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Problem 1.1

If ke is the effective stiffness,

fS = keu

k1 k2 u fS k1 u k2 u fS

Equilibrium of forces: Effective stiffness: Equation of motion:

fS = ( k1 + k2 ) u ke = fS u = k1 + k2 && + keu = p( t ) mu

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Problem 1.2

If ke is the effective stiffness,

fS = keu

k1 k2 u fS

(a)

**If the elongations of the two springs are u1 and u2 ,
**

u = u1 + u2

(b)

**Because the force in each spring is fS ,
**

fS = k1u1 fS = k2u2

(c)

**Solving for u1 and u2 and substituting in Eq. (b) gives
**

fS f f 1 1 1 = S + S ⇒ = + ⇒ ke k1 k2 ke k1 k2 ke = k1 k2 k1 + k2

&& + keu = p( t ) Equation of motion: mu

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Problem 1.3

k1 k2 k 1+ k 2

⇓

k3 m

⇓

Fig. 1.3(a)

k3 m

Fig. 1.3(b)

ke m

u

Fig. 1.3(c)

This problem can be solved either by starting from the definition of stiffness or by using the results of Problems P1.1 and P1.2. We adopt the latter approach to illustrate the procedure of reducing a system with several springs to a single equivalent spring. First, using Problem 1.1, the parallel arrangement of k1 and k2 is replaced by a single spring, as shown in Fig. 1.3(b). Second, using the result of Problem 1.2, the series arrangement of springs in Fig. 1.3(b) is replaced by a single spring, as shown in Fig. 1.3(c):

1 1 1 = + ke k1 + k2 k3

**Therefore the effective stiffness is
**

ke = ( k1 + k2 ) k3 k1 + k2 + k3

&& + keu = p( t ) . The equation of motion is mu

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Problem 1.4

1. Draw a free body diagram of the mass.

O L θ m

mgsinθ mgcosθ T

**2. Write equation of motion in tangential direction. Method 1: By Newton’s law.
**

−mg sin θ = ma && − mg sin θ = mLθ && + mg sin θ = 0 mLθ

(a)

This nonlinear differential equation governs the motion for any rotation θ. Method 2: Equilibrium of moments about O yields

&& = −mgL sin θ mL2θ

or

&& + mg sin θ = 0 mLθ

**3. Linearize for small θ. For small θ, sin θ ≈ θ , and Eq. (a) becomes
**

&& + mgθ = 0 mLθ && + ⎜ ⎟θ = 0 θ ⎛g⎞ ⎝L⎠

(b)

4. Determine natural frequency.

ωn =

g L

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Problem 1.5

1. Find the moment of inertia about O. From Appendix 8,

I0 = 1 1 ⎛ L⎞ mL2 + m⎜ ⎟ = mL2 ⎝ 2⎠ 12 3

2

2. Draw a free body diagram of the body in an arbitrary displaced position.

L/2

x

θ

mg

y

3. Write the equation of motion using Newton’s second law of motion.

∑M

− mg

0

&& = I 0θ

L 1 && sin θ = mL2θ 2 3

mL2 && mgL θ+ sin θ = 0 3 2

(a)

**4. Specialize for small θ. For small θ, sinθ ≅ θ and Eq. (a) becomes
**

mL2 && mgL θ+ θ =0 3 2 && + θ 3 g =0 2 L

(b)

5. Determine natural frequency.

ωn =

3 g 2 L

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Problem 1.6

1. Find the moment of inertia about about O.

5. Determine natural frequency.

ωn =

4 g 3 L

I0 = ρ

∫r

0

L

2

x

dA

In each case the system is equivalent to the springmass system shown for which the equation of motion is

⎛ w⎞ && + ku = 0 ⎜ ⎜g⎟ ⎟u ⎝ ⎠

L

r

= ρ r 2 ( r α dr )

