Storytelling

This past year numerous dramas have competed for our attention: sub-prime
mortgages, banking meltdown, bailout, stimulus, pandemic, bankruptcy.
The all-consuming effort to follow these events seldom leaves a moment to
contemplate the explanations themselves. What is the stated dilemma, context
or motive for any one of these problems? And most importantly, how does a
problem’s formulation determine its proposed solution? Volume 20 is dedicated
to the art of storytelling. It presents the storylines of current events and
architecture to show that while the truth is important, so is the ability of fiction
to elevate fact. Perhaps the best way to understand our era is through narratives
that distort, pervert and animate reality?

Table of Contents
Storytelling Jeffrey Inaba
Make Believe C-Lab
Sleeping Beauty: The Rewrite
Character Development
All’s Fair in Love and War
Hush Little Baby, Don’t You Cry
Volume Asks PS 123 What They Read This Summer
Tokyo Asleep Neil Denari
Crises of Complexity Joseph Tainter
Crisis in Crisis: Biosphere 2’s Contested Ecologies

2
4
8
12
14
18
21
22
26

Janette Kim / Erik Carver
The Endless Vacation Deane Simpson
Symbolic Remainder Tom McCarthy
Design for the Apocalypse John McMorrough
There’s No Place to Roam C-Lab
The Promised Land Robert McLeman
Imaginario Constructivo Smiljan Radic (Arch)/
Gonzalo Puga (Photo)
Foreclosed Homes Geoff Manaugh
Warren County Leaflet
Won’t You Be My Neighbor? Nato Thompson

29
34
38
40
43
54
56
58
65
81

If You Go There Will Be Trouble, An’ If You Stay
There Will Be Double Andrew Oswald
Yes Stories Roger Dean

82
85

Age of Reason Catherine Hardwicke
Facing the Crisis C-Lab
Staremaster Dave McKean
The Technostrich / The Technology Narrative C-Lab
Liquid Pro Quo Christopher A. Scott
Waterkeepers Stephanie von Stein
China’s Sustainability: Asynchronous Revolutions

92
95
96
100
110
112

Jiang Jun

114
118
120
125
126
133
145
148
150
160
160

Wish Upon a Star C-Lab
Welfairy Tales Bjarke Ingels
Waves of Mermaid Mutilation C-Lab
International Style Heritage Lucia Allais
Alibi: Isle de San Cristobal de Groüt C-Lab
News Report Nicholas Lemann
Fact and Friction Jay Rosen
Letters From the Editor Lewis H. Lapham
Colophon
Corrections/Additions

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Volume 20 Volume 20 Jeffrey Inaba 2 3 .

Volume 20 Volume 20 Jeffrey Inaba 2 3 .

Goldilocks is discovered in Baby Bear’s bed and she wakes up. The grid became an emblem of progress. yard and car. They feel their neighborhoods are more safe and are better for raising children. She tastes their porridge. supplemented or taken apart. Planners. the me fr ca Exposition/Context Initial Problem Complications increasing amount of energy. An awareness develops that alternatives are needed. ou gy c ion ion ­ ab er pt ct en um odu s pr Density Goldilocks And The Three Bears She screams and runs out of the house. They also incorporate re­ ewable ener-­ n gies. Goldilocks is afraid of bears.’ The suburbs grow rapidly. disputed causal effects and untested solutions. Notions of community and urban center further dissolve as development expands at low densities. People begin to adopt more sustainable practices.Make Believe Smart Grid (IBM Version) There are many ways to make sense of events beyond our immediate control. hel kd reduce pea Climate change is furthered by using fossil fuels to meet high energy demands. Gustav Freytag’s familiar narrative form structures a storyline from a stated problem’s point of origin to its compounding factors and ultimate resolution. After WWII. 4 5 People enjoy having a home. Urbanism: Density Dénouement Crisis It was successful in providing energy to homes. Smart grids digitally optimize performance and give consumers control over their energy usage. m yste for id s e gr signed y Th de tl was nifican and sig er dem take a ll t sma did no nt the and accou nt or into ironme s. Applicable to children’s stories as well as real world circumstances ranging from policy debates to technological projections. finally falling asleep in Baby Bear’s. chair broken and beds slept in. new communities and mortgages allow people to move to the suburbs. having a shorter industrial innovation. designers and investment residents are exploring other now being configurations. allows for a believable argument to be made about contentious issues. along with the highway system. Status Quo After World War II. People live crowded into cities. resources and time to maintain as the result of a non-efficient spatial distribution. They discover their food gone. env sumer con People enjoy owning their own home. The most convincing explanations have a clear narrative arc. Today’s energy loads are processed through an inefficient system that loses half of the energy before it even reaches a single appliance. Only then can these be debated. People’s lifestyles require an unsustainable and A notion of community disolves further (as well as many urban centers) as development expands at a low density. but as the starting point of the story. She never goes back. a frontyard and a car. businesses and cities. In this sense a public narrative should not be received as Climax definitive. * Based on Freytag’s classic pyramidal structure of narrative development Status Quo Smart grid pro­ id to jects are sa and save p people emand. such as a enable new forms of commute. ‘The Planners. Description of New Status Quo ht le op ug Pe r tho re e he ity v ne ut w tric c o ab ir ele om. le re op o Pe w m ir o e kn t th on­ and . Volume 20 The Bears return home. . along with the highway system. This organization. People’s lifestyles require an increasing amount of energy. The suburbs grow rapidly. shaped in Washington could yield almost People beginof adopt more a quarter to a million jobs and sustainable practices. resources and time to maintain as the result of an inefficient spatial distribution. Goldilocks comes across the Three Bears’ home while they are out. Volume 20 The Three Bears and Goldilocks have no interaction. People use cars more and more to travel greater distances as communities become less compact. An awareness develops that alternatives are needed. People use cars more and more to travel greater distances as communities become less compact. sits in their chairs and tries all their beds. They feel their neighborhoods are safe for raising children. new communities and mortgages allow people to move to the suburbs. People live crowded into cities. such as having a shorter commute. designers and residents explore other configurations. often retroactive.

resources and time to maintain as the result of an inefficient spatial distribution. Gustav Freytag’s familiar narrative form structures a storyline from a stated problem’s point of origin to its compounding factors and ultimate resolution. new communities and mortgages allow people to move to the suburbs. She never goes back. resources and time to maintain as the result of a non-efficient spatial distribution. Goldilocks is discovered in Baby Bear’s bed and she wakes up. Volume 20 The Bears return home. They feel their neighborhoods are more safe and are better for raising children. sits in their chairs and tries all their beds. designers and residents explore other configurations.’ The suburbs grow rapidly. allows for a believable argument to be made about contentious issues. the me fr ca Exposition/Context Initial Problem Complications increasing amount of energy. This organization. along with the highway system. Urbanism: Density Dénouement Crisis It was successful in providing energy to homes. often retroactive. People live crowded into cities. Today’s energy loads are processed through an inefficient system that loses half of the energy before it even reaches a single appliance. but as the starting point of the story. supplemented or taken apart. An awareness develops that alternatives are needed. . Planners. In this sense a public narrative should not be received as Climax definitive. shaped in Washington could yield almost People beginof adopt more a quarter to a million jobs and sustainable practices. a frontyard and a car. Goldilocks is afraid of bears. disputed causal effects and untested solutions. People’s lifestyles require an unsustainable and A notion of community disolves further (as well as many urban centers) as development expands at a low density. The grid became an emblem of progress. People use cars more and more to travel greater distances as communities become less compact. People’s lifestyles require an increasing amount of energy. along with the highway system. env sumer con People enjoy owning their own home. chair broken and beds slept in. People begin to adopt more sustainable practices. The suburbs grow rapidly. Only then can these be debated. People live crowded into cities. * Based on Freytag’s classic pyramidal structure of narrative development Status Quo Smart grid pro­ id to jects are sa and save p people emand. Smart grids digitally optimize performance and give consumers control over their energy usage. ou gy c ion ion ­ ab er pt ct en um odu s pr Density Goldilocks And The Three Bears She screams and runs out of the house. ‘The Planners. People use cars more and more to travel greater distances as communities become less compact. Notions of community and urban center further dissolve as development expands at low densities. The most convincing explanations have a clear narrative arc. finally falling asleep in Baby Bear’s. 4 5 People enjoy having a home. having a shorter industrial innovation. hel kd reduce pea Climate change is furthered by using fossil fuels to meet high energy demands. le re op o Pe w m ir o e kn t th on­ and . She tastes their porridge. businesses and cities. They also incorporate re­ ewable ener-­ n gies. Volume 20 The Three Bears and Goldilocks have no interaction. such as having a shorter commute. After WWII. m yste for id s e gr signed y Th de tl was nifican and sig er dem take a ll t sma did no nt the and accou nt or into ironme s. They feel their neighborhoods are safe for raising children. Goldilocks comes across the Three Bears’ home while they are out. new communities and mortgages allow people to move to the suburbs. An awareness develops that alternatives are needed. designers and investment residents are exploring other now being configurations. Description of New Status Quo ht le op ug Pe r tho re e he ity v ne ut w tric c o ab ir ele om.Make Believe Smart Grid (IBM Version) There are many ways to make sense of events beyond our immediate control. Status Quo After World War II. They discover their food gone. yard and car. such as a enable new forms of commute. Applicable to children’s stories as well as real world circumstances ranging from policy debates to technological projections.

’ Twitter everywhere. sustained thought. The Obama administration ‘vigorously’ supports therapeutic stem cell research. US federal funding is only permitted for research on approved embryonic lines – most of which do not contain viable stem cells. together to solve this problem is now – TAKE ACTION. plants and animals are being forced from their habitat and the number of severe storms and droughts is increasing. which adds significant carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. we can expect catastrophic consequences. Research stem cells come from discarded blastocysts. by burning fossil fuels and clearing forests we have increased the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere and temperatures are rising. ‘There is no doubt ‘Thereweno doubt we can solve this is can solve this problem. People love Twitter anyways and use it for a variety of communication needs.In fact. Improvements in shipping and trans­ portation allow for exotic foods to be readily available at low prices. Therapeutic cloning is often confused with reproductive cloning. US President Bush vetoes Congress’ overturn of the ban on stem cell funding in 2006. People are confused and feel guilty about what they eat. that never happened. Action is taken. ‘This is a good thing because it keeps our planet habitable. The cells are still undifferentiated. which negates the need to ship foods.’ The ease of use (coupled with mobile interface devices) allows Twitter to be used day or night. The ACTION.’ Through education people will collectively become more responsible for their carbon footprint.’ People are more aware of their habits. It becomes difficult to balance competing priorities. Twitter An Inconvenient Truth People become compulsive about checking and generating messages. Volume 20 Volume 20 Blogs / Email.Local Food Stem Cell Research Community gardens and CSAs provide a way for people to be more directly involved with what they eat. http://www. Twitter only allows 140 characters per tweet. Scientists are hopeful that stem cells will provide significant medical breakthroughs. ‘Glaciers are melting. The to do so.net/thescience/ An Inconvenient Truth Official Site. Due to the resource intensity of raising animals. Raw food is often shipped great distances. we have a have a problem. .’ ‘If the warming continues. In fact. They like having an array of choices at the supermarket. A ‘local food’ movement is proposed. wemoral obligation moral obligation to do so. All are contaminated with animal products and don’t carry the genetic defects necessary to model inherited human diseases. giving them unique scientific value. President Obama overturns the US ban on funding for stem cell research in 2009. citing moral reasons.climatecrisis. it appears that environmental impact is more closely correlated with what is eaten than where it comes from. Like this movie.’ People completely stop having spatially synchronized interaction and are unable to form complex. There are a number of uncured diseases. book and lecture tour by Al Gore. ‘However. People give little thought to where their food comes from. Stem cell research is promising but raises moral and ethical issues. Small changes to your daily routine can add up to big differencessolve this to time to come together to in helping stop global now – TAKEtime to come problem is warming.’ Wait. 6 7 ‘Gases warm the surface of the planet by trapping solar heat in the atmosphere. unable to prioritize other activities. website. Celebrities love Twitter too.

Small changes to your daily routine can add up to big differencessolve this to time to come together to in helping stop global now – TAKEtime to come problem is warming. http://www. sustained thought. by burning fossil fuels and clearing forests we have increased the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere and temperatures are rising. together to solve this problem is now – TAKE ACTION. President Obama overturns the US ban on funding for stem cell research in 2009. we have a have a problem. People give little thought to where their food comes from. ‘Glaciers are melting. citing moral reasons.’ The ease of use (coupled with mobile interface devices) allows Twitter to be used day or night.’ ‘If the warming continues. Due to the resource intensity of raising animals.net/thescience/ An Inconvenient Truth Official Site. ‘However. Scientists are hopeful that stem cells will provide significant medical breakthroughs. website. giving them unique scientific value.In fact. book and lecture tour by Al Gore.’ People completely stop having spatially synchronized interaction and are unable to form complex. Stem cell research is promising but raises moral and ethical issues. Celebrities love Twitter too. Research stem cells come from discarded blastocysts. All are contaminated with animal products and don’t carry the genetic defects necessary to model inherited human diseases. plants and animals are being forced from their habitat and the number of severe storms and droughts is increasing. There are a number of uncured diseases. which adds significant carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. which negates the need to ship foods. The to do so. .climatecrisis.’ Through education people will collectively become more responsible for their carbon footprint. People are confused and feel guilty about what they eat.’ People are more aware of their habits. wemoral obligation moral obligation to do so. we can expect catastrophic consequences. People love Twitter anyways and use it for a variety of communication needs.’ Twitter everywhere. They like having an array of choices at the supermarket. Twitter only allows 140 characters per tweet. that never happened.’ Wait. 6 7 ‘Gases warm the surface of the planet by trapping solar heat in the atmosphere.Local Food Stem Cell Research Community gardens and CSAs provide a way for people to be more directly involved with what they eat. A ‘local food’ movement is proposed. The ACTION. Action is taken. In fact. Like this movie. The cells are still undifferentiated. Therapeutic cloning is often confused with reproductive cloning. US President Bush vetoes Congress’ overturn of the ban on stem cell funding in 2006. ‘There is no doubt ‘Thereweno doubt we can solve this is can solve this problem. The Obama administration ‘vigorously’ supports therapeutic stem cell research. Improvements in shipping and trans­ portation allow for exotic foods to be readily available at low prices. Volume 20 Volume 20 Blogs / Email. Twitter An Inconvenient Truth People become compulsive about checking and generating messages. US federal funding is only permitted for research on approved embryonic lines – most of which do not contain viable stem cells. ‘This is a good thing because it keeps our planet habitable. Raw food is often shipped great distances. it appears that environmental impact is more closely correlated with what is eaten than where it comes from. It becomes difficult to balance competing priorities. unable to prioritize other activities.

fairy tales have always been ideal vehicles for conveying the moral values of a given era. She pricks her finger and dies falls asleep for one hundred years. The King summons astrologers to predict his daughter’s future. When the Princess pricks her finger she will instead fall asleep for one hundred years and will be awakened by a Prince true love. Each one is to bestow a gift upon the Princess. One Prince cannot stop thinking of the Princess and is determined to try. with enough fantastic detail to engage even young readers. The good fairies bring the Prince the Sword of Truth and the Shield of Virtue. He searches throughout passes easily through the weeds thorns and finds the Princess. An old fairy was forgotten and not invited. A crab appears and tells the Queen she will soon have a child. Fairies assist the Princess they lay the twins with her and one begins to suck her finger. the evil fairy has her pet raven locate the Princess in the forest. she arrives and curses the Princess rather than blessing her with beauty or grace. Volume 20 Simple and concise. The King. so too will the fairy tale – all the better to convey current ethical directives. but all get caught on the thorns and die a miserable death. forcing the fairies to reveal her identity and take her back to the palace. A second King discovers the abandoned palace while hunting. Upset that her plan has been foiled. The King bans the offending object – flax – from his Kingdom. She puts everything to sleep. despite the fact that she doesn’t respond to him. The Prince returns to the forest to find his love but is captured by the evil fairy. Immediately a dense wood thorn bush grew all around the palace so that the Princess was concealed safely. Charles Perrault. she lures her to a spinning wheel. The Brothers Grimm and Walt Disney Volume 20 A King and Queen desire a child but cannot bear one. The King summons all the fairies in celebration. It is prophe­ sized that she will be killed when she is fifteen years old by flax pricking her finger. Once at the palace. dislodging the flax. 8 9 Despite this. Bitter. C-Lab looks to see what skeletons Sleeping Beauty has hiding in her closet. Rumors abound that the castle is haunted. their earlier versions have a potency that is worth investigation. Many Princes try to reach her. A good fairy hears of the event. He returns to his kingdom and forgets the incident. He carries her to the bed and gathers the first fruits of love. The other fairies cannot reverse the evil fairy’s curse. The Princess gives birth to twins nine months later. He then makes his way to the palace and the sleeping Princess. Rumors abound that a beautiful Princess slept inside. He finds her irresistable. lays her out in the palace and leaves forever. and returns to the palace. the Princess comes upon an old woman spinning. The King and Queen finally have a daughter. She takes him to her lair in the mountain so that he will grow old there and never kiss the Princess. so that it would be ready for the Princess.Sleeping Beauty: The Rewrite Giambattista Basile. which he uses to slay the evil fairy in the form of a fire-breathing dragon. The Prince kisses her and the Princess awakens. Fairies take the baby to live in safety in the woods. but a curious Prince discovers that a beautiful Princess slept inside. unaware of what has . she accidentally meets her bethrothed Prince. While today’s stories serve a well-loved purpose. When she is sixteen. in his sorrow. And just as history is constantly rewritten. but modify it.

and returns to the palace. The Prince returns to the forest to find his love but is captured by the evil fairy. but modify it. the evil fairy has her pet raven locate the Princess in the forest. Volume 20 Simple and concise. so that it would be ready for the Princess. fairy tales have always been ideal vehicles for conveying the moral values of a given era. It is prophe­ sized that she will be killed when she is fifteen years old by flax pricking her finger. She takes him to her lair in the mountain so that he will grow old there and never kiss the Princess. The Brothers Grimm and Walt Disney Volume 20 A King and Queen desire a child but cannot bear one. lays her out in the palace and leaves forever. forcing the fairies to reveal her identity and take her back to the palace. C-Lab looks to see what skeletons Sleeping Beauty has hiding in her closet. A crab appears and tells the Queen she will soon have a child. He then makes his way to the palace and the sleeping Princess. Rumors abound that a beautiful Princess slept inside. Once at the palace. She pricks her finger and dies falls asleep for one hundred years. 8 9 Despite this. dislodging the flax. While today’s stories serve a well-loved purpose. in his sorrow. He searches throughout passes easily through the weeds thorns and finds the Princess. Fairies take the baby to live in safety in the woods. The King bans the offending object – flax – from his Kingdom. with enough fantastic detail to engage even young readers. And just as history is constantly rewritten. The Princess gives birth to twins nine months later. so too will the fairy tale – all the better to convey current ethical directives.Sleeping Beauty: The Rewrite Giambattista Basile. she accidentally meets her bethrothed Prince. Many Princes try to reach her. When the Princess pricks her finger she will instead fall asleep for one hundred years and will be awakened by a Prince true love. Fairies assist the Princess they lay the twins with her and one begins to suck her finger. their earlier versions have a potency that is worth investigation. The King summons astrologers to predict his daughter’s future. Each one is to bestow a gift upon the Princess. despite the fact that she doesn’t respond to him. Immediately a dense wood thorn bush grew all around the palace so that the Princess was concealed safely. Bitter. The good fairies bring the Prince the Sword of Truth and the Shield of Virtue. Upset that her plan has been foiled. The Prince kisses her and the Princess awakens. A second King discovers the abandoned palace while hunting. An old fairy was forgotten and not invited. which he uses to slay the evil fairy in the form of a fire-breathing dragon. unaware of what has . The other fairies cannot reverse the evil fairy’s curse. but all get caught on the thorns and die a miserable death. but a curious Prince discovers that a beautiful Princess slept inside. Rumors abound that the castle is haunted. She puts everything to sleep. He carries her to the bed and gathers the first fruits of love. The King and Queen finally have a daughter. He returns to his kingdom and forgets the incident. A good fairy hears of the event. One Prince cannot stop thinking of the Princess and is determined to try. The King summons all the fairies in celebration. Charles Perrault. He finds her irresistable. The King. When she is sixteen. she arrives and curses the Princess rather than blessing her with beauty or grace. she lures her to a spinning wheel. the Princess comes upon an old woman spinning.

The cook instead kills two lambs a lamb and hides the children little girl. Volume 20 happened to her and they fall in love. screaming loudly with each piece. She is furious and orders a tub to be filled with 10 11 . The Princess happily sends them. The Queen then decides to eat the little boy but the cook deceives her again. The Princess. He demands to know where his children are and learns that his wife had them killed and served to him. the Queen. Everyone is reunited and the King marries the Princess. The Princess asks to remove her clothes first. The Queen confronts her husband’s mistress with a tirade of obsenity and insults and orders her thrown into a pit of fire. goes happily. vipers. about the Princess and the children because she is an ogress. and have two children. is becoming suspicious. The cook. His wife mother. The last scream brings the King. who was also to be burned. get married and live happily ever after. explains that he hid the children. The Queen and the children were to be thrown in at dawn. She sends for the children in the name of the King. The King finds the meal delicous.Volume 20 snakes. He becomes crazy with grief. and orders his wife and the secretary thrown into the fire. his mother suicides into the tub of serpents. The Queen is not satisfied. He instead takes her to them where they are concealed and serves the Queen a young hind. The Queen tells the cook to kill and prepare the children the little girl as dishes for her husband. The cook’s wife brings forth the children. believing the King has called her. The Queen overhears the children playing and discovers that she has been deceived. he is called to war. and orders the royal secretary to bring the cook to kill the Princess as well. When the King dies. He is thrilled with his children and she is enamored of him. the Queen. She threatens an attendant with death to learn the truth. He visits the Princess but never dares tell his mother. the Prince declares his marriage and finally brings his family to the palace. The King suddenly returns home and at the sight of him. The King is saddened by the loss of his mother. serpents and toads. Shortly. much to the Queen’s delight. believing her children are dead. begs the cook to kill her too. but comforted by his wife and children. The Princess. His mother the ogress is unable to control her craving for human flesh. The King Prince returns to his Kingdom but cannot stop dreaming of the Princess and his children and tells his parents that he has been hunting. The second King remembers the Princess and comes to visit.

The Princess. The Princess asks to remove her clothes first. The last scream brings the King. and have two children. vipers. believing her children are dead. The second King remembers the Princess and comes to visit. He is thrilled with his children and she is enamored of him. the Prince declares his marriage and finally brings his family to the palace. The Queen tells the cook to kill and prepare the children the little girl as dishes for her husband. believing the King has called her. The Queen confronts her husband’s mistress with a tirade of obsenity and insults and orders her thrown into a pit of fire. The Queen then decides to eat the little boy but the cook deceives her again. The cook. the Queen. He becomes crazy with grief. Everyone is reunited and the King marries the Princess. The Queen and the children were to be thrown in at dawn. Volume 20 happened to her and they fall in love. goes happily. The cook instead kills two lambs a lamb and hides the children little girl. screaming loudly with each piece. serpents and toads. He visits the Princess but never dares tell his mother. The King suddenly returns home and at the sight of him. She sends for the children in the name of the King. and orders the royal secretary to bring the cook to kill the Princess as well. She threatens an attendant with death to learn the truth. The King finds the meal delicous.Volume 20 snakes. much to the Queen’s delight. She is furious and orders a tub to be filled with 10 11 . The cook’s wife brings forth the children. explains that he hid the children. The Queen overhears the children playing and discovers that she has been deceived. The King is saddened by the loss of his mother. and orders his wife and the secretary thrown into the fire. his mother suicides into the tub of serpents. He instead takes her to them where they are concealed and serves the Queen a young hind. who was also to be burned. The King Prince returns to his Kingdom but cannot stop dreaming of the Princess and his children and tells his parents that he has been hunting. he is called to war. Shortly. about the Princess and the children because she is an ogress. He demands to know where his children are and learns that his wife had them killed and served to him. The Princess happily sends them. get married and live happily ever after. begs the cook to kill her too. The Queen is not satisfied. The Princess. His wife mother. is becoming suspicious. the Queen. When the King dies. His mother the ogress is unable to control her craving for human flesh. but comforted by his wife and children.

Little Red Riding Hood resourcefully performs a striptease to outwit the wolf. commands her to marry him when his own wife dies because her hands are so appealing to him. of Jack and the Beanstalk. Having squandered his mother’s cow on a mere handful of ‘magic’ seeds. Jack. Volume 20 Volume 20 Desperate to escape. Flashes of extreme violence. Although the Sea Witch had warned the Little Mermaid that she would die if she did not successfully seduce the Prince. Rapunzel finally has a secret friend in the Prince – until she gets pregnant. Indeed. Penta’s beloved brother. morally-questionable acts and deeply conflicted motivations are just some of the human dimensions that in the past have served to ground the fantasy.Character Development The flat personalities and predictable outcomes of today’s adaptations have diminished the narrative complexity of the fairy tale. including some complicit victims of circumstance. the Princess in The Frog King abuses and finally throws the frog. the woodcutter abandons Hansel and Gretel in the forest because his wife thought it would be best. 12 13 A spoiled Goldilocks breaks into the Bears’ home. decides to steal all of the ogre’s prized possesions to make up for his mistake. she tells the Mermaid how to break the spell and return to the ocean alive when the Prince marries someone else – unfortunately the only way is to kill him. well-intentioned-but-negligent parents and a witch with a soft spot. eats their food and breaks their furniture. the siblings happily reconcile with no hard feelings. Beauty’s cherished father gives her to the Beast in exchange for his life. Although it saddens him. a decision she wholeheartedly supports. her future husband. familiar characters were not always as one-dimensional as they now seem. against the wall in disgust. . conniving children. After removing the hands and taking some time apart. in Penta of the Chopped-off Hands. Lonely and imprisioned in a tower by the witch. Hoping he’ll die.

including some complicit victims of circumstance. Jack. After removing the hands and taking some time apart. commands her to marry him when his own wife dies because her hands are so appealing to him. morally-questionable acts and deeply conflicted motivations are just some of the human dimensions that in the past have served to ground the fantasy.Character Development The flat personalities and predictable outcomes of today’s adaptations have diminished the narrative complexity of the fairy tale. Although the Sea Witch had warned the Little Mermaid that she would die if she did not successfully seduce the Prince. Although it saddens him. decides to steal all of the ogre’s prized possesions to make up for his mistake. Little Red Riding Hood resourcefully performs a striptease to outwit the wolf. Rapunzel finally has a secret friend in the Prince – until she gets pregnant. Indeed. of Jack and the Beanstalk. Penta’s beloved brother. in Penta of the Chopped-off Hands. the siblings happily reconcile with no hard feelings. Volume 20 Volume 20 Desperate to escape. against the wall in disgust. . the woodcutter abandons Hansel and Gretel in the forest because his wife thought it would be best. Lonely and imprisioned in a tower by the witch. a decision she wholeheartedly supports. Hoping he’ll die. conniving children. familiar characters were not always as one-dimensional as they now seem. Beauty’s cherished father gives her to the Beast in exchange for his life. Having squandered his mother’s cow on a mere handful of ‘magic’ seeds. she tells the Mermaid how to break the spell and return to the ocean alive when the Prince marries someone else – unfortunately the only way is to kill him. well-intentioned-but-negligent parents and a witch with a soft spot. eats their food and breaks their furniture. Flashes of extreme violence. her future husband. 12 13 A spoiled Goldilocks breaks into the Bears’ home. the Princess in The Frog King abuses and finally throws the frog.

’ Carnage ‘Out of spite he killed all the women of that place whom he could get  into his hands.’ Volume 20  wish. but this time it wasn’t Adultery ‘He. and the Evil One entered  head and suggested that he should take his sister Penta to wife. and when he would have carnally known his wife. You won’t need them anymore. and then he intends live to cook you and eat you. they contained a wide range of allusions to desire. ‘Thine hand is the thing which above all others causeth me to faint with excessive desire.’ Rape ‘When the king beheld Sleeping Beauty.’ To this the king said. Your bridegroom does H  here.’  soothed her with kind words. where he disappeared with them forever.’ off Pedophilia ‘The Pied Piper sounded his fife in the streets. where he gathered the first fruits of love. ‘What does a person deserve who drags someone 14 15 G eriatric sex ‘Reaching the king’s bedchamber. ‘Let me have the coffin. he beheld her charms and felt his blood course hotly through his veins. who was a youth who had eaten bread from several bakers. she fled before him from place to place. but she remained Ravishment ‘It has been noted that when a young woman lost her ‘innocence’.’’ Volume 20 Enhancement ‘So he lifted up his hands to heaven and said. Now after hundreds had been led thither by their ill-luck. he called her. ‘Throw them into the fire.  that came to him. ‘Oh Allah. with the beautiful  Snow White lying within it. so that he could not smell the stink of her mouth.’ N I  petticoat. her dress.’’  of bed and throws him into the water?’ The old woman answered. and in his anger he plunged his right foot so deep into the earth that his whole leg went in. and he led them into a mountain.’’ ncest ‘The king. desiring his to know what had caused her brother such great longing. And he smeared the stone with their blood. there chanced a beautiful maiden named Porziella. but children: a great number of boys and girls. but he intends to chop you to pieces and kill you.’ Upon hearing this. and her shoes and stockings – she asked where she should put them. Whether metaphorically implicit or graphically explicit. Penta promptly ordered her hands chopped off and delivered to the king. by reason of thy lust. and then rolled downhill into the water. But he was so cruel and spiteful to women that. my child. he would kill her like the rest. and swore an oath.’ omicidal maniac ‘The king drew his sword. the old woman unrobed at  once and went into bed. having been bereft of his wife. He lifted her and carried her to a bed. Penta. It was well for her that he was thus anointed and perfumed.  unconscious. Crying aloud. fairy tales were primarily conceived of as adult entertainment. Playing on two classic tropes of virtue – Prince Charming and the Damsel in Distress – Volume debunks some assumptions about the sterility and irrelevance of fairy tale content. The swarm followed him. what is to be done? This is thy list. from their rats fourth year on. after a while. cut  his children’s heads.’ . for my Nail torture ‘The king said. ‘You have pronounced your own sentence. and the vinegar of her arm-pits. perversion and violence.’’ ecrophilia ‘The prince saw the coffin upon the mountain. ‘Oh accursed woman. and then in rage he pulled at his left leg so hard with both hands that he tore himself in two. and the wolf replied. Mutilation ‘‘Perhaps your name is Rumpelstiltskin?’ said the Queen. and the king could not help falling in love with her. Cannibalism ‘You have gotten into a murderer’s den. I desire to greaten my yard and magnify it. and that she alone was engrafted in his heart.’ Hardly had he spoken first when his tool became as big as a column and he could neither sit nor stand nor move about nor even stir from his stead.’  popular expression of the time was ‘She’d seen the wolf. ‘The out scoundrel deserves nothing better than to be put into a barrel stuck full of nails. her  ‘The devil has told you that! The devil has told you that!’ cried the little man. and said that for the handsomest leman in the world he would not exchange what was his. went to him.All’s Fair in Love and War Once upon a time. only to lose their lives. So he said to her. I will give you whatever you want for it. and with his own hand. He said to the dwarfs.’’ the Interspecial sex ‘And for all Little Red’s clothes – her bodice.

from their rats fourth year on. only to lose their lives. but he intends to chop you to pieces and kill you. and in his anger he plunged his right foot so deep into the earth that his whole leg went in. her dress. ‘Let me have the coffin. Now after hundreds had been led thither by their ill-luck.’ Upon hearing this. ‘Oh Allah.’ off Pedophilia ‘The Pied Piper sounded his fife in the streets. Mutilation ‘‘Perhaps your name is Rumpelstiltskin?’ said the Queen.  unconscious.  that came to him. The swarm followed him. ‘Thine hand is the thing which above all others causeth me to faint with excessive desire. and then in rage he pulled at his left leg so hard with both hands that he tore himself in two. so that he could not smell the stink of her mouth. they contained a wide range of allusions to desire. fairy tales were primarily conceived of as adult entertainment. He said to the dwarfs.’ N I  petticoat.’ . Cannibalism ‘You have gotten into a murderer’s den. ‘Throw them into the fire. and with his own hand. and then rolled downhill into the water. went to him. I desire to greaten my yard and magnify it. ‘What does a person deserve who drags someone 14 15 G eriatric sex ‘Reaching the king’s bedchamber. she fled before him from place to place. It was well for her that he was thus anointed and perfumed. ‘Oh accursed woman.’’ ncest ‘The king. with the beautiful  Snow White lying within it. he called her.’ omicidal maniac ‘The king drew his sword. perversion and violence.All’s Fair in Love and War Once upon a time. Playing on two classic tropes of virtue – Prince Charming and the Damsel in Distress – Volume debunks some assumptions about the sterility and irrelevance of fairy tale content. her  ‘The devil has told you that! The devil has told you that!’ cried the little man. He lifted her and carried her to a bed. he would kill her like the rest. Penta promptly ordered her hands chopped off and delivered to the king. ‘The out scoundrel deserves nothing better than to be put into a barrel stuck full of nails. by reason of thy lust. desiring his to know what had caused her brother such great longing. and swore an oath. my child. there chanced a beautiful maiden named Porziella. he beheld her charms and felt his blood course hotly through his veins. who was a youth who had eaten bread from several bakers. I will give you whatever you want for it. ‘You have pronounced your own sentence. and he led them into a mountain. after a while. the old woman unrobed at  once and went into bed. But he was so cruel and spiteful to women that. what is to be done? This is thy list.’  popular expression of the time was ‘She’d seen the wolf. Your bridegroom does H  here.’ Hardly had he spoken first when his tool became as big as a column and he could neither sit nor stand nor move about nor even stir from his stead.’  soothed her with kind words. and the Evil One entered  head and suggested that he should take his sister Penta to wife. but she remained Ravishment ‘It has been noted that when a young woman lost her ‘innocence’. and that she alone was engrafted in his heart. and the king could not help falling in love with her.’ Volume 20  wish. You won’t need them anymore. And he smeared the stone with their blood. and her shoes and stockings – she asked where she should put them.’ Carnage ‘Out of spite he killed all the women of that place whom he could get  into his hands.’’ ecrophilia ‘The prince saw the coffin upon the mountain.’ Rape ‘When the king beheld Sleeping Beauty. and the vinegar of her arm-pits. and then he intends live to cook you and eat you. but this time it wasn’t Adultery ‘He. Penta.’’ Volume 20 Enhancement ‘So he lifted up his hands to heaven and said. Crying aloud. having been bereft of his wife. for my Nail torture ‘The king said. So he said to her. cut  his children’s heads. and the wolf replied.’’  of bed and throws him into the water?’ The old woman answered.’’ the Interspecial sex ‘And for all Little Red’s clothes – her bodice. where he gathered the first fruits of love. and when he would have carnally known his wife.’ To this the king said. Whether metaphorically implicit or graphically explicit. but children: a great number of boys and girls. and said that for the handsomest leman in the world he would not exchange what was his. where he disappeared with them forever.

who was called Little Stupid because she was so good. They no longer fit me.’  his castle…Further.’ A his mother.’ And one caught her by the hair. Then she gave one last burst of music…The red rose heard it. and a plump. each night she was required to go to her master’s bedroom to and pull off his boots. turd-clout. Paul’s churchyard steeple. and went out to the prince. a beautiful the smoothest.Dirt fetish ‘But when she saw her lying in the bed. and the two girls opened their eyes.’ mputation ‘She could not get her big toe into it. ‘Frau Gothel.’ Cinderella’s stepsister cut off her toe. and a fierce pang of pain shot through her.’’ ust murder ‘So the Nightingale pressed closer against the thorn. whereupon he threw them at her head.’ S orture ‘She beat the child on the head. on the wall. she raised the curtain of her clothes and showed a truly rural scene. when nothing else was missing. the parts began to move. and the other swung the axe. for the shoe was too small.’  murdered and chopped to pieces. mirror. ‘O darling sisters. bull’s-vomit. who was calling his bride by her name in his sleep.’ 16 17 S ororicide ‘The poor little one begged them. Her fingers clutched the knife instinctively – but in the next moment she hurled the blade into the waves. and look in it. repaid the old woman with the same coin. who had little beard and less discretion. Then he looked at her foot and saw how the blood was running from it. but burn her they couldn’t.  the water they put her. as if he had  eaten raw pigeons. all defiled with mud Decapitation ‘While the little boy was leaning over. she thanked God for this favor. I ‘You never would leave it behind. for she sang of the Love that is perfected by Death. tell me why it is that my clothes are all too tight. the Evil One prompted I  it was. ‘Cut off your toe. arms.’ Seduction ‘That evening. Three years passed and nothing had been heard of the missing man… he was dragged by the nymph down into the sea. In spite of this she proceeded to gather their parts together. saying. and between them they killed the little pretty one. the king took another wife. and looking pleased and contented. miserably L I Exhibitionism ‘The woman.’ Extramarital sex ‘She came to like the young king so well that she arranged Reanimation ‘Her two dear sisters were lying there in the basin. as though drops of blood were gurgling up from the water.’ ‘What a lie!’ say the bad ones. who is the fairest of us all?’’ Volume 20 mpalement ‘On the fire the Three Bears threw her. bitter was the pain. and again turned her eyes  toward the prince. Bitter. They finally seized her In before all the wondering people.  Then her mother gave her a knife and said. hearing  flow of abuse. farting-crone?’ The old woman waxed so wroth that. In her pearly halls he forgot his wife. making the mouth bleed.’ just T  him to come every day and be pulled up.’ Volume 20  woman. and all that was loved by him. white woman’s Masochism ‘The king ordered his men to bind her to a cart and to take her  arm. It gleamed redly where it fell. losing all patience. drank her blood. forced her foot into the shoe. the door opened again. and then  performed a provocative striptease before climbing into bed with him. do not kill me!  haven’t got the saucer or the apple with me at all. They lived in joy and pleasure for for a long time…The fairy did not discover what was happening until one day Rapunzel said to her.’ ndecent exposure ‘The lad. drawn noiselessly out through the door. and legs. and wilder and wilder grew her song. children-smotherer. and it trembled all over with ecstasy. ‘Mirror. and felt her body dissolve into foam. and the thorn  touched her heart.’ triptease ‘Red Cap ate her grandmother’s flesh. but proud and overbearing. She had a magic looking glass. put it through the key-hole. and crash! She slammed down the lid. but drown there she wouldn’t. that as her son had at last found a spouse according to his liking.’ Narcissism ‘After a year had gone by. and then jumped overboard. parents. The young man arose from his bed. They joined together. and his head flew off. seeing that her finger was the finest and Self-destruction ‘She gazed on the sharp knife. of the Love that dies not in the tomb. and she used to stand before it. ‘Wilt thou this not hold thy tongue devil’s grandam. Then. and she could not be surpassed in beauty by anyone. placing them back in order: head. and say.’ . reached in over the sleepers. and showed it to the king. and chucked her aloft St. The Little Mermaid gave the prince one last dying look. body. with a most beautiful hand.

