TOV vrjov Kepaifyt? ;* and any breach ^2-ciwi by of this established rule was punished both by sacred law lheoraclw and by municipal law. Pausanias relates that the fate that overtook Helice was one among the many warnings of divine retribution for offences committed against Divine 011 suppliants, and that the god at Dodona also enjoined Sfnon2 " For about the time of cc f their protection. Aphidas, f j? verses to the following effect were sent to the Athenians Take heed of the Areopagus by Zeus of Dodona and the incense-laden altars of the Eumenides, where
-

sr

'

the Lacedaemonians shall supplicate you when they are Put them not to the sword, nor sore pressed in war.

wrong the
hallowed/
fj.r)S'

suppliants,

for suppliants are


TOV?
fj,rj

sacred

and

'

crv
te/ooi

iKcras dSiKeiv'

IKCTCU

8'

re

/ecu

ayvoi.'

When

the Lacedaemonians took refuge in the Areothe Athenians were mindful of the counsel given pagus,
to them.

later, when Cylon and his faction took of the Acropolis, the Athenian magistrates possession themselves put to death the suppliants of Athena, wherefor, says Pausanias, the slayers and their descendants were held to be accursed of the goddess, kvayels r^9 Oeov* Again, the Lacedaemonians slew men who had sought an asylum in the temple of Poseidon at Taenarum, and soon afterwards their city was shaken by such a prolonged and severe earthquake that not a 6 shock. single house in Lacedaemon withstood the Earlier in his work Pausanias mentions that the Lacedaemonians, heedful of the warning of the Pythian

But

Herodot.
Pausan.

2
e<?

TT)V

157-159. c TOV lfcc<rtov fJLi/jvifia. 7ra/5<rri /cat Se dAAots 'EAtKr^v, Trapecm 8i8a\0fjvai TroXXoi? <cu'vT(u Sc KCU 6 0os 7ra/oouvwi> 6 V
vii.

i.

159;
25.

cf. ibid.
:

i.

Tb

Sc

fj.lv

rot?

a>?

crnv

*lbid.
5

*
vii.

Ibid.
T<j>

Pausan.

TroAis (rvv\fi re 6/iov KOL ur\vp$ f) OXTTC oiKiav /xTySe/xtav TWV tv AaKcSai/xon dvTi(r\iv.

25. 2

352

SUPPLIANTS INVIOLABLE

Offences to be
ted>

vengeance would overtake them if they maltreated the suppliants of Zeus of Ithome, allowed the Messenians to leave Peloponnesus under a truce, 1 V7r6a"7rovSoi /ULCV CK TLe\O7COwri<TOv TOVTGW eveKCt a(pi6rj<rav. All offences against the right of asylum had to be
priestess that

duly expiated.

The Ephors

having attempted to arrest

Pausanias, he fled to the temple of Athena ; but he was there shut in and starved to death. The curse of the Delphian god was therefore pronounced against
the Spartans, and they were also commanded by the 2 oracle to dedicate two brazen statues as an expiation. Cassandra, on the capture of Troy, fled into the sanctuary of Athena, but was said to have been torn

infractions

by

away from the statue of the goddess by Ajax, the son of O'ileus. 3 But Athena, according to one account, When on his voyage home exacted due vengeance. reached the Capharean rocks on the coast of Ajax his wrecked in a tempest, he himself was Euboea, ship was killed by Athena with a flash of lightning, and his 4 body was washed upon the rocks. Sometimes in diplomatic negotiations, or in the special mission of envoys, violation of this duty was strongly
speech of Chlaeneas, the (322 B.C.), complaint was made of cruel and wrongful treatment of Greeks, Antipater's and of his going so far as to drag some from the temples and others from the altars, &v ol jmev e/c TWV lepwv ayoimevoi JJ.CTOL j3ia$, ol o a^ro TWV /3a)/u.u)v a.7ro<T7ru>]u.voi.

denounced.

Thus

in

the

Aetolian, at Sparta

The
1

protection thus afforded to suppliants, whether


;

iv.

24. 7

and
ii.

cf.

Thuc.
:

i.

103.

Thuc.

i.

126.

Virg. Aen.

" Heu

403-5

nihil invitis fas

quemquam

fidere divis

Priameia virgo Crinibus a templo Cassandra adytisque Minervae."


passis

Ecce trahebatur
viii.

