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1. The procedure to set up load combinations using RISA2D will be illustrated with reference to the problem illustrated in Fig. 1. The problem consists of a two bay, one story frame subjected to gravity and lateral loads due to wind. Gravity loads consist of dead and live concentrated forces in the span of the two beams. Dead loads are 15 kip and live loads are 10 kip. The wind load is assumed concentrated on the top of the frame and has a magnitude of 30 kip.

P W = 30 kip P P P P P

PD = 15 kip PL = 10 kip

20' - 0"

Figure 1 Problem Definition 2. As for any problem, the geometry of the structure (nodes and member incidences) and the material properties need to be defined. The procedures to define these are not discussed here; it is assumed that the students have enough experience with RISA2D to perform this task. 3. When loading is being defined for the structure, make sure that loads are defined separately depending on the class of load (dead, live, wind, etc.). Define loading in the Basic Load Case data box shown in Fig. 2 (top of figure). This figure illustrates three basic load cases defined for a frame: dead load, live load, and wind load. Notice that there may be several point or distributed loads defined for each group of loads. For example, there are six point loads corresponding to the dead loads acting on the two beams of the frame (three on each beam). These loads are specified by clicking on the column corresponding to point loads (column labeled Point) in the Basic Load Case (BLC) window (sixth column in the table). Clicking in the sixth column in the BLC window opens the member point loads box (bottom right of figure), where you can define the member where the loads are acting and the position along the span. Similarly, other types of loads could be defined for a particular load case, such as joint loads or distributed member loads. By clicking on the corresponding columns different pop-up windows would appear where the loading parameters (members, nodes, magnitudes, etc.) would be specified.

Figure 2 Definition of Basic Load Cases 4. After defining all the load cases for a particular problem, the loads can be combined linearly using the Load Combinations box in RISA2D (Fig. 3). In this table you can specify the load combinations needed for the solution as long as the basic load cases have been already defined. For this particular problem dead, live, and wind loads have been specified and are combined using two different load combinations: (1.2D + 1.6L) and (1.2D + 0.5L + 1.6W). Each combination that will be included in the analysis has to have a check in the box located in the second column of the table. There are multiple columns labeled BLC and Factor in this table; these are used to define the basic load cases and the corresponding factor that multiplies the load case to construct the load combination. For example, the first row has the number 1 in the first BLC box (corresponding to Basic Load Case 1 = Dead Load) and the number 1.2 under the first Factor box (corresponding to the factor for dead loads in the first combination listed above). The subsequent set of BLC and Factor columns has the factors 2 and 1.6, respectively, corresponding to the live load basic load case (Basic Load Case = 2) with a factor of 1.6. The second row in the table corresponds to the combination including wind loads. Finally, the two windows at the bottom of Fig. 3 show the location of the concentrated forces due to dead loads (live

loads have the same position as dead loads but a different magnitude) and wind loads on the frame.

Figure 3 Definition of Load Combinations 5. After defining the load combinations, the problem can be solved and diagrams for the independent load cases, load combinations, or design envelopes can be determined (Fig. 4). If design envelopes are required, then the radio button labeled Envelope of Marked Combinations should be checked. Otherwise the program will only solve for the load case or load combination indicated in the top box of the Solution Choices window (this window opens up whenever the Solve option is selected in the Menu bar). If a Batch Solution of Marked Combinations is selected, then a solution will be determined for all the load combinations, but an envelope will not be determined.

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