Dirt fetish ‘But when she saw her lying in the bed.’ 16 17 S ororicide ‘The poor little one begged them. ‘O darling sisters. who had little beard and less discretion. and say. and a plump.’ triptease ‘Red Cap ate her grandmother’s flesh.’  his castle…Further.’ Volume 20  woman. arms. and felt her body dissolve into foam.’ S orture ‘She beat the child on the head. and it trembled all over with ecstasy. and the thorn  touched her heart. The Little Mermaid gave the prince one last dying look. as though drops of blood were gurgling up from the water. who was called Little Stupid because she was so good.’ .’ Cinderella’s stepsister cut off her toe. and she could not be surpassed in beauty by anyone.’ A his mother. and his head flew off. farting-crone?’ The old woman waxed so wroth that.’’ ust murder ‘So the Nightingale pressed closer against the thorn. but proud and overbearing. the parts began to move. whereupon he threw them at her head.’ ‘What a lie!’ say the bad ones. I ‘You never would leave it behind. They joined together. body. but drown there she wouldn’t.’ And one caught her by the hair. Then he looked at her foot and saw how the blood was running from it.’ mputation ‘She could not get her big toe into it. and the two girls opened their eyes. hearing  flow of abuse. ‘Wilt thou this not hold thy tongue devil’s grandam. as if he had  eaten raw pigeons. a beautiful the smoothest. She had a magic looking glass.’ Extramarital sex ‘She came to like the young king so well that she arranged Reanimation ‘Her two dear sisters were lying there in the basin. drank her blood. In spite of this she proceeded to gather their parts together. forced her foot into the shoe. losing all patience.’ ndecent exposure ‘The lad. on the wall. repaid the old woman with the same coin. with a most beautiful hand. tell me why it is that my clothes are all too tight. It gleamed redly where it fell. white woman’s Masochism ‘The king ordered his men to bind her to a cart and to take her  arm. ‘Cut off your toe.  the water they put her. and she used to stand before it.’ just T  him to come every day and be pulled up. They no longer fit me. and went out to the prince. Paul’s churchyard steeple. who was calling his bride by her name in his sleep. the door opened again. the king took another wife. and a fierce pang of pain shot through her. bull’s-vomit. The young man arose from his bed. of the Love that dies not in the tomb. when nothing else was missing.’  murdered and chopped to pieces. In her pearly halls he forgot his wife. and look in it. placing them back in order: head. saying. she raised the curtain of her clothes and showed a truly rural scene. Three years passed and nothing had been heard of the missing man… he was dragged by the nymph down into the sea. Her fingers clutched the knife instinctively – but in the next moment she hurled the blade into the waves. ‘Frau Gothel. do not kill me!  haven’t got the saucer or the apple with me at all. put it through the key-hole. and all that was loved by him. and showed it to the king.  Then her mother gave her a knife and said. all defiled with mud Decapitation ‘While the little boy was leaning over. and chucked her aloft St. she thanked God for this favor. Bitter. Then she gave one last burst of music…The red rose heard it. seeing that her finger was the finest and Self-destruction ‘She gazed on the sharp knife. reached in over the sleepers. but burn her they couldn’t. They lived in joy and pleasure for for a long time…The fairy did not discover what was happening until one day Rapunzel said to her. for the shoe was too small. They finally seized her In before all the wondering people. and the other swung the axe. that as her son had at last found a spouse according to his liking. mirror. and wilder and wilder grew her song. children-smotherer. and legs. who is the fairest of us all?’’ Volume 20 mpalement ‘On the fire the Three Bears threw her. and then jumped overboard. ‘Mirror. and between them they killed the little pretty one. drawn noiselessly out through the door. and looking pleased and contented. for she sang of the Love that is perfected by Death. Then. and then  performed a provocative striptease before climbing into bed with him. turd-clout. bitter was the pain. each night she was required to go to her master’s bedroom to and pull off his boots. and crash! She slammed down the lid. making the mouth bleed. and again turned her eyes  toward the prince. parents. miserably L I Exhibitionism ‘The woman.’ Seduction ‘That evening. the Evil One prompted I  it was.’ Narcissism ‘After a year had gone by.

pretty baby. happy babes. interspersing threats of fabricated air raids within soporific reassurances eerily akin to the lullaby: ‘My opinion is that you be kind to children and be kind to seniors and take the potion like they used to take in ancient Greece. When that mockingbird don’t sing. ‘Hush. Mama’s gonna buy you a mockingbird. Do not cry. informing audiences of uncertainty or looming peril. rock her to sleep. The cradle will fall. the degree to which the President’s rhetoric is actually threatening or apotropaic isn’t altogether clear. but sometimes painful things like this happen.’ Volume 20 In his January 2009 Inaugural Address President Obama invoked an American resilience reminiscent of the infamous itsy-bitsy spider. No Muslim / can attack innocent people. He adulated American ingenuity. my souls. and step over quietly because we are not committing suicide. twinkle Little star. Kennedy’s public address regarding the Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962 stood up to the sheer threat of attack. it’s a revolutionary act. baby. Cradle and all… If the fairy tale serves as a point of departure for tackling weighty issues. And I’ll sing you a lullaby. the supine listener is comforted by the performative act itself.’ His speech sought to reassure and encourage them to continue to dream and to take risks.’ Like Alkmene’s lullaby from Theocritus’ Idyll. Sleep.Hush Little Baby. And down will come baby. Like the macabre undertone of Rock-A-Bye-Baby.’ In his Second Inaugural Address. doing good’. Lincoln prayed for deliverance from the war’s darkest hours. Sleep. Be blessed in your sleep. After summing up the indicators of crisis and describing the lessthan-desirable prospects for the country’s future. Sleep. sleep. baby. No Muslim / can attack a woman. that this mighty scourge of war may speedily pass away. praising individual contribution to society to validate the scaling back of the federal government. Mama’s gonna buy you a diamond ring…’ Anaphoric repetition was famously used by Churchill in his speech upon becoming Prime Minister in 1940: ‘We shall fight on the beaches / we shall fight on the landing grounds / we shall fight in the fields and in the streets / we shall fight in the hills / we shall never surrender. ‘Sleep. my babies. But know this America / They will be met. sleep. Smiles await you when you rise.’’ Throughout his campaign. George H. In his public response to the Challenger space shuttle disaster President Reagan aimed his message at children: ‘I know it’s hard to understand. Inaugural Address and State of the Union in 1991. 18 19 One of the most horrifying examples of the placative capacity of the ‘crisis address’ is People’s Temple leader Jim Jones’ speech at Jonestown Guyana in 1978. And he said: ‘Rock her to sleep.’ This brief excerpt demonstrates Churchill’s ability to pragmatically reassure and generate solidarity in the face of crisis.’ He promised not to wait blindly for disaster to strike before taking action and enacted a quarantine on the distribution of offensive weapons. they can be quite threatening in content. By employing the star metaphor.’ . Sleep sweetly and the kind of sleep From which one wakes up. just as many lullabies extol the virtues of the child.W. Benazir Bhutto delivered an address after being the target of a 2007 assassination attempt. baby. Your father tends the sheep. And he asked me what I was carrying on my back. Sleep. Yet.’ ‘Twinkle. he rejects the possibility of failure with this bout of reassurance about American hope and determi­ nation: ‘Today / I say to you / that the challenges we face are real / they are serious / and they are many / They will not be met easily / or in a short span of time. Referred to simply as Dad. then it finds some relief in the lullaby. and wake up. Blessed at dawn. little baby. functions to reassure its audience. ‘Sleep. Both speech and song calm the nation/child during transitional states bridging restlessness and deep sleep. ‘I met Sleep. Lincoln appealed for resolution to the ravages of the Civil War: ‘Fondly do we hope. I answered that I carried Nothing but the moon. my twins. fervently do we pray. Don’t You Cry ‘Golden slumber kiss your eyes. It’s all part of the process of exploration and discovery… The future doesn’t belong to the fainthearted / it belongs to the brave. Bush also lent his message a sense of providential timelessness. And from it fall sweet dreams for thee. which intimates the perilous link between sleep and death. The lullaby. despite occasionally unfortunate and even tragic outcomes. but her statements were marked by a sense of urgency. like the crisis speech.’ ‘When the bough breaks. How I wonder What you are!’ Volume 20 ‘The itsy-bitsy spider Climbed up the water spout…’ John F. don’t say a word. Her rhetoric was straightforward. Calm and sober in manner. Thus the lullaby and crisis speech restate tough issues while serving as a mechanism to process disturbing ideas in a state of relative peace. assured by its practiced rhythm and melody. sleep. Your mother shakes the dreamland tree.’ Bhutto committed herself to carry and allay the grief of Pakistani people in a time of sadness and uncertainty and to deliver a warning to those who would venture to lay blame on Islam. Albeit soothing in tone. he urged his brainwashed followers to ‘put themselves to sleep’. Bush repeatedly evoked ‘a thousand points of light / of all the community organizations that are spread like stars throughout the Nation. claiming that ‘the greatest danger of all would be to do nothing. addressing problems of national security and Islamic identity: ‘The people / who planned the assassination attempt on me / are not Muslims.

but her statements were marked by a sense of urgency. happy babes. How I wonder What you are!’ Volume 20 ‘The itsy-bitsy spider Climbed up the water spout…’ John F. my twins. ‘Sleep. And from it fall sweet dreams for thee. The cradle will fall. assured by its practiced rhythm and melody. Lincoln prayed for deliverance from the war’s darkest hours. 18 19 One of the most horrifying examples of the placative capacity of the ‘crisis address’ is People’s Temple leader Jim Jones’ speech at Jonestown Guyana in 1978.’ In his Second Inaugural Address.’ .’ ‘When the bough breaks.’ His speech sought to reassure and encourage them to continue to dream and to take risks.’’ Throughout his campaign. addressing problems of national security and Islamic identity: ‘The people / who planned the assassination attempt on me / are not Muslims. Sleep. The lullaby. Sleep. praising individual contribution to society to validate the scaling back of the federal government. No Muslim / can attack innocent people. Like the macabre undertone of Rock-A-Bye-Baby. Cradle and all… If the fairy tale serves as a point of departure for tackling weighty issues. he urged his brainwashed followers to ‘put themselves to sleep’. don’t say a word. Be blessed in your sleep. Referred to simply as Dad. rock her to sleep.’ He promised not to wait blindly for disaster to strike before taking action and enacted a quarantine on the distribution of offensive weapons. Mama’s gonna buy you a diamond ring…’ Anaphoric repetition was famously used by Churchill in his speech upon becoming Prime Minister in 1940: ‘We shall fight on the beaches / we shall fight on the landing grounds / we shall fight in the fields and in the streets / we shall fight in the hills / we shall never surrender. but sometimes painful things like this happen. Inaugural Address and State of the Union in 1991. Her rhetoric was straightforward. my souls. which intimates the perilous link between sleep and death. sleep. And I’ll sing you a lullaby. Bush repeatedly evoked ‘a thousand points of light / of all the community organizations that are spread like stars throughout the Nation. ‘I met Sleep. When that mockingbird don’t sing. George H. claiming that ‘the greatest danger of all would be to do nothing. Your father tends the sheep. No Muslim / can attack a woman. it’s a revolutionary act. sleep. And he asked me what I was carrying on my back. Sleep. pretty baby. He adulated American ingenuity. he rejects the possibility of failure with this bout of reassurance about American hope and determi­ nation: ‘Today / I say to you / that the challenges we face are real / they are serious / and they are many / They will not be met easily / or in a short span of time. I answered that I carried Nothing but the moon. despite occasionally unfortunate and even tragic outcomes.’ Bhutto committed herself to carry and allay the grief of Pakistani people in a time of sadness and uncertainty and to deliver a warning to those who would venture to lay blame on Islam. that this mighty scourge of war may speedily pass away. baby. Bush also lent his message a sense of providential timelessness. Your mother shakes the dreamland tree. And down will come baby. Both speech and song calm the nation/child during transitional states bridging restlessness and deep sleep. Don’t You Cry ‘Golden slumber kiss your eyes. the degree to which the President’s rhetoric is actually threatening or apotropaic isn’t altogether clear. Albeit soothing in tone. informing audiences of uncertainty or looming peril. and wake up. sleep. like the crisis speech. functions to reassure its audience. After summing up the indicators of crisis and describing the lessthan-desirable prospects for the country’s future.’ This brief excerpt demonstrates Churchill’s ability to pragmatically reassure and generate solidarity in the face of crisis. Mama’s gonna buy you a mockingbird. and step over quietly because we are not committing suicide. Do not cry. Smiles await you when you rise. ‘Hush. my babies. Thus the lullaby and crisis speech restate tough issues while serving as a mechanism to process disturbing ideas in a state of relative peace. Blessed at dawn. fervently do we pray. In his public response to the Challenger space shuttle disaster President Reagan aimed his message at children: ‘I know it’s hard to understand. Yet. It’s all part of the process of exploration and discovery… The future doesn’t belong to the fainthearted / it belongs to the brave. then it finds some relief in the lullaby. Benazir Bhutto delivered an address after being the target of a 2007 assassination attempt.’ ‘Twinkle. just as many lullabies extol the virtues of the child. And he said: ‘Rock her to sleep. twinkle Little star. Sleep sweetly and the kind of sleep From which one wakes up. ‘Sleep. they can be quite threatening in content. Sleep.’ Like Alkmene’s lullaby from Theocritus’ Idyll. doing good’. By employing the star metaphor.’ Volume 20 In his January 2009 Inaugural Address President Obama invoked an American resilience reminiscent of the infamous itsy-bitsy spider. But know this America / They will be met.W.Hush Little Baby. baby. baby. little baby. Lincoln appealed for resolution to the ravages of the Civil War: ‘Fondly do we hope. Calm and sober in manner. Kennedy’s public address regarding the Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962 stood up to the sheer threat of attack. the supine listener is comforted by the performative act itself. interspersing threats of fabricated air raids within soporific reassurances eerily akin to the lullaby: ‘My opinion is that you be kind to children and be kind to seniors and take the potion like they used to take in ancient Greece.

A diverse group of intellectuals and public figures have found it a challenging but ultimately satisfying format for communicating culturally relevant material in a simple form. It often describes emotionally difficult subjects. – Angela barack i alis I love Danielle Steel. advanced theories or morally complicated issues with concision and clarity. 20 21 Not much I was really into. The children’s storybook thrives today because of its capacity to transmit a distilled message. kids can be the toughest critics. Now I get it. The most mem­ ­ able? Laura or Schlessinger’s Why Do You Love Me? – Patrick . – Abby Volume 20 Augu st e tob Oc Volume 20 ly Ju merkelius angelus In June. brown il WEST aurora I read everything Lynne Cheney puts out. Max Runs Away is definitely one of her best. Much like the cosmic asterism (a composition of stars that may not actually be physically related although they appear so from Earth) the public will imbue the speech with meanings that. begin to situate it within the nation’s overarching narrative. – Andrew Novem b er June FDIC chair Sheila Blair’s Savings series was pretty good – though not cheap. – Edward ber Septem I don’t like to read. – Lily I’m not really into science but I liked Stephen Hawking’s George’s Cosmic Treasure Hunt. – Timmy ber Decem March minor Febru a icus anom reag May EAST It is said that a story is not worth telling if it can’t be told to a child. my grandma gave me Maria Shriver’s What’s Happening to Grandpa. – Sarah At space camp I read Fuller’s Earth: A Day with Bucky and the Kids. Just as it is critical to find ways to cope with the challenges faced during conscious states. You know what they say. affording him/her an opportunity to release personal anxiety. – Rob I’ve been on a conservative kick lately. it is important for a leader to remember to take time to wind down and get a good night’s sleep.… zzzzzzzz Volume Asks PS 123 What They Read This Summer ry NORTH r Ap y ar nu Ja g. according to its own perceptions. Not that writing children’s stories is all fun and games. SOUTH r I’m not sure what career I want to pursue. Reading Sandra Day O’Connor’s Finding Susie helped. But I still haven’t read Condi Rice’s book. but I liked the graphics in Paul Rand’s Sparkle and Spin: A Book About Words. – Mike d inejha omed andr The lullaby can also be cathartic for the orator. My favorites so far are We the People: The Story of Our Constitution and Sisters.

20 21 Not much I was really into. My favorites so far are We the People: The Story of Our Constitution and Sisters. Reading Sandra Day O’Connor’s Finding Susie helped. – Mike d inejha omed andr The lullaby can also be cathartic for the orator. The children’s storybook thrives today because of its capacity to transmit a distilled message. It often describes emotionally difficult subjects. – Andrew Novem b er June FDIC chair Sheila Blair’s Savings series was pretty good – though not cheap. it is important for a leader to remember to take time to wind down and get a good night’s sleep. advanced theories or morally complicated issues with concision and clarity. – Sarah At space camp I read Fuller’s Earth: A Day with Bucky and the Kids.… zzzzzzzz Volume Asks PS 123 What They Read This Summer ry NORTH r Ap y ar nu Ja g. The most mem­ ­ able? Laura or Schlessinger’s Why Do You Love Me? – Patrick . – Rob I’ve been on a conservative kick lately. but I liked the graphics in Paul Rand’s Sparkle and Spin: A Book About Words. – Abby Volume 20 Augu st e tob Oc Volume 20 ly Ju merkelius angelus In June. – Edward ber Septem I don’t like to read. You know what they say. A diverse group of intellectuals and public figures have found it a challenging but ultimately satisfying format for communicating culturally relevant material in a simple form. – Timmy ber Decem March minor Febru a icus anom reag May EAST It is said that a story is not worth telling if it can’t be told to a child. Max Runs Away is definitely one of her best. – Lily I’m not really into science but I liked Stephen Hawking’s George’s Cosmic Treasure Hunt. begin to situate it within the nation’s overarching narrative. But I still haven’t read Condi Rice’s book. my grandma gave me Maria Shriver’s What’s Happening to Grandpa. brown il WEST aurora I read everything Lynne Cheney puts out. according to its own perceptions. kids can be the toughest critics. affording him/her an opportunity to release personal anxiety. Just as it is critical to find ways to cope with the challenges faced during conscious states. SOUTH r I’m not sure what career I want to pursue. – Angela barack i alis I love Danielle Steel. Now I get it. Much like the cosmic asterism (a composition of stars that may not actually be physically related although they appear so from Earth) the public will imbue the speech with meanings that. Not that writing children’s stories is all fun and games.

Here. Dressed for summer.Photo: Jasooon Neil Denari The O s t r i c h p o s e . with the uncanny ability to w a k e u p a t y o u r s t o p . One salaryman nods off. The classic head-back. He is s l e e p i n g . Photo: Sam Graf typically collaborate structurally. Here two sisters act a like an arch. while the mother has tuned them out long ago. He may be drunk. however. Volume 20 Photo: Shirotsugu is often infringed upon while sleeping. A closely guarded aluminum briefcase with a loose black book suggests that work is m o r e i m p o r t a n t than social life. wasted. Tokyoites invent a kind of or urban contortionism. This group pose is called ‘the Domino’. Photo: Eat-Head Photo: Alex Davies Tokyo Asleep Personal space This is the ‘pole position’. When asleep. With public school so demanding in Tokyo. he’s safe. then all the others follow in succession. She will fall asleep again and do it again. it appears the sweltering T o k y o h e a t has overcome this man. Volume 20 The most elegant resting position. feet firmly on the floor. The lady performing the ‘90 degree’ will wake up and find herself much too close to the man performing the basic forward slump pose. An image seemingly from a b y g o n e e r a of sleeping styles. head buried. a slight angle of the neck. this family makes a w a l l . This is the most common form of sleeping in the city. the Harley cap s and the spread legs dem­ n­ trate American o s tendencies. Here the skirt and purse coordinate perfectly with the red velour seats. . and as a zone of literally un­ con­ cious expression. A stiff spine and cracked neck allow for maximum extension across the train. He may be bored by too much information. He may be extremely e x h a u s t e d from overwork. the ‘90 degree’. Photo: Joey Another classic. an imported sleeping style. Photo: Jrim Photo: Jjsan Photo: Hiromy Photo: Kristen Leep This man is . Photo: Hiromi not dead Sleeping families More like bricks. new yoga Photo: Santa Spillberger A typical sight in Tokyo: sleeping on the subway. 22 23 A rarely performed pose. Tokyo Asleep documents the e x p l o i ­ a ­ t t i o n o f p u b l i c s p a c e in Tokyo as a safe zone. One thing is for sure. no wonder these girls are completely One has even shockingly loosened her tie. this is the ‘Chiropractor’s Special’. mouth-open pose: the easiest to perform.

. he’s safe. The classic head-back. A stiff spine and cracked neck allow for maximum extension across the train.Photo: Jasooon Neil Denari The O s t r i c h p o s e . Tokyo Asleep documents the e x p l o i ­ a ­ t t i o n o f p u b l i c s p a c e in Tokyo as a safe zone. 22 23 A rarely performed pose. Here the skirt and purse coordinate perfectly with the red velour seats. and as a zone of literally un­ con­ cious expression. He may be drunk. He is s l e e p i n g . Photo: Eat-Head Photo: Alex Davies Tokyo Asleep Personal space This is the ‘pole position’. it appears the sweltering T o k y o h e a t has overcome this man. She will fall asleep again and do it again. This is the most common form of sleeping in the city. This group pose is called ‘the Domino’. this family makes a w a l l . new yoga Photo: Santa Spillberger A typical sight in Tokyo: sleeping on the subway. One salaryman nods off. this is the ‘Chiropractor’s Special’. no wonder these girls are completely One has even shockingly loosened her tie. head buried. Photo: Hiromi not dead Sleeping families More like bricks. With public school so demanding in Tokyo. When asleep. He may be extremely e x h a u s t e d from overwork. an imported sleeping style. however. He may be bored by too much information. mouth-open pose: the easiest to perform. feet firmly on the floor. Tokyoites invent a kind of or urban contortionism. Photo: Sam Graf typically collaborate structurally. with the uncanny ability to w a k e u p a t y o u r s t o p . An image seemingly from a b y g o n e e r a of sleeping styles. the ‘90 degree’. wasted. The lady performing the ‘90 degree’ will wake up and find herself much too close to the man performing the basic forward slump pose. Here two sisters act a like an arch. Photo: Joey Another classic. A closely guarded aluminum briefcase with a loose black book suggests that work is m o r e i m p o r t a n t than social life. Here. then all the others follow in succession. Volume 20 Photo: Shirotsugu is often infringed upon while sleeping. while the mother has tuned them out long ago. Photo: Jrim Photo: Jjsan Photo: Hiromy Photo: Kristen Leep This man is . the Harley cap s and the spread legs dem­ n­ trate American o s tendencies. Volume 20 The most elegant resting position. a slight angle of the neck. One thing is for sure. Dressed for summer.

you’re probably in p r e t t y b a d s h a p e . Sleeping on a clean floor will allow this man to go to work in the morning without changing clothes. Photo: Kaoru Miki Photo: Jjsan Photo: Jjsan Photo: Jjsan One of a variety of ‘sunrise’ poses as he surely will be there when the S u n r i s e s . at 12:15 am. legs and feet together. Note the SUICA card is ready to go. in time for the last train. in glare of urban infra­ tructure. First presented at the A/Cute Tokyo symposium held at the Hammer Museum. or at his wardrobe choice the previous day? Photo: Tanakawho Photo: Kappuru safety In the over-lit Ballardscape of Tokyo. in these images the flash exposes all of the grittiness of u r b a n s l u m b e r . (To keep going is to essentially put many more bad choices into play. cell with . Photo: Jjsan Photo: Rueben Stanton If you are out in Tokyo. Photo: Jjsan alarm on Volume 20 The clock says 11:36 pm. Anywhere else. Police in Tokyo watch over sleeping Tokyoites. People just step around you. will this man be angrier at having had too much to drink. hat off. being asleep in Tokyo is a normal thing. 24 25 When he wakes up.) For this man.04.09 . when after a long s night and the money has run out and not even a capsule hotel is a possibility. Shoes off. a decision must be made: catch the l a s t t r a i n or keep going. This is the ‘it’s time for bed’ pose. Los Angeles / 05. At times.Photo: Persimonous Photo: Anjeverena Photo: Gaijan Seb Like a Weegee photo. the mind is willing but the flesh is weak. Volume 20 Photo: Osaka Steve There is n o p u b l i c s c o r n for sleeping in Tokyo. glasses off. these images seem exactly like those captured at a homicide scene in other cities. providing .

Volume 20 Photo: Osaka Steve There is n o p u b l i c s c o r n for sleeping in Tokyo. glasses off. Note the SUICA card is ready to go. you’re probably in p r e t t y b a d s h a p e . (To keep going is to essentially put many more bad choices into play. 24 25 When he wakes up.) For this man. hat off. the mind is willing but the flesh is weak. This is the ‘it’s time for bed’ pose. a decision must be made: catch the l a s t t r a i n or keep going. at 12:15 am. Photo: Jjsan alarm on Volume 20 The clock says 11:36 pm.Photo: Persimonous Photo: Anjeverena Photo: Gaijan Seb Like a Weegee photo. being asleep in Tokyo is a normal thing. People just step around you. in these images the flash exposes all of the grittiness of u r b a n s l u m b e r . these images seem exactly like those captured at a homicide scene in other cities. Photo: Jjsan Photo: Rueben Stanton If you are out in Tokyo. Anywhere else. Photo: Kaoru Miki Photo: Jjsan Photo: Jjsan Photo: Jjsan One of a variety of ‘sunrise’ poses as he surely will be there when the S u n r i s e s . At times. providing . Sleeping on a clean floor will allow this man to go to work in the morning without changing clothes. legs and feet together.09 . cell with . Shoes off. in time for the last train. when after a long s night and the money has run out and not even a capsule hotel is a possibility. will this man be angrier at having had too much to drink. in glare of urban infra­ tructure. or at his wardrobe choice the previous day? Photo: Tanakawho Photo: Kappuru safety In the over-lit Ballardscape of Tokyo.04. First presented at the A/Cute Tokyo symposium held at the Hammer Museum. Police in Tokyo watch over sleeping Tokyoites. Los Angeles / 05.

This is a real danger. So increasing complexity consists of increasing differentiation of struc­ ure t combined with increasing organization. Is this recession an attempt by the system to get rid of toxic complexity? JT Keep in mind that complexity emerges to solve problems. Complexity in the framework I use consists of two components: s t r u c t u r a l ­ differentiation and organi­ ation. green archi­ tecture. occupations. Architects began to find ways to value complexity and congestion. etc. If these books animated much of architectural thought into the last decade. he called for architects to abandon the modernist idea of forcing a simple building to hold a complex program. They . as it took place in ancient societies such as the Chou Dynasty in China. His example was coal. One of the challenges with peak oil is quickly become outdated Volume 20 of an anthropologist. Isn’t this what Le Corbusier was trying to accomplish? Le Corbusier wanted to design complex systems – systems that were highly structured . Mesopotamia and Ancient Rome is ‘a rapid. As technological innovation leads to economy in using a resource. institutions. The problem emerged because the financial system (involving both the private and public sectors) . elaboration of structure and organization simplifies and channels behavior. the levels of com­ plexity we’ve built appear to be spiraling out of control. If we delay too long. In regard to the economic crisis. the Indus Valley. for example through urban computing. a period in which complexity is getting away from us. there is no organi­ zation and structural elements cannot form a system. but the effect is masked by the economic downturn. this turned out to be utterly false. or investment in new kinds of infrastructure. This was not met by an increase in organization. but the principle applies across the board. Is such optimism in technological solutions warranted? Are there pitfalls? Are there other means by which we can avoid collapse? JT Short answer: It’s complicated. so frequently we don’t think about it rationally. So s there is naturally controversy about how close it is. How badly peak oil affects us depends on how quickly we bring alternative energy production systems into place. Do you have any thoughts on this? JT Congestion does not necessarily equal complexity. Long answer: tech­ KV So as civilizations develop. you conclude. In the 1960s and 1970s all this changed. even the MBAs. There has been a bit of talk about innovating our way out of this recession too. It’s not clear to me what we do in such a situation. This is covered in Collapse. and civilizations either figure JT Diminishing returns to complexity are probably inevitable. anthropologist Joseph Tainter concludes that civilizational collapse. managing my insurance policy or just getting my universal remote to work. There are two things about technological innovation that concern me. pointed out that in the long run tech­ ological innovations aimed at using less of a n resource actually lead to even more of it being used. the party will be over. In his 1966 book Com­ plexity and Contradiction Robert Venturi all but defined the future trajectory of the field by suggesting that complexity should be embraced by architects living in a complex culture. One is to find energy subsidies to pay for the process. they differentiate – for example. If everyone does as they please. it strikes me that we are now in a time of over-complexity and over-congestion. Congestion may mean a lack of complexity. Instead Venturi advocated complex buildings that acknowl­ edged the contra­ ic­ ions inherent in highly organized d t life to the extent that they even anticipated their own failure. a nineteenth century British economist. Remember that complexity includes both differentiation of structure and increase in organization. William Stanley Jevons. In other words. yet we’ve avoided collapse thus far. Eventually the marginal returns on investment decline. like other endeavors. Devel­ oping new energy sources is the most important thing we can do. You note that from the perspective of humans as a species and Hominidae as a family. by creating highly specialized social roles – and build greater and greater levels of organization that require higher investments of energy to maintain. Whether it’s trying to get a new subway built in New York. settlements. Organization limits and channels behavior. Now it appears that the government will add the organi­ ation. l out how to deal with that situation or collapse. significant loss of an established level of sociopolitical complexity’. Relying on technological innovation to find some solution is what I call a ‘faithbased’ approach to the future. is it possible that collapse is in the cards for us? KV What about technological innovation? The spread of digital technology. part of the problem was insufficient complexity. enough was not complex KV Modern architects believed that architecture would be able to solve society’s problems by creating more powerful systems of organization to get rid of malfunctioning. Joseph Tainter Interview by Kazys Varnelis In The Collapse of Complex Societies. then the next round of innovations may be harder to achieve. a high speed rail line built between San Francisco and Los Angeles. That is what we have done with fossil fuels. which would have involved regulation and government oversight. Why is that? Volume 20 Kazys Varnelis Could you elaborate on what you mean by complexity and why it leads to collapse? Joseph Tainter I approach complexity from the perspective nological-innovation-as-savior is part of our cosmology. And then of course there’s peak oil looming. The irony of complexity is that it simplifies. but collapse doesn’t necessarily follow. or insufficient organization.Crises of Complexity that you know you’ve passed it only in hind­ ight. technologies. the Internet and mobile technology contributed to the economic recovery during the last fifteen years. older ones. but of course too late in regard z to the current crisis. research grows complex and costly and can reach diminishing returns. And it is a big part of why a future crisis in fossil fuels is the most important thing we should be worrying about. It is a fundamental part of our beliefs. The second problem is what is known as the Jevons Paradox. complexity is quite unusual. In our field one of the oldest ques­ tions is how and why human societies evolved from being relatively simple and undifferentiated to being complex and highly differentiated. people respond to the lower cost by using even more. I conclude from this that technological innovations can offer only short-term advantages. In 1998 Saudi Arabia’s King Abdullah said ‘The oil boom is over and will not return… All of us must get used to a different lifestyle. The first is that. Collapses are actually .’ Are we doomed? JT The critical point is when we reach peak oil. The financial business had over the last few years innovated new structures – new fiscal products such as derivatives. not that common KV All but a few geologists suggest that a decline in fossil fuel extraction is inevitable. Some analysts think we have passed it already. to under­ stand. Organization is how those are con­ trained so that they behave to form s a system. In a world shaken by a crisis created by the intersection of architecture and seemingly impossible-to-understand financial instruments. Collapse means that an estab­ished level of complexity is quickly lost. There are several ways to cope with diminishing returns to complexity. Mean­ hile in his 1978 book Delirious New w York Rem Koolhaas suggested that c o n g e s t i o n was what made cities vital. 26 27 KV What role did complexity play in this recession? If the popular sentiment was – until quite recently – that all of our access to information turned financial decision-making into a very rational enterprise. One of the key problems with the financial instruments such as tranches and collateralized debt obligations is that they were simply too difficult for most people. information. Most of our existence has been in small settlements or nomadic groups that have relatively little differ­ n­ e tiation and low levels of complexity. z Structural differentiation refers to the development of new categories of social roles. That is. Today we are living in the most complex society humans have ever built. And every year after that there will be less oil available than the year before.

And it is a big part of why a future crisis in fossil fuels is the most important thing we should be worrying about. l out how to deal with that situation or collapse. It’s not clear to me what we do in such a situation. That is what we have done with fossil fuels. research grows complex and costly and can reach diminishing returns. The second problem is what is known as the Jevons Paradox. he called for architects to abandon the modernist idea of forcing a simple building to hold a complex program. Organization is how those are con­ trained so that they behave to form s a system. Today we are living in the most complex society humans have ever built. Eventually the marginal returns on investment decline. there is no organi­ zation and structural elements cannot form a system. His example was coal. green archi­ tecture. z Structural differentiation refers to the development of new categories of social roles. Joseph Tainter Interview by Kazys Varnelis In The Collapse of Complex Societies. William Stanley Jevons. elaboration of structure and organization simplifies and channels behavior. If these books animated much of architectural thought into the last decade. but collapse doesn’t necessarily follow. Most of our existence has been in small settlements or nomadic groups that have relatively little differ­ n­ e tiation and low levels of complexity. Complexity in the framework I use consists of two components: s t r u c t u r a l ­ differentiation and organi­ ation. the Internet and mobile technology contributed to the economic recovery during the last fifteen years. and civilizations either figure JT Diminishing returns to complexity are probably inevitable. like other endeavors. So s there is naturally controversy about how close it is. as it took place in ancient societies such as the Chou Dynasty in China. Collapse means that an estab­ished level of complexity is quickly lost. Some analysts think we have passed it already. part of the problem was insufficient complexity. In regard to the economic crisis. complexity is quite unusual. If everyone does as they please. Remember that complexity includes both differentiation of structure and increase in organization. this turned out to be utterly false. And then of course there’s peak oil looming. Instead Venturi advocated complex buildings that acknowl­ edged the contra­ ic­ ions inherent in highly organized d t life to the extent that they even anticipated their own failure. enough was not complex KV Modern architects believed that architecture would be able to solve society’s problems by creating more powerful systems of organization to get rid of malfunctioning. older ones. 26 27 KV What role did complexity play in this recession? If the popular sentiment was – until quite recently – that all of our access to information turned financial decision-making into a very rational enterprise. This is covered in Collapse. The problem emerged because the financial system (involving both the private and public sectors) . but of course too late in regard z to the current crisis. That is. How badly peak oil affects us depends on how quickly we bring alternative energy production systems into place. which would have involved regulation and government oversight. a nineteenth century British economist. Mesopotamia and Ancient Rome is ‘a rapid. or investment in new kinds of infrastructure. significant loss of an established level of sociopolitical complexity’. The first is that. One is to find energy subsidies to pay for the process. you conclude. occupations. etc. As technological innovation leads to economy in using a resource. to under­ stand. Why is that? Volume 20 Kazys Varnelis Could you elaborate on what you mean by complexity and why it leads to collapse? Joseph Tainter I approach complexity from the perspective nological-innovation-as-savior is part of our cosmology. There are several ways to cope with diminishing returns to complexity. anthropologist Joseph Tainter concludes that civilizational collapse. In 1998 Saudi Arabia’s King Abdullah said ‘The oil boom is over and will not return… All of us must get used to a different lifestyle. managing my insurance policy or just getting my universal remote to work. So increasing complexity consists of increasing differentiation of struc­ ure t combined with increasing organization. they differentiate – for example. a period in which complexity is getting away from us. The irony of complexity is that it simplifies. by creating highly specialized social roles – and build greater and greater levels of organization that require higher investments of energy to maintain. This was not met by an increase in organization. In the 1960s and 1970s all this changed. the Indus Valley. so frequently we don’t think about it rationally. I conclude from this that technological innovations can offer only short-term advantages. a high speed rail line built between San Francisco and Los Angeles. technologies. then the next round of innovations may be harder to achieve. Now it appears that the government will add the organi­ ation. The financial business had over the last few years innovated new structures – new fiscal products such as derivatives. yet we’ve avoided collapse thus far. Is such optimism in technological solutions warranted? Are there pitfalls? Are there other means by which we can avoid collapse? JT Short answer: It’s complicated. but the principle applies across the board. Relying on technological innovation to find some solution is what I call a ‘faithbased’ approach to the future.Crises of Complexity that you know you’ve passed it only in hind­ ight. Is this recession an attempt by the system to get rid of toxic complexity? JT Keep in mind that complexity emerges to solve problems. There are two things about technological innovation that concern me. One of the challenges with peak oil is quickly become outdated Volume 20 of an anthropologist. it strikes me that we are now in a time of over-complexity and over-congestion. settlements. Isn’t this what Le Corbusier was trying to accomplish? Le Corbusier wanted to design complex systems – systems that were highly structured . but the effect is masked by the economic downturn. information. In our field one of the oldest ques­ tions is how and why human societies evolved from being relatively simple and undifferentiated to being complex and highly differentiated. people respond to the lower cost by using even more. Do you have any thoughts on this? JT Congestion does not necessarily equal complexity. There has been a bit of talk about innovating our way out of this recession too. Whether it’s trying to get a new subway built in New York. You note that from the perspective of humans as a species and Hominidae as a family. even the MBAs. not that common KV All but a few geologists suggest that a decline in fossil fuel extraction is inevitable. This is a real danger. the party will be over. One of the key problems with the financial instruments such as tranches and collateralized debt obligations is that they were simply too difficult for most people. Mean­ hile in his 1978 book Delirious New w York Rem Koolhaas suggested that c o n g e s t i o n was what made cities vital. In other words.’ Are we doomed? JT The critical point is when we reach peak oil. It is a fundamental part of our beliefs. They . Organization limits and channels behavior. In a world shaken by a crisis created by the intersection of architecture and seemingly impossible-to-understand financial instruments. institutions. or insufficient organization. Long answer: tech­ KV So as civilizations develop. If we delay too long. Congestion may mean a lack of complexity. Collapses are actually . is it possible that collapse is in the cards for us? KV What about technological innovation? The spread of digital technology. the levels of com­ plexity we’ve built appear to be spiraling out of control. for example through urban computing. Devel­ oping new energy sources is the most important thing we can do. In his 1966 book Com­ plexity and Contradiction Robert Venturi all but defined the future trajectory of the field by suggesting that complexity should be embraced by architects living in a complex culture. Architects began to find ways to value complexity and congestion. pointed out that in the long run tech­ ological innovations aimed at using less of a n resource actually lead to even more of it being used. And every year after that there will be less oil available than the year before.

as did the Brazilians with Brasilia. IE launched Space Biosphere Ventures (SBV). etc. The trouble is that in the human realm you can’t design a truly complex system from the top-down.Crisis in Crisis: Biosphere 2’s Contested Ecologies and organized. DDT. Biosphere 2 enclosed eight humans. biosphere and the technosphere. France brought Buckminster Fuller together with Phil Hawes. I like to use an athletic metaphor to think about sustainability. 3. Success consists of staying in the game.’ He was right. But the converse does not hold. But times became more violent and less certain. These seem to be out of balance. a Frank Lloyd Wright student who pitched a scheme for a spherical. a catastrophe…Biosphere 2. which in time we will have to address. switch bulbs. Al Gore continues to check the planetary balance. mushroom clouds – confirmed the diagnosis of i m p e n d i n g w o r l d d e s t r u c t i o n . Emerging from the Arizona desert in 1991. They solve immediate problems but set the stage for future ones. Today. There is no point at which we have – becoming sustainable forever. dwindling oil supplies. conceived in the swirl of post-Hiroshima environmentalism. It’s a matter of perspective. recycle. simulating global warming and assembling a fantastic menagerie of displaced specimens. New neighbors are crowding in. but that does not mean that we forego solutions. But new energy creates its own problems. Yet in practice it embodies the Obama administration’s tactic ‘we never let a crisis go to waste’. growing slums. and as individuals? How do we live with crisis? JT I am often asked questions like this.6 SBV reversed Fuller’s metaphor and proliferated its rationales. The windows have opened. Never having achieved a seamless web of life. For those who survive.2 But Biosphere 2 is in a new kind of crisis mode. ship space­ . Every symptom – thinning ozone. Janette Kim and Erik Carver ‘[There is] a crisis of misalignment between the KV You have suggested that collapse was actually p r e f e r a b l e for many of the people who experienced it.800 other species and seven biomes for two years. It is pos­ sible to lose – to become unsustainable and collapse. Even so-called ‘green’ energy sources will be environmentally damaging. The m o n k e y s h a v e b e e n s e n t a w a y . it exploits them. All of our adaptations are short term. acid rain. space-traveling greenhouse. a generation after Biosphere 2’s launch. life may be better. JT Western European peasants saw their taxes drop and probably saw more of their children survive. Biosphere 2 initially mouthed conservationism’s mantras of restraint (consume less. For Biosphere 2. and I am less optimistic now than I once was.3 Rather than ameliorate crises. But usually it is not better for the elites. the crisis of scarcity revealed a breach of spiritual and technological equilibrium. Perhaps one million people died around the time of the Mayan collapse. instead. In 1969. Fuller famously called for managing the planet as if it were a . who will?’5 Two years later. creates a balance between biosphere and technosphere. Biosphere 2 has become an engine of productive catastrophes. The Soviets tried that. We can foresee this with nuclear energy and its waste. ‘won’ Volume 20 Volume 20 Equilibrium and Escape 28 29 The Institute for Ecotechnics’ (IE) 1982 ‘Galactic Conference’4 in Les Marronniers. It prescribed nothing less than a new world wrapped in a three-acre bubble. Eric Sevareid once said. Its crisis response was to repudiate the arrogance of the past in favor of a monastic harmony between biosphere and technosphere. missing species.). ‘The chief source of problems is solutions.’ – John Allen1 KV How do we survive this period of diminishing returns and crisis? As a civilization. Fuller leapt on it: ‘If you guys don’t build a biosphere. Certainly we need new energy sources or the future will be very unpleasant.

