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# Code No: R05220405 Set No.

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II B.Tech II Semester Supplimentary Examinations, Aug/Sep 2008
ANALOG COMMUNICATIONS
( Common to Electronics & Communication Engineering and Electronics &
Telematics)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
Answer any FIVE Questions
All Questions carry equal marks
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1. (a) Explain the collector modulation method for generating AM wave with a neat
circuit diagram and waveforms.
(b) An AM amplifier provides an output of 106 W at 100% modulation. The
internal loss is 20 W
i. What is un-modulated carrier power?
ii. What is the side band power? [10+6]
2. (a) Explain the operation of Costas loop for demodulating DSB-SC waves.
(b) Explain about the quadrature null effect of coherent detector. [8+8]
3. A synchronous detection of SSB signal shows phase and frequency discrepancy.
P
N
ConsiderS(t) = cos [(ωc t) cos(ωi t + Φi ) − sin(ωc t) sin(ωi t + Φi )]is an SSB signal.
i=1
The signal is multiplied by the locally generated carrier cosω c t and then passed
through a low-pass filter.
(a) Prove that the modulating signal can be completely recovered if the cut-off
frequency of the filter is fN < fo < 2fc .
(b) Determine the recovered signal when the multiplying signal is cos[ωc + Φ].
(c) Determine the recovered signal when the multiplying
Q signal is cos[(ω c t+∆ω)t].
Give ∆Φ << Φi where ωc = 2Πfc , ∆ω = 2 ∆f. 
4. Prove that narrow band FM offers no improvement in SNR over AM. 
5. Explain the noise performance of SSB - SC receiver and prove its S/N Ratio is
unity. 
6. Explain the operation of SSB transmitters using phase shift Method with the help
of its block diagram. 
7. (a) List out the consequences of choosing the IF very high or very low.
(b) Present the differences between AM and FM receivers. 
8. (a) Define and describe pulse position modulation, and explain with waveforms
how it is derived from PWM.
(b) Explain clearly the generation and demodulation of PWM with the help of
necessary diagram. 

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Code No: R05220405 Set No. 2
II B.Tech II Semester Supplimentary Examinations, Aug/Sep 2008
ANALOG COMMUNICATIONS
( Common to Electronics & Communication Engineering and Electronics &
Telematics)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
Answer any FIVE Questions
All Questions carry equal marks
⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

1. (a) Explain the collector modulation method for generating AM wave with a neat
circuit diagram and waveforms.
(b) An AM amplifier provides an output of 106 W at 100% modulation. The
internal loss is 20 W
i. What is un-modulated carrier power?
ii. What is the side band power? [10+6]

2. (a) Consider the DSB-SC wave s(t) = Ac cos (2 Πfc t) m(t) where Ac cos (2 Π fc t)
is the carrier wave and m(t) is the message signal. The modulated wave is
applied to a square law device characterized by y (t) = S 2 (t). Determine and
draw the spectrum of the square-law device output y(t).
(b) Explain the DSB-SC generation by balanced modulator using diodes. [8+8]

3. (a) For an arbitrary signal m(t), write SSB equation. Plot the spectrums to
compare AM, DSB, USB and LSB.
(b) A received signal-tone sinusoidally modulated SSB-SC signal cos (ω c + ω m )t
has a normalized power of 0.5 volt2 . The signal is to be detected by car-
rier re-insertion technique. Find the amplitude of the carrier to be rein-
serted so that the power in the recovered signal at the demodulator output
is 90% of the normalized power. The d.c. component can be neglected and
ωc = 2Πfc and ωn = 2Πfm . [8+8]

4. (a) Explain the operation of the balanced slope detector using a circuit diagram
and draw its response characteristics. Discuss in particular the method of
combining the outputs of the individual diodes. In what way is this circuit an
improvement on the slope detector and in turn what are the advantages?
(b) Compute the bandwidth requirement for the transmission of FM signal having
a frequency deviation 75 KHz and an audio bandwidth of 10KHz. [12+4]

## 6. (a) What are the carrier frequency requirements of radio transmitters.

(b) What is frequency scintillation? How is it avoided. 

7. (a) With the aid of the block diagram explain TRF receiver. Also explain the
basic superheterodyne principle.

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Code No: R05220405 Set No. 2
(b) List out the advantages and disadvantages of TRF receiver. 

## 8. (a) How is PDM wave converted into PPM system.

(b) Explain why a single channel PPM of system requires the transmission of
synchronization signal, where as a single channel PAM or PDM system does
not it. 