Cf. Herodot.
4

54
i.

Eurip. Troad. 70
seq.
;

seq.
:

Cf. Virg. Aen.

40

xi.

259-260
scit triste

"...
5

Minervae

Sidus et Euboicae cautes ultorque Caphereus."

Polyb.

ix.

29.

PRACTICES DURING
in time

WAR

353

of peace or
of

in

sacerdotal

privilege, as

voice
".
.
.

humanity

time of war, was not merely a was more Laurent observes ; it was the ^erdotai re-echoed through the oracles, privilege.

Le

droit d'asile n'est pas

un

privilege sacerdotal,
la

c'est la

voix de I'humanit6 qui parle par l prtresses de Delphes."


dealt

bouche des

Further, apart from the sacred sanction, positive law Sanction of P smvelaw severely with those who were found guilty o f this which included violation of sacrilege, iepocrv\ia y Sometimes the asylum as well as temple robbery.
penalty was awarded, entailing burial outside Attic territory, and confiscation of the property of the condemned ; sometimes the sentence was banishment, in addition to an imprecation, as, for example, in the case of the murderers of Cylon and his companions, 2
capital

who were

torn

away from the

altar in the Acropolis.

In the case of belligerent relationships, 3 however, the Different practices of States as to the treatment of suppliants and fugitives differed greatly, especially so in the absence of Some cities express understandings on the subject.

showed

humaneness, others a merciless of Athens by Lysander, Thus, rigour. the Spartans treated Athenian fugitives with little clemency, whilst the measures of the Thebans were
a

striking

after the taking

Plutarch says that the government highly generous. of Thebes issued a decree providing that every city and every house in Boeotia should be open to those Athenians who required shelter, and that whoever did not offer assistance to an Athenian exile against anyone who tried to force him away should be fined a talent, oiKiav IJLCV avew-^Oai Travav KOI iroXiv ev Botoma TOI?
<$eo/ULvoi$ 'AOrjvaicov,

TOV Se

TOJ

ayo/mev(p (pvydSi

6(j)i\eiv
1

Hist,

du
i.

dr. des gens, vol.

ii.

p. 135.
aXi.Tijpi.oi
rrj<s

Thuc.

126: KCU aVo rovrov tvaycis KOL


Kttl

OQV

KtVOt TC
3

KO.\OVVTO

TO

l>OS

TO am'

6/CCtVOJV.

On

this see

more

fully infra, chap. xxv.

Plut. Lysand. 27.

354

NEUTRALIZATION

Those who, for any reason, fled from their country and threw themselves on the mercy of foreign States
usually received effective protection.

When

Pausanias

was condemned to death by Sparta for having failed to convey timely succour to Lysander, he found a safe 1 refuge near his own city, in the town of Tegea.
Conventions as

Not infrequently cities entered into special conventions with regard to the right of asylum in their Thus there is preserved a respective territories. document embodying the note that was exchanged between the lonians of Paros and the Allarians of Crete on the subject of this right. 2
Sometimes, again, a number of States agreed to regard certain temples and, indeed, entire towns, as enjoying a permanent privilege of affording protection to fugitives,

Case of Teos.

an early form of the practice of neutralization. A remarkable instance of this is the case of Teos, concerning which there is extant a series of important

and interesting documents 3 attesting the recognition by twenty-five States of the right of asylum there ; and in 193 B.C. Rome associated herself in favour of this provision. The town and territory of Teos hence remained sacred, possessed the right of sanctuary, and enjoyed exemption from the payment of tribute to

Rome. 4
In

Rome

the
it

recognized as

privilege was was in Greece.

not so

There appears

emphatically to be

no Latin word exactly conveying the sense of inviolno word possessing the significance of the ability,
1

Plut. Lysand. 30.

traifes,

Corp. imcrlp. Grace, no. 2557 ; J. Barbeyrac, Histoire des anclens ^ 2 vols. (Amsterdam, 1739), no. 338; Michel, Tt^ecuell d Imcrlp. Corp. Imcrlp. Grace, nos. 3045 seq. ; Michel, ^ecueil d'lmcrlp. gr. 51 seq. ; cf. Egger, Traifes publics, p. 157.

gr. no. 47.