6 SBV reversed Fuller’s metaphor and proliferated its rationales. Janette Kim and Erik Carver ‘[There is] a crisis of misalignment between the KV You have suggested that collapse was actually p r e f e r a b l e for many of the people who experienced it. space-traveling greenhouse. switch bulbs. life may be better. ‘won’ Volume 20 Volume 20 Equilibrium and Escape 28 29 The Institute for Ecotechnics’ (IE) 1982 ‘Galactic Conference’4 in Les Marronniers. conceived in the swirl of post-Hiroshima environmentalism. missing species. as did the Brazilians with Brasilia.). Biosphere 2 initially mouthed conservationism’s mantras of restraint (consume less.800 other species and seven biomes for two years. Fuller leapt on it: ‘If you guys don’t build a biosphere. Every symptom – thinning ozone.’ He was right. 3. Biosphere 2 enclosed eight humans. Emerging from the Arizona desert in 1991. IE launched Space Biosphere Ventures (SBV). growing slums. For Biosphere 2. simulating global warming and assembling a fantastic menagerie of displaced specimens. Its crisis response was to repudiate the arrogance of the past in favor of a monastic harmony between biosphere and technosphere.Crisis in Crisis: Biosphere 2’s Contested Ecologies and organized. creates a balance between biosphere and technosphere. France brought Buckminster Fuller together with Phil Hawes. The Soviets tried that. For those who survive. Certainly we need new energy sources or the future will be very unpleasant. The trouble is that in the human realm you can’t design a truly complex system from the top-down. Biosphere 2 has become an engine of productive catastrophes. Yet in practice it embodies the Obama administration’s tactic ‘we never let a crisis go to waste’. It prescribed nothing less than a new world wrapped in a three-acre bubble. a Frank Lloyd Wright student who pitched a scheme for a spherical. biosphere and the technosphere. I like to use an athletic metaphor to think about sustainability. it exploits them. and I am less optimistic now than I once was. dwindling oil supplies. Even so-called ‘green’ energy sources will be environmentally damaging. which in time we will have to address. Today. Al Gore continues to check the planetary balance. They solve immediate problems but set the stage for future ones. The m o n k e y s h a v e b e e n s e n t a w a y . ship space­ .3 Rather than ameliorate crises. In 1969. and as individuals? How do we live with crisis? JT I am often asked questions like this. But the converse does not hold. The windows have opened. DDT.’ – John Allen1 KV How do we survive this period of diminishing returns and crisis? As a civilization. It is pos­ sible to lose – to become unsustainable and collapse. But usually it is not better for the elites. Never having achieved a seamless web of life. but that does not mean that we forego solutions. instead. ‘The chief source of problems is solutions. etc. mushroom clouds – confirmed the diagnosis of i m p e n d i n g w o r l d d e s t r u c t i o n . Fuller famously called for managing the planet as if it were a . recycle. It’s a matter of perspective. Perhaps one million people died around the time of the Mayan collapse. Eric Sevareid once said. We can foresee this with nuclear energy and its waste. New neighbors are crowding in. Success consists of staying in the game. who will?’5 Two years later. But times became more violent and less certain. the crisis of scarcity revealed a breach of spiritual and technological equilibrium. There is no point at which we have – becoming sustainable forever. These seem to be out of balance. All of our adaptations are short term. acid rain. a generation after Biosphere 2’s launch.2 But Biosphere 2 is in a new kind of crisis mode. But new energy creates its own problems. a catastrophe…Biosphere 2. JT Western European peasants saw their taxes drop and probably saw more of their children survive.

triangulated to minimize thermal flexing.11 Biosphere 2 designers included ‘more species than the scientists thought might finally survive.10 Sealant was applied in two colors (white and gray) to make redundant enclosure legible. with respiration i exactly…at 18°C’22 and unlike Hawe’s original spherical spaceship. In true utopian style. creating an insect network that united its biomes with the Sonoran Desert outside.23 The debate over whether this was an engineering feat or a science experi­ ent m grew louder. installers waved incense under the glass and shot compressed air through ‘sniffer tunnels’ to verify welds.t e c h s h e l l : outfitted with the latest machinery. forming a continuum of the world’s major landscapes. Due to unforeseen oxygen absorption by the raw concrete. Babylonian Vaults. Biosphere 2 was built on a mythology of consensus based on natural principles. The Space of Mononaturalism Biosphere 2 was largely dismissed by reporters and scientists as ‘science fiction’ perfor­ mance: a commune founded upon ‘New Age masquerading as Science’. roaches and morning glories.Biosphere 2 was pitched at various times as a spaceship prototype. but rather in its a b i l i t y t o e f f e c t n e w a g e n d a s . Yet the project soon erupted into a battlefield for nature wars. While Biospherians trans­ lated Odum and Gaia into blueprints. lost an average of fourteen percent of their body weight and reported caffeine withdrawal headaches. momentarily. Ecologists like Daniel Botkin saw the landscape as flux: ‘wherever we seek constancy… we discover change’. Vernadsky. but a stowaway species from Australia multiplied into the millions. co-founder of IE and president of SBV. designed to leak no more than ten percent of its air per year (half the rate of the Space Shuttle). Armed with a vacuum cleaner. it was sealed to tolerances only dreamed of by machine-age archi­ ects. With Biosphere 1 sufficiently excluded. which will culminate in the of maximum global complexity and consciousness.24 In the end Biosphere 2 succeeds or fails not in maintaining enclosure or home­ ostasis. Even the value of equilibrium was in question. Bio­ sphere 2’s sixty-mile long. Kennedy Space Center. health and efficiency. During morning meditation. oxygen plummeted from 20. With 1970s advance­ ments in hermetic enclosure. no interest in the Synergia!’17 The self-sustaining community became a m o n a s t e r y i n a h i g h . To John Allen. A holistic nature was enclosed in a single interior. silicone seal was eventually penetrated by ants.’20 This version of nature-in-crisis made no provision for dissent. human rights and human suffering.8 The project took its name from Vladimir Vernadsky’s 1926 book The Biosphere. termite-proof. A skin of welded stainless steel plates lined concrete slabs and foundations beneath two to six meters of soil. Biosphere 2 was : superficial. desert from Baja. which may be sick. so that if one species failed. from the atmosphere of earth. savanna from French Guyana.18 Only two of the eight had graduate degrees in science. Omega Precarious Stability Biosphere 2 was built as the world’s most airtight building.16 Captured insects were fed to the chickens.13 Ultimately. But its monolithic shell was articulated into a neighborhood of iconic architectural forms from distinct cultures: the Great Pyramid. global spiritual consciousness and the ‘delicate web of life’ on Biosphere 1. marsh from the Everglades and the ocean from the Yucatan. Swaths of tropical rain forest were sampled from Venezuela. a nuclear shelter and a new kind of ecosystem laboratory which would better model Biosphere 1 (Earth). and its theory that the Earth has evolved from geosphere to biosphere. finally reaching self-organized stability. Biosphere 2 escaped. ‘let us forget human concerns. Structural silicone was factory bonded to two layers of glass and plastic laminate.14 A measured amount of air had to be added for survival. These claims were reinforced by images of the Biospherians wearing suits that looked ‘like a cross between a scarlet prison jump­ suit and a Star Trek uniform’. Neoprene spanned 158foot dia­ eter steel drums housed in geodesic domes to create ‘lungs’ that expand and m contract as Biosphere 2’s interior air heats and cools.19 Odum called for birth control and fiscal policy to discourage economic growth. and is poised to enter noösphere. Lovelock writes. Facade consultant Peter Pearce patented the ‘Multi-hinge’ node-less space t frame. ‘Ecotechnics’ extrapolated Lewis Mumford’s concept of ‘Biotechnics’. but without the economies of scale that would provide enough caffeine or alcohol to intoxicate. however. We were culinary voyeurs. the .’12 Unlike those of the prevailing reductionist science. a state of equilibrium could then be engineered by instrumentalizing two distinct ecological theories: Darwinian competition and cybernetic regulation. The person on night watch had the chore of creeping into the kitchen to catch them unawares. and concentrate instead on our planet. some species were grown in greenhouses and others trucked in as entire landscapes. Allen bellowed. The anti­ ipated new civilization receded amidst outbursts by ‘master manipulator’ c John Allen. Point A  hot-dog stand [was set up] not far from the Biosphere…. this would be a new kind of lab: operating with a large number of variables to study systems at the scale of the earth’s ecosystems. Monticello.7 these diverse missions worked towards a singular vision of ecology in tune with egalitarianism. They instead favored ‘shifting mosaics’ or more aimless and anarchic models. ‘You have no discipline.9 Like a trip. 1970s ecologists had turned away from steadystate theories. If Biosphere 2 was headed towards homeostasis. Midway through the first mission the venture split between those who – like Allen – pushed for the primacy of containment and those who felt that this obsession interfered with the work of the laboratory. Biospherians synthesized the theories of such IE con­ versants as ecologists James Lovelock and Eugene Odum to portray the planet as a cybernetic organism that self-regulates to achieve a ‘climax state’ of maturity. decidedly postmodern Volume 20 Volume 20 atmosphere seeped back in 30 31 . whose eggs in turn were fed to the humans. Biospherians soon went hungry.000 feet) in six months. Allen compared Biosphere 2 to a giant mandala of global unity and admitted that this syncretic vision would have been impossible without psychoactives. he or she flipped on the light and vacuumed up as many of the roaches as possible before they all scuttled away.15 Few imagined that their Eden would be overrun by ants. At the suggestion of William S. Starvation and the psycho­ logical pressures of isolation left little energy or desire for the ambitious roster of philos­ ophy lectures. meditation and theater initially designed to promote collectivism. bushbabies were introduced to supply companion primates. Five species of roaches were included to recycle dead leaves. debates and decisions on scientific hypotheses. another would thrive.21 Unlike Le Corbusier’s modernist dream of neutral­zing walls and a ‘single building for all nations and climates. Biospherians were constantly exhausted from work. Odum and Lovelock described an image of nature so pure and purposeful that social policy should submit to its imperatives. Biosphere housed five ‘Wilderness’ biomes.Sometimes we lined up… and took turns peering through binoculars at fat people who were spurting ketchup on sausages and shoveling them into their mouths. multicultural variations enclose a substantial. an ‘Intensive Agriculture Biome’ and the humans’ ‘Habitat’. universal Nature. in which designers act like gardeners cultivating an organic collective . while (in theory) being able to track ‘every atom in the Biosphere’s systems’. it was not the Arcadia imagined at the outset.9 per­ cent of the atmosphere to fourteen percent (equivalent to respiration above 10. Burroughs. H u n t i n g f o r l e a k s . or sphere of thought.

in which designers act like gardeners cultivating an organic collective . Bio­ sphere 2’s sixty-mile long. Biosphere 2 was : superficial. But its monolithic shell was articulated into a neighborhood of iconic architectural forms from distinct cultures: the Great Pyramid.15 Few imagined that their Eden would be overrun by ants. A holistic nature was enclosed in a single interior.9 Like a trip. and its theory that the Earth has evolved from geosphere to biosphere. Starvation and the psycho­ logical pressures of isolation left little energy or desire for the ambitious roster of philos­ ophy lectures.16 Captured insects were fed to the chickens. a state of equilibrium could then be engineered by instrumentalizing two distinct ecological theories: Darwinian competition and cybernetic regulation. lost an average of fourteen percent of their body weight and reported caffeine withdrawal headaches. Odum and Lovelock described an image of nature so pure and purposeful that social policy should submit to its imperatives.19 Odum called for birth control and fiscal policy to discourage economic growth. no interest in the Synergia!’17 The self-sustaining community became a m o n a s t e r y i n a h i g h . The person on night watch had the chore of creeping into the kitchen to catch them unawares. the . Even the value of equilibrium was in question. Biospherians were constantly exhausted from work. meditation and theater initially designed to promote collectivism. Biosphere 2 escaped. Allen compared Biosphere 2 to a giant mandala of global unity and admitted that this syncretic vision would have been impossible without psychoactives. but without the economies of scale that would provide enough caffeine or alcohol to intoxicate. silicone seal was eventually penetrated by ants. Burroughs. A skin of welded stainless steel plates lined concrete slabs and foundations beneath two to six meters of soil. finally reaching self-organized stability. it was sealed to tolerances only dreamed of by machine-age archi­ ects. ‘Ecotechnics’ extrapolated Lewis Mumford’s concept of ‘Biotechnics’. triangulated to minimize thermal flexing. multicultural variations enclose a substantial. decidedly postmodern Volume 20 Volume 20 atmosphere seeped back in 30 31 . while (in theory) being able to track ‘every atom in the Biosphere’s systems’. installers waved incense under the glass and shot compressed air through ‘sniffer tunnels’ to verify welds.13 Ultimately.7 these diverse missions worked towards a singular vision of ecology in tune with egalitarianism.’12 Unlike those of the prevailing reductionist science. Swaths of tropical rain forest were sampled from Venezuela. however. it was not the Arcadia imagined at the outset. Lovelock writes.Biosphere 2 was pitched at various times as a spaceship prototype.’20 This version of nature-in-crisis made no provision for dissent.18 Only two of the eight had graduate degrees in science. Ecologists like Daniel Botkin saw the landscape as flux: ‘wherever we seek constancy… we discover change’. an ‘Intensive Agriculture Biome’ and the humans’ ‘Habitat’. so that if one species failed.000 feet) in six months. and concentrate instead on our planet. Vernadsky. The Space of Mononaturalism Biosphere 2 was largely dismissed by reporters and scientists as ‘science fiction’ perfor­ mance: a commune founded upon ‘New Age masquerading as Science’. whose eggs in turn were fed to the humans. H u n t i n g f o r l e a k s . oxygen plummeted from 20. Point A  hot-dog stand [was set up] not far from the Biosphere…. Kennedy Space Center. Omega Precarious Stability Biosphere 2 was built as the world’s most airtight building. We were culinary voyeurs. 1970s ecologists had turned away from steadystate theories. Neoprene spanned 158foot dia­ eter steel drums housed in geodesic domes to create ‘lungs’ that expand and m contract as Biosphere 2’s interior air heats and cools. Facade consultant Peter Pearce patented the ‘Multi-hinge’ node-less space t frame. In true utopian style. To John Allen. health and efficiency. some species were grown in greenhouses and others trucked in as entire landscapes. human rights and human suffering.8 The project took its name from Vladimir Vernadsky’s 1926 book The Biosphere.21 Unlike Le Corbusier’s modernist dream of neutral­zing walls and a ‘single building for all nations and climates. During morning meditation. Monticello. With Biosphere 1 sufficiently excluded. Biosphere 2 was built on a mythology of consensus based on natural principles. bushbabies were introduced to supply companion primates. Biospherians soon went hungry.9 per­ cent of the atmosphere to fourteen percent (equivalent to respiration above 10. The anti­ ipated new civilization receded amidst outbursts by ‘master manipulator’ c John Allen. designed to leak no more than ten percent of its air per year (half the rate of the Space Shuttle). Structural silicone was factory bonded to two layers of glass and plastic laminate. Allen bellowed. or sphere of thought. marsh from the Everglades and the ocean from the Yucatan. Five species of roaches were included to recycle dead leaves.11 Biosphere 2 designers included ‘more species than the scientists thought might finally survive. forming a continuum of the world’s major landscapes. which will culminate in the of maximum global complexity and consciousness. debates and decisions on scientific hypotheses.10 Sealant was applied in two colors (white and gray) to make redundant enclosure legible. They instead favored ‘shifting mosaics’ or more aimless and anarchic models.24 In the end Biosphere 2 succeeds or fails not in maintaining enclosure or home­ ostasis. Babylonian Vaults. momentarily. but a stowaway species from Australia multiplied into the millions. desert from Baja. a nuclear shelter and a new kind of ecosystem laboratory which would better model Biosphere 1 (Earth). termite-proof.Sometimes we lined up… and took turns peering through binoculars at fat people who were spurting ketchup on sausages and shoveling them into their mouths. Due to unforeseen oxygen absorption by the raw concrete. global spiritual consciousness and the ‘delicate web of life’ on Biosphere 1.23 The debate over whether this was an engineering feat or a science experi­ ent m grew louder. Yet the project soon erupted into a battlefield for nature wars. Biosphere housed five ‘Wilderness’ biomes.14 A measured amount of air had to be added for survival. and is poised to enter noösphere. with respiration i exactly…at 18°C’22 and unlike Hawe’s original spherical spaceship. Armed with a vacuum cleaner. which may be sick. ‘let us forget human concerns. With 1970s advance­ ments in hermetic enclosure. from the atmosphere of earth. At the suggestion of William S. If Biosphere 2 was headed towards homeostasis. this would be a new kind of lab: operating with a large number of variables to study systems at the scale of the earth’s ecosystems. These claims were reinforced by images of the Biospherians wearing suits that looked ‘like a cross between a scarlet prison jump­ suit and a Star Trek uniform’. co-founder of IE and president of SBV. but rather in its a b i l i t y t o e f f e c t n e w a g e n d a s . While Biospherians trans­ lated Odum and Gaia into blueprints. Midway through the first mission the venture split between those who – like Allen – pushed for the primacy of containment and those who felt that this obsession interfered with the work of the laboratory. another would thrive. savanna from French Guyana. ‘You have no discipline. creating an insect network that united its biomes with the Sonoran Desert outside. he or she flipped on the light and vacuumed up as many of the roaches as possible before they all scuttled away. Biospherians synthesized the theories of such IE con­ versants as ecologists James Lovelock and Eugene Odum to portray the planet as a cybernetic organism that self-regulates to achieve a ‘climax state’ of maturity. roaches and morning glories.t e c h s h e l l : outfitted with the latest machinery. universal Nature.

1992). then broadcasted to the public. but cannot offset the oxygen depletion.30 Even during the first mission the enclosure membrane restricted molecules and bodies. Harvard University Press. Architecture of the Well-Tempered Envi­ ronment. former Yale architecture student. 3  Rule one: Never allow a crisis to go to waste. Biosphere 2 came . 23  Dissenters included an advisory council of scientists hired by Bass. email. 9  impossible to fully appreciate the Amazon. 11 One of them dies exploring a transformer box. 1991). alive suffer Volume 20 Volume 20 Dreamland of a Warm Age Walt Disney sought to showcase life in a utopian city with futuristic life support systems and no private property: a vision ultimately spun off into edutainment (EPCOT) and New Urbanism (Celebration). Operating Manual for Spaceship Earth (Carbondale. enclosed territories and sites of shared concern. zero-waste. Each of its spheres defines a broad constituency including humans and nonhumans. zero-water usage and zero-energy standards – they from the same domestic problems as Biosphere 2: pursuing conservation as though it were both possible and desirable to withdraw into a steady state free of politics. Biosphere 2: research past and present. (New York. They react to the crisis of man-made world destruction by building more and better little worlds. two former Biospherians raced to the building and broke its seals. synthesized ecologies.p o l i t i c s . 6  Buckminster Fuller. Al Rodale. and William Atherton (Los Angeles. tests the rainforest’s ability to absorb carbon at different concentrations.31 Biosphere 2 performs equations of efficiency and contingency that decide who is present. Plastic sheeting and duct tape are the new bomb shelter. and ‘ecopreneur’ invested $150 billion in the project. patented new building systems. is a term derived from economy or household management. They take guided tours. Banham. and efficiency. 16 Poynter. 386. The life of the future is tested in a contained environment. 2006). 225. Directed by Jason Bloom with performances by Pauly Shore. 13 Poynter. Earth in the Balance: Ecology and the Human Spirit. But at the same time it cleared land. 1991). Ecology. 107. and its massive space-framed atmosphere now absorbs any and all ecological experiments.26 Here urine was converted into irrigation. 89. Broad. Short on Science’. Brown and Rebecca M. 76.27 Designed for stable state regulation. In place of Allen’s idealized philosopher-scientist. Wastron™. Eds. 14  Sniffers produce a daily ‘weather report’. manufactures infrastructure. Academic scientists replace enclosure with regulation: windows have been opened and a system of fans and sensors have been installed to control atmospheric conditions. It produces a strange world with buttons and switches that allow for the continuous production of new relationships. water storage tanks. Buckminster Fuller. 2002). 29  Columbia researcher Guanghui Lin. The Science of ecosystems allowed us to dispense with the requirements of discussion and the due process in building the common world’. Poynter. Houses will be as big as local tastes allow. 15 Poynter. 24  Quoted from Worster. in the 70’s through the acting troupe. zero-greenhouseemissions. 22  Quoted in Reyner P. 2nd ed. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 397. It claimed to provide an architecture of limits based on the authority of Nature. 1984). 30  Travis Huxman. Eds. ‘Ecological Experiment Becomes Battleground. 8  Odum. its penchant for composing the whole without the explicit will of those humans and nonhumans who find themselves gathered…in a totality constituted outside the political world. yet allowed heat. 1994). arguing that they provoke and assist students in framing their work. the study of the household (‘oikos’ in Greek). 31  Visitors and self-described ‘inmates’ would kiss through the glass or put their hands up in a ‘Biospherian handshake’ while talking on a prison-style visitors’ phone next to the airlock. Bass. 1999). enough for six hundred homes.’ New York Times. Having never proved eco-holism. Architects have taken on biology. posited that organisms are linked in a ‘healthy state of order’ in which ecological succession leads to a ‘climax state’ of maturity. Our buildings are now domes – machines that optimize and express atmospheric enclosure. a pioneer of ecosystems theory. 10. 17  Ibid. disgusted or otherwise provoked by this first model – can adjust. Biosphere 2 began with the belief that we can be most responsive to the pressing charges of environmental crisis with ascetic sensitivity to homeostatic equilibrium. No. exchange information with research teams in the Venezuelan rain forest or participate in high school outreach programs. A homemade scrubber turns carbon dioxide into limestone using sodium and calcium hydroxide. SBV infighting during the second mission in 1994 was so fierce that when an investor takeover led to a communications blackout. R. Skin has replaced basement as the site of refuge. 32 33 1  John Allen and Anthony Blake. Biosphere 2: The Human Experiment (New York: Penguin Books. 713. Biosphere 2: the Human Experiment (New York : Penguin Books. ‘Review: Biosphere 2: Long on Hype. converts human urine into agricultural irrigation. or anything as complex as It’s a tropical rainforest. 10  Pearce is a student of Fuller’s and author of Structure in Nature.29 In practice. to let their voices and the atmosphere rush back in. Here Allen befriended Biosphere’s principle investor. Plastic partitions subdivide the dome. organisms and systems according to s h i f t i n g e c o . contemporary Biospherians include tourists. David J. Anything else would be wasting a crisis. 368. Crossing Press 1993). Biosphere 2’s own crisis engages in debate over research priorities. 2006). In B2.3 million per year. Telephone. This involves nothing less than a progressive un-balancing of natures and publics. 25  Bio-Dome. Inc. 21  John Allen. the ‘Theater of All Possibilities’. Politics of Nature: How to Bring the Sciences into Democracy (Cambridge. The ecosystem integrated everything but too quickly and too cheaply. while water transpired by plants is captured as condensation for drinking water. 28  Many have noted that ecology. informed inclusion of nonhumans in an expanded city. 1994. Office buildings will likely express their triangulated exoskeleton rather than the individual office. Ed Bass. 20. the Technosphere has become an environ­ ent m 28 machine registering a balance sheet that subsequent housekeepers – now inspired. (New York. The global environmental crisis is not just scarcity and global warming. celebrates the opportunity for tourists to interrogate graduate students working alongside elevated viewing platforms. See B. 7  Allen headed SBV with architect Margaret Augustine. it becomes a machine for actively connecting sites. after the man-made world that Biosphere 2 sought to bring into alignment with the planetary ecosystem. . Steven Baldwin. 2 (April. ‘Obama Weights Quick Undoing of Bush Policy’. expanded universities and published volumes of data. He studied sociology and geology at Colorado School of Mines. April 11. these new buildings will regulate their perimeters: air conditioning systems will calibrate and filter the air. photons and electricity to pass freely. by Phil Hawes. tracking oxygen and carbon dioxide levels. New York Times. who is responsible to whom and who gets their way. Nature’s Economy: A History of Ecological Ideas. without special states of consciousness’. Albert Hofmann. Marino and Odum. (Freedom. 1991. The Human Experiment: Two Years and Twenty Minutes Inside Biosphere 2 (New York: Thunder’s Mouth Press. ecosystem construction and resource distribution. by Dr. What if this were reversed? Biosphere 2’s crisis offers possibilities for aggressive. External to the seal on Biosphere 2’s campus is a natural gas and diesel plant. satellite TV and radio were constantly cycled through a control room at the center of the Habitat. it outlived its founding premise in less than three. in the nature of things. director of B2. 191. Space Grid Structures (Oxford: Architectural Press. Drummond Ayres Jr. Once homeostasis and holism ran dry. Ed. Novick. 12 Poynter. Biosphere 2 is a blur of many spheres. 156. 75. 18  Michael Zimmerman. it became the scale model of an ambitious new collective. Allen named the mechanical realm housed in CMU walls beneath the biomes’ ‘artistically modeled’ concrete grottoes the ‘Technosphere’. isolating the biomes and allowing multiple experiments to go on simultaneously. 2008. 73. utilities will monitor consumption. Nature’s Economy. November 9. Viva Las Bio-dome25 Trees inside the enclosure developed soft bark due to lack of wind: Biosphere 2 was better at creating new ecosystems than modeling existing ones. 4  Papers included The Galaxy: A Comprehensive Anticipatory Design Challenge by R. Biosphere 2 is today’s Lilliputia. As Biosphere 2 reunites with Biosphere 1. MGM Home Entertainment. Vol. Built to last 100 years. Responsibly efficient – with zero-carbon. Southern Illinois University Press. attained an MBA at Harvard. retirees. Jeff Zeleny. Donald Worster. 2004). using six million kW hours per year at a cost of $1. 204. 26  Poynter. the carbon scrubber and a patented waste-recycling system. The Interdependence of Inner and Outer Space. More in John Chilton. scientists and international researchers. school children. Cañada Del Oro Ranching and Devel­ opment LP (CDO) – who purchased the Biosphere 2 site in 2007 – is drawing up plans to build a retirement village with commercial and resort developments. Mavericks of the Mind: Conversations for the New Millennium. 191. billionaire oil heir. an updated container for a low-impact life. They are opportunities to do big things’. 2  Gore. air can be fresh or recirculated as long as its chemical makeup is consistent. 1969). grad students. 2000). Like Biosphere 2. drinking water was captured from transpiring plants and air was cooled and heated by a dedicated power plant. and Architecture for Galactic Colonies. Rahm Emanuel. videophones. Bruno Latour. 5  Jane Poynter.‘Self-sufficient’ buildings and ‘eco-cities’ such as Masdar (in Abu Dhabi) or Dongtan (near Shanghai) seek their appropriate place in the biosphere by acting as biospheres themselves. (Great Britain: Elsevier Science. 19  ‘Users of the term ‘ecosystem’ were retaining modernism’s basic defect. DVD. and was a General Manager of the ‘Synergia Ranch’ commune in New Mexico. 20 Worster. It is the failure to contest standards of distribution. 27  Technosphere sits within the seal of Biosphere 2 and includes air The handling units. Cambridge University Press. In doing so. windows will be airtight and shielded with optical coating films. Following SBV’s two closed missions. health. it has been managed as a controlled ecology lab by Columbia University (1995-2003) and the University of Arizona’s B2 Institute (2007-present). efficiency and value necessary to run the house. Shells will be a series of membranes and moisture stretched across lightweight steel framing. for example. Principles of Evolution of Life in the Galaxy by Richard Dawkins.

Banham. using six million kW hours per year at a cost of $1. and its massive space-framed atmosphere now absorbs any and all ecological experiments. email.‘Self-sufficient’ buildings and ‘eco-cities’ such as Masdar (in Abu Dhabi) or Dongtan (near Shanghai) seek their appropriate place in the biosphere by acting as biospheres themselves. 20 Worster. The Science of ecosystems allowed us to dispense with the requirements of discussion and the due process in building the common world’. Biosphere 2: the Human Experiment (New York : Penguin Books. Biosphere 2 is today’s Lilliputia. 25  Bio-Dome. Cañada Del Oro Ranching and Devel­ opment LP (CDO) – who purchased the Biosphere 2 site in 2007 – is drawing up plans to build a retirement village with commercial and resort developments. 29  Columbia researcher Guanghui Lin. enclosed territories and sites of shared concern. grad students. ‘Obama Weights Quick Undoing of Bush Policy’. Ecology. informed inclusion of nonhumans in an expanded city. In B2. and was a General Manager of the ‘Synergia Ranch’ commune in New Mexico. efficiency and value necessary to run the house. Ed Bass. the Technosphere has become an environ­ ent m 28 machine registering a balance sheet that subsequent housekeepers – now inspired. Poynter. it becomes a machine for actively connecting sites. for example. 1969). 3  Rule one: Never allow a crisis to go to waste. 20. . 8  Odum.30 Even during the first mission the enclosure membrane restricted molecules and bodies. retirees. 30  Travis Huxman. This involves nothing less than a progressive un-balancing of natures and publics. in the nature of things. 1992). after the man-made world that Biosphere 2 sought to bring into alignment with the planetary ecosystem. Anything else would be wasting a crisis. alive suffer Volume 20 Volume 20 Dreamland of a Warm Age Walt Disney sought to showcase life in a utopian city with futuristic life support systems and no private property: a vision ultimately spun off into edutainment (EPCOT) and New Urbanism (Celebration). 2 (April. 73. ‘Ecological Experiment Becomes Battleground. Principles of Evolution of Life in the Galaxy by Richard Dawkins. SBV infighting during the second mission in 1994 was so fierce that when an investor takeover led to a communications blackout. videophones. Jeff Zeleny. tracking oxygen and carbon dioxide levels. Biosphere 2: The Human Experiment (New York: Penguin Books. satellite TV and radio were constantly cycled through a control room at the center of the Habitat. windows will be airtight and shielded with optical coating films.’ New York Times. In doing so. Directed by Jason Bloom with performances by Pauly Shore. health. patented new building systems. Short on Science’. 7  Allen headed SBV with architect Margaret Augustine. Cambridge University Press. drinking water was captured from transpiring plants and air was cooled and heated by a dedicated power plant. 23  Dissenters included an advisory council of scientists hired by Bass. Like Biosphere 2. 89. the study of the household (‘oikos’ in Greek). exchange information with research teams in the Venezuelan rain forest or participate in high school outreach programs. Broad. Novick. Built to last 100 years. synthesized ecologies. zero-greenhouseemissions. (Freedom. former Yale architecture student. 2004). Vol. 26  Poynter. 2006).27 Designed for stable state regulation. and William Atherton (Los Angeles. The Interdependence of Inner and Outer Space. (Great Britain: Elsevier Science. photons and electricity to pass freely. What if this were reversed? Biosphere 2’s crisis offers possibilities for aggressive. by Dr. DVD. Telephone. Skin has replaced basement as the site of refuge. utilities will monitor consumption. 156. External to the seal on Biosphere 2’s campus is a natural gas and diesel plant. attained an MBA at Harvard. converts human urine into agricultural irrigation. 22  Quoted in Reyner P. air can be fresh or recirculated as long as its chemical makeup is consistent. is a term derived from economy or household management. 368. Plastic sheeting and duct tape are the new bomb shelter. As Biosphere 2 reunites with Biosphere 1. 1991). 713. disgusted or otherwise provoked by this first model – can adjust. Donald Worster. 1991. an updated container for a low-impact life. these new buildings will regulate their perimeters: air conditioning systems will calibrate and filter the air. The Human Experiment: Two Years and Twenty Minutes Inside Biosphere 2 (New York: Thunder’s Mouth Press. The ecosystem integrated everything but too quickly and too cheaply. 19  ‘Users of the term ‘ecosystem’ were retaining modernism’s basic defect. director of B2. 11 One of them dies exploring a transformer box. ecosystem construction and resource distribution. contemporary Biospherians include tourists. Crossing Press 1993). enough for six hundred homes. Academic scientists replace enclosure with regulation: windows have been opened and a system of fans and sensors have been installed to control atmospheric conditions. scientists and international researchers. Here Allen befriended Biosphere’s principle investor. Biosphere 2’s own crisis engages in debate over research priorities. Politics of Nature: How to Bring the Sciences into Democracy (Cambridge. Architects have taken on biology. See B. while water transpired by plants is captured as condensation for drinking water. Al Rodale. Brown and Rebecca M. Office buildings will likely express their triangulated exoskeleton rather than the individual office. Each of its spheres defines a broad constituency including humans and nonhumans. 5  Jane Poynter. 1994. zero-waste. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press. but cannot offset the oxygen depletion. who is responsible to whom and who gets their way. Space Grid Structures (Oxford: Architectural Press. by Phil Hawes. 31  Visitors and self-described ‘inmates’ would kiss through the glass or put their hands up in a ‘Biospherian handshake’ while talking on a prison-style visitors’ phone next to the airlock. Shells will be a series of membranes and moisture stretched across lightweight steel framing. 12 Poynter. It is the failure to contest standards of distribution. a pioneer of ecosystems theory. Following SBV’s two closed missions. 27  Technosphere sits within the seal of Biosphere 2 and includes air The handling units. 1991). Mavericks of the Mind: Conversations for the New Millennium. April 11. 191. in the 70’s through the acting troupe. Steven Baldwin. They take guided tours. Buckminster Fuller. 14  Sniffers produce a daily ‘weather report’. Biosphere 2 came . 2008. Once homeostasis and holism ran dry. tests the rainforest’s ability to absorb carbon at different concentrations. 191. or anything as complex as It’s a tropical rainforest. Ed. Eds. Plastic partitions subdivide the dome. 2  Gore. No. But at the same time it cleared land. Allen named the mechanical realm housed in CMU walls beneath the biomes’ ‘artistically modeled’ concrete grottoes the ‘Technosphere’. 107. posited that organisms are linked in a ‘healthy state of order’ in which ecological succession leads to a ‘climax state’ of maturity. two former Biospherians raced to the building and broke its seals. Operating Manual for Spaceship Earth (Carbondale. 9  impossible to fully appreciate the Amazon. 24  Quoted from Worster. It produces a strange world with buttons and switches that allow for the continuous production of new relationships. Architecture of the Well-Tempered Envi­ ronment. 225. R. Our buildings are now domes – machines that optimize and express atmospheric enclosure. (New York. Nature’s Economy. Wastron™. organisms and systems according to s h i f t i n g e c o . 75. 2000). The life of the future is tested in a contained environment. Rahm Emanuel. Inc.31 Biosphere 2 performs equations of efficiency and contingency that decide who is present. 2nd ed. Bruno Latour. In place of Allen’s idealized philosopher-scientist. Albert Hofmann. They are opportunities to do big things’. 21  John Allen. 13 Poynter. 2002). Southern Illinois University Press. Viva Las Bio-dome25 Trees inside the enclosure developed soft bark due to lack of wind: Biosphere 2 was better at creating new ecosystems than modeling existing ones.3 million per year. it outlived its founding premise in less than three. 1999). More in John Chilton. Houses will be as big as local tastes allow. 15 Poynter. New York Times. water storage tanks. 204. (New York. Nature’s Economy: A History of Ecological Ideas. 2006).29 In practice. 1984). 10. 32 33 1  John Allen and Anthony Blake. David J. and Architecture for Galactic Colonies. billionaire oil heir. 6  Buckminster Fuller. Eds. Biosphere 2 is a blur of many spheres.26 Here urine was converted into irrigation. manufactures infrastructure. November 9. MGM Home Entertainment. Bass. it became the scale model of an ambitious new collective. 1994). and efficiency. yet allowed heat. 28  Many have noted that ecology. ‘Review: Biosphere 2: Long on Hype. arguing that they provoke and assist students in framing their work. then broadcasted to the public. zero-water usage and zero-energy standards – they from the same domestic problems as Biosphere 2: pursuing conservation as though it were both possible and desirable to withdraw into a steady state free of politics. without special states of consciousness’. Having never proved eco-holism. A homemade scrubber turns carbon dioxide into limestone using sodium and calcium hydroxide. 18  Michael Zimmerman. Responsibly efficient – with zero-carbon. 4  Papers included The Galaxy: A Comprehensive Anticipatory Design Challenge by R. isolating the biomes and allowing multiple experiments to go on simultaneously. Marino and Odum. The global environmental crisis is not just scarcity and global warming. 16 Poynter. Earth in the Balance: Ecology and the Human Spirit. 17  Ibid. 76. He studied sociology and geology at Colorado School of Mines. Biosphere 2: research past and present. 397. 10  Pearce is a student of Fuller’s and author of Structure in Nature. 386. It claimed to provide an architecture of limits based on the authority of Nature. celebrates the opportunity for tourists to interrogate graduate students working alongside elevated viewing platforms. school children. and ‘ecopreneur’ invested $150 billion in the project. Drummond Ayres Jr.p o l i t i c s . expanded universities and published volumes of data. Harvard University Press. Biosphere 2 began with the belief that we can be most responsive to the pressing charges of environmental crisis with ascetic sensitivity to homeostatic equilibrium. its penchant for composing the whole without the explicit will of those humans and nonhumans who find themselves gathered…in a totality constituted outside the political world. the ‘Theater of All Possibilities’. it has been managed as a controlled ecology lab by Columbia University (1995-2003) and the University of Arizona’s B2 Institute (2007-present). to let their voices and the atmosphere rush back in. the carbon scrubber and a patented waste-recycling system. They react to the crisis of man-made world destruction by building more and better little worlds.

the term describes a shift in the developed world that began in the mid-twentieth century as the three traditional life phases – childhood.2 The shift away from these earlier models – indicated by a 2005 poll indicating that fifty-nine percent of American baby boomers intended to purchase a new home for retirement – suggests the developing perception that this particular change in life phase necessitates changing one’s lifestyle and spatial environment. This eventually supported the large-scale migration of hundreds of thousands of American retirees as permanent vacationers to climatically favorable retirement paradises built on inexpensive land in the Sun Belt (Arizona’s deserts and Florida’s swamplands in particular). It was at this time that the United States emerged as the incubator for alternatives to the dominant retirement arrangements of extended family living and ageing-in-place. Subjectivity in the ‘new third age’. circle and the association at the center of the collective social sphere. The first examples include Benjamin Schleifer’s Youngtown. Arizona in 1960 and Ross W. Yet for the first time considerable numbers of Americans were reaching retirement in a state of physical and financial health. can be increasingly articulated in terms of a cyborgian leisure subject. The majority of these experiments contradict the two dominant preexisting models of residency for the old – extended family living and ageing-in-place – both models that disperse (and theoretically integrate) the elderly within an existing and relatively unchanged urban environment. Rather than simply selling homes. They integrated the existing model of the suburban or ex-urban housing tract with leisure amenities such as golf. Inevitably this has marked the ‘new third age’ as an e x p e r i m e n t a l d e m o g r a p h i c s i t e for alternate forms of subjectivity and collectivity. Whereas old age was formerly characterized as a period of dependency and decrepitude.000 inhabitants – has been explicitly conceived 34 35 . These are supplemented by additional devices and procedures dedicated to enhancing life quality such as Viagra. class. dentures. artificial hips. employment and child care. adulthood and old age – were supplanted by a four-phase schema in which old age is partitioned between the young-old (the ‘new third age’) and the oldold (the ‘new fourth age’). Laslett describes the ‘new third age’ as a longer period of independence and activity.The Endless Vacation Deane Simpson An impending crisis of gigantic proportions has been predicted by demographers in recent decades. The particular nature of this crisis revolves around the lack of preexisting scripts and protocols directing how one might live in this new phase of life. These experi­ ments saw the retirement milieu as a privately developed. One of the most important general tendencies is the increased role of the entertainment industry in the staging of lifestyle products for the ‘new third age’. further experi­ ments have produced surprising mutations to this schema. California in 1962. With little precedent for such a retired leisure lifestyle. Del Webb’s nearby Sun City. ‘age-qualified’ community located in a favorable climatic zone. for example. Modes of social collectivity in the ‘new third age’ have developed beyond the dominant social models of the nuclear and patchwork families as well as beyond the traditional incorporation of the elderly into the extended family. tennis and swimming. for whom prostheses such as electronic pacemakers. the concept of the ‘new third age’ developed toward that of the ‘year-round vacation in the sun’ as a spatial and temporal counterpoint to work. These include arrangements such as 1 the phenomenon based on the relative longevity of women compared to men and the resulting gender disparity in many retirement communities. Likewise the relatively uncharted lifestyles of the ‘new third age’ have driven experimental urban arrangements. These terms refer to the widespread ageing of the population of the developed world. as well as architecture and urbanism. broader collective interactions are anchored in peer (rather than kin)-based leisure activities that situate the club. As a rapidly increasing proportion of the population reaches retirement age in a state of good health. and at the same time are uncon­ strained by many of the physical and mental impediments defining traditional old age. hailed as the ‘demographic time bomb’. the young-old are at once freed from the respon­ sibilities of education. the most used rhetorical frame of reference to sell and brand these developments became the vacation. Cortese’s Leisure World.3 By the late 1950s and early 1960s retirement in the US had been institutionalized for approximately twenty-five years. The result of increasing life expectancy and declining fertility rates. Of these Sun City would emerge as the most influential model in drafting a set of protocols for an urbanism of the ‘new third age’. hearing aids and blood pressure medications play a key role in extending body functionality and life expectancy. ‘the gray wave’ or the ‘senior epidemic’. Ageing-in-place has in turn declined due in part to increasing mobility as well as a perception of increased suburban social isolation. Arizona in 1955. these urban formats were highly rationalized and efficient leisure machinery capable of disciplining time in order to avoid the persistent threat of retirement-induced boredom. Further conditions specific to the demographic group support experimental social formations. extended family living has become less common. While the dominant household structure in the ‘new third age’ will remain the married couple. a relatively recent but similarly important crisis is marked by the emergence of an historically unprecedented demo­ graphic group: the ‘new third age’. As economic necessity has waned and the older generation has desired more social independence over the course of last half century. Prozac. While almost half a century later these basic protocols remain commercially successful within a multi-billion dollar retirement community industry. The Villages. By spatially concentrating such a homogenous demographic group. Life in The Villages of Florida – now the world’s largest single-site retirement community with approximately 75. these developers sold a complete retirement lifestyle – one with d i s t i n c t l y u t o p i a n o v e r t o n e s . Based on the commercial success of the Sun City experiment in particular. Florida Volume 20 ‘casserole club’ Volume 20 Just as the condition of fewer workers supporting ever more retirees anticipates a future crisis that threatens the viability of national economies. buttock implants and over-the-counter canned oxygen products (used in some Floridian retirement communities as a hangover cure). First described in detail in A Fresh Map of Life by British social historian Peter Laslett in the late 1980s. this situation is further exacerbated by the arrival at retirement age of one of the largest generations in history.

a relatively recent but similarly important crisis is marked by the emergence of an historically unprecedented demo­ graphic group: the ‘new third age’. Prozac. as well as architecture and urbanism. California in 1962. Of these Sun City would emerge as the most influential model in drafting a set of protocols for an urbanism of the ‘new third age’. The result of increasing life expectancy and declining fertility rates. buttock implants and over-the-counter canned oxygen products (used in some Floridian retirement communities as a hangover cure). hearing aids and blood pressure medications play a key role in extending body functionality and life expectancy. this situation is further exacerbated by the arrival at retirement age of one of the largest generations in history. Whereas old age was formerly characterized as a period of dependency and decrepitude. This eventually supported the large-scale migration of hundreds of thousands of American retirees as permanent vacationers to climatically favorable retirement paradises built on inexpensive land in the Sun Belt (Arizona’s deserts and Florida’s swamplands in particular). class. Del Webb’s nearby Sun City. Subjectivity in the ‘new third age’. Ageing-in-place has in turn declined due in part to increasing mobility as well as a perception of increased suburban social isolation. employment and child care. While the dominant household structure in the ‘new third age’ will remain the married couple. the concept of the ‘new third age’ developed toward that of the ‘year-round vacation in the sun’ as a spatial and temporal counterpoint to work. The Villages. Based on the commercial success of the Sun City experiment in particular. dentures. These are supplemented by additional devices and procedures dedicated to enhancing life quality such as Viagra.3 By the late 1950s and early 1960s retirement in the US had been institutionalized for approximately twenty-five years. these developers sold a complete retirement lifestyle – one with d i s t i n c t l y u t o p i a n o v e r t o n e s . Arizona in 1960 and Ross W. The majority of these experiments contradict the two dominant preexisting models of residency for the old – extended family living and ageing-in-place – both models that disperse (and theoretically integrate) the elderly within an existing and relatively unchanged urban environment. the most used rhetorical frame of reference to sell and brand these developments became the vacation. Yet for the first time considerable numbers of Americans were reaching retirement in a state of physical and financial health. Arizona in 1955.2 The shift away from these earlier models – indicated by a 2005 poll indicating that fifty-nine percent of American baby boomers intended to purchase a new home for retirement – suggests the developing perception that this particular change in life phase necessitates changing one’s lifestyle and spatial environment. extended family living has become less common. the term describes a shift in the developed world that began in the mid-twentieth century as the three traditional life phases – childhood. can be increasingly articulated in terms of a cyborgian leisure subject. It was at this time that the United States emerged as the incubator for alternatives to the dominant retirement arrangements of extended family living and ageing-in-place. Cortese’s Leisure World. ‘the gray wave’ or the ‘senior epidemic’. ‘age-qualified’ community located in a favorable climatic zone. tennis and swimming. As a rapidly increasing proportion of the population reaches retirement age in a state of good health. Life in The Villages of Florida – now the world’s largest single-site retirement community with approximately 75. hailed as the ‘demographic time bomb’. broader collective interactions are anchored in peer (rather than kin)-based leisure activities that situate the club. The first examples include Benjamin Schleifer’s Youngtown. While almost half a century later these basic protocols remain commercially successful within a multi-billion dollar retirement community industry. These terms refer to the widespread ageing of the population of the developed world. Florida Volume 20 ‘casserole club’ Volume 20 Just as the condition of fewer workers supporting ever more retirees anticipates a future crisis that threatens the viability of national economies. for example. circle and the association at the center of the collective social sphere. the young-old are at once freed from the respon­ sibilities of education. The particular nature of this crisis revolves around the lack of preexisting scripts and protocols directing how one might live in this new phase of life. artificial hips. One of the most important general tendencies is the increased role of the entertainment industry in the staging of lifestyle products for the ‘new third age’. Modes of social collectivity in the ‘new third age’ have developed beyond the dominant social models of the nuclear and patchwork families as well as beyond the traditional incorporation of the elderly into the extended family.The Endless Vacation Deane Simpson An impending crisis of gigantic proportions has been predicted by demographers in recent decades. With little precedent for such a retired leisure lifestyle. Inevitably this has marked the ‘new third age’ as an e x p e r i m e n t a l d e m o g r a p h i c s i t e for alternate forms of subjectivity and collectivity. Rather than simply selling homes. for whom prostheses such as electronic pacemakers. As economic necessity has waned and the older generation has desired more social independence over the course of last half century. First described in detail in A Fresh Map of Life by British social historian Peter Laslett in the late 1980s. these urban formats were highly rationalized and efficient leisure machinery capable of disciplining time in order to avoid the persistent threat of retirement-induced boredom. adulthood and old age – were supplanted by a four-phase schema in which old age is partitioned between the young-old (the ‘new third age’) and the oldold (the ‘new fourth age’).000 inhabitants – has been explicitly conceived 34 35 . Likewise the relatively uncharted lifestyles of the ‘new third age’ have driven experimental urban arrangements. They integrated the existing model of the suburban or ex-urban housing tract with leisure amenities such as golf. Further conditions specific to the demographic group support experimental social formations. further experi­ ments have produced surprising mutations to this schema. These include arrangements such as 1 the phenomenon based on the relative longevity of women compared to men and the resulting gender disparity in many retirement communities. By spatially concentrating such a homogenous demographic group. and at the same time are uncon­ strained by many of the physical and mental impediments defining traditional old age. Laslett describes the ‘new third age’ as a longer period of independence and activity. These experi­ ments saw the retirement milieu as a privately developed.