∫

0

L

α

L4 α 4 1 = mL 2 2 =

w

ρ

k

u

2. Draw a free body diagram of the body in an arbitrary displaced position.

The spring stiffness is determined from the deflection u under a vertical force fS applied at the location of the lumped weight: Simply-supported beam: u = Cantilever beam: u =

fS L3 48 EI ⇒ k = 48 EI L3

2L/3 x

θ

fS L

3

3 EI

fS L3 192 EI

⇒ k =

⇒ k =

3 EI L3

192 EI L3

y

mg

Clamped beam: u =

3. Write the equation of motion using Newton’s second law of motion.

∑M

− mg

0

&& = I 0θ

2L 1 && sin θ = mL2θ 3 2

mL2 && 2mgL θ+ sin θ = 0 2 3

(a)

**4. Specialize for small θ. For small θ, sinθ ≅ θ, and Eq. (a) becomes
**

mL2 && 2mgL θ+ θ =0 2 3

or

&& + θ 4 g =0 3 L

(b)

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Problem 1.7

Draw a free body diagram of the mass:

fS

mü u p ( t)

Write equation of dynamic equilibrium: && + fS = p( t ) mu Write the force-displacement relation: AE fS = u L

(a)

FG IJ H K

(b)

Substitute Eq. (b) into Eq. (a) to obtain the equation of motion: AE && + mu u = p( t ) L

FG IJ H K

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Problem 1.8

Show forces on the disk:

fS O

θ

R

**Write the equation of motion using Newton's second law of motion:
**

− fS = IO&& θ

where

IO =

m R2 2

(a)

**Write the torque-twist relation:
**

fS =

FG GJ IJ θ H LK FG IJ H K

where

J =

π d4

32

(b)

Substitute Eq. (b) into Eq. (a): && + GJ θ = 0 I Oθ L or,

F mR I θ F π d GI GH 2 JK && + GH 32 L JK θ

2 4

= 0

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Problems 1.9 through 1.11

In each case the system is equivalent to the springmass system shown for which the equation of motion is

FG w IJ u H g K && + ku = 0

k

w u

The spring stiffness is determined from the deflection u under a vertical force fS applied at the location of the lumped weight: 48 EI f L3 Simply-supported beam: u = S ⇒ k = 48 EI L3 3 f L 3EI Cantilever beam: u = S ⇒ k = 3EI L3 3 192 EI f L Clamped beam: u = S ⇒ k = 192 EI L3

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Problem 1.12

L

**2. Determine the effective stiffness.
**

f s = k eu

(d)

**where simply supported
**

w

u = δ spring + δ beam

f s = kδ spring = k beam δ beam

(e) (f)

EI

k

**Substitute for the δ’s from Eq. (f) and for u from Eq. (d): Fig. 1.12a
**

fs f f = s + s ke k k beam ke =

Undeformed position δst u u Deformed position Static Equlibrium

kk beam k + k beam k 48 EI / L3 48 EI k+ 3 L

ke =

(

)

3. Determine the natural frequency.

ωn =

ke m

Fig. 1.12b

fs

fs mu p(t) w

..

**Fig. 1.12c 1. Write the equation of motion. Equilibrium of forces in Fig. 1.12c gives
**

&& + f = w + p (t ) mu s

(a)

where

fs = k e u

(b)

**The equation of motion is:
**

&& + k u = w + p(t ) mu e

(c)

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Problem 1.13

Compute lateral stiffness:

1 3 EI c /h h

3

k = 2 × kcolumn = 2 ×

3 EIc 6 EIc = 3 h h3

Equation of motion:

&& + ku = p( t ) mu

Base fixity increases k by a factor of 4.

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Problem 1.14

1. Define degrees of freedom (DOF).

2 3 1

k 22

k 23

k 22 = k 32 k12

3EI c 4 EI c 5EI c + = ( 2h ) h h 2 EI c EI c = = ( 2h ) h 3EI c = 2 h

2. Reduced stiffness coefficients. Since there are no external moments applied at the pinned supports, the following reduced stiffness coefficients are used for the columns. Joint rotation:

EI

3EI L2

L 1

u3 = 1, u1 = u2 = 0

k23

k33

k13

3 EI L

3 EI L2

Joint translation:

EI

3EI L3

1

3EI L2 3EI

L3

3EI c 4 EI c 5EI c + = ( 2h ) h h 2 EI c EI c = k 23 = ( 2h ) h 3EI c k13 = 2 h k33 =

Hence

⎡ 6 3h EI c ⎢ k = 3 ⎢3h 5h 2 h 2 ⎢ ⎣3h h 3h ⎤ ⎥ h2 ⎥ 5h 2 ⎥ ⎦

L

**3. Form structural stiffness matrix.
**

u1 = 1, u2 = u3 = 0

k21

k 31

4. Determine lateral stiffness. The lateral stiffness k of the frame can be obtained by static condensation since there is no force acting on DOF 2 and 3:

⎡ 6 3h EI c ⎢ 3h 5h 2 h3 ⎢ 2 ⎢ ⎣3h h 3h ⎤ ⎧ u1 ⎫ ⎧ f S ⎫ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ h 2 ⎥ ⎨u2 ⎬ = ⎨ 0 ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 5h 2 ⎥ ⎦ ⎩u3 ⎭ ⎩ 0 ⎭

k11 = 2

3EI c h

3

= h2

6 EI c h3

k 21 = k31 =

3EI c

First partition k as

⎡ 6 3h EI c ⎢ k = 3 ⎢3h 5h 2 h 2 ⎢ ⎣3h h 3h ⎤ ⎥ ⎡ k tt h2 ⎥ = ⎢ k ⎥ ⎣ t0 5h 2 ⎦ k t0 ⎤ k 00 ⎥ ⎦

u2 = 1, u1 = u3 = 0

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where

k tt = k t0 = k 00 = EI c h3 EI c h3

[6] [3h

3h] h2 ⎤ ⎥ 5h 2 ⎦ ⎥

EI c ⎡5h 2 ⎢ 2 h3 ⎣ ⎢h

**Then compute the lateral stiffness k from
**

−1 T k = k tt − k t 0 k 00 k t0

Since

−1 k 00 =

h 24 EI c

⎡ 5 − 1⎤ ⎢− 1 5 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦

we get

k= k= k= 6 EI c h EI c

3

−

EI c h

3

[3h

3h] ⋅

h 24 EI c

⎡ 5 − 1⎤ EI c ⎡3h ⎤ ⎢− 1 5 ⎥ ⋅ 3 ⎢3h ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ h ⎣ ⎦

h3 3EI c h3

[6 − 3]

5. Equation of motion.

&& + mu

3EIc u = p(t ) h3

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Problem 1.15

Ib = I c / 2 h Ic 2h Ic 1 k

u3 = 1, u1 = u2 = 0

k23 k33

k13

**Define degrees of freedom (DOF):
**

2 3 1

k33 = k23 = k13 =

EIc 4 EIc 4 EIb 4 EIc 5 EIc + = + = h h h h (2 h) 2 EIb EIc = (2 h) 2h 6 EIc h2 6h ⎤ 1 2⎥ h ⎥ 2 5h 2 ⎥ ⎦

**Form structural stiffness matrix:
**

u1 = 1, u2 = u3 = 0

k21 k31 k11

Hence

⎡24 EI c ⎢ k = 3 ⎢6 h h ⎢ ⎣6 h 6h 5h

1 2 2

h2

k11 = 2

12 EIc 24 EIc = h3 h3

The lateral stiffness k of the frame can be obtained by static condensation since there is no force acting on DOF 2 and 3:

⎡ 24 EI c ⎢ ⎢6 h h3 ⎢ ⎣6 h 6h 5h

1 2 2 1 2

k21 = k31 =

6 EIc h2

h2

6 h ⎤ ⎧ u1 ⎫ ⎧ f S ⎫ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ h 2 ⎥ ⎨u 2 ⎬ = ⎨ 0 ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 5h 2 ⎥ ⎦ ⎩u 3 ⎭ ⎩ 0 ⎭