3

nos.

^Ibld. no.
KO,0d)S KCU

3045
.

VVV

CO-TtV,
.

. Kpivopev en/at TTJV 7rdA.ii/ /cat TTJV \copav tepdv, KOI OCTvXoV KCU a(f)OpO\6yr)TOV ttTTO TOV 8qfJLOV

TOV 'Peo/xouwv. 5 See also, on right of sanctuary in war, chap. xxv.


.

RIGHT OF ASYLUM
Greek term
aa-vXla.

IN

ROME

355

remark of Livy 1 respecting

the asylum at Delos tends to indicate that this privilege had never really become nationalized in Rome, at least
as a regular established institution. In the later portion of Roman history we find comparatively few examples of effective refuge afforded by
2

and temples. In the more ancient epochs, tempered by the salutary influences of their all-pervading religion, the practice was undoubtedly more prevalent. To Romulus is usually attributed the innovation of the Alleged: Thus, according to fa right of asylum in Rome.
altars

account

cities in Italy

of Dionysius, Romulus finding that many were ill-governed tyrannies or oligarchies

from those cities to his own dominion, He did this, says the were freemen. provided they a view to with historian, augmenting the power of the on the one Romans, hand, and to diminishing that of their neighbours, on the other ; and this design he concealed under the specious pretence of doing honour to the gods. Accordingly he consecrated the wooded place between the Capitol and the Citadel, and made it an asylum for all suppliants ; and if they agreed to remain with him he conferred citizenship upon them, and promised them a portion of the lands he would take from the enemy. To yap jmera^v -^wpiov TOU re KaTnrwA/ov KOI T/9 a/Cjoa? lepov aveis aarv\ov ucerac? KOL el fiovXoivro avrw juieveiv, TroXire/a? jULereSiSov KOI Trap'
invited fugitives
. .

yn<S /uiolpav,

iji>

KTT/CTGUTO TToXejULtous a<pe\6ju.vo$.

No divinity relative to this alleged consecration appears to be mentioned by any of the ancient writers. It has been conjectured that it was the temple of Veiovis, a deity whose worship was of an expiatory nature, and whose sanctuary was in the vicinity of the sacred
1

xxxv. 51.
Cf.

G. F. Schoemann, Opuscula academua y vol. i. pp. 19 seq. ; Jaenisch, De Grace asy/is, pp. 6 seq (References given by E. Caillemer, in Daremberg-Saglio, 2)/V/. de$ Antiq. s.v. Asylia.)
.
.

Dion. Hal.

ii.

15;

cf.

Liv.

i.

Strabo,

v. 3.

2; Plut. 1(omul. 9

Dion

Cassius, xlvii. 19.

356

RIGHT OF ASYLUM

IN

ROME

wood. 1 But, as Caillemer points out, 2 the statement of Dion Cassius 3 is rather inconsistent with this view.
not justified, however, in going to the length of entirely discarding the story of the asylum established 4 by Romulus, as Caillemer does, simply because the name of the tutelary divinity has not been handed down, and the exact character of the religious ceremonial not indicated. Even if the story is not true in all its particulars, there are no clear grounds to warrant a denial of its entire substance. Nor can we reject the
is

One

passage in which Dionysius speaks of the temple of Diana on the Aventine as a 'sacred asylum/ lepov aa-vXov. 5

There are no conclusive reasons for inferring that the temple was merely a venerated and respected sanctuary, 6 u un sanctuaire venire et There is unrespecte." doubtedly some foundation for the account in the one case, and for the historian's designation in the other. Mention has already been made of Rome's respect for
in later

Roman

the inviolable nature of the sanctuary at Teos. In the later periods of Roman history also

we

find

a certain measure of refuge accorded to suppliants, in spite of the fact that the right of asylum had not
Flags of the

Thus the materialized itself into a fixed institution. of the Roman the and flags legions, eagle afforded 7 shelter to those seeking protection. Tacitus tells how Munatius Plancus was compelled to take refuge in the camp of
the
first

legion,

how he embraced

the colours

there and laid hold of the eagles, thinking himself pro8 tected by the gods of the army. Another writer speaks
1

Cf. J. A. Hartung, !D/>


ii.

3(eligion

der

^mer

(Erlangen, 1836),