Daily Sun. Whereas The Villages constructs retirement as a permanent temporal displacement – a year-round vacation to one’s own childhood – Huis Ten Bosch. this has produced a fairly common phenomenon of second careers ranging from a couple (formerly a police detective and a school teacher) running an electronic organ store and music class to widows and widowers working in Denny’s or operating checkouts in local hardware stores. Japan 36 37 . ‘Yesterday. Theme Park Landscapes: Antecedents and Variations (Washington DC: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection. In the case of The Villages. Lotus International No. Whether by economic necessity or as a means to gain social interaction. pp 6-13. in making the themed vacation permanent.109. one that allows ample time with which to experiment or workshop various roles and modes of interaction. No. Director of Design at The Villages. an integrated cul­ ural t theme park and retirement community in Japan. Florida. ‘Tourism as Everyday Life: an Inquiry into The Villages. In this context the urban scenarios described above seamlessly integrate the gated community’s mechanisms of social exclusion and control with the theme park’s structural tendency toward the reduction of the critical potential of utopia and the debasement of culture in general. Public Space (Hampshire: Ashgate. Marc Treib. 7  for example one of the earliest and most referred to critiques of gated See communities: Edward Blakely and Mary Snyder. 3  Harris Interactive document Del Webb Baby Boomer Survey published The in 2005 indicates that fifty-nine percent of baby boomers aged 40-49 in 2005 indicate they will buy a new home for retirement with forty-five percent of those willing to do so out of state. This effect is achieved in part through the architecture and urban design deployed across the entire development and most intensively in the three ‘downtowns’. For many residents this ambiguity opens emancipatory possibilities to construct a l t e r n a t e i d e n t i t i e s and lifestyle realities. 2002). homogeneity and self-containment of environments such as The Villages.5 Thematizing childhood hometowns extends to practically every realm of urban life. 6  previous descriptions of Huis Ten Bosch. cruise the canals on small vessels and attend classes on Fabergé egg making or tulip pressing.C. and David D’Heilly. Total Landscape. 1997). The author would like to thank Marc Angélil. 2  experience of social isolation amongst elderly in suburban contexts is The illustrated in Del Webb Corporation’s circa 1962 film The Beginning. have supported an unwitting return to the workforce and to particular forms of volunteerism for many of the ‘new third age’ residents in recent years. Fortress America: Gated Communities in the United States (Washington D. The Villages. 4  Gary Morse. 8.: Brookings Institution Press. Theme Parks.6 This places residents in a complex and ambiguous space in an : no longer sleeping on tatami mats. Florida’. Augustine. By day. this offers the possibility for the resident to occupy a temporal gap between old age and youth. which are staged according to various ‘local’ styles: Spanish Missionary of St. pp.7 However. Vol. an experience in which the residents have a profound awareness of a representational landscape within which they are immersed. illustrated by the residents’ pleasure in their ability to reconfigure what many describe as the overbearing obligation in Japanese society to accept social invitations from neighbors. The scale. living in brick houses with fireplaces. Floridian beachside of Key West and Florida ‘cracker’ of Arcadia. 213-234. Tourism Geographies. buy cheese at the market. 4 (Jan/Feb 1994). Today and Tomorrow!’ Supplement to The Villages H. they watch visitors while drinking coffee in the cafés. 5  Gary Mark. structures retirement as a permanent spatial displacement. It represents an endless vacation to the Netherlands. In light of current and emerging crises there is a certain attached to the fact that for many the complete package of the endless vacation is proving not to be enough. ‘almost-Netherlands’ Volume 20 Volume 20 Huis Ten Bosch. This research was supported by grants from the Holcim Foundation for Sustainable Construction and the ETH Zürich TH Fund. interesting forms of slippage emerge that surpass readings conventionally associated with such urban typologies. 4 (November 2006). see also: Hugh Bartling. It refers collectively to older single women who inundate recently widowed males with competing romantic advances in the form of casseroles personally delivered to the widower’s home. many of the service jobs (both full and part-time) have necessarily been filled by residents. from transportation systems (with Ford ModelT-styled golf carts and buses modeled on early twentieth century street cars) to signage and graphic design that is consistently ‘aged’ throughout the entire development and on to programmatic offerings that include street parades and retro-themed restaurants.). In the case of Huis Ten Bosch it allows the opportunity for the resident to occupy their own position in the gap between the role of Japanese tourist in the Netherlands and Japanese resident in Japan. a gap that supports a range of activities from cheer­ leading and golf-cart customizing to competitive (senior) athletics.by CEO Gary Morse as ‘a vacation that never ends’. Based on the sheer size of The Villages and its isolation from a supporting workforce. Such developments elicit multiple concerns common to existing critiques of both the gated lifestyle community and the theme park – anxieties that are particularly relevant as developments like The Villages become increasingly influential models in the retirement community industry. 2006). see for example: Miodrag For Mitrasinovic. Morse employed the designers of Universal Studios theme park in Orlando to generate ‘a Disneyworld for active retirees – a completely themed environment that would follow the script of ‘Florida’s Friendliest Hometown’. Interview with author. A relevant analysis of theming is Michael Sorkin’s ‘The Theming of the City’. 2007. Any Magazine No. in the context of the permanently occupied retirement community such a themed environment suggests an artificial performative milieu for actively restaging subjectivity and collective relations. January 17. Rather than theming delivering a temporary semantic journey to another time or place. The material construction of this childhood hometown is so complete – through the near eradication of objects of a contemporary nature – that the perception of contem­ porary time passing or of one’s self ageing in relation to objects is severely limited. On The Villages. ‘Letter from Huis Ten Bosch’. Themed Living: The Case of Huis Ten Bosch (Japan)’ in: Terence Young and Robert Riley (eds. François Höpflinger and Ida Richter Braendstrup. optimism 1  ‘Casserole Club’ is a colloquial term common in retirement communities. ‘Theme Park. founded on the pure leisure logic of the permanent vacation. but one con­ veniently located in the south of Japan. 2008.4 This total environment has been designed to spatially and temporally transport residents to the carefree hometowns of their childhood.

6 This places residents in a complex and ambiguous space in an : no longer sleeping on tatami mats. Whereas The Villages constructs retirement as a permanent temporal displacement – a year-round vacation to one’s own childhood – Huis Ten Bosch.by CEO Gary Morse as ‘a vacation that never ends’. 7  for example one of the earliest and most referred to critiques of gated See communities: Edward Blakely and Mary Snyder. Total Landscape. living in brick houses with fireplaces. ‘almost-Netherlands’ Volume 20 Volume 20 Huis Ten Bosch. The Villages. they watch visitors while drinking coffee in the cafés. see for example: Miodrag For Mitrasinovic. a gap that supports a range of activities from cheer­ leading and golf-cart customizing to competitive (senior) athletics. 4 (Jan/Feb 1994). For many residents this ambiguity opens emancipatory possibilities to construct a l t e r n a t e i d e n t i t i e s and lifestyle realities. this offers the possibility for the resident to occupy a temporal gap between old age and youth. By day. 2007.7 However.109. Vol. and David D’Heilly. It represents an endless vacation to the Netherlands. one that allows ample time with which to experiment or workshop various roles and modes of interaction. 3  Harris Interactive document Del Webb Baby Boomer Survey published The in 2005 indicates that fifty-nine percent of baby boomers aged 40-49 in 2005 indicate they will buy a new home for retirement with forty-five percent of those willing to do so out of state. illustrated by the residents’ pleasure in their ability to reconfigure what many describe as the overbearing obligation in Japanese society to accept social invitations from neighbors. The author would like to thank Marc Angélil. Floridian beachside of Key West and Florida ‘cracker’ of Arcadia. 4  Gary Morse. many of the service jobs (both full and part-time) have necessarily been filled by residents. pp 6-13. January 17. homogeneity and self-containment of environments such as The Villages. Lotus International No. This effect is achieved in part through the architecture and urban design deployed across the entire development and most intensively in the three ‘downtowns’.C.5 Thematizing childhood hometowns extends to practically every realm of urban life. 213-234. François Höpflinger and Ida Richter Braendstrup. ‘Yesterday. 6  previous descriptions of Huis Ten Bosch. In the case of Huis Ten Bosch it allows the opportunity for the resident to occupy their own position in the gap between the role of Japanese tourist in the Netherlands and Japanese resident in Japan. which are staged according to various ‘local’ styles: Spanish Missionary of St. The material construction of this childhood hometown is so complete – through the near eradication of objects of a contemporary nature – that the perception of contem­ porary time passing or of one’s self ageing in relation to objects is severely limited. In this context the urban scenarios described above seamlessly integrate the gated community’s mechanisms of social exclusion and control with the theme park’s structural tendency toward the reduction of the critical potential of utopia and the debasement of culture in general. Whether by economic necessity or as a means to gain social interaction. Today and Tomorrow!’ Supplement to The Villages H.: Brookings Institution Press. Daily Sun. Themed Living: The Case of Huis Ten Bosch (Japan)’ in: Terence Young and Robert Riley (eds. Public Space (Hampshire: Ashgate. Such developments elicit multiple concerns common to existing critiques of both the gated lifestyle community and the theme park – anxieties that are particularly relevant as developments like The Villages become increasingly influential models in the retirement community industry. 5  Gary Mark. 1997). It refers collectively to older single women who inundate recently widowed males with competing romantic advances in the form of casseroles personally delivered to the widower’s home. 2008. this has produced a fairly common phenomenon of second careers ranging from a couple (formerly a police detective and a school teacher) running an electronic organ store and music class to widows and widowers working in Denny’s or operating checkouts in local hardware stores. Theme Parks. optimism 1  ‘Casserole Club’ is a colloquial term common in retirement communities. Florida. Japan 36 37 . 4 (November 2006). Based on the sheer size of The Villages and its isolation from a supporting workforce. ‘Letter from Huis Ten Bosch’. Florida’. Augustine. from transportation systems (with Ford ModelT-styled golf carts and buses modeled on early twentieth century street cars) to signage and graphic design that is consistently ‘aged’ throughout the entire development and on to programmatic offerings that include street parades and retro-themed restaurants. A relevant analysis of theming is Michael Sorkin’s ‘The Theming of the City’. 2002). In the case of The Villages. ‘Tourism as Everyday Life: an Inquiry into The Villages. have supported an unwitting return to the workforce and to particular forms of volunteerism for many of the ‘new third age’ residents in recent years. buy cheese at the market. The scale. Tourism Geographies. On The Villages.). ‘Theme Park. interesting forms of slippage emerge that surpass readings conventionally associated with such urban typologies. founded on the pure leisure logic of the permanent vacation. structures retirement as a permanent spatial displacement. In light of current and emerging crises there is a certain attached to the fact that for many the complete package of the endless vacation is proving not to be enough. 8. 2006). Fortress America: Gated Communities in the United States (Washington D. an experience in which the residents have a profound awareness of a representational landscape within which they are immersed. No. Theme Park Landscapes: Antecedents and Variations (Washington DC: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection. Interview with author. see also: Hugh Bartling. in the context of the permanently occupied retirement community such a themed environment suggests an artificial performative milieu for actively restaging subjectivity and collective relations. Marc Treib. in making the themed vacation permanent. an integrated cul­ ural t theme park and retirement community in Japan. 2  experience of social isolation amongst elderly in suburban contexts is The illustrated in Del Webb Corporation’s circa 1962 film The Beginning. pp. Morse employed the designers of Universal Studios theme park in Orlando to generate ‘a Disneyworld for active retirees – a completely themed environment that would follow the script of ‘Florida’s Friendliest Hometown’. This research was supported by grants from the Holcim Foundation for Sustainable Construction and the ETH Zürich TH Fund. but one con­ veniently located in the south of Japan. Director of Design at The Villages. Rather than theming delivering a temporary semantic journey to another time or place. cruise the canals on small vessels and attend classes on Fabergé egg making or tulip pressing.4 This total environment has been designed to spatially and temporally transport residents to the carefree hometowns of their childhood. Any Magazine No.

In that respect it’s successful. and for almost all psychologists. That’s a metonym for the whole material world: this thing that cannot be controlled. It’s when there’s a breakdown of a given symbolic order. not just air­ lane parts or bits of technology. That informs his behavior. trauma is always linked to repetition afterwards: the reenactment and repetitive behavior. JI In this issue of Volume we think about how nar­ ratives of crisis are told: what structures are employed to convey our experience of a world in flux? It seems that Remainder is not about narrative per se. he gets . Volume spoke with McCarthy about representing crisis and trauma – whether assaults against the economy or the body – and the death-driven compulsion to repeat these moments of intensity in seeking catharsis. t By the end. it immediately apparent that this was how the novel should start out? Volume 20 Jeffrey Inaba Can you explain the process of creating Remainder? Tom McCarthy Well. The whole of Remainder is less a movement away from – or resolution of – crisis than it is an attempt to reenter crisis and retrigger it. novelist Tom McCarthy and philosopher Simon Critchley recently released their ‘Interim Report on Recessional Aesthetics’ to President Obama in the pages of Harper’s Magazine. he said ‘I can do it now. it just kind of made sense. or antihero. the character keeps on going on about a carrot that won’t stay still. rather it’s about constant confrontations with the elements of storytelling and in particular the objects that percolate as confrontations within a larger symbolic order. He has to not only reprogram himself in reen­ ctment com­ a Volume 20 came about by happy accident. So that’s what happened in the book. but through provoking an ultra crisis. It’s when everything goes wrong. as if it were some lost nirvana. Among their suggestions to the US leader was to read the recession allegorically. How did you arrive at this device as a departure point for the novel? Was TM No. Then he expands the parameters of that reenactment zone until he’s reenacting shoot-outs in the street and bank heists. literally. He’s some­ ow reacting against this entropic h universe and trying to delay the inevitable.’ Warhol said the same thing after he was shot. JI The hero/anti-hero of Remainder goes into a coma as a result of an object falling from the sky and hitting him on the head. but I just wasn’t convinced. but it seems fake. We question the relationship between the things we experience in the world and the way that the world is described. Tom McCarthy Interviewed by Jeffrey Inaba On behalf of the International Necronautical Society. initially I had to consider that if the hero’s going to do all this stuff. Trauma studies report that only trauma is real. The trauma is the moment-in-time. which is real. and celebrate it ‘as you would the revelation of godhead itself ’. The idea of something falling from the sky is just straight Blanchot. p trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder. you know. TM Yeah. falling. in the sense of gravity: things fall. p but also undisclosed matter and the share prices of stocks. when people are dying all around him and planes are crashing. And by making everyone – all of his neighbors who he’s remembered – move to the rhythms he’s created as they c o o k l i v e r o r p l a y p i a n o . the collapse of metaphysics or in a Newtonian way. And so. The hero. In that sense do you see the post-traumatic reencountering of objects the pro­ tag­ nist goes through as analogous to crisis moments? o 38 39 terms of kinetic stuff and movement. pulsion TM Yes. They’re always really important in Freud. but what’s lost is a sense of authenticity. ‘from the stars’. he’s more or less k i l l i n g p e o p l e because of dictionary definitions. spectacularly wrong. I mean. it seems that crisis is really when things can’t be explained. he needs a lot of money to pay for it. out of catastrophe. It’s the Fall. his disaster . For Freud. So all of that is borne out of crisis. but of course he ultimately fails. everything comes together. as ‘the intimate space at the heart of all economics. but it’s also about move­ ent and language. orgiastic ending – comes not through resolution. During moments of crisis. He’s at one with catastrophe. One of the first things he points out in The Writing of the Disaster is that the word comes from ‘des astre’. It seems like I’m simulating. I conducted a long interview with someone who’d been in a very serious accident resulting in motorneuron damage and he had to relearn how to do every­ thing – from w a l k i n g to l i f t i n g a glass. I remembered a building or I kind of half-remem­ bered – it was like the composite memory Proust describes in which you can remember a staircase in a house that never existed because you make a collage in your head from other houses you’ve known – and I thought it would be good to reconstruct this moment: to make the house and to put the crack in the wall. I was just passively looking at a crack in the wall and had this moment of déjà vu during which I remembered a similar room with a similar crack. He has a large staff and he m keeps having them look up words in the dictionary and text him the defini­ ions. And I suppose. Then I looked into com­ ensation culture. As he’s moving away from the catastrophe he’s trying to remaster the symbolic order. starts by reconstructing a building he’s remembered. And in Remainder you have lots of things. You can read that as the death of god. At that moment. in the end. I can lift up the glass and walk. its muted truth’. and it perfectly tarried with his whole . It’s always excluded from nar­ atives and histories of time because it’s always cen­ r sored: the actual kernel of the disaster is always withheld from consciousness or narratable memory. And yet it’s the only moment which is true. objects are really important. By the end he’s making planes fall out of the sky. yeah. He said he felt like he was watching TV for the rest of his life. And interestingly. Therefore trauma victims often try to recover that moment. while we might obsess over how we construct logical explanations of the situation. So he could win the lottery or inherit lots of money from an uncle like the character Jean Des Esseintes in that wonderful Huysmans novel Against Nature. which was definitely an influence on Remainder. in a way the writing of the book JI Remainder is about all of these encounters with estranged objects. But what for him is the happy ending – the euphoric.Symbolic Remainder He does get his memory back.

as if it were some lost nirvana. when people are dying all around him and planes are crashing. objects are really important. Among their suggestions to the US leader was to read the recession allegorically. For Freud. he needs a lot of money to pay for it. but it’s also about move­ ent and language. falling. starts by reconstructing a building he’s remembered.Symbolic Remainder He does get his memory back. But what for him is the happy ending – the euphoric. That’s a metonym for the whole material world: this thing that cannot be controlled. initially I had to consider that if the hero’s going to do all this stuff. During moments of crisis. And yet it’s the only moment which is true. p trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder. which was definitely an influence on Remainder. In that sense do you see the post-traumatic reencountering of objects the pro­ tag­ nist goes through as analogous to crisis moments? o 38 39 terms of kinetic stuff and movement. It’s the Fall. but of course he ultimately fails. He said he felt like he was watching TV for the rest of his life. and celebrate it ‘as you would the revelation of godhead itself ’. pulsion TM Yes. As he’s moving away from the catastrophe he’s trying to remaster the symbolic order. He’s some­ ow reacting against this entropic h universe and trying to delay the inevitable. JI The hero/anti-hero of Remainder goes into a coma as a result of an object falling from the sky and hitting him on the head. TM Yeah. And by making everyone – all of his neighbors who he’s remembered – move to the rhythms he’s created as they c o o k l i v e r o r p l a y p i a n o . I conducted a long interview with someone who’d been in a very serious accident resulting in motorneuron damage and he had to relearn how to do every­ thing – from w a l k i n g to l i f t i n g a glass. trauma is always linked to repetition afterwards: the reenactment and repetitive behavior. rather it’s about constant confrontations with the elements of storytelling and in particular the objects that percolate as confrontations within a larger symbolic order. He has to not only reprogram himself in reen­ ctment com­ a Volume 20 came about by happy accident. but through provoking an ultra crisis. you know. One of the first things he points out in The Writing of the Disaster is that the word comes from ‘des astre’. The hero. while we might obsess over how we construct logical explanations of the situation. How did you arrive at this device as a departure point for the novel? Was TM No. everything comes together. ‘from the stars’. I was just passively looking at a crack in the wall and had this moment of déjà vu during which I remembered a similar room with a similar crack. not just air­ lane parts or bits of technology. The idea of something falling from the sky is just straight Blanchot. he gets . He’s at one with catastrophe. it just kind of made sense. which is real. and for almost all psychologists. At that moment. By the end he’s making planes fall out of the sky. in the sense of gravity: things fall. The trauma is the moment-in-time. it seems that crisis is really when things can’t be explained. We question the relationship between the things we experience in the world and the way that the world is described.’ Warhol said the same thing after he was shot. out of catastrophe. his disaster . its muted truth’. The whole of Remainder is less a movement away from – or resolution of – crisis than it is an attempt to reenter crisis and retrigger it. And so. p but also undisclosed matter and the share prices of stocks. spectacularly wrong. yeah. he’s more or less k i l l i n g p e o p l e because of dictionary definitions. JI In this issue of Volume we think about how nar­ ratives of crisis are told: what structures are employed to convey our experience of a world in flux? It seems that Remainder is not about narrative per se. I remembered a building or I kind of half-remem­ bered – it was like the composite memory Proust describes in which you can remember a staircase in a house that never existed because you make a collage in your head from other houses you’ve known – and I thought it would be good to reconstruct this moment: to make the house and to put the crack in the wall. in a way the writing of the book JI Remainder is about all of these encounters with estranged objects. literally. and it perfectly tarried with his whole . So that’s what happened in the book. Volume spoke with McCarthy about representing crisis and trauma – whether assaults against the economy or the body – and the death-driven compulsion to repeat these moments of intensity in seeking catharsis. Then he expands the parameters of that reenactment zone until he’s reenacting shoot-outs in the street and bank heists. the collapse of metaphysics or in a Newtonian way. the character keeps on going on about a carrot that won’t stay still. but what’s lost is a sense of authenticity. Then I looked into com­ ensation culture. as ‘the intimate space at the heart of all economics. It seems like I’m simulating. or antihero. He has a large staff and he m keeps having them look up words in the dictionary and text him the defini­ ions. You can read that as the death of god. In that respect it’s successful. So all of that is borne out of crisis. It’s when everything goes wrong. t By the end. And in Remainder you have lots of things. but it seems fake. It’s always excluded from nar­ atives and histories of time because it’s always cen­ r sored: the actual kernel of the disaster is always withheld from consciousness or narratable memory. it immediately apparent that this was how the novel should start out? Volume 20 Jeffrey Inaba Can you explain the process of creating Remainder? Tom McCarthy Well. And I suppose. Therefore trauma victims often try to recover that moment. novelist Tom McCarthy and philosopher Simon Critchley recently released their ‘Interim Report on Recessional Aesthetics’ to President Obama in the pages of Harper’s Magazine. Trauma studies report that only trauma is real. I can lift up the glass and walk. It’s when there’s a breakdown of a given symbolic order. They’re always really important in Freud. Tom McCarthy Interviewed by Jeffrey Inaba On behalf of the International Necronautical Society. orgiastic ending – comes not through resolution. I mean. he said ‘I can do it now. in the end. That informs his behavior. but I just wasn’t convinced. And interestingly. So he could win the lottery or inherit lots of money from an uncle like the character Jean Des Esseintes in that wonderful Huysmans novel Against Nature.

once commented that the ‘warnings’ of apocalyptic tales about the end of the world were really a kind of wish fulfillment.highend3d. of resources. literally nowhere. but to understand their .5 The end of the world is merely a re-orientation of sensibility.3 The question is.7 To shift from the utopian to the apocalyptic is not merely to set the terms in opposition. of course. as just another repository of dead i languages. though it reveals the limits and fears of the society that created it. pre­ er­ a­ s v tion and prevention. http://www. ‘City Ruins’ (after ‘Fallout’ video game). safety. It seems that at this juncture. of attention) to those of scarcity. utopia. a chance to have another. There are issues of responsibility. Eventually architecture may become a fixture of the university – as a testament of the plentitude of an earlier human­sm – next to the Classics Department. with an emphasis on the agency of design as a responsive. A recurrent theme. has been the motivating conceit for a society (and an architecture) of aspirational perfection for quite some time. If utopia is an unattainable goal. architectural imagination) from issues of plentitude (of capital. but rather would be seen in architec­ ure’s response to the imperatives of survival. why apocalypse now? The genre of the apocalyptic always contains within it a means of working through the problematic of its era. its needs are never in perfect equilibrium to the available means. constructs. consideration of the apocalyptic is no longer a matter of fantasy1. a mechanism that calibrates itself to need. the bomb shelters of utopia if you will. then the future of architecture looks . 40 41 . One could imagine its continuation. Design for the apocalypse: the time is neigh and the end (of something) is near… and the beginning (of something else) is imminent. but a description of a new prevalent condition. The new mode would want to address matters of concern where environmental matters are no more or less important than others (such as aesthetic or social) in terms of cause or need.’ – Roger Zelazny Volume 20 larger engine of transformation dim similarity Volume 20 Invoking the ‘apocalypse’ brings forth connotations of the end of the world – historically imagined as everything from the judgment of God to nuclear Armageddon. What would architecture in a post-apocalyptic mode look like? And what is the relation of architecture to capital when there is no capital? If we understand architecture as a historically formulated set of rules and guidelines. but that is not the only manifestation or even the most useful. of responsibility and stewardship. to some degree. but to a fundamental recalibration of the d imagination (specifically. b u t a s a n a n s w e r . the apocalypse comes n o t a s a p r o b l e m . it has its own history and is itself a genre of expression as a category of pessimism. The coming apocalypse may be a solvable problem or it may not be a problem at all. author of the dystopian classic A Clockwork Orange. What unifies these manifestations is their survivalist undertone. problem solving effort. Anthony Burgess.4 In a world of overwhelming complexity. For us it is a combination of factors. If this sounds like an environmental call to arms. but a beginning. but across the spectrum of culture there has been a recent fictional and factual turn from the utopian to the apocalyptic. Both describe a condition of radical change. it is not (at least not completely). In its con­ temporary manifestation it has taken the form of various global crises: environ­ ental. go at making the world. The term itself indicates as much: ‘apocalypse’ from the Greek ‘okaluyiz’ literally translates as a ‘lifting of the veil’ and conceptually represents the disclosure to certain privileged persons of something hidden from the mass of human­ kind. but conceptual. Its occurrence in narrative is a symptomatic response to issues. it is the s h a d o w of the progressive ideal of the avant-garde. amenity or potential) that is the and change in a variety of environments (natural and artificial.com. This mechanism is never in stasis. Or one could imagine the re-description of architecture’s disciplinary legacy in terms of effectivity (as opposed to affectivity). Of course the ‘end of the world’ is not a novelty. landscape and the city).Thomas Cole. a leveling of the past to make way for the future. then the apocalypse is everywhere. but its existence even as an idea demonstrates a shift that is not only practical. All are real and all are. in how it t responds to coming disasters major and minor. but indicative. m economic and the unexpected. The real issue with the various evocations of the ‘end of the world’ has never been about ‘the end’.6 The operation of the subject in an environment is not only a thing but also an action. Thus it is scarcity (of food. of directions to follow and refuges to find. with the earnestness of LEED and green design. 2007 ‘Don’t wake me for the end of the world unless it has very good special effects. The results will not be definitive. The ‘end of ’ also implies a ‘beginning of ’ – a chance to re-start and re-think. water. or 9/11 and Children of Men). it is nuclear terrorism and social ills. We can already see evidence of this in the new emphasis on the basic conditions of our existence. As fantasy the apocalypse represents the chance to begin anew. it is both global warming and sub-prime loans. the end of the world always represents a new start. turning from one to the other as a privileged mode doesn’t speak to a prepon­ erance of nihilism per se. in which to weather the a p p r o a c h i n g m a e l s t r o m . but of policy (one recently referred to as ‘disaster capitalism’). Given this symbolic (and increasingly real) economy. unencumbered. these impulses can be seen as having strange portents for architecture. In this sense the specter of the apoca­ lypse is another version of the modernist tabula rasa. that place of high aspirations and lofty ambition. The Architect’s Dream Design for the Apocalypse John McMorrough Defonten. How would architecture act in a postapocalyptic mode? One can imagine that the answer will not come ex nihilo. of zero-sum economics and peak-oil. economic and ecological – namely architecture. but in a material enactment of an increasingly archaic form of thought. With the intermingling of the improb­ able and the prosaic (think Katrina and The Day After Tomorrow. resources.2 What we see in this latest manifes­ tation is not merely the conservative position describing a fall from grace or the entropic decline of systems and the diminishment of quality over time. of course.

In this sense the specter of the apoca­ lypse is another version of the modernist tabula rasa. the end of the world always represents a new start. As fantasy the apocalypse represents the chance to begin anew. it is not (at least not completely). The ‘end of ’ also implies a ‘beginning of ’ – a chance to re-start and re-think. it has its own history and is itself a genre of expression as a category of pessimism. then the apocalypse is everywhere. For us it is a combination of factors. but of policy (one recently referred to as ‘disaster capitalism’). these impulses can be seen as having strange portents for architecture. of zero-sum economics and peak-oil.2 What we see in this latest manifes­ tation is not merely the conservative position describing a fall from grace or the entropic decline of systems and the diminishment of quality over time. If utopia is an unattainable goal. but a description of a new prevalent condition. With the intermingling of the improb­ able and the prosaic (think Katrina and The Day After Tomorrow. it is both global warming and sub-prime loans.4 In a world of overwhelming complexity. turning from one to the other as a privileged mode doesn’t speak to a prepon­ erance of nihilism per se. All are real and all are. b u t a s a n a n s w e r . safety. Thus it is scarcity (of food. but across the spectrum of culture there has been a recent fictional and factual turn from the utopian to the apocalyptic. The new mode would want to address matters of concern where environmental matters are no more or less important than others (such as aesthetic or social) in terms of cause or need. How would architecture act in a postapocalyptic mode? One can imagine that the answer will not come ex nihilo. 40 41 . utopia.5 The end of the world is merely a re-orientation of sensibility. A recurrent theme. problem solving effort. author of the dystopian classic A Clockwork Orange. once commented that the ‘warnings’ of apocalyptic tales about the end of the world were really a kind of wish fulfillment. constructs. In its con­ temporary manifestation it has taken the form of various global crises: environ­ ental. economic and ecological – namely architecture. of responsibility and stewardship. of resources. Design for the apocalypse: the time is neigh and the end (of something) is near… and the beginning (of something else) is imminent. of directions to follow and refuges to find. Its occurrence in narrative is a symptomatic response to issues. Or one could imagine the re-description of architecture’s disciplinary legacy in terms of effectivity (as opposed to affectivity).7 To shift from the utopian to the apocalyptic is not merely to set the terms in opposition. amenity or potential) that is the and change in a variety of environments (natural and artificial. The real issue with the various evocations of the ‘end of the world’ has never been about ‘the end’. of attention) to those of scarcity. The Architect’s Dream Design for the Apocalypse John McMorrough Defonten. pre­ er­ a­ s v tion and prevention. though it reveals the limits and fears of the society that created it. Anthony Burgess. water.com. 2007 ‘Don’t wake me for the end of the world unless it has very good special effects. but to understand their . but its existence even as an idea demonstrates a shift that is not only practical. What would architecture in a post-apocalyptic mode look like? And what is the relation of architecture to capital when there is no capital? If we understand architecture as a historically formulated set of rules and guidelines.Thomas Cole. of course. landscape and the city). We can already see evidence of this in the new emphasis on the basic conditions of our existence. of course. the apocalypse comes n o t a s a p r o b l e m . but conceptual. The term itself indicates as much: ‘apocalypse’ from the Greek ‘okaluyiz’ literally translates as a ‘lifting of the veil’ and conceptually represents the disclosure to certain privileged persons of something hidden from the mass of human­ kind. it is nuclear terrorism and social ills. with an emphasis on the agency of design as a responsive. Given this symbolic (and increasingly real) economy. with the earnestness of LEED and green design. go at making the world. but rather would be seen in architec­ ure’s response to the imperatives of survival. Of course the ‘end of the world’ is not a novelty. consideration of the apocalyptic is no longer a matter of fantasy1.3 The question is. architectural imagination) from issues of plentitude (of capital. that place of high aspirations and lofty ambition. http://www.’ – Roger Zelazny Volume 20 larger engine of transformation dim similarity Volume 20 Invoking the ‘apocalypse’ brings forth connotations of the end of the world – historically imagined as everything from the judgment of God to nuclear Armageddon. has been the motivating conceit for a society (and an architecture) of aspirational perfection for quite some time. as just another repository of dead i languages. or 9/11 and Children of Men).highend3d. One could imagine its continuation. What unifies these manifestations is their survivalist undertone. to some degree. The results will not be definitive. why apocalypse now? The genre of the apocalyptic always contains within it a means of working through the problematic of its era. literally nowhere. a chance to have another. This mechanism is never in stasis. If this sounds like an environmental call to arms. then the future of architecture looks . but to a fundamental recalibration of the d imagination (specifically. its needs are never in perfect equilibrium to the available means. ‘City Ruins’ (after ‘Fallout’ video game). but in a material enactment of an increasingly archaic form of thought. in how it t responds to coming disasters major and minor. unencumbered. Both describe a condition of radical change. but that is not the only manifestation or even the most useful. The coming apocalypse may be a solvable problem or it may not be a problem at all. but a beginning. m economic and the unexpected. the bomb shelters of utopia if you will. but indicative. a leveling of the past to make way for the future. It seems that at this juncture. Eventually architecture may become a fixture of the university – as a testament of the plentitude of an earlier human­sm – next to the Classics Department. it is the s h a d o w of the progressive ideal of the avant-garde. in which to weather the a p p r o a c h i n g m a e l s t r o m .6 The operation of the subject in an environment is not only a thing but also an action. resources. a mechanism that calibrates itself to need. There are issues of responsibility.

yet significantly distinct.  There’s No Place to Roam by Volume 20 Volume 20 C-Lab 42 43 . 2008) which extends the arguments regarding the depletion of the world’s oil supply made in The Long Emergency: Surviving the End of Oil. Martin’s Press. 4  Anthony Burgess. no. 3 This usage is a reference to the Thomas More’s Utopia within whose famous work of a perfect imaginary island there is the irony that the perfection is not only imaginary. ‘place’). games) and considered its m relation to historical and contemporary environmental design in architecture. The extent of this implicit optimism with the End of Times can be seen as even extending past ‘humanity’. 2007). but also in its literature. the Seed Bank in Spitsbergen Norway. to which it is clearly related. 20. 42-43. ‘place’). and topoz. The positive associations attributed to Utopia are in fact the domain of the homo­ phonic ‘Eutopia’ (as derived from the Greek eu. ‘not’.1  Kiel Moe’s ‘Observations of the Concept of Place in Post-Risk Societies See in Recent Fiction. ‘good’ or ‘well’. Wagner’s Götter­ äm­ d merung. 5  extent of the renewal motif with the apocalyptic can be found not only The in religious contexts such as the Second Coming in Revelations or the restarting of the Mayan calendar in 2012 with a new epoch. pp. reports. 7  seminar conducted at the Ohio State University Knowlton School of A Architecture last winter examined how the idea of the ‘apocalyptic’ appears in various narrative for­ s (films. Romero’s zombie films. 2006). Vol. Biosphere II. ‘The Art of Frivolity’. one of the more depressing entries in the genre. and topoz. In the novelization the result of the extended energy crisis is both worldwide economic and political collapse as well as an increased supply of fresh churned butter. 2008. landscape and city planning as indicated in projects such as Noah’s Ark. made possible by the new agrarian existence. Cormac McCarthy’s The Road (2006). the Left Behind book series and George A. but in a sense impossible.’ Places. For a further discussion of Kunstler’s Long Emergency see my own ‘The Future of Fuelish Building’ in Volume 7 (2006). Climate Change. 6  One of the more interesting specimens of recent apocalyptic fiction as both indictment and wish fulfillment is James Howard Kunstler’s World Made by Hand: A Novel (Atlantic Monthly Press. ‘not place’ (as translated from the Greek ou. 2. 2007). Times Literary Supplement (12 June 1992): 22. literally. and Other Converging Catastrophes of the Twenty-First Century (Grove Press. in the end (spoiler alert) offered a hope of a future with the son. 2  Naomi Klein’s The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism See (New York: Metropolitan Books. For an envisioning of post-human ecology see Alan Weisman’s The World Without Us (New York: St. as ‘utopia’ means. novels.

the Left Behind book series and George A. 42-43. ‘place’). 4  Anthony Burgess. 5  extent of the renewal motif with the apocalyptic can be found not only The in religious contexts such as the Second Coming in Revelations or the restarting of the Mayan calendar in 2012 with a new epoch.  There’s No Place to Roam by Volume 20 Volume 20 C-Lab 42 43 . ‘good’ or ‘well’. 2007). games) and considered its m relation to historical and contemporary environmental design in architecture. one of the more depressing entries in the genre. The extent of this implicit optimism with the End of Times can be seen as even extending past ‘humanity’. The positive associations attributed to Utopia are in fact the domain of the homo­ phonic ‘Eutopia’ (as derived from the Greek eu. Martin’s Press. Vol. Biosphere II. reports. 6  One of the more interesting specimens of recent apocalyptic fiction as both indictment and wish fulfillment is James Howard Kunstler’s World Made by Hand: A Novel (Atlantic Monthly Press. 3 This usage is a reference to the Thomas More’s Utopia within whose famous work of a perfect imaginary island there is the irony that the perfection is not only imaginary. pp. Cormac McCarthy’s The Road (2006). 2008) which extends the arguments regarding the depletion of the world’s oil supply made in The Long Emergency: Surviving the End of Oil. Climate Change. landscape and city planning as indicated in projects such as Noah’s Ark. the Seed Bank in Spitsbergen Norway. no. Wagner’s Götter­ äm­ d merung. 2008. but in a sense impossible. Times Literary Supplement (12 June 1992): 22. ‘The Art of Frivolity’. literally. For a further discussion of Kunstler’s Long Emergency see my own ‘The Future of Fuelish Building’ in Volume 7 (2006). but also in its literature.’ Places. Romero’s zombie films. to which it is clearly related. In the novelization the result of the extended energy crisis is both worldwide economic and political collapse as well as an increased supply of fresh churned butter. in the end (spoiler alert) offered a hope of a future with the son. 20. 2007). as ‘utopia’ means. and topoz. For an envisioning of post-human ecology see Alan Weisman’s The World Without Us (New York: St. yet significantly distinct. ‘not place’ (as translated from the Greek ou. made possible by the new agrarian existence. ‘place’). novels.1  Kiel Moe’s ‘Observations of the Concept of Place in Post-Risk Societies See in Recent Fiction. 7  seminar conducted at the Ohio State University Knowlton School of A Architecture last winter examined how the idea of the ‘apocalyptic’ appears in various narrative for­ s (films. ‘not’. and topoz. 2. and Other Converging Catastrophes of the Twenty-First Century (Grove Press. 2  Naomi Klein’s The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism See (New York: Metropolitan Books. 2006).