u2 = 1, u1 = u3 = 0

k22 k32 k12

First partition k as

⎡ 24 EI c ⎢ k = 3 ⎢6 h h ⎢ ⎣6 h 6h 5h

1 2 2 1 2

h2

6h ⎤ ⎥ ⎡k tt h2 ⎥ = ⎢ T ⎣k t 0 5h 2 ⎥ ⎦

k t0 ⎤ k 00 ⎥ ⎦

k22 =

k32 = k12 =

**4 EIc 4 EIb 4 EIc 5 EIc EIc + = + = (2h) h h h h
**

2 EIb EIc = (2h) 2h 6 EIc h2

where

ktt = kt 0 =

EIc 24 h3 EIc 6h 6h h3

k 00 =

EI c ⎡ 5h 2 ⎢1 2 h3 ⎢ ⎣2 h

1 2

h2 ⎤ ⎥ 5h 2 ⎥ ⎦

**Then compute the lateral stiffness k from
**

−1 T k = ktt − kt 0 k00 kt 0

Since

−1 = k 00

4h 99 EI c

⎡ 5 −1 ⎤ 2 ⎢ 1 ⎥ 5⎥ ⎢ ⎣− 2 ⎦

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we get

k = ⎤ 6h ⎤ 24 EI c EI c 4h ⎡ 5 − 1 2 ⋅ EI c ⎡ − 3 [6h 6h] ⋅ ⎢ 1 ⎥ ⎥ 3 ⎢ 3 5 − 99 EI c ⎣ h h h ⎢ 2 ⎥ ⎣6 h ⎦ ⎦ EI 144 ) = 3c (24 − 11 h 120 EI c = 11 h3

**This result can be checked against Eq. 1.3.5:
**

k = 24 EI c ⎛ 12 ρ +1 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ h 3 ⎝ 12 ρ + 4 ⎠

Substituting ρ = Ib 4 Ic = 1 8 gives

k = 12 1 +1 ⎞ 24 EI c ⎛ 5 ⎞ 120 EI c ⎜ 8 ⎟ = 24 EI c ⎛ ⎜ ⎟= 3 ⎜ 1 3 h ⎝ 12 8 + 4 ⎟ h ⎝ 11 ⎠ 11 h 3 ⎠

Equation of motion:

⎛ 120 EI c && + ⎜ mu ⎜ 11 3 h ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ u = p (t ) ⎠

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Problem 1.16

1. Define degrees of freedom (DOF).

u3 h EIc u2 2h m EIc /2 EIc u5 u4

u3 = 1 , u1 = u2 = u4 = u5 = 0

u3 =1

u1

**2. Form the structural stiffness matrix.
**

u1 = 1 , u2 = u3 = u4 = u5 = 0

u1 =1

4EI c + h 6EI k13 = 2 c h 2 EIc k 43 = = 2(2h ) k 33 =

4 EIc 5 EIc = 2(2h ) h 2 EIc k 23 = h EIc k53 = 0 2h

u4 = 1 , u1 = u2 = u3 = u5 = 0

u4 =1

k11 = 2

12 EI c 24 EIc = 3 3 h h 6 EIc 2 h 4 EIc + h 6 EI k14 = 2 c h 2 EIc k 34 = = 2(2h ) k 44 = 4EI c 5EI c = 2(2h) h k 24 = 0 EI c 2h k54 = 2EI c h

k 21 = k 31 = k 41 = k 51 = u2 = 1 , u1 = u3 = u4 = u5 = 0

u2 =1

u5 = 1 , u1 = u2 = u3 = u4 = 0

k 22 = k 32

4 EIc h 2EI c = h

k12 =

6 EI c 2 h

u5 =1

k 42 = k52 = 0 k 55 = k 45 4 EIc h 2 EIc = h k15 = 6EI c 2 h

k 25 = k 35 = 0

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**Assemble the stiffness coefficients:
**