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Code No: R05220405 Set No. 3
II B.Tech II Semester Supplimentary Examinations, Aug/Sep 2008
ANALOG COMMUNICATIONS
( Common to Electronics & Communication Engineering and Electronics &
Telematics)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
Answer any FIVE Questions
All Questions carry equal marks
⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

## 1. (a) Describe the phasor representation of AM and Explain trapezoidal method of

finding modulation index.
(b) An AM voltage is given by s(t)=50(1+0.2cos100t+0.01cos3500t) cos106 t. State
all frequency components (in Hz) present in the voltage, and find the modu-
lation index for each modulating voltage term. Calculate the effective modu-
lation index of s(t). [6+10]

2. (a) Consider a baseband signal m(t) with the spectrum shown in figure2. The mes-
sage bandwidth is W = 1 KHz. This signal is applied to a product modulator,
together with a carrier wave Ac cos ωc t, producing the DSB-SC modulated
wave s(t). This wave is next applied to a coherent detector. Assuming perfect
synchronism, determine and draw the spectrum of detector output when
i. carrier frequency is 1.25 KHz and
ii. carrier frequency is 0.75 KHz.
(b) A 400 W carrier is modulated on a depth of 75 % . Calculate the total power
in the modulated wave in
i. AM
ii. DSB-SC. [12+4]

Figure 2

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Code No: R05220405 Set No. 3
3. (a) Describe the single tone modulation of SSB. Assume both modulating and
carrier signals are sinusoids. Write SSB equation and plot all the waveforms
and spectrums.
(b) An AM transmitter of 1KW power is fully modulated. Calculate the power
transmitted if it is transmitted as SSB. [12+4]

4. (a) Define Modulation Index in FM. Discuss the spectra of NBFM and WBFM
for various Modulation Indices.
(b) Describe the balanced slope detection of FM demodulator. [8+8]

## 6. (a) Illustrate the important requirements of radio transmitters.

(b) Explain the necessity of Buffer and driver amplifiers in radio transmitters.

7. (a) Describe the circuit of an FET amplitude limiter, and with the aid of the
transfer characteristic explain the operation of the circuit.
(b) What can be done to improve the overall limiting performance of an FM
receiver ? Explain the operation of the double limiter and also AGC in addition
to a limier. 

## 8. (a) How is PDM wave converted into PPM system.

(b) Explain why a single channel PPM of system requires the transmission of
synchronization signal, where as a single channel PAM or PDM system does
not it. 

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Code No: R05220405 Set No. 4
II B.Tech II Semester Supplimentary Examinations, Aug/Sep 2008
ANALOG COMMUNICATIONS
( Common to Electronics & Communication Engineering and Electronics &
Telematics)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
Answer any FIVE Questions
All Questions carry equal marks
⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

1. (a) Draw the one cycle of AM wave and calculate the modulation index of it in
terms of Vmax and Vmin voltages.
(b) A modulating signal consists of a symmetrical triangular wave having zero dc
component and peak to peak voltage of 12V. It is used to amplitude modulate
a carrier of peak voltage 10V. Calculate the modulation index and the ratio
of the side lengths L1 /L2 of the corresponding trapezoidal pattern.
(c) The rms antenna current of an AM transmitter is 10 A when un-modulated and
12 A when sinusoidally modulated. Calculate the modulation index. [6+6+4]

2. (a) Consider the wave obtained by adding a non coherent carrier Ac cos (2 Π fc t + ϕ)
to DSB-SC wave m(t) cos (2 Π fc t ) where X (t) is the message waveform.
This waveform is applied to an ideal envelope detector. Find the resulting
detector out put. Evaluate the output for.
i. ϕ = 0 and
ii. ϕ =
6 0 and |X (t)| << Ac /2.
(b) Explain the DSB-SC generation by balanced modulator using FET amplifiers.
[8+8]

3. (a) Explain with block diagram, the frequency discrimination method of generat-
ing SSB modulated waves.
(b) Consider a baseband signal m(t) containing frequency components at 100,200
and 400 Hz. This signal is applied to an SSB modulator together with a carrier
at 100 KHz, with only the upper sideband retained. In the coherent detector
used to recover m(t), the local oscillator supplies a sine wave of frequency
100.02 KHz. Determine the frequency components of the detector output.
[8+8]

## 4. Explain demodulation of FM signal with the help of PLL. 

5. Draw DSB-SC receiver using coherent detection and evaluate its noise performance.


## 6. (a) What are the carrier frequency requirements of radio transmitters.

(b) What is frequency scintillation? How is it avoided. 

7. (a) Draw the block diagram of FM receiver and explain each block.

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Code No: R05220405 Set No. 4
(b) Will it be necessary to employ AGC in FM receivers that employ limiters. 

## 8. (a) What are the different type of Pulse Modulations? Explain?

(b) Explain the method of generation and detection of PAM signals with neat
schematics. 

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