‘I see you are but children. He shuddered to think what would happen to his children. Who tramples there?’ barked an angry tree. cried Hansel and Gretel. and only under the most grimm circumstances. d e e p i n t o t h e f o r e s t . a poor woodcutter’s family lived in a tiny cottage at the edge of the forest. Hansel and Gretel. guided by nothing but the sun. and will .Once upon a time. ‘Can you please ?’ ‘I am G a t e k e e p e r o f t h e f o r e s t ’. The journey was l o n g a n d s l o w . the Woodcutter woke Hansel and Gretel and led them to the woods.1 worried the Woodcutter. he broke off a small branch and gave it to the children. said the tree. The Woodcutter was afraid because his wife was in fact an . There are many that only wish to . he said. but the Woodcutter’s new wife would not agree to sell the cottage. One harvest season.2 family?’ Hansel and Gretel drifted westward3. he told them. The food in the cupboards dwindled until only one loaf of bread remained. ‘And never return or else your hungry stepmother will have you for dinner!’ Tears in their eyes.’ The blight continued. Y o u m a y o n l y u s e i t o n c e h o w e v e r .’ With that. the children ran away. who had an insatiable appetite for children’s flesh. a great hardship struck the land. ‘If you are in trouble. ouch. my roots! ‘We are lost’ help us help you ogress selves Volume 20 Volume 20 ‘Go! Run’. the children arrived at the edge of a bog. . ‘I will need t o s e l l t h e c o t t a g e if I am to feed us all.’ ‘How shall I care for my ‘Oof. snap the branch and it will keep you safe from harm. ‘Take this’. Just as the sun was setting. if she were to crave them. 44 45 help them­ . But the forest beyond is d a n g e r o u s and you must be careful whom you ask for help. At dawn.

but the Woodcutter’s new wife would not agree to sell the cottage. The journey was l o n g a n d s l o w . who had an insatiable appetite for children’s flesh. ‘If you are in trouble. he told them.2 family?’ Hansel and Gretel drifted westward3. a poor woodcutter’s family lived in a tiny cottage at the edge of the forest. The food in the cupboards dwindled until only one loaf of bread remained. the Woodcutter woke Hansel and Gretel and led them to the woods. The Woodcutter was afraid because his wife was in fact an . 44 45 help them­ . . snap the branch and it will keep you safe from harm. Just as the sun was setting. the children ran away. my roots! ‘We are lost’ help us help you ogress selves Volume 20 Volume 20 ‘Go! Run’. ouch. One harvest season. ‘Take this’. ‘And never return or else your hungry stepmother will have you for dinner!’ Tears in their eyes.’ The blight continued. a great hardship struck the land. he broke off a small branch and gave it to the children. he said.Once upon a time. Y o u m a y o n l y u s e i t o n c e h o w e v e r . Who tramples there?’ barked an angry tree. He shuddered to think what would happen to his children.1 worried the Woodcutter. said the tree. At dawn. ‘Can you please ?’ ‘I am G a t e k e e p e r o f t h e f o r e s t ’. the children arrived at the edge of a bog. guided by nothing but the sun. But the forest beyond is d a n g e r o u s and you must be careful whom you ask for help. ‘I will need t o s e l l t h e c o t t a g e if I am to feed us all. and will . There are many that only wish to . if she were to crave them. ‘I see you are but children. and only under the most grimm circumstances.’ With that. d e e p i n t o t h e f o r e s t .’ ‘How shall I care for my ‘Oof. Hansel and Gretel. cried Hansel and Gretel.

an old woman appeared. She kept quiet lest Hansel give away . Watching them dream.’ As soon as her arm was free. pleased that her trap had worked:4 The next morning the children awoke and tried to stretch in bed. took the branch and continued into the forest. ‘I will eat your brother this morning f o r b r e a k f a s t . yelled Gretel. but they were t i e d i n p l a c e . ‘Oh please’. and t h e y disappeared. she said. She reached for Hansel’s hand. she said. they thanked him. ‘Good morning my little pretties’. Gretel grabbed the branch she had hidden in the bedclothes. ‘Last night I fed you full of sweets and pancakes but today I i n t e n d t o e a t y o u ! ’ Hansel began to cry. the branch in two. girl’.’ ‘Gretel! I too am caught. please help me. Ehe-he-he-he-he-he!’ ‘Let’s follow it!’ their secret cracked safe Volume 20 ‘Alas you dears have lost your way And come to this place as unwitting prey On Hansel I will feast tomorrow And enslave young Gretel in her sorrow. The bird took flight and the children ran after it. the old woman sang a lullaby. ‘ I t ’ s m a d e o f c a k e ! ’ The children ran to it and began to nibble the walls. ‘It is just like the ones i n t h e f i e l d s a t h o m e ! ’ The bird stretched its wings to fly. It quickly became . the witch commanded. The children grew tired and sat down under a tree. The children ate pancakes and jam and then fell asleep in . ‘Help!’ dark and cold ‘A-ha. but Gretel remembered the Tree’s gift. said Hansel. They followed it until they reached a little house hidden in the trees. ‘I can’t move.Hansel and Gretel w e r e p u z z l e d by the gravity and relative vagueness of the tree.’ H u n g r y a n d s l e e p y . ‘Prepare the cauldron. Nevertheless. The Witch began to untie Gretel.’ Volume 20 cozy beds 46 47 . You will be here tonight. ‘Don’t eat my house. Suddenly. But the children were hardly safe at all. ‘Look!’ said Gretel to Hansel. Hansel. A snow-white bird flew and perched on the tree above them.’ ‘Come in and help yourself to my supper. ‘Gretel!’ exclaimed Hansel. the children followed her inside.’ the Witch cackled.

but Gretel remembered the Tree’s gift. ‘It is just like the ones i n t h e f i e l d s a t h o m e ! ’ The bird stretched its wings to fly. ‘I will eat your brother this morning f o r b r e a k f a s t . they thanked him.’ As soon as her arm was free. Suddenly. ‘Look!’ said Gretel to Hansel. but they were t i e d i n p l a c e . took the branch and continued into the forest. A snow-white bird flew and perched on the tree above them. the witch commanded.’ ‘Gretel! I too am caught. The children ate pancakes and jam and then fell asleep in . yelled Gretel. It quickly became . You will be here tonight. ‘Last night I fed you full of sweets and pancakes but today I i n t e n d t o e a t y o u ! ’ Hansel began to cry.Hansel and Gretel w e r e p u z z l e d by the gravity and relative vagueness of the tree. The children grew tired and sat down under a tree. ‘I can’t move. ‘Gretel!’ exclaimed Hansel. the children followed her inside.’ ‘Come in and help yourself to my supper.’ the Witch cackled. ‘Help!’ dark and cold ‘A-ha. The Witch began to untie Gretel. Hansel. Nevertheless. Watching them dream. ‘Prepare the cauldron. she said. she said. They followed it until they reached a little house hidden in the trees. please help me. ‘Oh please’. ‘Good morning my little pretties’. ‘ I t ’ s m a d e o f c a k e ! ’ The children ran to it and began to nibble the walls. ‘Don’t eat my house. girl’. She kept quiet lest Hansel give away . She reached for Hansel’s hand. the branch in two. and t h e y disappeared. Ehe-he-he-he-he-he!’ ‘Let’s follow it!’ their secret cracked safe Volume 20 ‘Alas you dears have lost your way And come to this place as unwitting prey On Hansel I will feast tomorrow And enslave young Gretel in her sorrow. said Hansel. Gretel grabbed the branch she had hidden in the bedclothes. pleased that her trap had worked:4 The next morning the children awoke and tried to stretch in bed. an old woman appeared. The bird took flight and the children ran after it. But the children were hardly safe at all. the old woman sang a lullaby.’ Volume 20 cozy beds 46 47 .’ H u n g r y a n d s l e e p y .

They landed with a soft thud. The surroundings looked wild and unfamiliar. the evil sorceress appeared. ‘A h o u s e i s g r o w i n g out of the trees ahead. asked Gretel. ‘How do you come and go?’. But when she stepped inside for the first time. As the children approached.6 The house’s legs quickly shrank and H a n s e l . ‘If your hair is t h e o n l y w a y i n o r o u t ? ’ Rapunzel told them the story of how she had fallen in with the . ‘Perhaps I shall cut off Rapunzel’s hair and all here.’ The Witch in the Candy House was the sister of the Evil Sorceress. We used it to escape from the Witch in the Candy House. If the wand allowed the children to escape. Hansel and Gretel fell d o w n . d o w n . t h e h o u s e g r e w l e g s so long she could never leave. ‘Here!’ she said. but Gretel remembered the Tree’s gift. ‘M y n a m e i s R a p u n z e l . d o w n . Gretel handed her the nowuseless branch and the Sorceress released the spell on the house.’ Hansel began to cry again. it must be v e r y s p e c i a l i n d e e d . thought the Evil Sorceress.’ A young girl appeared in the house’s window. She had given all of her dowry to an evil sorceress to obtain it. asked Hansel. she called to them. ‘T a k e t h i s m a g i c w a n d in exchange for letting us go. she declared. ‘Look!’ cried Gretel. and . ‘Give me the wand and I will ’. Hands clasped tightly.’ ‘Where are we?’ love long hair charming house keep you very powerful Volume 20 Volume 20 let you go 48 49 .5 Hearing her name. ‘What is this?’ she asked. her tumbled to the ground. ‘Please come up’.Up they climbed to the house in the treetops. G r e t e l and Rapunzel ran into the forest.

but Gretel remembered the Tree’s gift. ‘Perhaps I shall cut off Rapunzel’s hair and all here. She had given all of her dowry to an evil sorceress to obtain it. As the children approached. the evil sorceress appeared. Hands clasped tightly. t h e h o u s e g r e w l e g s so long she could never leave. it must be v e r y s p e c i a l i n d e e d . If the wand allowed the children to escape. ‘A h o u s e i s g r o w i n g out of the trees ahead.5 Hearing her name. ‘What is this?’ she asked. ‘Here!’ she said. d o w n . ‘How do you come and go?’. ‘M y n a m e i s R a p u n z e l . ‘Please come up’. thought the Evil Sorceress. d o w n . she declared. We used it to escape from the Witch in the Candy House. ‘If your hair is t h e o n l y w a y i n o r o u t ? ’ Rapunzel told them the story of how she had fallen in with the . she called to them. Gretel handed her the nowuseless branch and the Sorceress released the spell on the house. asked Gretel.’ ‘Where are we?’ love long hair charming house keep you very powerful Volume 20 Volume 20 let you go 48 49 . ‘Look!’ cried Gretel. The surroundings looked wild and unfamiliar.6 The house’s legs quickly shrank and H a n s e l . G r e t e l and Rapunzel ran into the forest.Up they climbed to the house in the treetops.’ A young girl appeared in the house’s window.’ Hansel began to cry again. asked Hansel. They landed with a soft thud. Hansel and Gretel fell d o w n . ‘T a k e t h i s m a g i c w a n d in exchange for letting us go.’ The Witch in the Candy House was the sister of the Evil Sorceress. her tumbled to the ground. But when she stepped inside for the first time. ‘Give me the wand and I will ’. and .

I wish that none of this had ever happened!’ ‘Let’s go just a little further’. ‘Is this right?’ Gretel asked. They immediately chose the right-ward path without hesitation. they stopped to rest. ‘I wish we could go back home.’ . I am ill and too weak to come greet you.’ safe place to go gate ‘Hello? wolf continue your journey Volume 20 Volume 20 ‘Keep going’ 50 51 is that you? .7 Grandmother?’ called Rapunzel at the door. ‘A l l w h o p a s s h e r e a r e l o s t . the children approached. Pass to the left and you will .’ The children were so tired and hungry. ‘Look!’ cried Gretel ‘I think I see a ahead!’ ‘Oh no!’ cried Hansel. Come up to my bedchamber. ‘I think I see a ahead!’ Cautiously. ‘Press the latch. ‘This looks the same as any other in the forest. ‘I am too confused to say for certain. T h e y r a n a n d r a n a n d r a n . ‘Oh dear child. You must choose one of two paths. ’ answered a hoarse voice. ‘You have reached the great crossroads of the forest’ the Wolf declared.’ The three children continued on. ‘This doesn’t look anything like Father’s stone cottage…’ said Gretel. ‘You’ll find just w h a t you are looking for…’ The path was . but the passage was unremarkable.surprisingly short They ran as quickly as they could away from the Evil Sorceress. Finally. exhausted. said the Wolf. ’ And so the three children approached the house. said Rapunzel. Hansel began once again to cry. ‘But it does look like my Grandmother’s house!’ said Rapunzel. To the right is the path that will lead d i r e c t l y t o y o u r g r e a t e s t d e s i r e . ‘We might still find somewhere safe. but if it is w e w i l l b e s a f e h e r e . ‘Why can’t we find a ? The Tree was right’. Gretel observed. At the end a great house loomed.

they stopped to rest.’ The children were so tired and hungry. At the end a great house loomed. ‘I wish we could go back home.’ . Gretel observed.’ safe place to go gate ‘Hello? wolf continue your journey Volume 20 Volume 20 ‘Keep going’ 50 51 is that you? . To the right is the path that will lead d i r e c t l y t o y o u r g r e a t e s t d e s i r e . ’ And so the three children approached the house. ‘Look!’ cried Gretel ‘I think I see a ahead!’ ‘Oh no!’ cried Hansel. ‘A l l w h o p a s s h e r e a r e l o s t . ‘This doesn’t look anything like Father’s stone cottage…’ said Gretel. ‘You have reached the great crossroads of the forest’ the Wolf declared. Come up to my bedchamber. said the Wolf. ‘But it does look like my Grandmother’s house!’ said Rapunzel. said Rapunzel. I wish that none of this had ever happened!’ ‘Let’s go just a little further’. You must choose one of two paths. Hansel began once again to cry. ‘This looks the same as any other in the forest. but if it is w e w i l l b e s a f e h e r e . I am ill and too weak to come greet you.’ The three children continued on. ‘I am too confused to say for certain. T h e y r a n a n d r a n a n d r a n . exhausted.7 Grandmother?’ called Rapunzel at the door. but the passage was unremarkable. the children approached. ‘Why can’t we find a ? The Tree was right’. ‘We might still find somewhere safe. Pass to the left and you will . ‘Is this right?’ Gretel asked.surprisingly short They ran as quickly as they could away from the Evil Sorceress. ’ answered a hoarse voice. ‘You’ll find just w h a t you are looking for…’ The path was . They immediately chose the right-ward path without hesitation. ‘Oh dear child. ‘Press the latch. Finally. ‘I think I see a ahead!’ Cautiously.

both those who have and have not owned houses are finding themselves drawn Lamune Hot Spring House to­ ards w moving home – many by Terunobu Fujimori out of economic circumstance. As a result of this rise in and prioritization of ownership over flexi­ i­ity. we still hold romanticized notions of migration. 2. Even across Canada and western Europe mobility rates have slowed significantly since the 1980s. many people are seeking at least some form of stability to ride out the storm. t there has always been a desirable ‘destination’ of sorts – a place to escape to – California during the Great Depression. and bring your little friends’. but some out of familial or psychological necessity as well. economic fluidity decreased and the real estate market stagnated. the Sun­ elt states in the post-war period. Although the US is notorious for having a fluid population. ‘Grandmother!’ cried Rapunzel. ‘You don’t have to. ‘This is what happens with age. your ears…even your teeth!’ ‘Don’t worry child’. mo­ bili­ y has alt Stone Cottage by Terunobu Fujimori ways been an important aspect of the American psyche.’ Hansel and Gretel removed their coats. a Un­ ortunately. ma­ y people are now ‘upside-down’ as b n a result of the dramatic shift in housing values. Though there’s no ‘magical’ way out of in. Coupled with rising unemployment.dark 1. no one did. to the great mi­ gra­ ion. the fragmentation of the family.’ ‘Can we stay here w i t h y o u f o r e v e r ? ’ asked Hansel. McLeman.creased from the original purchase price. Since the hous­ ing bub­ le b u r s t . The real estate market as a source of capital flow has increasingly lured young people as well. Made uneasy by the ostensibly innumerous unknowns presented by the crisis. loan modification is possible for those w h o find themselves in neg­ tive equity. Both sides d e s i r e d to profit from securitized debt vehil cles. and they all climbed into bed. but where else would you go?’ answered the Wolf. g Like movement in the fairytale narrative. Y o u h a v e n ’ t v i s i t e d i n s o l o n g . So b what now? It seems like the ‘Great Dilemma’ is figuring out where to go. families struggle c with the di­em­ a of immobility l m due to owning a home. (See the interview with A. Where do you go when you can’t afford to stay where you are? (See the interview with R. With no real viable destination. 6.54. And with it comes the threat that the next generation may also fall into the trap of prioritizing stasis – and Gemütlichkeit – over agitation and flexibility. In many respects. The tension between homeownership as an index of personal success and mobility as an instinctive drive has been rendered transparent by the current crisis. Unchecked ac­ k qui­ ition was s by Terunobu Fujimori the name of the game on both ends: inves­ ors were t des­ er­ te to p a pack­ ge a mortgagebacked securities and buyers were desperate to ‘get ahead’ eco­ om­cally. Those with little personal savings or poor credit were particularly vul­ er­ ­ n a ble to prowlToo-High Tea House Ichiya-Tei Tea House by Terunobu Fujimori ing mort­ age g bro­ ers. personal greed coupled with an alluring offer seduced millions of homebuyers into dan­ er­ g ous territory just before the crash.) 3.v e r t e d mortgage payments (un­ess you considl er bankruptcy magical). many find t h e m . remarked Rapunzel. and Rapunzel her red traveling cape. From the westward expansion. son i cial­y and otherwise. Their isolation put them in a worse position to deal with problems linked to to the crisis such as job insecurity. Home can bring about unanticipated and perhaps unfamiliar twists of its own however. remarked the Grandmother. Like Hansel and Gretel’s story. and the lack of available jobs to sustain a mort­ age. the families most vulnerable and often hardest hit by home foreclosure were those situated further from the urban core. 5. An inherent dissonance between ease of mobility and the stability of settlement has long plagued those seeking pros- The three entered. Many people mortgaged homes they could not afford.82. most big mortgage and banking servicers are ill equipped to handle the volume f of meritorious cases brought on by the crisis. families are stuck in the very spaces they were led to believe w o u l d bring them happiness and a reliable investment. and so on. p. the value of which had de. of ease of movement a­­ way from the problematic to a desirable or opportune future. Pay­ ing nega­ tive equity on their homes. mother’ ‘Why Grand­ Volume 20 52 53 ‘Architecture of Terunobu Fujimori and ROJO: Unknown Japanese Architecture and Cities’ Tokyo Opera City Art Gallery Volume 20 ‘Muahahahaha!’ perity. she replied. . financial jeopardy and the deterioration of social networks. Rath­ r than of­fer­ng e i two paths to suc­ ess. . Like Hansel and Gretel’s parents. but in the end. bl Oswald. mi­ gra­ ion rates have in fact slowed to about t 60 per­ ent c of what they were in the post-WWII era. ‘You’ve changed so…your eyes. but the children found candles and made their way to Grandmother’s bedroom. Millions of fore­ closures could be prevented if the ser­ vicers were sim­ ply better equipped to work with homeowners to renegotiate their loans and interest rates ac­ ording to both personal income and c the shifting values of their homes. however. p. 7.) 4.selves living under a sort of market-induced house arrest. ‘C o m e h e r e m y d e a r . The house was . ‘Won’t you all come join me in bed? I am so cold and you must be so tired.

(See the interview with A. remarked the Grandmother. ‘C o m e h e r e m y d e a r . to the great mi­ gra­ ion. Rath­ r than of­fer­ng e i two paths to suc­ ess. So b what now? It seems like the ‘Great Dilemma’ is figuring out where to go. the families most vulnerable and often hardest hit by home foreclosure were those situated further from the urban core. and the lack of available jobs to sustain a mort­ age. Y o u h a v e n ’ t v i s i t e d i n s o l o n g . but in the end. loan modification is possible for those w h o find themselves in neg­ tive equity. And with it comes the threat that the next generation may also fall into the trap of prioritizing stasis – and Gemütlichkeit – over agitation and flexibility. and they all climbed into bed. p. but some out of familial or psychological necessity as well.selves living under a sort of market-induced house arrest. remarked Rapunzel. From the westward expansion. families are stuck in the very spaces they were led to believe w o u l d bring them happiness and a reliable investment. Coupled with rising unemployment. An inherent dissonance between ease of mobility and the stability of settlement has long plagued those seeking pros- The three entered.) 3. but the children found candles and made their way to Grandmother’s bedroom. mi­ gra­ ion rates have in fact slowed to about t 60 per­ ent c of what they were in the post-WWII era. Both sides d e s i r e d to profit from securitized debt vehil cles. son i cial­y and otherwise. and bring your little friends’. 6. Home can bring about unanticipated and perhaps unfamiliar twists of its own however.82. ‘You don’t have to. With no real viable destination. mother’ ‘Why Grand­ Volume 20 52 53 ‘Architecture of Terunobu Fujimori and ROJO: Unknown Japanese Architecture and Cities’ Tokyo Opera City Art Gallery Volume 20 ‘Muahahahaha!’ perity. ma­ y people are now ‘upside-down’ as b n a result of the dramatic shift in housing values. both those who have and have not owned houses are finding themselves drawn Lamune Hot Spring House to­ ards w moving home – many by Terunobu Fujimori out of economic circumstance. ‘You’ve changed so…your eyes. most big mortgage and banking servicers are ill equipped to handle the volume f of meritorious cases brought on by the crisis. . many people are seeking at least some form of stability to ride out the storm. The tension between homeownership as an index of personal success and mobility as an instinctive drive has been rendered transparent by the current crisis. p. and so on.) 4. ‘This is what happens with age. 2. financial jeopardy and the deterioration of social networks. ‘Grandmother!’ cried Rapunzel. The real estate market as a source of capital flow has increasingly lured young people as well. Their isolation put them in a worse position to deal with problems linked to to the crisis such as job insecurity. Pay­ ing nega­ tive equity on their homes. we still hold romanticized notions of migration. your ears…even your teeth!’ ‘Don’t worry child’. Like Hansel and Gretel’s story. personal greed coupled with an alluring offer seduced millions of homebuyers into dan­ er­ g ous territory just before the crash.creased from the original purchase price. Made uneasy by the ostensibly innumerous unknowns presented by the crisis. The house was .v e r t e d mortgage payments (un­ess you considl er bankruptcy magical). Since the hous­ ing bub­ le b u r s t . Millions of fore­ closures could be prevented if the ser­ vicers were sim­ ply better equipped to work with homeowners to renegotiate their loans and interest rates ac­ ording to both personal income and c the shifting values of their homes. In many respects.’ Hansel and Gretel removed their coats. but where else would you go?’ answered the Wolf. . and Rapunzel her red traveling cape. Like Hansel and Gretel’s parents. As a result of this rise in and prioritization of ownership over flexi­ i­ity. ‘Won’t you all come join me in bed? I am so cold and you must be so tired. Many people mortgaged homes they could not afford.54. Where do you go when you can’t afford to stay where you are? (See the interview with R. of ease of movement a­­ way from the problematic to a desirable or opportune future. no one did. Although the US is notorious for having a fluid population. the fragmentation of the family. a Un­ ortunately.’ ‘Can we stay here w i t h y o u f o r e v e r ? ’ asked Hansel. 5. families struggle c with the di­em­ a of immobility l m due to owning a home. Even across Canada and western Europe mobility rates have slowed significantly since the 1980s. the value of which had de. many find t h e m . bl Oswald. g Like movement in the fairytale narrative. mo­ bili­ y has alt Stone Cottage by Terunobu Fujimori ways been an important aspect of the American psyche. the Sun­ elt states in the post-war period. however. Unchecked ac­ k qui­ ition was s by Terunobu Fujimori the name of the game on both ends: inves­ ors were t des­ er­ te to p a pack­ ge a mortgagebacked securities and buyers were desperate to ‘get ahead’ eco­ om­cally. McLeman. she replied. Those with little personal savings or poor credit were particularly vul­ er­ ­ n a ble to prowlToo-High Tea House Ichiya-Tei Tea House by Terunobu Fujimori ing mort­ age g bro­ ers. Though there’s no ‘magical’ way out of in.dark 1. 7. economic fluidity decreased and the real estate market stagnated. t there has always been a desirable ‘destination’ of sorts – a place to escape to – California during the Great Depression.

but what happens to in tech­ ology will be and where people will go. RMcL es. So you had to rely now there’s no reasons why they won’t – damage to coastal very poorest. middle-class jobs. back W or. you will see a reversal of that migration. particularly Robert McLeman migration then and now? Do you see similar patterns. That said. more likely. Either find new sources relatively poor stay where they live now? of water you can bring into those cities (no easy solution) The belief in the journey to make a better life in another place is central to the RMcL ell. long-term con­ equences of that era was that a lot of those s and economic hardship. The middle class is suffering Y physical and natural processes of the environment as well those who stayed came from fragmented networks considerably from the current economic downturn. economic crisis also be an existential one for many people today? Environmental these large urban centers in the Southwest and the Sun Again however. particularly from growing rapidly in recent decades. So what you have are Northern California to the Pacific Northwest and so on. Miami. our under­ tanding s TM That caters to the middle class? is that it was the poor who migrated west. n questioning where to go from here.The Promised Land TM What are your overall observations about The second risk is the scarcity of resources. The middle class the com­ ination of increasing environmental degradation. or certainly a cessation of of people who are population growth in those areas. well relocate. Volume 20 RMcL e often tend to think it was sort of this W together again. or New Orleans again. employ­ ent or going to work in a different sector for m continue – and given our greenhouse gas emissions right like landowners or professionals like lawyers. If you happened to w cities will be an o n g o i n g p r o b l e m . One is coastal communities and infrastructure. the majority of the North American population still Places like Texas and Arizona will no longer be attractive in the American psyche that it is nearly an instinctive act. But my own research in this area shows it’s of that built-in capacity. Might the growth in dry-land areas of the United States has been in the northeast. as well as renewed pop­ exposed to the types of risks that hardship. doesn’t it? TM In other words. I think one of the you could ride out those additional years of drought Volume 20 pressures over the next thirty to fifty years? you get this s t e a d y e r o s i o n . The city of Atlanta. have been able to foresee the growth in the tech sector in In these types of events who suffers most? What I see the nineties that drove population growth in Silicon Valley. year-after-year. Tampa or any of the surprise is what the next leap forward . Going to a new region to seek prosperity is so ingrained then. American experience. Then when you tack onto that risks. in these communities and in these regions. This includes broken families. It won’t just be simply people moving been a couple of cases where American urban centers to Cleveland because the houses and water are cheap. but there’s nomic base as well. because drought is a reality TM What do you see as potential patterns of move­ they were. happening in the future is that the poorest of the poor will the Pacific Northwest and places like Raleigh-Durham. 54 55 Carolinian cities. to me the study of climate change and migration requires both disciplinary angles. about eighteen areas and that’s always a tough one to predict. population ulation growth in areas along the Mississippi watershed. If we were months ago. There are two options. especially in times of lived in rural or agricultural settings. It seems was missing. but the same sort of cocktail of stresses is coming TM From the way the Dust Bowl has been histor­­ ized. Yet you con­ RMcL he reality is that agricultural regions – the Great T tend that those who went west had the fiscal means to Plains or any other – typically have a capacity built into do so and that. have gone belly up – leaving those in tough straits with no place to go. for example. The long-term population growth in dry cities is not Interview by Talene Montgomery in that relatively well-off people migrate and the sustainable. was just about sucking mud out of the having this conversation in the 1980s you and I would never reservoirs that supply that city. I don’t see it actually happening right now. poor people stayed where society to cope with drought. If these trends sufficient means to ride out the drought and depression. I conceive of my own work in that there weren’t the same types of networks one like that. single women. have come awfully close to r u n n i n g o u t o f You’ll have to have concomitant economic growth in those w a t e r . and then the a period of time. But during ment as a result of climate change and environmental mass exodus of the rural poor out of the Great Plains multi-year droughts. continue to suffer the most. Belt. increasing environmental risk and an erosion of the economy that caters to the middle class. I wouldn’t say I see with massive environmental degradation that actual patterns right now. When as human social behavior and socio-spatial patterns. in contrast. So the sheer number and you will see emigration. elderly people and so on. on the Pacific Coast. be in a strong family network or cohesive community. The more the rural middle class who migrated. like getting off farm b increasingly frequent extreme storm events. ic especially through photography. there was social degradation Robert McLeman You’re right. the middle class? I recognize many of the same forces that came together in the thirties to affect the rural middle class in the Great Plains affecting the urban and suburban middle classes in many regions of North America today: Talene Montgomery The field of geography involves communities were suddenly divided. a lot has changed since the thirties in that. who probably would have loved to get out very heavily on social net­ orks. Simultaneously these people had to deal most people have to go somewhere. You’ll have but simply lacked the means. RMcL n the North American context there are two big I to California. weren’t available. The wealthier classes always So the great manage to get through somehow. The people the economic crisis of the 1930s many of the traditional current trend is a rise in sea levels on the East Coast and who were left behind fell into two groups: people who had fall­ ack positions families took. in that it draws upon an understanding of the would normally have in a community and moreover. more of these Hurricane Katrina-type refugee situations in cities like Galveston. that may not have had the collective resources to you remove those types of jobs from the labor market. b the study of physical and social environments. this will only happen in areas with an eco­ geographer Robert McLeman sheds light on past and current migration patterns. But now traditional destinations of opportunity like the American West occurred during the thirties is low. thirties. water. such as what we saw in the affected their livelihood. like that which occurred in the 1930s.

like that which occurred in the 1930s. our under­ tanding s TM That caters to the middle class? is that it was the poor who migrated west. for example. thirties. single women. more likely. RMcL es. elderly people and so on. It seems was missing. or certainly a cessation of of people who are population growth in those areas. The more the rural middle class who migrated. RMcL n the North American context there are two big I to California. middle-class jobs. happening in the future is that the poorest of the poor will the Pacific Northwest and places like Raleigh-Durham. Then when you tack onto that risks. So you had to rely now there’s no reasons why they won’t – damage to coastal very poorest. in that it draws upon an understanding of the would normally have in a community and moreover. and then the a period of time. but the same sort of cocktail of stresses is coming TM From the way the Dust Bowl has been histor­­ ized. I don’t see it actually happening right now. That said. was just about sucking mud out of the having this conversation in the 1980s you and I would never reservoirs that supply that city. employ­ ent or going to work in a different sector for m continue – and given our greenhouse gas emissions right like landowners or professionals like lawyers. The people the economic crisis of the 1930s many of the traditional current trend is a rise in sea levels on the East Coast and who were left behind fell into two groups: people who had fall­ ack positions families took. like getting off farm b increasingly frequent extreme storm events.The Promised Land TM What are your overall observations about The second risk is the scarcity of resources. about eighteen areas and that’s always a tough one to predict. be in a strong family network or cohesive community. weren’t available. year-after-year. but there’s nomic base as well. The wealthier classes always So the great manage to get through somehow. If we were months ago. When as human social behavior and socio-spatial patterns. You’ll have but simply lacked the means. Either find new sources relatively poor stay where they live now? of water you can bring into those cities (no easy solution) The belief in the journey to make a better life in another place is central to the RMcL ell. as well as renewed pop­ exposed to the types of risks that hardship. the majority of the North American population still Places like Texas and Arizona will no longer be attractive in the American psyche that it is nearly an instinctive act. So what you have are Northern California to the Pacific Northwest and so on. But during ment as a result of climate change and environmental mass exodus of the rural poor out of the Great Plains multi-year droughts. the middle class? I recognize many of the same forces that came together in the thirties to affect the rural middle class in the Great Plains affecting the urban and suburban middle classes in many regions of North America today: Talene Montgomery The field of geography involves communities were suddenly divided. or New Orleans again. This includes broken families. back W or. that may not have had the collective resources to you remove those types of jobs from the labor market. increasing environmental risk and an erosion of the economy that caters to the middle class. Belt. population ulation growth in areas along the Mississippi watershed. If you happened to w cities will be an o n g o i n g p r o b l e m . poor people stayed where society to cope with drought. water. there was social degradation Robert McLeman You’re right. There are two options. n questioning where to go from here. have gone belly up – leaving those in tough straits with no place to go. but what happens to in tech­ ology will be and where people will go. b the study of physical and social environments. One is coastal communities and infrastructure. have been able to foresee the growth in the tech sector in In these types of events who suffers most? What I see the nineties that drove population growth in Silicon Valley. to me the study of climate change and migration requires both disciplinary angles. Going to a new region to seek prosperity is so ingrained then. Might the growth in dry-land areas of the United States has been in the northeast. such as what we saw in the affected their livelihood. I think one of the you could ride out those additional years of drought Volume 20 pressures over the next thirty to fifty years? you get this s t e a d y e r o s i o n . The long-term population growth in dry cities is not Interview by Talene Montgomery in that relatively well-off people migrate and the sustainable. have come awfully close to r u n n i n g o u t o f You’ll have to have concomitant economic growth in those w a t e r . a lot has changed since the thirties in that. particularly from growing rapidly in recent decades. particularly Robert McLeman migration then and now? Do you see similar patterns. in these communities and in these regions. well relocate. If these trends sufficient means to ride out the drought and depression. on the Pacific Coast. But my own research in this area shows it’s of that built-in capacity. long-term con­ equences of that era was that a lot of those s and economic hardship. The middle class the com­ ination of increasing environmental degradation. you will see a reversal of that migration. ic especially through photography. Tampa or any of the surprise is what the next leap forward . 54 55 Carolinian cities. because drought is a reality TM What do you see as potential patterns of move­ they were. Volume 20 RMcL e often tend to think it was sort of this W together again. But now traditional destinations of opportunity like the American West occurred during the thirties is low. doesn’t it? TM In other words. I wouldn’t say I see with massive environmental degradation that actual patterns right now. American experience. Miami. The city of Atlanta. continue to suffer the most. who probably would have loved to get out very heavily on social net­ orks. The middle class is suffering Y physical and natural processes of the environment as well those who stayed came from fragmented networks considerably from the current economic downturn. It won’t just be simply people moving been a couple of cases where American urban centers to Cleveland because the houses and water are cheap. Simultaneously these people had to deal most people have to go somewhere. this will only happen in areas with an eco­ geographer Robert McLeman sheds light on past and current migration patterns. Yet you con­ RMcL he reality is that agricultural regions – the Great T tend that those who went west had the fiscal means to Plains or any other – typically have a capacity built into do so and that. So the sheer number and you will see emigration. especially in times of lived in rural or agricultural settings. in contrast. I conceive of my own work in that there weren’t the same types of networks one like that. more of these Hurricane Katrina-type refugee situations in cities like Galveston. economic crisis also be an existential one for many people today? Environmental these large urban centers in the Southwest and the Sun Again however.

copper. the Extension to the charcoal-burner’s hut and the A-House. the ones we are blithely ignorant of…’ says Chilean architect Smiljan Radic – while at the same time his work is distinctly rooted in the material world. stone. His projects respond to their context through the careful consideration and treatment of building materials such as wood. of which we have no memory or image of any kind. Chile Construction year: 2008 . rock and even mud. exceed their presumed contextual narrative. Yet the otherworldly forms of two recent collab­ orations with Marcela Correa. 56 57 Smiljan Radic architect / Marcela Correa sculptor Site area: 0. Chile Designers: Smiljan Radic.Photo: Gonzalo Puga Imaginario Constructivo Smilian Radic ‘Almost all the buildings that interest me are past ones. Marcela Correa Construction year: 1999 Volume 20 underscored their creation instead. as if a fantasy story Volume 20 Extension to the charcoal-burner’s hut Location: Culipran.7 ha Built up area: 75 m2 Location: Talca.

the Extension to the charcoal-burner’s hut and the A-House. as if a fantasy story Volume 20 Extension to the charcoal-burner’s hut Location: Culipran. rock and even mud. Chile Construction year: 2008 . exceed their presumed contextual narrative. Chile Designers: Smiljan Radic. 56 57 Smiljan Radic architect / Marcela Correa sculptor Site area: 0. of which we have no memory or image of any kind. stone.Photo: Gonzalo Puga Imaginario Constructivo Smilian Radic ‘Almost all the buildings that interest me are past ones. the ones we are blithely ignorant of…’ says Chilean architect Smiljan Radic – while at the same time his work is distinctly rooted in the material world.7 ha Built up area: 75 m2 Location: Talca. His projects respond to their context through the careful consideration and treatment of building materials such as wood. Marcela Correa Construction year: 1999 Volume 20 underscored their creation instead. copper. Yet the otherworldly forms of two recent collab­ orations with Marcela Correa.

Everything about Stockton’s suburbs felt temporary. Not everybody. Whole suburban developments that everyone expected to be booming have now been reduced to ghost towns. ‘It seemed fitting that realtors in Stockton should consider it normal to paint these lawns green’.’ Of course. All images are from the series Foreclosed Homes (1995–2008) by Todd Hido. if not repossessed outright. sunning them­ selves on pinewood decking. In some cases wild animals have actually Volume 20 are turning green with algae or simply evaporating to form illegal skate parks.com. cheap lights. ‘Not everybody could afford a landscape like that. rolled up like wallpaper and carted away in the back of a pick-up truck. California. you could say. garages 58 59 . Courtesy of Stephen Wirtz Gallery. a town particularly hard-hit by foreclosures.Foreclosed Homes Geoff Manaugh Photographs by Todd Hido In the otherwise unwatchable 2005 film Fun With Dick and Jane actors Jim Carrey and Téa Leoni watch in dismay as their front lawn is repossessed. toddhido. The natural landscape of their suburban world is revealed as very literally superficial. Volume 20 sit empty. upstairs bedrooms have fallen silent. shelves pinned to cardboardthin drywall. indeed. Montgomery stumbled upon a bizarre growth industry: painting the dead lawns of foreclosed homes green using athletic turf dyes. Lawns are drying up. like some avant-garde backdrop designed for a particularly exotic zoo. as though the place was a movie set – built to be consumed and abandoned. Homes that looked palatial from the street were fragile inside: thin walls. On a visit to Stockton. foreclosures in the US continue to accumulate with no genuine end in sight. pools begun to colonize the derelict homes. It is not a landscape at all. but a commercial product whose lifespan has nothing to do with biology and everything to do with affordability. the gardener. ‘It was only the appearance of vitality that mattered. The turf is literally peeled off the surface of the earth. Mountain lions sleep atop uninhabited ranches. The couple has fallen behind on their payments so their prosthetic terrain is taken away. eh?’ says Hector. he explained to me by email. I’m reminded of an article by Charles Montgomery from the October/November 2008 issue of The Walrus. as he packs an armful of turf into his truck.

sunning them­ selves on pinewood decking. toddhido. Whole suburban developments that everyone expected to be booming have now been reduced to ghost towns. ‘It seemed fitting that realtors in Stockton should consider it normal to paint these lawns green’. ‘It was only the appearance of vitality that mattered. like some avant-garde backdrop designed for a particularly exotic zoo. indeed. I’m reminded of an article by Charles Montgomery from the October/November 2008 issue of The Walrus. California. you could say. pools begun to colonize the derelict homes. Courtesy of Stephen Wirtz Gallery. All images are from the series Foreclosed Homes (1995–2008) by Todd Hido. ‘Not everybody could afford a landscape like that. The couple has fallen behind on their payments so their prosthetic terrain is taken away. rolled up like wallpaper and carted away in the back of a pick-up truck. cheap lights. the gardener. Everything about Stockton’s suburbs felt temporary. garages 58 59 . On a visit to Stockton. Montgomery stumbled upon a bizarre growth industry: painting the dead lawns of foreclosed homes green using athletic turf dyes. Mountain lions sleep atop uninhabited ranches. The turf is literally peeled off the surface of the earth. Lawns are drying up. Volume 20 sit empty. shelves pinned to cardboardthin drywall. Homes that looked palatial from the street were fragile inside: thin walls.’ Of course. foreclosures in the US continue to accumulate with no genuine end in sight.com. upstairs bedrooms have fallen silent. eh?’ says Hector. The natural landscape of their suburban world is revealed as very literally superficial. It is not a landscape at all. as he packs an armful of turf into his truck. as though the place was a movie set – built to be consumed and abandoned. he explained to me by email. but a commercial product whose lifespan has nothing to do with biology and everything to do with affordability. In some cases wild animals have actually Volume 20 are turning green with algae or simply evaporating to form illegal skate parks. if not repossessed outright.Foreclosed Homes Geoff Manaugh Photographs by Todd Hido In the otherwise unwatchable 2005 film Fun With Dick and Jane actors Jim Carrey and Téa Leoni watch in dismay as their front lawn is repossessed. Not everybody. a town particularly hard-hit by foreclosures.