⎡24 6 h ⎢6 h 4h 2 EI c ⎢ 2 k = 3 ⎢6 h 2h h ⎢ 6h 0 ⎢ ⎢ ⎣6 h 0 6h 2h 5h

1 2 2 2 1 2

6h 0 h2 5h 2 2h 2

h2 0

6h ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ 2 h2 ⎥ ⎥ 4 h2 ⎥ ⎦

**3. Determine the lateral stiffness of the frame. First partition k.
**

⎡24 6h ⎢6 h 4 h 2 EIc ⎢ k = 3 ⎢6 h 2 h 2 h ⎢ ⎢6 h 0 ⎢ ⎣6 h 0 6h 2h 2 5h 2

1 2

6h

1 2

0 h2

h2 0

5h 2 2h 2

6h ⎤ 0 ⎥ ⎥ ⎡ k tt 0 ⎥=⎢ T ⎥ kt 0 2h 2 ⎥ ⎣ 4h 2 ⎥ ⎦

kt 0 ⎤ k 00 ⎥ ⎦

**Compute the lateral stiffness.
**

1 T k = k tt − k t 0k − k 00 t 0

k=

24 EIc 22EI c 2 EI c − = 3 h3 h3 h

**4. Write the equation of motion.
**

&& + ku = p (t ) mu

⎛ 2 EI c && + ⎜ mu ⎜ 3 ⎝ h ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ u = p (t ) ⎠

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Problem 1.17

(a) Equation of motion in the x-direction. The lateral stiffness of each wire is the same as the lateral stiffness of a brace derived in Eq. (c) of Example 1.2:

⎛ AE ⎞ 2 kw = ⎜ ⎟cos θ ⎝ L ⎠ ⎛ AE ⎞ 2 o 1 AE ⎟cos 45 = =⎜ ⎜ ⎟ 2 2 h ⎝h 2⎠

Each of the four sides of the structure includes two wires. If they were not pretensioned, under lateral displacement, only the wire in tension will provide lateral resistance and the one in compression will go slack and will not contribute to the lateral stiffness. However, the wires are pretensioned to a high stress; therefore, under lateral displacement the tension will increase in one wire, but decrease in the other; and both wires will contribute to the lateral direction. Consequently, four wires contribute to the stiffness in the x-direction:

kx = 4 kw = 2 AE h

**Then the equation of motion in the x-direction is
**

&&x + kx ux = 0 mu

(b) Equation of motion in the y-direction. The lateral stiffness in the y direction, ky = kx , and the same equation applies for motion in the y-direction:

&&y + kyuy = 0 mu

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Problem 1.18

z h h O f f Fig. 1.18(a)

I

kw h 2 O uθ = 1

S

Fig. 1.18(b)

1. Set up equation of motion. The elastic resisting torque fS and inertia force fI are shown in Fig. 1.18(a). The equation of dynamic equilibrium is

&&θ + fS = 0 fI + fS = 0 or IOu

(a)

where

IO = m h2 + h2 mh2 = 12 6

(b)

**2. Determine torsional stiffness, kθ .
**

fS = kθuθ

(c)

Introduce uθ = 1 in Fig. 1.18(b) and identify the resisting forces due to each wire. All the eight forces are the same; each is kw h 2 , where, from Problem 1.17, kw = AE 2 2 h

h h 2 2 2 AE h

1

**The torque required to equilibrate these resisting forces is
**

kθ = 8 kw = 2 2 AEh 2 = 2 kw h2 = ( ) h2

(d)

**3. Set up equation of motion. Substituting Eq. (d) in (c) and then Eqs. (c) and (b) in (a) gives the equation of motion:
**

mh2 AEh &&θ + u uθ = 0 6 2

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Problem 1.19

ut m k c ug Fig. 1.19(a) Fig. 1.19(b) v ut - u

g

f

I

f

S

f

D

Displacement u t is measured from the static equilibrium position under the weight m g . From the free-body diagram in Fig. 1.19(b)

fI + fD + fS = 0

(a)

where

**&&t fI = mu &t − u &g ) fD = c ( u fS = k ( u − ug ) Substituting Eqs. (b) in Eq. (a) gives
**

&&t + c ( u &t − u &g ) + k ( ut − ug ) = 0 mu

t

(b)

Noting that x = vt and transferring the excitation terms to the right side gives the equation of motion:

&&t + cu & t + ku t = cu &g ( vt ) + kug ( vt ) mu

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