‘Home Savings of America was HSA’. it is a geography of collapse – in this case. but empty dining rooms and leaking sinks. We’ll evacuate a world we hardly knew. These houses. Hido pointed out in a telephone interview. Perhaps the most astonishing thing here. forcibly abandoned and emptied of not quite all their contents. They are antechambers to the afterlife of the American Dream. but I concentrated on the simple little marks and the simple little traces left behind. Perhaps it’s much worse to realize that there isn’t some apotheosis of the suburban landscape on the way. perhaps some loose thumbtacks on the garage floor. then. a purgatory of broken drywall and reclaimed lawns constructed by ancestors Volume 20 Volume 20 we will pretend not to understand. for instance. I probably made it into forty or fifty of them that way and then I started taking pictures. You could tell where pictures had been hung. Enter that code and you can enter the building. Take away the possessions and the electric lights and perhaps it is not a landscape meant for the living at all: the suburbs become a giant sepulcher. In the mid-1990s. It’s as if we’ve come across some little-known burial practice in which twenty-first century homeowners have been entombed with none of their possessions. He and a realtor friend discovered that the codes were nothing more complex than an abbreviation or anagram of the name of the bank that foreclosed on the property. Like a modern-day Pompeii. as if there were still stories on the walls themselves. is to realize how mundane it will be when the world really does fall apart.’ When asked what he hoped to find Hido replied: ‘I was definitely more interested in the ones that weren’t cleaned up. photographer Todd Hido had already begun to document repossessed homes in the greater Los Angeles area. A lot of times somebody would come in and wipe the place clean. weak afternoon sunlight filtered through cheap drapes and oil stains on concrete. which Hido figured out how to access. In sheer volume alone our living rooms now far outweigh the pyramids: for every stone tomb in the world there are a thousand unused dens full of cat hair and dust. There are stained rugs and scuff marks.’ The photos he produced are an odd kind of spatial portraiture: the inner lives of abandoned buildings. However those locked doors included coded lock-boxes containing keys. an immersive archaeological site distributed nationwide. Perhaps the only things we’ll leave behind are some carpet squares. Yet we mustn’t forget that these foreclosures did not begin today. For every cemetery there is a dead lawn in Stockton. So much for the monumental. 60 61 . a geographic rapture that will complete – and finally justify – our built environment. old mattresses. It won’t be all fires and riots and warfare. maybe a broken lamp. Hido’s photos are all the more bleak for being so ordinary. ‘You could always tell what bank it was by the signs in front of the houses.This is the spatial residuum of the financial crisis. were sealed behind locked doors and left to accumulate dust. for instance. There is no moment in the end when it will all make sense.

for instance. photographer Todd Hido had already begun to document repossessed homes in the greater Los Angeles area. old mattresses. Like a modern-day Pompeii. So much for the monumental.’ The photos he produced are an odd kind of spatial portraiture: the inner lives of abandoned buildings. as if there were still stories on the walls themselves. but I concentrated on the simple little marks and the simple little traces left behind. I probably made it into forty or fifty of them that way and then I started taking pictures. Perhaps the most astonishing thing here. Take away the possessions and the electric lights and perhaps it is not a landscape meant for the living at all: the suburbs become a giant sepulcher. for instance. were sealed behind locked doors and left to accumulate dust. You could tell where pictures had been hung. There is no moment in the end when it will all make sense. but empty dining rooms and leaking sinks. a purgatory of broken drywall and reclaimed lawns constructed by ancestors Volume 20 Volume 20 we will pretend not to understand. However those locked doors included coded lock-boxes containing keys. It won’t be all fires and riots and warfare. maybe a broken lamp. which Hido figured out how to access. a geographic rapture that will complete – and finally justify – our built environment. then. it is a geography of collapse – in this case. They are antechambers to the afterlife of the American Dream. It’s as if we’ve come across some little-known burial practice in which twenty-first century homeowners have been entombed with none of their possessions. ‘Home Savings of America was HSA’. Hido’s photos are all the more bleak for being so ordinary. For every cemetery there is a dead lawn in Stockton.This is the spatial residuum of the financial crisis. ‘You could always tell what bank it was by the signs in front of the houses. He and a realtor friend discovered that the codes were nothing more complex than an abbreviation or anagram of the name of the bank that foreclosed on the property. forcibly abandoned and emptied of not quite all their contents. Hido pointed out in a telephone interview. 60 61 . We’ll evacuate a world we hardly knew. A lot of times somebody would come in and wipe the place clean. weak afternoon sunlight filtered through cheap drapes and oil stains on concrete. is to realize how mundane it will be when the world really does fall apart. Enter that code and you can enter the building. perhaps some loose thumbtacks on the garage floor. Perhaps the only things we’ll leave behind are some carpet squares. In sheer volume alone our living rooms now far outweigh the pyramids: for every stone tomb in the world there are a thousand unused dens full of cat hair and dust. There are stained rugs and scuff marks. In the mid-1990s. an immersive archaeological site distributed nationwide.’ When asked what he hoped to find Hido replied: ‘I was definitely more interested in the ones that weren’t cleaned up. Perhaps it’s much worse to realize that there isn’t some apotheosis of the suburban landscape on the way. These houses. Yet we mustn’t forget that these foreclosures did not begin today.

Volume 20 Volume 20 62 63 .

Volume 20 Volume 20 62 63 .

OAKLAND 5 FORECLOSURES UP BY 81% IN U. IT’S 4 MILLION JOBS’ .S. 2 LEAVING MICHIGAN BEHIND: EIGHT-YEAR POPULATION EXODUS STAGGERS STATE 3 AUTO COLLAPSE WOULD RIPPLE ACROSS COUNTRY 4 METRO AREA HOME VALUES SINK FORECLOSURE GLUT FUELS DOUBLE-DIGIT DROPS IN MACOMB. 6 LY THE FORECLOSURE FACTORY: METRO DETROIT IS A NATIONAL CENTER OF THE CRISIS ...TO U T 9J EN 0 0 M 2 LE — PP 20 SU ME LU VO SPECIAL REPORT — 1 W AR RE N SP EC IA L RE PO RT FR O M CR IS IS TO PR O JE CT CRISIS JACKSON: ‘IT’S NOT THE BIG THREE.

. 2 LEAVING MICHIGAN BEHIND: EIGHT-YEAR POPULATION EXODUS STAGGERS STATE 3 AUTO COLLAPSE WOULD RIPPLE ACROSS COUNTRY 4 METRO AREA HOME VALUES SINK FORECLOSURE GLUT FUELS DOUBLE-DIGIT DROPS IN MACOMB. OAKLAND 5 FORECLOSURES UP BY 81% IN U. IT’S 4 MILLION JOBS’ . 6 LY THE FORECLOSURE FACTORY: METRO DETROIT IS A NATIONAL CENTER OF THE CRISIS .S.TO U T 9J EN 0 0 M 2 LE — PP 20 SU ME LU VO SPECIAL REPORT — 1 W AR RE N SP EC IA L RE PO RT FR O M CR IS IS TO PR O JE CT CRISIS JACKSON: ‘IT’S NOT THE BIG THREE..

The city of working and middle class families had become America’s future. Bold steps need to be taken. COMMERCIAL RETAIL STRIPS AND MANUFACTURING . By 1970 the city’s population had grown to its height of 179. People seemed to move through Warren on their way to bigger homes and ‘better’ suburbs and the city’s manufacturing industry dwindled. A fundamental rethinking of the city’s values and its relationship to the metropolitan Detroit region is of eminent importance. 2009 PHOTO: CORINE VERMEULEN-SMITH in the United States as it struggles to attract the young families central to the suburban lifestyle. Soon the area began to attract world-class military and automotive facilities. As the City of Detroit grew in the first half of the century. It became a perfect example of American values and the willpower to pursue them through hard work and homeownership. Struggling real estate and financial markets. places like Warren are at the heart of the battle over the future of the American Dream. People and money left the central city en masse and relocated to the suburbs. a lifestyle change that necessitates economic restructuring and the reorganization of community and space. Rail lines reaching north from Detroit provided the impetus of growth and Warren’s farm and wetlands began to surrender to development in the late 1930s. The demise of suburbia is not at stake.260. people and their money out of the central city to fuel its own growth. Serving as a way station for anyone traveling north from Detroit. Warren could be seen as the typical suburb with single-family homes. Federal programs and policies played a central role in the rapid growth and industrialization of suburban areas through highway construction and mortgage subsidies supporting the ownership of new suburban homes. As more people settled the area it was subdivided and organized into a township of farms in 1835. The automobile industry became one of the most pervasive forces influencing the urbanization of Detroit and its outlying areas.653 to ENCOMPASSING 34. partnership and innovation. Continued expansion of the tax base was the fundamental driver of BY CHRISTIAN ERNSTEN AND TONI MOCERI Seeking bold visions for how the metropolitan suburb can herald a new rendition of the American dream and utilizing the current crisis as inspiration. These places are a powerful shaper of America policies that have global implications. Before the establishment of the township. the renowned campus was ceremonially opened by President Dwight D. Dutch architectural historian Arjen Oosterman. homeownership and auto dependent values even as it celebrated its fiftieth anniversary. Designed by architects Eliel and Eero Saarinen. city. The city had done little to move beyond its manufacturing industry. so did Warren. Warren is transforming and simultaneously innovating by increasing collaboration with urban areas beyond its boundaries. Over the years the city’s economic vitality paralleled the ups and downs of the auto industry. General Joseph Warren. the city is organized in an auto-dependent. the demographic realities of Warren offer opportunity: Warren’s population is more diverse than ever before. Warren was a small settlement known as Beebe’s Corner. Italian. mill and trading post. much like the rest of the southeastern territory of Michigan.5 SQUARE MILES. at the both regional and local levels. development and filled any remaining open space with detached condominiums. Census confirmed that suburbs continue to dominate the United States demographically. Metropolitan Detroit’s conversion into the ‘Arsenal of Democracy’ during World War II propelled the expansion of the military-industrial complex into the unlimited space north of Detroit including the Detroit Arsenal Tank Plant designed by architect Albert Kahn. rising unemployment and the looming fallout from the failure of the auto industry all come together to produce a crisis of extreme proportion in the metropolitan Detroit region. Instead they argue for a new type of urban THE ECONOMIC AND REAL ESTATE CRISIS FOLLOWED BY THE RELATED FINANCIAL STIMULUS OF THE AMERICAN RECOVERY AND REINVESTMENT ACT AND IMMINENT RESTRUCTURING OF THE AMERICAN AUTO INDUSTRY HAS CREATED AN URGENT NEED IN CITIES LIKE WARREN FOR RADICAL TRANSFORMATION. amid the tremendous challenges of this now humbled suburban landscape. In shaping that future three words come to mind: community. Yet Warren’s status as a destination city did not last. Indeed. proof of the American Dream’s viability for those who are diligent. As one-time visitor of Warren. Resources are limited. a complete erasure of suburbia is very unlikely in the near future. Detroit’s largest suburb. gridded arterial system of Mile Roads. General Motors began developing their Technical Center. commercial retail strips and manufacturing related industry spanning from the famed Eight Mile Road to Fourteen Mile Road.. Once the fastest growing city in the United States. The start of 21st century proved that Warren could no longer continue with business as usual. distillery. the workers who had endured and provided the labor to fuel Detroit’s industrial might. Positioning itself in stark contrast to Detroit. Warren. Warren was able to draw businesses.260 between 1940 and 1970. Clearly this is a simplification. but there is energy for renewal. THE CITY IS ORGANIZED IN AN AUTO-DEPENDENT GRIDDED ARTERIAL SYSTEM OF MILE ROADS. Eisenhower in 1956. In fact the 2000 U. this special report seeks to imagine how suburban cities throughout America could evolve in the coming decades. time and money. Warren was the ‘City of Progress’ succeeding as Detroit seemed to fail. stabilize or reconstruct what once allowed American suburbs to thrive won’t be enough to keep up with the rapid pace and negative effects of outsourcing and deindustrialization. practical and forward thinking. it was essentially a road tollgate that grew to include a tavern. People continue to build their lives in Warren. Yet there is an immediate need for a more dynamic approach. It’s Polish. that we find motivation for action and vision. investing energy. Initiatives to accelerate suburbia out of the current downturn need to be based on the appreciation of old values in new ways. surging foreclosures.5 square miles. For this reason they should lead the way in defining how a different narrative and type of civic attitude can shape the 21st century. the name was changed to Warren in 1839 after the first hero of the Revolutionary War. The economic and real estate crisis followed by the related financial stimulus of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act and imminent restructuring of the American auto industry has created an urgent need in cities like Warren for radical transformation. Irish. economically and politically. remarked ‘the situation is grim but American optimism has beaten ghosts and giants’. The suburban lifestyle was the material reward for America’s middle class. it was one of the fastest growing cities in the United States in that period.WARREN SPECIAL REPORT SUPPLEMENT TO VOLUME 20 FROM CR ISIS TO PROJECT R EDEFINING THE AMER ICAN DR EAM CITY OF PROJECTS— 21ST CENTURY WARREN 179. creeks and forests. Within a relatively short period metropolitan Detroit experienced a massive reordering. Some have argued that the death of suburbia is to be expected and would even be liberating. monumentality through a strategic reorganization of infrastructure and public buildings that have lasting historic significance.. In 1950. Indeed. From that date on Warren lost population more quickly than almost any other U. Mere attempts to restore. German. Still the question remains whether the current crisis will be a true catalyst for suburbia to become more than the American Dream as we have known it. As part the massive American suburbanization of the post World War II era. Encompassing 34. English and Ukrainian 3 . Warren’s population surged from 42.S. Originally Hickory Township. It is here. Indeed. single story office buildings and the like. In the early 1800s the area that was to become Warren was rich with wetlands. staked its future on the continued might of its manufacturing industry and appeal of its single family homes. Now it also has the status of one of the most rapidly aging cities 2 Heritage Village. The City of Warren was incorporated in 1957.S. The American pioneering spirit bodes well for the future of suburbia. in open space accessible by rail. WARREN COULD BE SEEN AS THE TYPICAL SUBURB WITH SINGLE-FAMILY HOMES. Warren remained over ninety percent white for decades while Detroit grew increasingly black. In metropolitan Detroit homeownership and racism were closely linked and influential in shaping the development of the region. Optimistic visionaries predict that suburbia after the crisis will be at the center of a cultural shift.

much like the rest of the southeastern territory of Michigan. The suburban lifestyle was the material reward for America’s middle class. remarked ‘the situation is grim but American optimism has beaten ghosts and giants’. Warren’s population surged from 42. Indeed. Some have argued that the death of suburbia is to be expected and would even be liberating. In fact the 2000 U. a lifestyle change that necessitates economic restructuring and the reorganization of community and space. Mere attempts to restore. Metropolitan Detroit’s conversion into the ‘Arsenal of Democracy’ during World War II propelled the expansion of the military-industrial complex into the unlimited space north of Detroit including the Detroit Arsenal Tank Plant designed by architect Albert Kahn. stabilize or reconstruct what once allowed American suburbs to thrive won’t be enough to keep up with the rapid pace and negative effects of outsourcing and deindustrialization. Positioning itself in stark contrast to Detroit. in open space accessible by rail. creeks and forests.260. COMMERCIAL RETAIL STRIPS AND MANUFACTURING . the workers who had endured and provided the labor to fuel Detroit’s industrial might. The city of working and middle class families had become America’s future.. that we find motivation for action and vision. Bold steps need to be taken. In 1950. As more people settled the area it was subdivided and organized into a township of farms in 1835. Now it also has the status of one of the most rapidly aging cities 2 Heritage Village. the name was changed to Warren in 1839 after the first hero of the Revolutionary War. Originally Hickory Township. time and money. economically and politically. By 1970 the city’s population had grown to its height of 179. monumentality through a strategic reorganization of infrastructure and public buildings that have lasting historic significance. Warren is transforming and simultaneously innovating by increasing collaboration with urban areas beyond its boundaries. General Joseph Warren. German. A fundamental rethinking of the city’s values and its relationship to the metropolitan Detroit region is of eminent importance. The economic and real estate crisis followed by the related financial stimulus of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act and imminent restructuring of the American auto industry has created an urgent need in cities like Warren for radical transformation. Warren could be seen as the typical suburb with single-family homes. As one-time visitor of Warren. Warren was the ‘City of Progress’ succeeding as Detroit seemed to fail. Serving as a way station for anyone traveling north from Detroit. rising unemployment and the looming fallout from the failure of the auto industry all come together to produce a crisis of extreme proportion in the metropolitan Detroit region. People and money left the central city en masse and relocated to the suburbs. 2009 PHOTO: CORINE VERMEULEN-SMITH in the United States as it struggles to attract the young families central to the suburban lifestyle. The city had done little to move beyond its manufacturing industry. The American pioneering spirit bodes well for the future of suburbia. The start of 21st century proved that Warren could no longer continue with business as usual. People seemed to move through Warren on their way to bigger homes and ‘better’ suburbs and the city’s manufacturing industry dwindled. but there is energy for renewal. staked its future on the continued might of its manufacturing industry and appeal of its single family homes..260 between 1940 and 1970. As the City of Detroit grew in the first half of the century. Before the establishment of the township. Census confirmed that suburbs continue to dominate the United States demographically. practical and forward thinking. From that date on Warren lost population more quickly than almost any other U. at the both regional and local levels. Eisenhower in 1956. so did Warren. Warren was able to draw businesses. homeownership and auto dependent values even as it celebrated its fiftieth anniversary. Indeed. In shaping that future three words come to mind: community. Warren remained over ninety percent white for decades while Detroit grew increasingly black. Clearly this is a simplification. single story office buildings and the like. investing energy. Initiatives to accelerate suburbia out of the current downturn need to be based on the appreciation of old values in new ways. Struggling real estate and financial markets. city. Once the fastest growing city in the United States. surging foreclosures. Yet Warren’s status as a destination city did not last.653 to ENCOMPASSING 34. Warren was a small settlement known as Beebe’s Corner. Still the question remains whether the current crisis will be a true catalyst for suburbia to become more than the American Dream as we have known it. Over the years the city’s economic vitality paralleled the ups and downs of the auto industry. The demise of suburbia is not at stake. development and filled any remaining open space with detached condominiums. the demographic realities of Warren offer opportunity: Warren’s population is more diverse than ever before. it was one of the fastest growing cities in the United States in that period. the renowned campus was ceremonially opened by President Dwight D. mill and trading post. distillery. It’s Polish. gridded arterial system of Mile Roads.5 SQUARE MILES. the city is organized in an auto-dependent. Rail lines reaching north from Detroit provided the impetus of growth and Warren’s farm and wetlands began to surrender to development in the late 1930s. The automobile industry became one of the most pervasive forces influencing the urbanization of Detroit and its outlying areas. In metropolitan Detroit homeownership and racism were closely linked and influential in shaping the development of the region. Soon the area began to attract world-class military and automotive facilities. Federal programs and policies played a central role in the rapid growth and industrialization of suburban areas through highway construction and mortgage subsidies supporting the ownership of new suburban homes. people and their money out of the central city to fuel its own growth. Designed by architects Eliel and Eero Saarinen. It is here. commercial retail strips and manufacturing related industry spanning from the famed Eight Mile Road to Fourteen Mile Road. WARREN COULD BE SEEN AS THE TYPICAL SUBURB WITH SINGLE-FAMILY HOMES.S. Resources are limited. proof of the American Dream’s viability for those who are diligent. Italian. These places are a powerful shaper of America policies that have global implications. places like Warren are at the heart of the battle over the future of the American Dream. it was essentially a road tollgate that grew to include a tavern. amid the tremendous challenges of this now humbled suburban landscape. Dutch architectural historian Arjen Oosterman. this special report seeks to imagine how suburban cities throughout America could evolve in the coming decades. For this reason they should lead the way in defining how a different narrative and type of civic attitude can shape the 21st century. Encompassing 34. English and Ukrainian 3 . The City of Warren was incorporated in 1957. Yet there is an immediate need for a more dynamic approach.5 square miles. Optimistic visionaries predict that suburbia after the crisis will be at the center of a cultural shift. In the early 1800s the area that was to become Warren was rich with wetlands. Instead they argue for a new type of urban THE ECONOMIC AND REAL ESTATE CRISIS FOLLOWED BY THE RELATED FINANCIAL STIMULUS OF THE AMERICAN RECOVERY AND REINVESTMENT ACT AND IMMINENT RESTRUCTURING OF THE AMERICAN AUTO INDUSTRY HAS CREATED AN URGENT NEED IN CITIES LIKE WARREN FOR RADICAL TRANSFORMATION. Warren. People continue to build their lives in Warren. Within a relatively short period metropolitan Detroit experienced a massive reordering. Indeed.S. It became a perfect example of American values and the willpower to pursue them through hard work and homeownership. General Motors began developing their Technical Center. Detroit’s largest suburb. Continued expansion of the tax base was the fundamental driver of BY CHRISTIAN ERNSTEN AND TONI MOCERI Seeking bold visions for how the metropolitan suburb can herald a new rendition of the American dream and utilizing the current crisis as inspiration. a complete erasure of suburbia is very unlikely in the near future. partnership and innovation. Irish.WARREN SPECIAL REPORT SUPPLEMENT TO VOLUME 20 FROM CR ISIS TO PROJECT R EDEFINING THE AMER ICAN DR EAM CITY OF PROJECTS— 21ST CENTURY WARREN 179. THE CITY IS ORGANIZED IN AN AUTO-DEPENDENT GRIDDED ARTERIAL SYSTEM OF MILE ROADS. As part the massive American suburbanization of the post World War II era.

values and opportunities in the interest of shared solutions. unrestricted by municipal boundaries.. transportation and leisure. The ingenuity. it literally moved the world. Fig. 5. Gran Torino. projects based on neighborhood self-organization. Fig. Warren (lower left) in relation to Macomb County. 3. Chaldean and Muslim groups. specifically with regards to the relation between housing. The crisis urges both public and private partners to reconsider their methods.. work. businesses.WARREN SPECIAL REPORT SUPPLEMENT TO VOLUME 20 FROM CR ISIS TO PROJECT opportunities to reposition Warren in the region and counter the city’s over reliance on the automotive industry. Christian Ernsten is editor at Volume Magazine and partner in Partizan Publik. Toni Moceri is a Macomb County Commissioner representing the northwest portion of Warren and a lifelong resident of the city. creative partnerships have the capacity to spark a broad-minded. catalyze innovation and facilitate alternative forms of ownership and production. Warren in relation to Macomb County relative to Wayne County. Projects such as the Powerhouse are simultaneously community based and networked through media technologies with like-minded efforts that locally produce energy. Old and new groups could exchange and share community values as well as strategic techniques and projects to deal with the crisis. 2. Community and commercial ventures should be engineered in smart ways. In addition. Immigration has been and continues to be central to the region’s vivacity. politicians along with local and international institutions and professionals – now have the chance to rethink how the city organizes itself. 4 DE T ROI T Fig. INNOVATIVE ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND CREATIVE PARTNERSHIPS WILL DETERMINE WARREN’S FUTURE. New partnerships have the potential to create new The situation is grim but American optimism has beaten ghosts and giants ILLUSTRATION: TAYLOR SHEPHERD STRENGTH IN PRODUC TION . Fig. Instead of restoring old values. Fig. Warren could become a model for how the suburb can redirect the region’s focus towards reinvigorating the American Dream in previously unimagined ways. creativity and entrepreneurial spirit of metropolitan Detroit was a fundamental force in the 20th century. As such. Energetic groups of unlikely partners – local homeowners. The Powerhouse prioritizes small-scale do-it-yourself entrepreneurship and production. Street map of Warren. PROJECTS BASED ON NEIGHBORHOOD SELFORGANIZATION. projects such as the Van Dyke-8 Mile Gateway Collaborative (V-8) and Design 99 Powerhouse project provide examples of new approaches that should inform the city’s planning process. 4 WARREN MACOMB COUNTY DETROIT WAYNE COUNTY Fig. a partnership of hope must be built between the City of Warren and the corporations that call it home. entrepreneurship. a new collaboration. food. more sustainable version of urban development. These initiatives illustrate the importance of leveraging shared assets and experiences to enhance economic viability and quality of life. 2 goals. While the road ahead may already be paved. innovation and the dynamism of our cities. City of Warren seal symbolizing the historical assets of the municipality Fig. the City of Warren needs a Master Plan to enable regional collaboration. particularly General Motors. 1. 5 Fig. Join us in envisioning where Warren moves us next. Advancement in manufacturing and engineering as well as infrastructure and transportation are likely common families have been increasingly joined by African-American. filmmaker Clint Eastwood’s motion picture of Detroit metropolitan life shows the difficulties as well as the virtues of changing communities. 1 Fig. based in Amsterdam. 3 5 . Michigan in context of the United States. SPACE FOR SOLUTIONS . 4. The V-8 consists of partners from Detroit. Finally. innovative entrepreneurship and creative partnerships will determine Warren’s future. History shows that culturally diverse and open communities are essential to job growth. Hmong. furniture and all kinds of niche goods. Once a gateway out of the central city. R EDEFINING THE AMER ICAN DR EAM Fig. Centerline and Warren actively developing regional strategies that support physical revitalization and social equity activities.

the City of Warren needs a Master Plan to enable regional collaboration. The ingenuity. businesses. Energetic groups of unlikely partners – local homeowners. it literally moved the world. furniture and all kinds of niche goods. catalyze innovation and facilitate alternative forms of ownership and production. work. While the road ahead may already be paved. creativity and entrepreneurial spirit of metropolitan Detroit was a fundamental force in the 20th century. Advancement in manufacturing and engineering as well as infrastructure and transportation are likely common families have been increasingly joined by African-American. a partnership of hope must be built between the City of Warren and the corporations that call it home. a new collaboration.. 5 Fig. Warren (lower left) in relation to Macomb County. Toni Moceri is a Macomb County Commissioner representing the northwest portion of Warren and a lifelong resident of the city. Once a gateway out of the central city. Instead of restoring old values. 3 5 . Immigration has been and continues to be central to the region’s vivacity. entrepreneurship. INNOVATIVE ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND CREATIVE PARTNERSHIPS WILL DETERMINE WARREN’S FUTURE. R EDEFINING THE AMER ICAN DR EAM Fig. specifically with regards to the relation between housing. more sustainable version of urban development. politicians along with local and international institutions and professionals – now have the chance to rethink how the city organizes itself. PROJECTS BASED ON NEIGHBORHOOD SELFORGANIZATION. Fig. SPACE FOR SOLUTIONS . Gran Torino. innovation and the dynamism of our cities. 3. Chaldean and Muslim groups. food.WARREN SPECIAL REPORT SUPPLEMENT TO VOLUME 20 FROM CR ISIS TO PROJECT opportunities to reposition Warren in the region and counter the city’s over reliance on the automotive industry. Warren in relation to Macomb County relative to Wayne County. 2. Join us in envisioning where Warren moves us next. As such. projects such as the Van Dyke-8 Mile Gateway Collaborative (V-8) and Design 99 Powerhouse project provide examples of new approaches that should inform the city’s planning process. The crisis urges both public and private partners to reconsider their methods. Old and new groups could exchange and share community values as well as strategic techniques and projects to deal with the crisis. values and opportunities in the interest of shared solutions. 4 WARREN MACOMB COUNTY DETROIT WAYNE COUNTY Fig. 1 Fig. Hmong. innovative entrepreneurship and creative partnerships will determine Warren’s future. 1. City of Warren seal symbolizing the historical assets of the municipality Fig. Fig. New partnerships have the potential to create new The situation is grim but American optimism has beaten ghosts and giants ILLUSTRATION: TAYLOR SHEPHERD STRENGTH IN PRODUC TION . The Powerhouse prioritizes small-scale do-it-yourself entrepreneurship and production. Centerline and Warren actively developing regional strategies that support physical revitalization and social equity activities. projects based on neighborhood self-organization. Projects such as the Powerhouse are simultaneously community based and networked through media technologies with like-minded efforts that locally produce energy. unrestricted by municipal boundaries. Christian Ernsten is editor at Volume Magazine and partner in Partizan Publik. Warren could become a model for how the suburb can redirect the region’s focus towards reinvigorating the American Dream in previously unimagined ways. transportation and leisure. 2 goals. Michigan in context of the United States. In addition. Community and commercial ventures should be engineered in smart ways. 4. Fig. History shows that culturally diverse and open communities are essential to job growth. creative partnerships have the capacity to spark a broad-minded. based in Amsterdam. Finally. Street map of Warren. 5. 4 DE T ROI T Fig. The V-8 consists of partners from Detroit. filmmaker Clint Eastwood’s motion picture of Detroit metropolitan life shows the difficulties as well as the virtues of changing communities. particularly General Motors. These initiatives illustrate the importance of leveraging shared assets and experiences to enhance economic viability and quality of life.. Fig.

contributing to a phenomenon that. As home to GM’s North American engineering operations. stories in the Warren Weekly are about fear – fear on the part of businesses owners struggling to keep the lights on and the doors open as fewer patrons pass through them. A number of the same social and economic challenges that fueled the fall of urban life have seeped into the fabric of suburban society. and fear on the part of hardworking men and women in danger of losing their homes. on property previously owned by GM. history and a nearly $40-million boon for Warren’s general fund budget. state. it’s no news flash that everyone is worrying about their ability to pay the bills. a GM transmission plant and a Chrysler truck assembly plant that collectively fund through their taxes about 15 percent of the city’s annual $98 million general fund budget. which is positioned to support enhancement and threat is foreclosure. Warren. planners. the city’s existing properties – specifically. which are populated by loyal and passionate residents. and local agencies. At a dusty construction site just west of the Tech Center. hopes and dreams are at stake in Warren. to document life on the frontlines of the nation’s economic troubles. I took notes as the Heritage Village development broke ground. MI — There’s a steady SOCIAL CONDITIONS. still possess many viable amenities. a graduate of the University of Michigan-Dearborn and a local journalist for C&G Newspapers who has covered the city of Warren. Many automotive suppliers and Suburban family households PHOTO: CHRISTIAN ERNSTEN over 65 age group as the only segment of the population to experience a net increase. barber shops and bars – have already closed shop for good. The site eventually became the most successful commercial redevelopment of a former military facility in U. I jumped at the chance to 6 tour the city’s former U. MI — We have reached a defining moment in the dynamic history of American suburban life. who has touted his own ‘Buy American’ campaign to bolster sales by Detroit’s Big Three and has attempted to lure GM’s executives from their headquarters in downtown Detroit into existing space at the Tech Center – is falling into place. Beloved family homes are gone forever. Jennifer Granholm on down many officials agree that the state needs to position itself as a leader in the development of ‘green’ products and ‘green’ jobs if it is to thrive in the future. as tax revenues that were once plentiful continue to wither and as needed projects that rely on those precious funds die on the proverbial vine. where the global financial crisis has hit home with a vengeance. HOPES AND DREAMS ARE AT STAKE IN WARREN. These communities are anchored by vibrant residential neighborhoods. They can be saved if the seeds of the future can be properly sown in those once-fertile lands lying just north of the Motor City. the company’s North American engineering epicenter. Even in these dire times. Even most typically stoic local administrators are nervous. For those of us who live here. Jobs. Politicians. They’ve come. which are committed to redevelopment and reinvestment in these communities. Many of those heading to Warren in 2009 carry notepads and cameras. {FEDERAL MORTGAGE FINANCING REGULATION} INCENTIVE {TAX STRUCTURE} & TECHNOLOGY {BALLOON FRAME MASS PRODUCED HOUSING} VISIONARY LEADERSHIP {PURSUIT OF: HAPPINESS. The suburb. and population loss seem to be commonplace in a number of metropolitan suburban communities. the GM Tech Center – look to be JOBS. not even in our recent memory. such as Warren. And just as the factories of Warren sprung from the once-fertile farmland during the middle part of 20th century.S. A large percentage of the region’s young people are now leaving town in search of jobs elsewhere. Warren also has much to gain if it can invest its governmental. Army Detroit Arsenal Tank Plant property and write about the metamorphosis of the ‘Arsenal of Democracy. financial institutions. architects. Their strength lies in the foundation for revitalization. which was once the alternative. which has led to instability and 7 Brian Louwers is a lifelong resident of the Detroit area. warehouses. and chosen to reside in the cozy confines of suburbia. and easily duplicated societal structure. CLEMENS. That was less than four years ago. offices or commercial spaces. ECONOMY & CULTURAL VALUES {WHICH CONTROLS} AMERICAN DREAM = STRATEGIC INVESTMENTS. a bitter parallel to the sharp decline in the region’s property values and business climate. an obvious attempt to guide and expedite the transformation. Increased crime. FREEDOM} Diagram outlining the framework that has defined the ‘American Dream’ stream of traffic flowing into Warren these days. In 2009 many of the logically poised to lead the way in the engineering of tomorrow’s vehicles. Since the late 1800’s the majority of American’s have vacated our urban cores. . has left the area’s uncertainty in many suburbs across America. In Warren. It is a tale marked by high unemployment and one amplified by a growing strain on the remaining resources available to the region’s families. The most recent and devastating other businesses – restaurants. educational and business resources early in what many believe will become the technologies of the future. Warren has a lot to lose as the global financial crisis plays out. and others. Michigan’s third-largest city. I followed a $1 billion investment at the General Motors Technical Center. along with their counterparts from all over the world. the kind sought. Today.S. after already losing their jobs. homogenous. MI since 2000. it’s the way it is – and it’s certainly newsworthy – but it wasn’t always this way. which exists in many metropolitan suburbs. and wrote at length about the city’s efforts to fund its new municipal offices and civic center library with funds sold against the promise of tax dollars paid by GM. was on the move when I started covering it in 2000 as a general assignment reporter for the local weekly newspaper. along with improved health care and a large number of aging baby boomers. But even in the face of today’s realities. developers. America’s metropolitan suburbs are faced with economic purchased the world over. businesses and units of government.’ where more tanks rolled out of an iconic factory designed by Albert Kahn during World War II than were produced in all of Nazi Germany. in part. has now become the standard of American living. into the Warren’s Downtown Development Authority district. A concerted effort on the part of labor leaders. but unlike years past it’s not carloads of families looking for new homes in Detroit’s innerring suburbs or job seekers looking to fund lifestyles with livelihoods set in factories. as planned attractive new housing stock for GM engineers going to work at the Tech Center. They are serviced by an integrated and operational road and utility infrastructure. uncertainty and physical decline.WARREN SPECIAL REPORT SUPPLEMENT TO VOLUME 20 FROM CR ISIS TO PROJECT R EDEFINING THE AMER ICAN DR EAM W W POLITICAL MACHINE {IN RESPONSE TO} TRANSITION IN THE ‘CITY OF PROGRESS’ BY BRIAN LOUWERS WARREN. declining housing stock. educators and local politicians – including Warren Mayor Jim Fouts. sold and REINVENTING AMERICA’S METROPOLITAN SUBURBS BY JOHN PAUL REA MT. The addition of a new battery laboratory at the Tech Center would only improve the facility’s chances of garnering international attention as a place where the cars of tomorrow are engineered and perfected. and industries have all played an integral part in the unbridled growth of suburbia. The environment that was created displaced the grit and complexities of urban life with a pristine. but currently the standard has fallen on hard times. Metropolitan suburban communities. In today’s Warren the story is often one rooted in the staggering number of homes either left abandoned or in foreclosure. From Michigan’s Gov. at the epicenter of the American auto industry’s hardships. {INTERSTATE HIGHWAY SYSTEM} POLICY. MI. Their hope lies in the many federal. Many suburban communities are plagued with vacant homes due to the lingering credit and housing crisis. there is good news to report.

which are populated by loyal and passionate residents. HOPES AND DREAMS ARE AT STAKE IN WARREN. not even in our recent memory. which is positioned to support enhancement and threat is foreclosure. Beloved family homes are gone forever. stories in the Warren Weekly are about fear – fear on the part of businesses owners struggling to keep the lights on and the doors open as fewer patrons pass through them. was on the move when I started covering it in 2000 as a general assignment reporter for the local weekly newspaper. At a dusty construction site just west of the Tech Center. A number of the same social and economic challenges that fueled the fall of urban life have seeped into the fabric of suburban society. In 2009 many of the logically poised to lead the way in the engineering of tomorrow’s vehicles. has left the area’s uncertainty in many suburbs across America. planners. That was less than four years ago. and chosen to reside in the cozy confines of suburbia. Army Detroit Arsenal Tank Plant property and write about the metamorphosis of the ‘Arsenal of Democracy. a graduate of the University of Michigan-Dearborn and a local journalist for C&G Newspapers who has covered the city of Warren. declining housing stock. Jennifer Granholm on down many officials agree that the state needs to position itself as a leader in the development of ‘green’ products and ‘green’ jobs if it is to thrive in the future. still possess many viable amenities. MI since 2000. And just as the factories of Warren sprung from the once-fertile farmland during the middle part of 20th century. Even most typically stoic local administrators are nervous. along with improved health care and a large number of aging baby boomers. I followed a $1 billion investment at the General Motors Technical Center. The site eventually became the most successful commercial redevelopment of a former military facility in U. They’ve come. after already losing their jobs. Even in these dire times. state. contributing to a phenomenon that. A concerted effort on the part of labor leaders. The most recent and devastating other businesses – restaurants. The addition of a new battery laboratory at the Tech Center would only improve the facility’s chances of garnering international attention as a place where the cars of tomorrow are engineered and perfected. Jobs. hopes and dreams are at stake in Warren. there is good news to report. Many suburban communities are plagued with vacant homes due to the lingering credit and housing crisis. From Michigan’s Gov. MI — There’s a steady SOCIAL CONDITIONS. Politicians. In today’s Warren the story is often one rooted in the staggering number of homes either left abandoned or in foreclosure. Today. such as Warren.’ where more tanks rolled out of an iconic factory designed by Albert Kahn during World War II than were produced in all of Nazi Germany. The environment that was created displaced the grit and complexities of urban life with a pristine. developers. In Warren. Increased crime. {INTERSTATE HIGHWAY SYSTEM} POLICY. who has touted his own ‘Buy American’ campaign to bolster sales by Detroit’s Big Three and has attempted to lure GM’s executives from their headquarters in downtown Detroit into existing space at the Tech Center – is falling into place. an obvious attempt to guide and expedite the transformation. Their strength lies in the foundation for revitalization. I jumped at the chance to 6 tour the city’s former U. uncertainty and physical decline. Since the late 1800’s the majority of American’s have vacated our urban cores. and local agencies. Warren has a lot to lose as the global financial crisis plays out. Michigan’s third-largest city. has now become the standard of American living. Their hope lies in the many federal. It is a tale marked by high unemployment and one amplified by a growing strain on the remaining resources available to the region’s families. {FEDERAL MORTGAGE FINANCING REGULATION} INCENTIVE {TAX STRUCTURE} & TECHNOLOGY {BALLOON FRAME MASS PRODUCED HOUSING} VISIONARY LEADERSHIP {PURSUIT OF: HAPPINESS. it’s the way it is – and it’s certainly newsworthy – but it wasn’t always this way. the company’s North American engineering epicenter. Warren. ECONOMY & CULTURAL VALUES {WHICH CONTROLS} AMERICAN DREAM = STRATEGIC INVESTMENTS. sold and REINVENTING AMERICA’S METROPOLITAN SUBURBS BY JOHN PAUL REA MT. and population loss seem to be commonplace in a number of metropolitan suburban communities. to document life on the frontlines of the nation’s economic troubles. a bitter parallel to the sharp decline in the region’s property values and business climate. educational and business resources early in what many believe will become the technologies of the future. homogenous. and industries have all played an integral part in the unbridled growth of suburbia. as tax revenues that were once plentiful continue to wither and as needed projects that rely on those precious funds die on the proverbial vine. a GM transmission plant and a Chrysler truck assembly plant that collectively fund through their taxes about 15 percent of the city’s annual $98 million general fund budget. which are committed to redevelopment and reinvestment in these communities. architects. These communities are anchored by vibrant residential neighborhoods. barber shops and bars – have already closed shop for good. which exists in many metropolitan suburbs. and wrote at length about the city’s efforts to fund its new municipal offices and civic center library with funds sold against the promise of tax dollars paid by GM. MI — We have reached a defining moment in the dynamic history of American suburban life. into the Warren’s Downtown Development Authority district. They can be saved if the seeds of the future can be properly sown in those once-fertile lands lying just north of the Motor City. and easily duplicated societal structure. MI. Many of those heading to Warren in 2009 carry notepads and cameras. it’s no news flash that everyone is worrying about their ability to pay the bills.S. Warren also has much to gain if it can invest its governmental. but unlike years past it’s not carloads of families looking for new homes in Detroit’s innerring suburbs or job seekers looking to fund lifestyles with livelihoods set in factories. where the global financial crisis has hit home with a vengeance. financial institutions. in part. America’s metropolitan suburbs are faced with economic purchased the world over. along with their counterparts from all over the world. as planned attractive new housing stock for GM engineers going to work at the Tech Center. the GM Tech Center – look to be JOBS. FREEDOM} Diagram outlining the framework that has defined the ‘American Dream’ stream of traffic flowing into Warren these days. at the epicenter of the American auto industry’s hardships. Many automotive suppliers and Suburban family households PHOTO: CHRISTIAN ERNSTEN over 65 age group as the only segment of the population to experience a net increase. . the city’s existing properties – specifically. CLEMENS. but currently the standard has fallen on hard times. They are serviced by an integrated and operational road and utility infrastructure. which was once the alternative. which has led to instability and 7 Brian Louwers is a lifelong resident of the Detroit area. For those of us who live here. The suburb. But even in the face of today’s realities. Metropolitan suburban communities. businesses and units of government. I took notes as the Heritage Village development broke ground. educators and local politicians – including Warren Mayor Jim Fouts. offices or commercial spaces.WARREN SPECIAL REPORT SUPPLEMENT TO VOLUME 20 FROM CR ISIS TO PROJECT R EDEFINING THE AMER ICAN DR EAM W W POLITICAL MACHINE {IN RESPONSE TO} TRANSITION IN THE ‘CITY OF PROGRESS’ BY BRIAN LOUWERS WARREN. As home to GM’s North American engineering operations. and fear on the part of hardworking men and women in danger of losing their homes. A large percentage of the region’s young people are now leaving town in search of jobs elsewhere. on property previously owned by GM.S. history and a nearly $40-million boon for Warren’s general fund budget. the kind sought. warehouses. and others.

Detroit and the 8 have laid the foundation for the rejuvenation of America’s aging infrastructure. Federal. governance and power-sharing structures. and creating’ at the local grassroots level. the strip mall. planning. MI — Half of hu- R EDEFINING THE AMER ICAN DR EAM differences between the city and the suburban communities. mundane commercial strip centers. growth and community consolidation. Detroit. Reconstituting the public realm of a region requires changes in the way it is imagined. economic investment is misplaced. an influx of money.WARREN SPECIAL REPORT SUPPLEMENT TO VOLUME 20 FROM CR ISIS TO PROJECT redevelopment ventures. The current economic crisis has compounded the extant problem of a shrinking city with the new challenges of restructuring the auto industry. planning. however our metropolitan suburban communities still remain intact and focused on revitalization. an increase in people. land. One of the great examples hampering the rejuvenation of suburbia is zoning. economic and environmental harmony. affordability. supported uniform and compartmentalized land use. money. A projectoriented collaborative environment could create a regional framework for creative partnerships and networking. a new model of urban life is needed to transform the Metro Detroit region. communities surrounding the city have lost more than half their population in the last six decades. Where and when do we invest within the city and the region? How do we define a new urban ecosystem based on the multidimensional relationship between city and society. form a design agency and create projects through the spontaneous action of everyday inhabitation. one of the oldest and the largest suburb of Detroit. prohibiting the emersion of diverse land classifications. Warren. What society must do now is equip our suburbs with cutting edge planning. Based on this idea everyday functional space in Warren could promote a zone of possibility and potential transformation via pragmatic community projects. The idea of a region can be effective when it is conceived as more than mere economic partnership and political collaboration between the city and the Foreclosed House. design. The evolution and current state of American’s metropolitan suburbs and its many positive and negative externalities can be attributed to people. The days of sprawling residential subdivisions. and technology. and institutional resources that have been serving the public for decades. This project-based regional framework can be characterized by strategic regionalism coupled with everyday urbanism – a blend of top-down and bottomup approaches. gives rise to some critical questions. Local decision makers must utilize these tools and provide their communities with the ability to attract new investment and ideas. everyday urbanism emphasizes the bottom-up approach of creating sustainable communities through local projects. Metropolitan suburbs were founded on planning and zoning regulations that not to defunct any theories of the origins of suburban development or what the current impact suburbs have on society. This urban condition has created an imbalance between a continuously sprawling periphery consisting of some of the wealthiest suburbs and a deteriorating urban core consisting of Detroit and the first-ring suburbs. In today’s society these exclusionary planning and zoning practices prohibit growth and creativity. design agency and communicative action. the loss of manufacturing sector jobs and real estate foreclosures. state. or conceived by outside design consultants. The process of project selection and investment decision is unique to everyday urbanism. technological innovation. WE CAN NO LONGER ALLOW THE CUL-DE-SAC. regional John Paul Rea is an Associate Planner with the Macomb County Department of Planning and Economic Development. . The development of such informal networks will inspire and shape formal regional systems. Establishing this regional framework thus also demands concentrated efforts of ‘envisioning. Planners and urban design practitioners have begun to implement more fluid development practices focused on mixed-use and traditional neighborhood design. What made the suburbs grow was the availability of cheap land. regional infrastructure development is poorly planned and even concern with regional problems is extremely low. The Detroit Metro Area is an illustration of such dynamic urban condition. Facing such complex problems. Within two decades nearly 60 per cent of the world’s population will be urban dwellers. For Warren this would necessitate collective decisionmaking to reinforce the strategic investment of money and resources where they are most relevant to the everyday life of the community. and development techniques that will allow us to re-imagine suburbia and stimulate growth. My purpose it to simplify our understanding of suburbs. and uninspiring institutional developments have long passed us. based on standard business model. My point is BY ANIRBAN ADHYA manity now lives in cities and their associated urbanized regions. money. THE STRIP MALL AND THE INDUSTRIAL PARK BE THE IDENTITY OF AMERICAN SUBURBAN LIFE. appropriation and adaptation in the changing context of the community. As some urban regions grow in size and population. citizen stewardship. however many engineering. Warren. MUNDANE COMMERCIAL STRIP CENTERS. In the absence of a strong regional political framework and with the failure of the traditional economic surrounding suburbs. and technology needed to revitalize and thrive. Land may be mostly developed. The two-way approach of strategic regionalismeveryday urbanism focuses on the people. inner-city areas and first ring suburbs – are shrinking and facing the challenges of depopulation and deterioration. We cannot allow metropolitan suburbs to fall into a constant state of economic decline and physical disinvestments. The focus is on selecting and investing in projects that address the relevant everyday needs of the community. economy. and urban design practitioners other urban areas – urban cores. and the industrial park be the identity of American suburban life. 2009 PHOTO: CORINE VERMEULEN-SMITH 9 EVERYDAY URBANISM. One result of this situation has been a lack of effective cooperation and partnership at the regional level: regional governance and political power is weak. and advancements in green technologies and transportation efficiencies THE DAYS OF SPRAWLING RESIDENTIAL SUBDIVISIONS. polity and technology? How do we imagine a sustainable community within the context of a shrinking population? The present economic crisis provides an opportunity to address these questions. Looking at the current state of metropolitan suburban life one could conclude the following: There is a wave of first time homebuyers that are entering a housing market with great opportunity. land. Instead everyday urbanism empowers the existing community to participate in active citizenship. Yet this global urban growth is not uniform across different urban regions. It does not take place according to typical political interests. are focused on the reuse and rehabilitation of underutilized property. URBANISM EVERYDAY Everyday urbanism defined as a dialectic blend of top-down and bottom-up approaches value within the community. the assets and their development model. While southeast Michigan has experienced steady population growth during the last century. Such a new urban direction should promote social. The crisis we are faced with is unprecedented. and a desire for technological innovation. Warren and the surrounding suburbs should work to capture the imagination of the regional population. What this all means is that America’s metropolitan suburban communities possess the people. Many of these suburban communities possess a mixture of established commercial. A community like Warren should foster stronger relationships with other suburban communities and with Detroit. and support. promoting. In the face of drastic economic changes these everyday places will drive the future direction of investment. We can no longer allow the cul-desac. As the metropolis faces the enormous challenges of the current economic crisis a regional approach is critical considering the valuable resources communities across the region share and can potentially harness. Complementing the top-down regional framework. To top it all off metropolitan suburban communities possess two very convenient characteristics in these difficult economic times: affordability and opportunity. Anirban Adhya is Assistant Professor of Urban Design at Lawrence Technological University in Michigan. and local agencies have committed billions of dollars in aid to metropolitan suburban communities in order to stabilize local economies. AND UNINSPIRING INSTITUTIONAL DEVELOPMENTS HAVE LONG PASSED US. to motivate regional collective action and to translate the resulting policies into physical realities. USA. This new model empowers Warren to create an important role in the region for itself thereby illustrating the rebuilding process from crisis to projects through collective imagination. industrial. This regional imbalance has evolved on account of a combination of historic racial dynamics in housing and employment within Detroit and political CONSIDERING MODELS SOUTHFIELD.

THE STRIP MALL AND THE INDUSTRIAL PARK BE THE IDENTITY OF AMERICAN SUBURBAN LIFE. the loss of manufacturing sector jobs and real estate foreclosures. This regional imbalance has evolved on account of a combination of historic racial dynamics in housing and employment within Detroit and political CONSIDERING MODELS SOUTHFIELD. In the absence of a strong regional political framework and with the failure of the traditional economic surrounding suburbs. economy. My point is BY ANIRBAN ADHYA manity now lives in cities and their associated urbanized regions. appropriation and adaptation in the changing context of the community. The idea of a region can be effective when it is conceived as more than mere economic partnership and political collaboration between the city and the Foreclosed House. form a design agency and create projects through the spontaneous action of everyday inhabitation. MUNDANE COMMERCIAL STRIP CENTERS. and the industrial park be the identity of American suburban life. however our metropolitan suburban communities still remain intact and focused on revitalization. In today’s society these exclusionary planning and zoning practices prohibit growth and creativity. a new model of urban life is needed to transform the Metro Detroit region. an increase in people. My purpose it to simplify our understanding of suburbs. Planners and urban design practitioners have begun to implement more fluid development practices focused on mixed-use and traditional neighborhood design. Warren and the surrounding suburbs should work to capture the imagination of the regional population. Detroit and the 8 have laid the foundation for the rejuvenation of America’s aging infrastructure. What society must do now is equip our suburbs with cutting edge planning. Facing such complex problems. A projectoriented collaborative environment could create a regional framework for creative partnerships and networking. We cannot allow metropolitan suburbs to fall into a constant state of economic decline and physical disinvestments. The process of project selection and investment decision is unique to everyday urbanism. Warren. affordability. As some urban regions grow in size and population. design agency and communicative action. mundane commercial strip centers. money. and urban design practitioners other urban areas – urban cores. however many engineering. gives rise to some critical questions. Yet this global urban growth is not uniform across different urban regions. money. What this all means is that America’s metropolitan suburban communities possess the people. land. and local agencies have committed billions of dollars in aid to metropolitan suburban communities in order to stabilize local economies. This urban condition has created an imbalance between a continuously sprawling periphery consisting of some of the wealthiest suburbs and a deteriorating urban core consisting of Detroit and the first-ring suburbs. URBANISM EVERYDAY Everyday urbanism defined as a dialectic blend of top-down and bottom-up approaches value within the community. One of the great examples hampering the rejuvenation of suburbia is zoning. MI — Half of hu- R EDEFINING THE AMER ICAN DR EAM differences between the city and the suburban communities. . economic and environmental harmony. WE CAN NO LONGER ALLOW THE CUL-DE-SAC. the assets and their development model. growth and community consolidation. The development of such informal networks will inspire and shape formal regional systems. inner-city areas and first ring suburbs – are shrinking and facing the challenges of depopulation and deterioration. While southeast Michigan has experienced steady population growth during the last century. the strip mall. communities surrounding the city have lost more than half their population in the last six decades. What made the suburbs grow was the availability of cheap land. prohibiting the emersion of diverse land classifications. Warren. everyday urbanism emphasizes the bottom-up approach of creating sustainable communities through local projects. The evolution and current state of American’s metropolitan suburbs and its many positive and negative externalities can be attributed to people. Within two decades nearly 60 per cent of the world’s population will be urban dwellers. The days of sprawling residential subdivisions. governance and power-sharing structures. It does not take place according to typical political interests. Metropolitan suburbs were founded on planning and zoning regulations that not to defunct any theories of the origins of suburban development or what the current impact suburbs have on society. one of the oldest and the largest suburb of Detroit. Land may be mostly developed. Establishing this regional framework thus also demands concentrated efforts of ‘envisioning. to motivate regional collective action and to translate the resulting policies into physical realities. Looking at the current state of metropolitan suburban life one could conclude the following: There is a wave of first time homebuyers that are entering a housing market with great opportunity. promoting. or conceived by outside design consultants. Local decision makers must utilize these tools and provide their communities with the ability to attract new investment and ideas. and technology needed to revitalize and thrive. Federal. economic investment is misplaced. and advancements in green technologies and transportation efficiencies THE DAYS OF SPRAWLING RESIDENTIAL SUBDIVISIONS. The current economic crisis has compounded the extant problem of a shrinking city with the new challenges of restructuring the auto industry. In the face of drastic economic changes these everyday places will drive the future direction of investment. Detroit. Complementing the top-down regional framework. As the metropolis faces the enormous challenges of the current economic crisis a regional approach is critical considering the valuable resources communities across the region share and can potentially harness. and creating’ at the local grassroots level. and technology. Instead everyday urbanism empowers the existing community to participate in active citizenship. One result of this situation has been a lack of effective cooperation and partnership at the regional level: regional governance and political power is weak. state. land. The focus is on selecting and investing in projects that address the relevant everyday needs of the community. based on standard business model. The crisis we are faced with is unprecedented. AND UNINSPIRING INSTITUTIONAL DEVELOPMENTS HAVE LONG PASSED US. technological innovation. supported uniform and compartmentalized land use. The two-way approach of strategic regionalismeveryday urbanism focuses on the people. regional John Paul Rea is an Associate Planner with the Macomb County Department of Planning and Economic Development. an influx of money. citizen stewardship. This project-based regional framework can be characterized by strategic regionalism coupled with everyday urbanism – a blend of top-down and bottomup approaches. design. polity and technology? How do we imagine a sustainable community within the context of a shrinking population? The present economic crisis provides an opportunity to address these questions. 2009 PHOTO: CORINE VERMEULEN-SMITH 9 EVERYDAY URBANISM. and development techniques that will allow us to re-imagine suburbia and stimulate growth. are focused on the reuse and rehabilitation of underutilized property. industrial. regional infrastructure development is poorly planned and even concern with regional problems is extremely low. This new model empowers Warren to create an important role in the region for itself thereby illustrating the rebuilding process from crisis to projects through collective imagination. and a desire for technological innovation. We can no longer allow the cul-desac. The Detroit Metro Area is an illustration of such dynamic urban condition. Anirban Adhya is Assistant Professor of Urban Design at Lawrence Technological University in Michigan. Based on this idea everyday functional space in Warren could promote a zone of possibility and potential transformation via pragmatic community projects. For Warren this would necessitate collective decisionmaking to reinforce the strategic investment of money and resources where they are most relevant to the everyday life of the community. and support. and institutional resources that have been serving the public for decades. USA. planning. Where and when do we invest within the city and the region? How do we define a new urban ecosystem based on the multidimensional relationship between city and society. To top it all off metropolitan suburban communities possess two very convenient characteristics in these difficult economic times: affordability and opportunity. Many of these suburban communities possess a mixture of established commercial. planning. A community like Warren should foster stronger relationships with other suburban communities and with Detroit. and uninspiring institutional developments have long passed us. Reconstituting the public realm of a region requires changes in the way it is imagined. Such a new urban direction should promote social.WARREN SPECIAL REPORT SUPPLEMENT TO VOLUME 20 FROM CR ISIS TO PROJECT redevelopment ventures.

are connected with a uniform grid of generously sized roadways which are the test bed for the Personal Rapid Transit technologies developed in the area’s research centers after the bankruptcy and restart of General Motors as ‘Green Monuments’. What were Warren’s great assets? What set Warren apart from other cities? First. Future Warren is a refuge from the complicated. SO AC T CI IV AL AT N N EQ I N G TO EC UI TY RE TIN G SO U BU RC S ES INE SS . Warren was able to make this transition into model 3. Thus Warren’s willingness to experiment gave it the competitive edge. overheated hive of highly educated workers. a petri dish for experiments in alternative modernization.Office for Permanent Modernity’ located in Belgium and the USA. The American Dream 3.0 (automobile suburbia as refuge from the evil city). ANDREW CORRIGAN AND ALEXANDER D’HOOGHE CT TIC IC RA RA N NE I IO N A PERIM E X P E R I M E N TA L L RE VI VE VE L LO CA CA ILLUSTRATION: AIDA MIRON PHOTO: CORINE VERMEULEN-SMITH Alexander D’Hooghe is Associate Professor of Architectural Urbanism at MIT. vast areas of global urbanization crisscrossed by a population of exhausted zombies. CO M CE CE LT I AC VA TE IGN S SS B IB CI L LE S SO AL AL I IN MA G G Landscape and monuments of the New Warren E TE ORG OFFICE FOR PERMANENT MODERNITY. He is founder of ‘ORG . often old. Y.0 if you will. TD the Michigan ‘Aerotropolis’ initiative. 2009 of these can be found in the Dakotas (because they’re too thinly populated) or in New England (because it’s too dense and interconnected). Segway and GM built the first Personal Rapid Transit system in Warren. its declining property values had finally reached the point where redevelopment made sense: where else could you find – for free – an excellent roadway network. container-like buildings (a typological residue from the previous industrial age). Finally. GM installed the first electric car refill grid in Warren. polluted.WARREN SPECIAL REPORT SUPPLEMENT TO VOLUME 20 FROM CR ISIS TO PROJECT R EDEFINING THE AMER ICAN DR EAM WARREN. a project similar to Israeli Shai Agassi’s electric project. it holds a permanent Art Biennale. yet filled with new content. In addition. These buildings. more diverse. Second. Heritage Village. attracting artists from across the world to its suburban neighborhoods while simultaneously creating an experimental zone for imported concepts. WARREN DECIDED TO DECLARE ITSELF A ‘FREE-ZONE’ (FREISTADT). existing monumental buildings and a natural reserve that had ES CU BY ALEX ANDER D’HOOGHE CAMBRIDGE. Engineers and researchers could simply walk out of the building and use their own city as the test-society. Fourth.. art colonies and natural preserves: the dream 3. weatherized microcities. younger. an overworked. orderly city with a balance of green and compact development organized in large. Visions of Warren Landscape of the current Warren.0. L L CENTER LINE + DETROIT + WARREN already begun to take back those unraveling edges of Warren with the lowest development density. For example. research facilities. Third. Future Warren is a clear. LL A N Y” I O LL G A NT RE C ME K P LO E IN O OV PR T S TH SH “ M E I R AN Y AD G Ç UN IT FA OMM S G C TION A ATIN CILIT N VE R S FA CO ING PR O M OT E N T E R PR ISE CREATING EFFECTIVE TOOL S PROVIDIN PROGRAMMING + G EDUC ATION AY. and increasingly invested in the city decided to develop a more diverse economy. And the rest is history. 2015 I VIS 99. after 1. maximized through CO Michigan has become the exciting ground zero of the new version of the American Dream. Warren decided to declare itself a ‘free-zone’ (Freistadt). As a result people from all over the world came to visit Warren 3. A PETRI DISH FOR EXPERIMENTS IN ALTERNATIVE MODERNIZATION.. allowed for the location of new green industries with big footprints and easy access to the global market.COM A DESIGN 99 PRODUC TION 10 ADDRESSING THE CONSEQUENCES OF URBAN SPR AWL THAT HAS AFFECTED THE CIT Y OF DETROIT AND ITS INNER-RING SUBURBAN NEIGHBORS. a new generation of citizens. MA — Warren.0 (refuge from European barbarism) and 2. the vast open spaces in the immediate vicinity of the region’s airports. This openness launched its current trajectory of rapid upward development.ORG V8GATEW 11 . downtown warehouses.0 and see its upgraded infrastructure grid.0 first because it was better equipped than most American cities. Neither VAN DYKE–8 MILE GATEWAY COLLABORATIVE POWERHOUSEPROJECT.

This openness launched its current trajectory of rapid upward development. Thus Warren’s willingness to experiment gave it the competitive edge. Warren decided to declare itself a ‘free-zone’ (Freistadt). L L CENTER LINE + DETROIT + WARREN already begun to take back those unraveling edges of Warren with the lowest development density. younger. attracting artists from across the world to its suburban neighborhoods while simultaneously creating an experimental zone for imported concepts. What were Warren’s great assets? What set Warren apart from other cities? First. research facilities. GM installed the first electric car refill grid in Warren. Finally.COM A DESIGN 99 PRODUC TION 10 ADDRESSING THE CONSEQUENCES OF URBAN SPR AWL THAT HAS AFFECTED THE CIT Y OF DETROIT AND ITS INNER-RING SUBURBAN NEIGHBORS. a project similar to Israeli Shai Agassi’s electric project. A PETRI DISH FOR EXPERIMENTS IN ALTERNATIVE MODERNIZATION. weatherized microcities. art colonies and natural preserves: the dream 3. the vast open spaces in the immediate vicinity of the region’s airports.. WARREN DECIDED TO DECLARE ITSELF A ‘FREE-ZONE’ (FREISTADT). Heritage Village.0. Segway and GM built the first Personal Rapid Transit system in Warren. CO M CE CE LT I AC VA TE IGN S SS B IB CI L LE S SO AL AL I IN MA G G Landscape and monuments of the New Warren E TE ORG OFFICE FOR PERMANENT MODERNITY. For example. Second.. Neither VAN DYKE–8 MILE GATEWAY COLLABORATIVE POWERHOUSEPROJECT. polluted. Third. it holds a permanent Art Biennale.WARREN SPECIAL REPORT SUPPLEMENT TO VOLUME 20 FROM CR ISIS TO PROJECT R EDEFINING THE AMER ICAN DR EAM WARREN. overheated hive of highly educated workers. allowed for the location of new green industries with big footprints and easy access to the global market. are connected with a uniform grid of generously sized roadways which are the test bed for the Personal Rapid Transit technologies developed in the area’s research centers after the bankruptcy and restart of General Motors as ‘Green Monuments’. a petri dish for experiments in alternative modernization. an overworked. TD the Michigan ‘Aerotropolis’ initiative. 2009 of these can be found in the Dakotas (because they’re too thinly populated) or in New England (because it’s too dense and interconnected).0 if you will. He is founder of ‘ORG . Future Warren is a clear. LL A N Y” I O LL G A NT RE C ME K P LO E IN O OV PR T S TH SH “ M E I R AN Y AD G Ç UN IT FA OMM S G C TION A ATIN CILIT N VE R S FA CO ING PR O M OT E N T E R PR ISE CREATING EFFECTIVE TOOL S PROVIDIN PROGRAMMING + G EDUC ATION AY. And the rest is history. vast areas of global urbanization crisscrossed by a population of exhausted zombies. 2015 I VIS 99. downtown warehouses. In addition. a new generation of citizens. The American Dream 3. Warren was able to make this transition into model 3.0 first because it was better equipped than most American cities. yet filled with new content. Engineers and researchers could simply walk out of the building and use their own city as the test-society. after 1.Office for Permanent Modernity’ located in Belgium and the USA.0 (refuge from European barbarism) and 2. orderly city with a balance of green and compact development organized in large. MA — Warren. These buildings. As a result people from all over the world came to visit Warren 3. Future Warren is a refuge from the complicated. Y. more diverse.ORG V8GATEW 11 . maximized through CO Michigan has become the exciting ground zero of the new version of the American Dream. SO AC T CI IV AL AT N N EQ I N G TO EC UI TY RE TIN G SO U BU RC S ES INE SS . and increasingly invested in the city decided to develop a more diverse economy. ANDREW CORRIGAN AND ALEXANDER D’HOOGHE CT TIC IC RA RA N NE I IO N A PERIM E X P E R I M E N TA L L RE VI VE VE L LO CA CA ILLUSTRATION: AIDA MIRON PHOTO: CORINE VERMEULEN-SMITH Alexander D’Hooghe is Associate Professor of Architectural Urbanism at MIT.0 (automobile suburbia as refuge from the evil city). container-like buildings (a typological residue from the previous industrial age). existing monumental buildings and a natural reserve that had ES CU BY ALEX ANDER D’HOOGHE CAMBRIDGE. often old. Fourth. its declining property values had finally reached the point where redevelopment made sense: where else could you find – for free – an excellent roadway network. Visions of Warren Landscape of the current Warren.0 and see its upgraded infrastructure grid.

Failure is allowed. THIS IS WHAT HAS BEEN MISSING IN SUBURBIA ALL ALONG: AN INTERRUPTION. releasing them from this single function. each fallow zone would include a Design Studio and a Fabrication Workshop.as in run away or escaped from the suburban house . of monoculture. What if we allow certain fields in the city to ‘lie fallow’.and hightech combination to work. design laboratory and a sort of area headquarters all in one. It would be a place to invent new building materials and structures. CA — Driving VIDE ENACTING ADA PTIV E REUS E/M ISUS E OF BUIL DING S OF GINA REIC HER T A GROUP OF LOCALS AND INTERNATIONAL VISITORS GATHERED FOR A RSVP EVENT* IN WARREN. ALLOWING ONE TO BE ABLE TO SURVEY THE CITY FROM ABOVE AND ONE’S PLACE IN IT. A few ideas already come to mind. The fabrication workshop would be a newly built industrial shed-type building. Next. These would COL LECT ING HISTORIE S OF FOR ECLO SURE STOR IES WOR DS RSVP PAR TNE RS RETH INKI NG OWN ERSH IP RSVP@ARCHIS. CH ANGE PO LICY INIT IATI NG NEIG HBO RHO OD BAR TER SYST EMS E—S TILL S COU RTES Y STAR TING A RADIO STAT ION OR POD CAST LEGI TIMI ZING SCRA PPING BY BERENIK A BOBERSK A LOS ANGELES. TO RE-ENERGIZE ITS URBAN SPIRIT AND TO REVITALIZE ITS TRUST IN DIALOGUE AS THE ESSENCE OF CIVIC LIFE. THESE EVENTS ARE AIMED AT PROVIDING CITIES IN NEED WITH CLUES AND CONCEPTS TO REVIVE THE PUBLIC DOMAIN. creative and public ways. NEW YORK.means returning to an untamed state. Instead it’s more the equivalent to allowing other ‘feral’ forms of design and design practice to take over for a while. Each workshop could take advantage of local technical knowledge with a paid fellowship for a ‘resident engineer’. but can be more like distinct islands within it . BEIRUT AND BERLIN IN HOSTING THE RSVP SERIES. Vacant homes within fallow zones would be bought by the city and dismantled. The workshop would need to be equipped with the latest fabrication technology and tools for this low. That’s what suburbia is: land used for the over-production of real-estate value. a method to rest and revitalize the land. In fallow fields weeds and unpredictable practices can temporarily flourish before giving way as the suburb’s growth renews. These don’t have to follow a grid pattern. WARREN JOINS FELLOW CITIES SUCH AS SHANGHAI. Homeowners would receive incentives to exchange and improve property lying just outside fallow zones. The fallow THE PHYSICAL EFFECT OF AN ELEVATED VIEWPOINT IS EMPOWERING. NAPLES. Flipped upside down they become vessels for wetlands.encompassing an area with the most foreclosures or a floodplain. perhaps! Feral . elevated gardens or ponds for Canadian . It’s the opposite of doing nothing. MI (USA) TO FOCUS ON FINDING PRAGMATIC ANSWERS TO HOW TO MOVE FROM CRISIS TO PROJECT IN METROPOLITAN DETROIT— A WAR REN MOD EL HOM REA LIZING LAN D TRUSTS FEBRUARY 2009: WOR KSH OP HELD IN DISA SSEM BLING HOM ES FOR REUS E OF MAT ERIA LS & COM PON ENT S FALLOW CITY AND FERAL DESIGN THE CLOS ING O DOC UME NTAT ION OF RSVP RE SULTS WE ’RE TH INKING ABOUT: R EDEFINING THE AMER ICAN DR EAM 13 zone would become a testing ground for these experiments. How would this strategy look if applied to the city? Letting land go fallow is not the same as letting it grow wild. meadows. The morphology of roof shapes is very strong and can be used to assemble larger public landscapes. someone laid off from the auto industry. The first task would be to clearly demarcate the fallow zones. Leaving land fallow is an acceptable practice in agriculture. Feral Design could mean recycling building components in new. The task would be to concentrate both empty and inhabited domiciles AC TION at their respective boundaries. Sketch of haystacks and vertical wind farms in autumn fields ILLUSTRATION: BERENIKA BOBERSKA 12 constitute a think-tank. Timber frame roofs could be used in their entirety as formwork for casting new elements. surfaces and even earthworks.WARREN SPECIAL REPORT SUPPLEMENT TO VOLUME 20 FROM CR ISIS TO PROJECT BUIL D STRO NG COM MUN ITY PRIDE DEV ELOPING LAN D BAN KS BREA KING BOU NDA RIES BETW EEN POL ITICAL FOR CES DEV ELOPING A WIN D FAR M ALO NG 8 MILE RD &CR EATI NG GRE ENH OUS ES PLAC ING KIOS KS AS MEE TING POIN TS IN NEIG HBO RHOO DS CRE ATING A CATALO G OF PARTS AVA ILAB LE FOR HOM EOW NER S OPE NING UP FREE DOM OF EXPR ESSION THR OUG H REV ISED CODES & ORDINANCES LAB ELING HOM ES WIT H OWN ERSH IP INFO RMATION BRINGING NOR THE RN MIC HIGA N’S “SPO RTSM AN’S PAR ADIS E” INTO WAR REN ENCOUR AGING PEO PLE TO SHO P AT STOR ES WIT H THE HIGH EST RETU RN TO WAR REN ENC OUR AGING IMM IGRATION PIONEERS USING EMP TY HOM ES OR STOR EFRO NTS FOR NEIG HBO RHO OD PERFORM ANC ES & ART EVEN TS EXPE RIM ENT ING WIT H GRE EN TEC HNO LOG IES through those repetitive fields of suburban homes and their cultivated dreams made me think of intensive farming.ORG *RSVP EVENTS ARE A SERIES OF INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOPS ORGANIZED IN RESPONSE TO AN URGENT CHALLENGE. large enough to work on structures the size of a typical pre-fab house.

CH ANGE PO LICY INIT IATI NG NEIG HBO RHO OD BAR TER SYST EMS E—S TILL S COU RTES Y STAR TING A RADIO STAT ION OR POD CAST LEGI TIMI ZING SCRA PPING BY BERENIK A BOBERSK A LOS ANGELES. It would be a place to invent new building materials and structures. Instead it’s more the equivalent to allowing other ‘feral’ forms of design and design practice to take over for a while.encompassing an area with the most foreclosures or a floodplain.means returning to an untamed state. That’s what suburbia is: land used for the over-production of real-estate value. The morphology of roof shapes is very strong and can be used to assemble larger public landscapes. Homeowners would receive incentives to exchange and improve property lying just outside fallow zones. surfaces and even earthworks. It’s the opposite of doing nothing. How would this strategy look if applied to the city? Letting land go fallow is not the same as letting it grow wild. In fallow fields weeds and unpredictable practices can temporarily flourish before giving way as the suburb’s growth renews.WARREN SPECIAL REPORT SUPPLEMENT TO VOLUME 20 FROM CR ISIS TO PROJECT BUIL D STRO NG COM MUN ITY PRIDE DEV ELOPING LAN D BAN KS BREA KING BOU NDA RIES BETW EEN POL ITICAL FOR CES DEV ELOPING A WIN D FAR M ALO NG 8 MILE RD &CR EATI NG GRE ENH OUS ES PLAC ING KIOS KS AS MEE TING POIN TS IN NEIG HBO RHOO DS CRE ATING A CATALO G OF PARTS AVA ILAB LE FOR HOM EOW NER S OPE NING UP FREE DOM OF EXPR ESSION THR OUG H REV ISED CODES & ORDINANCES LAB ELING HOM ES WIT H OWN ERSH IP INFO RMATION BRINGING NOR THE RN MIC HIGA N’S “SPO RTSM AN’S PAR ADIS E” INTO WAR REN ENCOUR AGING PEO PLE TO SHO P AT STOR ES WIT H THE HIGH EST RETU RN TO WAR REN ENC OUR AGING IMM IGRATION PIONEERS USING EMP TY HOM ES OR STOR EFRO NTS FOR NEIG HBO RHO OD PERFORM ANC ES & ART EVEN TS EXPE RIM ENT ING WIT H GRE EN TEC HNO LOG IES through those repetitive fields of suburban homes and their cultivated dreams made me think of intensive farming. The task would be to concentrate both empty and inhabited domiciles AC TION at their respective boundaries. Each workshop could take advantage of local technical knowledge with a paid fellowship for a ‘resident engineer’. someone laid off from the auto industry. NAPLES. What if we allow certain fields in the city to ‘lie fallow’. meadows. CA — Driving VIDE ENACTING ADA PTIV E REUS E/M ISUS E OF BUIL DING S OF GINA REIC HER T A GROUP OF LOCALS AND INTERNATIONAL VISITORS GATHERED FOR A RSVP EVENT* IN WARREN. Failure is allowed. Sketch of haystacks and vertical wind farms in autumn fields ILLUSTRATION: BERENIKA BOBERSKA 12 constitute a think-tank. BEIRUT AND BERLIN IN HOSTING THE RSVP SERIES. THIS IS WHAT HAS BEEN MISSING IN SUBURBIA ALL ALONG: AN INTERRUPTION. These don’t have to follow a grid pattern. design laboratory and a sort of area headquarters all in one. The fabrication workshop would be a newly built industrial shed-type building. creative and public ways. of monoculture. A few ideas already come to mind. perhaps! Feral . MI (USA) TO FOCUS ON FINDING PRAGMATIC ANSWERS TO HOW TO MOVE FROM CRISIS TO PROJECT IN METROPOLITAN DETROIT— A WAR REN MOD EL HOM REA LIZING LAN D TRUSTS FEBRUARY 2009: WOR KSH OP HELD IN DISA SSEM BLING HOM ES FOR REUS E OF MAT ERIA LS & COM PON ENT S FALLOW CITY AND FERAL DESIGN THE CLOS ING O DOC UME NTAT ION OF RSVP RE SULTS WE ’RE TH INKING ABOUT: R EDEFINING THE AMER ICAN DR EAM 13 zone would become a testing ground for these experiments. releasing them from this single function. but can be more like distinct islands within it . large enough to work on structures the size of a typical pre-fab house. each fallow zone would include a Design Studio and a Fabrication Workshop. WARREN JOINS FELLOW CITIES SUCH AS SHANGHAI.and hightech combination to work. elevated gardens or ponds for Canadian . a method to rest and revitalize the land. Next. Timber frame roofs could be used in their entirety as formwork for casting new elements. The first task would be to clearly demarcate the fallow zones. ALLOWING ONE TO BE ABLE TO SURVEY THE CITY FROM ABOVE AND ONE’S PLACE IN IT. These would COL LECT ING HISTORIE S OF FOR ECLO SURE STOR IES WOR DS RSVP PAR TNE RS RETH INKI NG OWN ERSH IP RSVP@ARCHIS. Vacant homes within fallow zones would be bought by the city and dismantled. The fallow THE PHYSICAL EFFECT OF AN ELEVATED VIEWPOINT IS EMPOWERING.as in run away or escaped from the suburban house . THESE EVENTS ARE AIMED AT PROVIDING CITIES IN NEED WITH CLUES AND CONCEPTS TO REVIVE THE PUBLIC DOMAIN. The workshop would need to be equipped with the latest fabrication technology and tools for this low. Leaving land fallow is an acceptable practice in agriculture. Flipped upside down they become vessels for wetlands. TO RE-ENERGIZE ITS URBAN SPIRIT AND TO REVITALIZE ITS TRUST IN DIALOGUE AS THE ESSENCE OF CIVIC LIFE. NEW YORK. Feral Design could mean recycling building components in new.ORG *RSVP EVENTS ARE A SERIES OF INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOPS ORGANIZED IN RESPONSE TO AN URGENT CHALLENGE.

which serves as a platform for growth. Guerra. “Think local. Oakland.” Warren Weekly 25 February 2009.com> / 2. Jordan Martin (Lawrence Tech). “Foreclosures up by 81% in U. “The foreclosure factory: Metro Detroit is a nation center of the crisis. <http:// www. Calvin Creech (Lawrence Tech).. Volume is published by the Archis Foundation.detnews. <www. Jeff Schroeder (Macomb County). “Leaving Michigan Behind: Eight-year population exodus staggers state outflow of skilled.detnews. POSTER DESIGN: NINA BIANCHI AND LIISA SALONEN. This is what has been missing in suburbia all along: an interruption. Zemke. meadows. THE BOUNDARY BE T WEEN FALLOW ZONES AND THE CIT Y WOULD BE THE MOST FECUND. Taylor Shepherd and Berenika Boberska SPECIAL THANKS TO : Ole Bouman (NAI). Kuhnhenn Brewery. intellectual reflection and a political theory of action. It’s 4 million jobs.com> / 3.” The Detroit News. “Metro area home values sink: Foreclosure glut fuels double-digit drops in Macomb.metromodemedia. <www. feral architecture scattered in public orchards.freep.” The Detroit News 2 April 2009. THESE WOULD BE PUBLIC SPACES FOR THE TR ADE AND E XCHANGE OF PRODUC TS.” Detroit Free Press 4 May 2009. forests. 14 NAME : John Pugh AGE : 30 HOMETOWN : Herndon.detnews. MA SPECIALIZATION : Architecture and urbanism RESEARCH INTEREST: Urban public infrastructure WHY WARREN : The consequences of the decline of the automobile industry can be read in Warren’s industrial landscape. wetlands. Gina Cavalier (City of Warren). tall slender mountain-like forms with engineered surfaces packed with wildflowers. Ron and Mike Wilkinson. a collection of houses raised on stilts above the trees and turned into aerial libraries or reading rooms. “Auto collapse would ripple across country.freep. The platform is directed by Alexander D’Hooghe. PRODUCED BY AIGA DETROIT On right: ‘Heartland Machine’ — a roving. <www.com> / 4.com> / 6. <www. City of Warren. VA SPECIALIZATION : Architecture and urbanism RESEARCH INTEREST: Urban core typologies WHY WARREN : Warren represents an advanced version of the typical inner ring suburb. a new identity for the city will be generated. Arjen Oosterman DESIGN : Nina Bianchi PHOTOGRAPHERS : Corine Vermeulen-Smith. open air cinemas and auditoriums.freep. allowing one to be able to survey the city from above and one’s place in it. AS A STR ATEGY THIS STORY DEFINITELY HAS AN ENDING.”The Detroit News.com> / 13.” Detroit Free Press 15 April 2009. A PROJECT OF DESIGN 99 *HEADLINE SOURCES (FRONT AND BACK COVERS) 1. Jun.” Detroit Free Press 15 January 2009.” The Detroit News 7 May 2009. Oralandar.” Metromode 30 August 2007. Or they could be high-tech structures clad with fabrics printed with patterns composed of colorful solar cells. THE FALLOW ZONES WOULD FUNC TION LIKE L ABOR ATORIES. “What can Flint’s near-death experience teach other cities?” Detroit Free Press 3 May 2009. A new industrial typology can revive Warren’s economy and provide infrastructure for new civic programs. HOWE VER.npr. PAID FELLOWSHIPS AT THE DESIGN STUDIO WORKSHOPS AND FOR THE PROTOT YPICAL DESIGN PROJEC TS COULD BE FUNDED BY CORPOR ATE SPONSORSHIP. THE CIT Y WOULD E VENTUALLY E XPAND AG AIN ABSORBING THE NE W E XPERIMENTAL PR AC TICES. studies architectural urbanism. away from housing crisis. Michigan State Representative Lesia Liss.’” The Detroit News 4 December 2008.detnews. WARREN WELCOMES PLATFORM FOR A PERMANENT MODERNITY As an outcome of the RSVP goal to perpetuate an ongoing exchange between local stakeholders and the international design and architecture community.com> / 10. combined and stacked. Catherine. Rose Furlong (City of Warren). ( FARM L AB OF LOS ANGELES HAS A SELEC TION OF MUSHROOM SPORES PARTICUL ARLY FOND OF BUILDING MATERIALS.ORG . James Stevens (Lawrence Tech). THE FABRIC CAN BE SCREEN PRINTED. These would be vertical wind farms with sculptured surfaces made from tiny plastic turbines that work just as well as one huge one.WARREN SPECIAL REPORT SUPPLEMENT TO VOLUME 20 FROM CR ISIS TO PROJECT RETURN TO AN UNTAMED STATE FAILURE IS ALLOWED geese. The Netherlands. French. NPR. 15 May 2009. THIS COULD BE A PROTOT YPE FOR A ‘SOL AR HOUSE COZ Y’ – SOME THING TO BE USED WIDELY. Abitare. they can be cut. R EDEFINING THE AMER ICAN DR EAM platforms. <www. <www. Louwers.aspx> WARREN SPECIAL IS A SUPPLEMENT TO VOLUME MAGAZINE 20 EDITORIAL TEAM : Toni Moceri. LIKE PIONEERS IN SUBURBIA.” All Things Considered. <www.org/templates/story/story. Through the introduction of the mega-form type.> / 14.CITYOFWARREN. ONLY WITH MUSHROOM SPORES. THIS REL ATIONSHIP WOULD E VENTUALLY SWITCH AROUND. “(Rev. Or they could be lighter structures like vertical aviaries for migrating birds. A strong singular intervention. Arjen Oosterman and Gina Reichert ILLUSTRATIONS / GRAPHIC IMAGES : Nina Bianchi. Some houses are almost like mobile building blocks..com> / 7. Lucia Tozzi (Abitare). architecture and culture in Detroit. they would be essentially public structures. POSTER DESIGN: NINA BIANCHI AND DESIGN 99. FALLOW CIT Y WOULD ONLY E XIST FOR A SE ASON OR T WO – ON AN ECONOMIC/URBAN TIMESCALE. On left: A scenario re-working the idea of an assembly line for the future of design. VISI ★ TO GET INVOLVED IN WARREN 15 T WW W.S. Henry Bowman (City of Warren). Brand-Williams. tall point-towers with viewing DIY RECIPES {RECIPE FOR A WILDFLOWER HOUSE} STRIP THE WALLS AND ROOFS OF OUTER SURFACE MATERIAL DOWN TO THE TIMBER FR AME AND STUDS. “In Detroit. Warren welcomes the Platform for Permanent Modernity and their researchers! The Platform for a Permanent Modernity. IDE AS AND PROTOT YPES. Jesse) Jackson: ‘It’s not the Big Three. “A model for others?” Detroit Free Press 3 May 2009. The physical effect of an elevated viewpoint is empowering. Netherlands Architecture Institute. a research group at MIT. Michigan State Representative Jon Switalski. Fallow zones could be public islands within private suburbia. BUT PER FALLOW ZONE. It would be a place where one can stay right at the top.freep. FUNDS COULD INITIALLY BE REDIREC TED FROM WELFARE PROGR AMS TO CRE ATE EMPLOYMENT DISMANTLING HOUSES. WHICH BY THEN WOULD HAVE HAD A CHANCE TO ESTABLISH THEMSELVES. “Green acres in Detroit? Why not. The fallow zones would gradually become autonomous. from the fictitious book Agents of Change. I. <www.” The Detroit News 19 November 2008. the College of Architecture and Design at Lawrence Tech. <www. <www. Brian C. City of Warren TIFA. TO OTHER CITIES. “Motor city journal: Farming takes root in Detroit. <www. act regional. Winnick Homes. John.php?storyId=102053853> / 9. Special Report. “Gathering aims to look forward. <www. Brent Moceri and everyone who participated in the Warren RSVP. COMBINING A PAT TERN OF PRINTED SOL AR CELLS WITH GR APHIC S. The structures could be vertical parks. Artists Look For Renewal In Foreclosures. WITH AN E YE TO TAKING THE DESIGNS TO A WIDER MARKE T. Belgium.detnews. 21 November 2008. PERHAPS E ACH FALLOW ARE A COULD DE VELOP GENER AL RESE ARCH THEMES. Christina. Aida Miron. 18 March 2009. FINANCING THE PROJEC T’S INITIAL FINANCIAL BURDEN ( BUYING PROPERT Y ) WOULD FALL ON THE CIT Y AND GOVERNMENT STIMULUS FUNDING. THE SPONSORS WOULD HAVE ACCESS TO THE WORK .detnews. WHICH WOULD LIMIT THE RESE ARCH. John Crumm (Macomb County).com> / 12. <http://www. and Printed by Die Keure.com/features/Regionalism0033.’ {RECIPE FOR A FABRIC HOUSE} STRIP A HOUSE DOWN TO ITS STRUC TURE AND CRE ATE A FULL-SIZE FABRIC GLOVE FOR IT. Christian Ernsten. such as a tall structure – not a cluster of towers or a linear downtown – instinctively makes a necessary counterpoint to the fallow field. Jennifer.Like tall haystacks loosely interspaced in autumn fields.detnews. AS THE ENERGY HARVESTING PROJEC TS DE VELOPED IN THE FREED UP ARE AS WOULD FEED BACK INTO THE CIT Y’S SYSTEMS. THEN FILL THE HOUSE WITH THE DEBRIS AND PACK E ARTH MIXED WITH SEEDS IN-BE T WEEN THE TIMBERS {RECIPE FOR WILD MUSHROOM HOUSE} SIMIL AR TO A WILDFLOWER HOUSE. COLOPHON LO OK IN G FO TH E PO TE NT IA RW AR D TO OF TH IS NE W L OU TC OM ES AN D EX PA RT NE RS HI P!CI TI NG NAME : Marissa Cheng AGE : 26 HOMETOWN : Carlisle. Philip Plowright (Lawrence Tech).com> / 5. have a picnic and connect visually with other structures in other fallow zones of the city a place for encounters. ARCHIVES: PROJECTING TOMORROW’S VOICES TODAY Berenika Boberska is a Polish-British architect and installation artist currently based in Los Angeles. Rogers. NOT PER PROJEC T.com> / 8. Michigan State Housing Development Authority (MSHDA). collecting bricolage slated to travel through the Midwest Heartland in the summer of 2009.) THIS COULD ALSO BE A KIND OF ‘SOF T DEMOLITION. “Wind turbines generate Michigan job hopes.com> / 11. Design 99. Constance Bodurow (Lawrence Tech). mayor asks. Surface materials can be stripped and changed. Macomb County Planning and Economic Development.candgnews.E. There would be enough freedup surface area for solar or wind energy collectors to meet the needs of a much lower density. kinetic. educated workers crimps Michigan’s recovery. Corine Vermeulen-Smith. It investigates the intersection of formal design.

com> / 6..com> / 10. the College of Architecture and Design at Lawrence Tech.) THIS COULD ALSO BE A KIND OF ‘SOF T DEMOLITION. which serves as a platform for growth. Christina. <www. Constance Bodurow (Lawrence Tech). THEN FILL THE HOUSE WITH THE DEBRIS AND PACK E ARTH MIXED WITH SEEDS IN-BE T WEEN THE TIMBERS {RECIPE FOR WILD MUSHROOM HOUSE} SIMIL AR TO A WILDFLOWER HOUSE.php?storyId=102053853> / 9. intellectual reflection and a political theory of action. FALLOW CIT Y WOULD ONLY E XIST FOR A SE ASON OR T WO – ON AN ECONOMIC/URBAN TIMESCALE. “Wind turbines generate Michigan job hopes. Michigan State Representative Lesia Liss. Fallow zones could be public islands within private suburbia. Or they could be lighter structures like vertical aviaries for migrating birds.CITYOFWARREN. COMBINING A PAT TERN OF PRINTED SOL AR CELLS WITH GR APHIC S.com/features/Regionalism0033.” Metromode 30 August 2007. wetlands. The structures could be vertical parks. tall slender mountain-like forms with engineered surfaces packed with wildflowers. “In Detroit. Taylor Shepherd and Berenika Boberska SPECIAL THANKS TO : Ole Bouman (NAI). educated workers crimps Michigan’s recovery. The Netherlands. ARCHIVES: PROJECTING TOMORROW’S VOICES TODAY Berenika Boberska is a Polish-British architect and installation artist currently based in Los Angeles.com> / 7. “The foreclosure factory: Metro Detroit is a nation center of the crisis. Jun.aspx> WARREN SPECIAL IS A SUPPLEMENT TO VOLUME MAGAZINE 20 EDITORIAL TEAM : Toni Moceri. There would be enough freedup surface area for solar or wind energy collectors to meet the needs of a much lower density.”The Detroit News. “Think local.com> / 8.com> / 2. Rose Furlong (City of Warren). Brand-Williams. mayor asks.’” The Detroit News 4 December 2008. <www. Jesse) Jackson: ‘It’s not the Big Three. a collection of houses raised on stilts above the trees and turned into aerial libraries or reading rooms.freep. French.” The Detroit News 19 November 2008. <http:// www. PAID FELLOWSHIPS AT THE DESIGN STUDIO WORKSHOPS AND FOR THE PROTOT YPICAL DESIGN PROJEC TS COULD BE FUNDED BY CORPOR ATE SPONSORSHIP. they would be essentially public structures. VISI ★ TO GET INVOLVED IN WARREN 15 T WW W. feral architecture scattered in public orchards. NOT PER PROJEC T.” Detroit Free Press 4 May 2009. 14 NAME : John Pugh AGE : 30 HOMETOWN : Herndon. Lucia Tozzi (Abitare).detnews. “Metro area home values sink: Foreclosure glut fuels double-digit drops in Macomb. Henry Bowman (City of Warren). <www.metromodemedia. WARREN WELCOMES PLATFORM FOR A PERMANENT MODERNITY As an outcome of the RSVP goal to perpetuate an ongoing exchange between local stakeholders and the international design and architecture community. “Motor city journal: Farming takes root in Detroit. Corine Vermeulen-Smith. from the fictitious book Agents of Change.candgnews. away from housing crisis. Louwers.S. THE CIT Y WOULD E VENTUALLY E XPAND AG AIN ABSORBING THE NE W E XPERIMENTAL PR AC TICES. THE BOUNDARY BE T WEEN FALLOW ZONES AND THE CIT Y WOULD BE THE MOST FECUND. COLOPHON LO OK IN G FO TH E PO TE NT IA RW AR D TO OF TH IS NE W L OU TC OM ES AN D EX PA RT NE RS HI P!CI TI NG NAME : Marissa Cheng AGE : 26 HOMETOWN : Carlisle.detnews. Kuhnhenn Brewery. On left: A scenario re-working the idea of an assembly line for the future of design. <www. WITH AN E YE TO TAKING THE DESIGNS TO A WIDER MARKE T.freep. ( FARM L AB OF LOS ANGELES HAS A SELEC TION OF MUSHROOM SPORES PARTICUL ARLY FOND OF BUILDING MATERIALS. Surface materials can be stripped and changed. It’s 4 million jobs. IDE AS AND PROTOT YPES. 18 March 2009. Oralandar.” All Things Considered. kinetic.’ {RECIPE FOR A FABRIC HOUSE} STRIP A HOUSE DOWN TO ITS STRUC TURE AND CRE ATE A FULL-SIZE FABRIC GLOVE FOR IT.” Detroit Free Press 15 April 2009. Netherlands Architecture Institute. The platform is directed by Alexander D’Hooghe. <http://www. have a picnic and connect visually with other structures in other fallow zones of the city a place for encounters. a new identity for the city will be generated. POSTER DESIGN: NINA BIANCHI AND DESIGN 99.com> / 3.detnews. PRODUCED BY AIGA DETROIT On right: ‘Heartland Machine’ — a roving. NPR. This is what has been missing in suburbia all along: an interruption. A new industrial typology can revive Warren’s economy and provide infrastructure for new civic programs. I. architecture and culture in Detroit. Volume is published by the Archis Foundation. Arjen Oosterman DESIGN : Nina Bianchi PHOTOGRAPHERS : Corine Vermeulen-Smith. act regional.com> / 5. James Stevens (Lawrence Tech). AS THE ENERGY HARVESTING PROJEC TS DE VELOPED IN THE FREED UP ARE AS WOULD FEED BACK INTO THE CIT Y’S SYSTEMS. Brian C. Jeff Schroeder (Macomb County). WHICH BY THEN WOULD HAVE HAD A CHANCE TO ESTABLISH THEMSELVES..npr. THE FALLOW ZONES WOULD FUNC TION LIKE L ABOR ATORIES. It investigates the intersection of formal design. Rogers. Jennifer. John Crumm (Macomb County). A PROJECT OF DESIGN 99 *HEADLINE SOURCES (FRONT AND BACK COVERS) 1. Jordan Martin (Lawrence Tech).” The Detroit News 2 April 2009. <www. <www. POSTER DESIGN: NINA BIANCHI AND LIISA SALONEN. Christian Ernsten.WARREN SPECIAL REPORT SUPPLEMENT TO VOLUME 20 FROM CR ISIS TO PROJECT RETURN TO AN UNTAMED STATE FAILURE IS ALLOWED geese. THE SPONSORS WOULD HAVE ACCESS TO THE WORK . Belgium. “Foreclosures up by 81% in U. AS A STR ATEGY THIS STORY DEFINITELY HAS AN ENDING. open air cinemas and auditoriums. Macomb County Planning and Economic Development.” The Detroit News. Catherine. THIS COULD BE A PROTOT YPE FOR A ‘SOL AR HOUSE COZ Y’ – SOME THING TO BE USED WIDELY. The physical effect of an elevated viewpoint is empowering. Warren welcomes the Platform for Permanent Modernity and their researchers! The Platform for a Permanent Modernity. allowing one to be able to survey the city from above and one’s place in it. Arjen Oosterman and Gina Reichert ILLUSTRATIONS / GRAPHIC IMAGES : Nina Bianchi. <www. MA SPECIALIZATION : Architecture and urbanism RESEARCH INTEREST: Urban public infrastructure WHY WARREN : The consequences of the decline of the automobile industry can be read in Warren’s industrial landscape. a research group at MIT.detnews.E. VA SPECIALIZATION : Architecture and urbanism RESEARCH INTEREST: Urban core typologies WHY WARREN : Warren represents an advanced version of the typical inner ring suburb. “A model for others?” Detroit Free Press 3 May 2009.com> / 13.” The Detroit News 7 May 2009.” Detroit Free Press 15 January 2009.freep. Artists Look For Renewal In Foreclosures.ORG . <www. Philip Plowright (Lawrence Tech). R EDEFINING THE AMER ICAN DR EAM platforms.org/templates/story/story. WHICH WOULD LIMIT THE RESE ARCH. A strong singular intervention. ONLY WITH MUSHROOM SPORES. City of Warren TIFA. “What can Flint’s near-death experience teach other cities?” Detroit Free Press 3 May 2009. 15 May 2009.” Warren Weekly 25 February 2009.Like tall haystacks loosely interspaced in autumn fields. FINANCING THE PROJEC T’S INITIAL FINANCIAL BURDEN ( BUYING PROPERT Y ) WOULD FALL ON THE CIT Y AND GOVERNMENT STIMULUS FUNDING. Brent Moceri and everyone who participated in the Warren RSVP. LIKE PIONEERS IN SUBURBIA. These would be vertical wind farms with sculptured surfaces made from tiny plastic turbines that work just as well as one huge one. Calvin Creech (Lawrence Tech). such as a tall structure – not a cluster of towers or a linear downtown – instinctively makes a necessary counterpoint to the fallow field. Michigan State Housing Development Authority (MSHDA). THIS REL ATIONSHIP WOULD E VENTUALLY SWITCH AROUND.detnews. they can be cut. Abitare. combined and stacked. John. Aida Miron. Michigan State Representative Jon Switalski. PERHAPS E ACH FALLOW ARE A COULD DE VELOP GENER AL RESE ARCH THEMES.com> / 4. “(Rev. tall point-towers with viewing DIY RECIPES {RECIPE FOR A WILDFLOWER HOUSE} STRIP THE WALLS AND ROOFS OF OUTER SURFACE MATERIAL DOWN TO THE TIMBER FR AME AND STUDS. studies architectural urbanism. Design 99. <www. Gina Cavalier (City of Warren). THESE WOULD BE PUBLIC SPACES FOR THE TR ADE AND E XCHANGE OF PRODUC TS. The fallow zones would gradually become autonomous.detnews. FUNDS COULD INITIALLY BE REDIREC TED FROM WELFARE PROGR AMS TO CRE ATE EMPLOYMENT DISMANTLING HOUSES. “Gathering aims to look forward. HOWE VER. Special Report. Through the introduction of the mega-form type.detnews. “Auto collapse would ripple across country.> / 14.freep. Winnick Homes. <www.com> / 12. collecting bricolage slated to travel through the Midwest Heartland in the summer of 2009. Or they could be high-tech structures clad with fabrics printed with patterns composed of colorful solar cells. Oakland. Ron and Mike Wilkinson. Zemke. BUT PER FALLOW ZONE. <www. and Printed by Die Keure. City of Warren. Some houses are almost like mobile building blocks. “Leaving Michigan Behind: Eight-year population exodus staggers state outflow of skilled. THE FABRIC CAN BE SCREEN PRINTED.com> / 11. TO OTHER CITIES. forests. 21 November 2008. “Green acres in Detroit? Why not. It would be a place where one can stay right at the top. meadows. Guerra. <www.

They failed to ground themselves that the composition of urban neighborhoods is in the things that were happening around them. Now. and tying these things are going to erupt. Volume speaks with New York-based curator Nato Thompson about the effects of the global recession on a local urban scale. Both the previously upwardly mobile and native-born. Daniel Tucker and I recently went The big question is the degree to which foreclosures and Volume 20 VO Won’t You be My Neighbor? the Iraq War was clearly a concern.. The local scale has personal in new directions given current economic and political immediacy and that’s effective in organizing and radicalizing conditions? people. A big problem of the post-Seattle era is that geopolitics and resistance practices have become extraordinarily esoteric. I mean everybody’s NT The local scale is critical. you never know where to the local scale? GREEN ACRES IN DETROIT? . AWAY FROM HOUSING CRISIS SUPPLEMENT TO VOLUME 20 REDEFINING THE AMERICAN DREAM are increasingly being disenfranchised from homeownership. 81 happening in a foreign country than about something that’s because it’s harder to get excited about something . with foreclosures and people losing have things like the activist group Right to the City looking 10 Volume Given the ongoing crisis it seems interesting jobs and having to find cheaper places to live. Nato Thompson Yes. So it seems like the geopolitics of the local scale is peril as well.LU SU M PP E LE 20 M — EN 20 T T 09 O JU LY Nato Thompson Interviewed by Volume IN DETROIT. ACT REGIONAL People who might have been on different divides of with regard to issues that dealt with the partic­ lars of u 12 the same plight as struggling working class families. That question is very much unresolved at this point.. This the gentrification issue may discover that they’re now on the same side and literally on the same block today. I think nities. You need to create allegiances that are to cities across the US and talked to people about what’s more productive and will be drawn increasingly together. Chicago and Boston have created a situation 8 A MODEL FOR OTHERS? in which once-antagonistic neighbors now find themselves on similarly perilous 9 footing. Chicago is a really interesting example: 14 sus­ ep­ ible – it’s not quite as simple as neighborhoods c t Democracy in America. ARTISTS LOOK FOR RENEWAL IN FORECLOSURES If the legacy of the boom economy known as gentrification is a deep-rooted example of class conflict. blue-collar families PROJECT GATHERING AIMS TO LOOK FORWARD. Volume What is the significance of the attention given 13 NT I agree and to be quite frank. ment which found itself e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y w e a k 11 are now in is an organic outgrowth of the anti-globalization move­ FARMING TAKES ROOT IN DETROIT cases those very people who ‘gentrified’ neigh­ or­ oods b h of struggles happening right on your corner. in terms WHAT CAN FLINT’S NEAR-DEATH EXPERIENCE TEACH OTHER CITIES? them into the conditions of global capital movement. in some at geopolitical forces from the local perspective. Rampant foreclosures in highly entrenched US working-class neighborhoods in. everyday life. It gets people’s attention and politics on the table. THINK LOCAL. then home vacancy may be an emerging example of class meltdown. So now you changing. but we found that most mass layoffs will actually affect neighborhoods and com­ u­ m people’s primary concerns were with gentrification. For a project called being separated. They find them­selves in evolving and fluid at the moment. for example. important to them. 7 WIND TURBINES GENERATE MICHIGAN JOB HOPES Volume Do you find urban-related practices evolving that’s happening a block away.

Now. It gets people’s attention and politics on the table. They find them­selves in evolving and fluid at the moment. AWAY FROM HOUSING CRISIS SUPPLEMENT TO VOLUME 20 REDEFINING THE AMERICAN DREAM are increasingly being disenfranchised from homeownership. then home vacancy may be an emerging example of class meltdown. Volume speaks with New York-based curator Nato Thompson about the effects of the global recession on a local urban scale. but we found that most mass layoffs will actually affect neighborhoods and com­ u­ m people’s primary concerns were with gentrification. 7 WIND TURBINES GENERATE MICHIGAN JOB HOPES Volume Do you find urban-related practices evolving that’s happening a block away. ment which found itself e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y w e a k 11 are now in is an organic outgrowth of the anti-globalization move­ FARMING TAKES ROOT IN DETROIT cases those very people who ‘gentrified’ neigh­ or­ oods b h of struggles happening right on your corner. That question is very much unresolved at this point. you never know where to the local scale? GREEN ACRES IN DETROIT? . You need to create allegiances that are to cities across the US and talked to people about what’s more productive and will be drawn increasingly together. ARTISTS LOOK FOR RENEWAL IN FORECLOSURES If the legacy of the boom economy known as gentrification is a deep-rooted example of class conflict. So it seems like the geopolitics of the local scale is peril as well. important to them.. Volume What is the significance of the attention given 13 NT I agree and to be quite frank. and tying these things are going to erupt. ACT REGIONAL People who might have been on different divides of with regard to issues that dealt with the partic­ lars of u 12 the same plight as struggling working class families. for example. This the gentrification issue may discover that they’re now on the same side and literally on the same block today. I mean everybody’s NT The local scale is critical. everyday life.LU SU M PP E LE 20 M — EN 20 T T 09 O JU LY Nato Thompson Interviewed by Volume IN DETROIT. Rampant foreclosures in highly entrenched US working-class neighborhoods in. So now you changing. Both the previously upwardly mobile and native-born. They failed to ground themselves that the composition of urban neighborhoods is in the things that were happening around them. For a project called being separated. Chicago is a really interesting example: 14 sus­ ep­ ible – it’s not quite as simple as neighborhoods c t Democracy in America. in some at geopolitical forces from the local perspective.. with foreclosures and people losing have things like the activist group Right to the City looking 10 Volume Given the ongoing crisis it seems interesting jobs and having to find cheaper places to live. Daniel Tucker and I recently went The big question is the degree to which foreclosures and Volume 20 VO Won’t You be My Neighbor? the Iraq War was clearly a concern. A big problem of the post-Seattle era is that geopolitics and resistance practices have become extraordinarily esoteric. 81 happening in a foreign country than about something that’s because it’s harder to get excited about something . THINK LOCAL. I think nities. Nato Thompson Yes. The local scale has personal in new directions given current economic and political immediacy and that’s effective in organizing and radicalizing conditions? people. Chicago and Boston have created a situation 8 A MODEL FOR OTHERS? in which once-antagonistic neighbors now find themselves on similarly perilous 9 footing. in terms WHAT CAN FLINT’S NEAR-DEATH EXPERIENCE TEACH OTHER CITIES? them into the conditions of global capital movement. blue-collar families PROJECT GATHERING AIMS TO LOOK FORWARD.

it’s simpler for l Volume 20 Do you own your own home? Volume 20 JI given the current sorts of losses.If You Go There Will Be Trouble. has been recently. governments Andrew Oswald have given major tax breaks to people to own their own Interviewed by Jeffrey Inaba and Talene Montgomery homes and individuals have responded rationally. you needed to be relocate and get their first and second jobs. it’s a wiggly line but it’s pretty flat. In order to achieve economic efficiency. how might as the housing market. But you tend to come back to the that allows people to move around. but after the Second World War the rental housing that helped people. they become what we’ve seen. When it’s falling. all over the Western world. The graph is a classic example of a strongly trend-reverting of workers. say – are back to the 1960s. because they’re doing lots of samp­ing. In the post-war era in western Europe and capital gains. And throughout the industrialized world after the Second World JI Do you see promising policy proposals that take stock of these effects? ‘Look this is crazy. So geography workers and citizens need to do this efficiently. AO Yes. tives to rent and incentives to own. T h e n t h e y d o u b l e d a g a i n . especially the young. exactly. their par­ ic­ lar area. the push homeownership rates up to eighty or ninety percent. in the economist’s terms. the only place where young families could when the housing market is rising. gripped the world. within a certain demographic range? And do you find this to be particularly the case because they can’t start off being a homeowner. less mobile. and architecture are deeply entwined in the labor as well If we give very large tax incentives for homeownership then. this is a very serious error. Andrew Oswald Historically it’s not that hard to predict homeownership and private rentership. Homeowners also routinely commute much where they are or move. That. I deferred purchasing and menting. idea was promoted that to be well-off. interested in your idea that there are ‘those who invest This has caused a tremendous distortion in what you might is an especially serious problem for young people. or possibly longer-distances and that produces pollution and con­ switch careers. Economist Andrew Oswald’s work elucidates the mobility debate. big house price rise above the long-term trend and that’s AO If a person buys their own home. which could market crash. percent of the residents are homeowners – that includes don’t want to hear it. It’s really most striking in the US. in a century. Life-cycle considerations are very important. we better stop now’. but in both continents there is something threshold at which homeowners decide that it’s not in to the idea that having a lot of homeowners their best interest to hold onto their asset and move? than migration and flexibility be central to resolving our economic crisis? In an slows the labor market down. It’s tricky to get the timing exactly right. [pause] most folks AO Yes. both for the individual and for the good of the whole places like Spain. So from the very outset. There isn’t a one-to-one correlation The foreclosed home is the most potent sign of our times. As a consequence only AO I have a sense that western governments are starting about one-third of Swiss citizens own their own homes. Community planners often highlight the importance of social capital during moments of crisis – but what are the JI differences between these two? between high levels of homeownership and a badly working economic values of mobility? Might stability and investment in one place rather Is it simply a matter of degree or are there categorical Are there economic models or theories about the labor market. Finland. Instead they kept a balance between in­ en­ c crazy slump periods. real house prices in the US had reached their highest levels is an inefficient one. whether to remain incentives to migrate be built into policies that affect the built environment? It’s useful to bear in mind that homeowners routinely block and benefits of everything in life including the decision era when infrastructure and public works dominate urban debates. Eastern Europe and Italy – are economy. is further exacerbated coun­ ries during this huge housing boom is that people t by the fact that when one wants to keep their home. And there’s a double effect: a n t u AO We don’t know why this sort of homeownership fever War there was a much greater supply of cheaply available When I started issuing warnings in my country. Renting helps economic efficiency. downturn is there really a ‘place’ to move to? What do experi­ AO I do own my own home. All the economies in which around eighty Maybe politicians are realizing that you need a fluid element to your housing stock. That’s really bad – at the group level – for rate across North America just as there is across western the whole economy. gestion both of which are bad for everyone. Owning a home is typically a disadvantage If you draw a graph of real house prices in the US over to a worker because they tend to become locked into the last hundred years. You can always ployment differ in European countries versus the US? find some sectors of the economy that are doing relatively . I suppose that it was this flaw that prompted Jeffrey Inaba In 2002 you anticipated the housing Talene Montgomery Over ten years ago you began have started to think that they can make more money from they’re willing to seek jobs elsewhere. Looking l TM If the idea of moving to a place of prosperity exists people – those in their mid-twenties.5 percent. one is commuting a long One of the things that’s happened across industrialized distance. We are assets – than from their real job or investing in retraining. 82 83 you think. in a sense. I’m pleased I’m in the smallest possible home. AO Yes. Most people didn’t want to listen. The to realize that maybe it’s not such a great thing to try and Swiss have an unemployment rate of about 3. we see that economies seem to flourish in the American collective psyche. lowest in Europe. the UK. i m m o b i l e w o r l d . as you say. and eastern Europe. even in the US. They’re look­ing for the right kind of job. as a society we’re providing a huge subsidy to immobility. If you but we know that every twenty years there tends to be a in immobility’ and ‘those who invest in flexibility’. And reasons. anyone who says.’ That’s always a dangerous strategy. perhaps very far away. If the party is absolutely JI booming and it’s half-past midnight. There’s lots of economic evidence that young now experiencing serious labor market prob­ems. as it afford to buy were further away from city centers. them not to be tied to a particular area. But that AO I think it’s a mistake to emphasize differences between has locked in even very young people and they’ve been the United States and most of the rich European countries. bought the smallest possible home I could for family the right kind of career track. Economics assumes that people weigh the costs employment. What were the indicators? making observations about the dichotomy between just d o i n g n o t h i n g – holding onto their housing ­ be at great distance. so firms have job openings for ultimately the wrong sorts a homeowner. given the current when around fifty percent of residents are homeowners. There’s a strong link between the need for Switzerland is unusual in that it did not give big tax breaks to economic system. call reliable economic values. imagine a world with very high levels of homeownership. in terms of larger migration patterns? TM How do patterns of homeownership and unem­ AO It’s a mistake to be overly gloomy. casting doubt on Westerners’ impulse to settle in one place. It’s worth emphasizing too that this housing crashes. We’re really saying to workers: ‘Forget what’s JI efficient for the economy. An’ If You Stay There Will Be Double Unfortunately. You can have crazy boom periods or efficiency and the need for a fluid kind of housing market homeowners. new businesses through zoning laws which is bad for whether to be an owner or a renter. for the rest of their life. it’s extremely hard for a new cohort of young workers TM Why is it that housing has been made to seem attractive in terms of incentives? sensible trend. just think about how to earn sprawl. more concerned about holding onto their asset than finding There’s a tremendous spread in the owner-occupation the right career. You get square pegs in round holes.

That’s really bad – at the group level – for rate across North America just as there is across western the whole economy. The to realize that maybe it’s not such a great thing to try and Swiss have an unemployment rate of about 3. tives to rent and incentives to own. All the economies in which around eighty Maybe politicians are realizing that you need a fluid element to your housing stock.If You Go There Will Be Trouble. in the economist’s terms. And there’s a double effect: a n t u AO We don’t know why this sort of homeownership fever War there was a much greater supply of cheaply available When I started issuing warnings in my country. And throughout the industrialized world after the Second World JI Do you see promising policy proposals that take stock of these effects? ‘Look this is crazy. Life-cycle considerations are very important. In the post-war era in western Europe and capital gains. lowest in Europe. It’s worth emphasizing too that this housing crashes. within a certain demographic range? And do you find this to be particularly the case because they can’t start off being a homeowner. but after the Second World War the rental housing that helped people. even in the US. AO Yes. the push homeownership rates up to eighty or ninety percent. one is commuting a long One of the things that’s happened across industrialized distance. T h e n t h e y d o u b l e d a g a i n . So geography workers and citizens need to do this efficiently. given the current when around fifty percent of residents are homeowners. We are assets – than from their real job or investing in retraining. Eastern Europe and Italy – are economy. There’s a strong link between the need for Switzerland is unusual in that it did not give big tax breaks to economic system. governments Andrew Oswald have given major tax breaks to people to own their own Interviewed by Jeffrey Inaba and Talene Montgomery homes and individuals have responded rationally. Economics assumes that people weigh the costs employment. less mobile. Economist Andrew Oswald’s work elucidates the mobility debate. we see that economies seem to flourish in the American collective psyche. When it’s falling. and eastern Europe. their par­ ic­ lar area. you needed to be relocate and get their first and second jobs. say – are back to the 1960s. real house prices in the US had reached their highest levels is an inefficient one. more concerned about holding onto their asset than finding There’s a tremendous spread in the owner-occupation the right career. but in both continents there is something threshold at which homeowners decide that it’s not in to the idea that having a lot of homeowners their best interest to hold onto their asset and move? than migration and flexibility be central to resolving our economic crisis? In an slows the labor market down. exactly. it’s a wiggly line but it’s pretty flat. bought the smallest possible home I could for family the right kind of career track. this is a very serious error. AO Yes. An’ If You Stay There Will Be Double Unfortunately. imagine a world with very high levels of homeownership. Instead they kept a balance between in­ en­ c crazy slump periods. If you but we know that every twenty years there tends to be a in immobility’ and ‘those who invest in flexibility’. But that AO I think it’s a mistake to emphasize differences between has locked in even very young people and they’ve been the United States and most of the rich European countries.5 percent. I’m pleased I’m in the smallest possible home. and architecture are deeply entwined in the labor as well If we give very large tax incentives for homeownership then. as you say. They’re look­ing for the right kind of job. But you tend to come back to the that allows people to move around. I deferred purchasing and menting. in a century. big house price rise above the long-term trend and that’s AO If a person buys their own home. anyone who says.’ That’s always a dangerous strategy. in a sense. In order to achieve economic efficiency. You get square pegs in round holes. It’s really most striking in the US. or possibly longer-distances and that produces pollution and con­ switch careers. As a consequence only AO I have a sense that western governments are starting about one-third of Swiss citizens own their own homes. Owning a home is typically a disadvantage If you draw a graph of real house prices in the US over to a worker because they tend to become locked into the last hundred years. just think about how to earn sprawl. call reliable economic values. percent of the residents are homeowners – that includes don’t want to hear it. it’s simpler for l Volume 20 Do you own your own home? Volume 20 JI given the current sorts of losses. them not to be tied to a particular area. i m m o b i l e w o r l d . gestion both of which are bad for everyone. 82 83 you think. in terms of larger migration patterns? TM How do patterns of homeownership and unem­ AO It’s a mistake to be overly gloomy. as a society we’re providing a huge subsidy to immobility. especially the young. they become what we’ve seen. because they’re doing lots of samp­ing. Community planners often highlight the importance of social capital during moments of crisis – but what are the JI differences between these two? between high levels of homeownership and a badly working economic values of mobility? Might stability and investment in one place rather Is it simply a matter of degree or are there categorical Are there economic models or theories about the labor market. That. for the rest of their life. whether to remain incentives to migrate be built into policies that affect the built environment? It’s useful to bear in mind that homeowners routinely block and benefits of everything in life including the decision era when infrastructure and public works dominate urban debates. casting doubt on Westerners’ impulse to settle in one place. has been recently. the only place where young families could when the housing market is rising. [pause] most folks AO Yes. interested in your idea that there are ‘those who invest This has caused a tremendous distortion in what you might is an especially serious problem for young people. Looking l TM If the idea of moving to a place of prosperity exists people – those in their mid-twenties. as it afford to buy were further away from city centers. And reasons. Homeowners also routinely commute much where they are or move. the UK. all over the Western world. how might as the housing market. Most people didn’t want to listen. perhaps very far away. You can have crazy boom periods or efficiency and the need for a fluid kind of housing market homeowners. is further exacerbated coun­ ries during this huge housing boom is that people t by the fact that when one wants to keep their home. so firms have job openings for ultimately the wrong sorts a homeowner. There isn’t a one-to-one correlation The foreclosed home is the most potent sign of our times. it’s extremely hard for a new cohort of young workers TM Why is it that housing has been made to seem attractive in terms of incentives? sensible trend. You can always ployment differ in European countries versus the US? find some sectors of the economy that are doing relatively . I suppose that it was this flaw that prompted Jeffrey Inaba In 2002 you anticipated the housing Talene Montgomery Over ten years ago you began have started to think that they can make more money from they’re willing to seek jobs elsewhere. Renting helps economic efficiency. The graph is a classic example of a strongly trend-reverting of workers. Finland. new businesses through zoning laws which is bad for whether to be an owner or a renter. we better stop now’. gripped the world. idea was promoted that to be well-off. both for the individual and for the good of the whole places like Spain. There’s lots of economic evidence that young now experiencing serious labor market prob­ems. which could market crash. We’re really saying to workers: ‘Forget what’s JI efficient for the economy. What were the indicators? making observations about the dichotomy between just d o i n g n o t h i n g – holding onto their housing ­ be at great distance. So from the very outset. If the party is absolutely JI booming and it’s half-past midnight. downturn is there really a ‘place’ to move to? What do experi­ AO I do own my own home. Andrew Oswald Historically it’s not that hard to predict homeownership and private rentership. It’s tricky to get the timing exactly right.

to remember. In the end. of course. AO [laughs]…If you can pull it off. yeah. So I asked Yes album covers? There seems to be a story to them. To what degree did this research influence the fragments and takes off into outer space… with sketches. to predict what the World’. album covers. to the way communities work. I suppose in the end I had a list that I had tuned found it difficult to sleep in down from about a thousand things that were con­ erning c strange buildings. Was that a response to an urban reality at a particular The organic look of my designs came about from a child’s moment in time? description of a space. It was easy to isolate the elements 84 85 whole house. the thing that interested me about archi­ just literally designed the child’s room around these waved tecture as a student at the Royal College of Arts in England arms. I took it from children’s rooms to the the paintings that went from Fragile to Close to the Edge. Of course you My original research was very disappointing. It should be that children have an entirely more intuitive response: about how people felt when they were in a building. landscapes and architectural forms in your paintings. He did it by waving his arms and we Roger Dean Well. Yessongs into Tales from Topographic Oceans and on. but it was much harder to find the with my brother Martin Dean. I got was that built spaces didn’t seem to accommodate the very positive feedback. twenty years from now. free-floating spores. but I didn’t set out to do human psyche very well. expansive waterways. because can’t get all the elements right. It seemed to me that ing children and I started questioning them. JI of countless dormitory rooms as well as the Victoria and Albert Museum – and Bucking the trend seems like an important point its etymology to methods of storytelling and child-like experiences of space. I dis­ overed c was the way people should design buildings. you make a space that feels much more responses to space. but if you aim to get as people basically wanted to talk about their aesthetic many as possible. but the good side is that there’s a lot of technical change and there are always good new ideas coming Oversized mushrooms. into about a hundred elements of design people fundamentally wrong with the space? would be much happier to have included. So I kept it. concert posters and the walls of flexibility is the good side of capitalism. and I made . private and tranquil. Volume 20 RD That is correct. JI without the constraints of an aesthetic inhibitor. This kind one that has adorned tee-shirts. Was it just the strangeness or was there something people. how right? Beginning with Fragile there is a planet that would you like to sleep?’. we need workers to move from the horizons. Ultimately. it does Roger Dean have the downside that we have these large swings up and Interviewed by Jeffrey Inaba down. And those that buck the trend are typically being Yes Stories driven by some sort of new technology. ambiguous through. Here the venerated Brighton-based artist translates this visual language – new trend will be say. But my girlfriend at the time was teach­ comfortable. but when I did Fragile I sketched out a story that were not liked. As I extrapolated that into the rest of the house. a bunch of children. they’re making dens under tables and in cupboards out of cardboard boxes and blankets on a very intuitive level. yes. I was interested in why people it that way. That story was the origin of positives. It’s not possible. Normally if I do a painting I start Volume 20 I discovered they had a pretty consistent list of things they didn’t like about rooms. Jeffrey Inaba You’re known for using organic-shape long lists of things that bothered both children and adults. Of course. and a slightly shorter list of attributes they found positive.well. These are just some of the fantastic environmental elements comprising depressed areas and the depressed industries and follow the new technology jobs in whatever form they’re going Roger Dean’s universe: a hallucinatory flip-side known to many as simply ‘Yes to come in. ‘If you were making a house.

ambiguous through. free-floating spores. Was it just the strangeness or was there something people. into about a hundred elements of design people fundamentally wrong with the space? would be much happier to have included. expansive waterways. I suppose in the end I had a list that I had tuned found it difficult to sleep in down from about a thousand things that were con­ erning c strange buildings. yes. landscapes and architectural forms in your paintings. a bunch of children. Volume 20 RD That is correct.well. It was easy to isolate the elements 84 85 whole house. I got was that built spaces didn’t seem to accommodate the very positive feedback. It’s not possible. Jeffrey Inaba You’re known for using organic-shape long lists of things that bothered both children and adults. but the good side is that there’s a lot of technical change and there are always good new ideas coming Oversized mushrooms. Of course you My original research was very disappointing. because can’t get all the elements right. Normally if I do a painting I start Volume 20 I discovered they had a pretty consistent list of things they didn’t like about rooms. But my girlfriend at the time was teach­ comfortable. Ultimately. the thing that interested me about archi­ just literally designed the child’s room around these waved tecture as a student at the Royal College of Arts in England arms. In the end. It seemed to me that ing children and I started questioning them. So I kept it. Yessongs into Tales from Topographic Oceans and on. twenty years from now. yeah. JI of countless dormitory rooms as well as the Victoria and Albert Museum – and Bucking the trend seems like an important point its etymology to methods of storytelling and child-like experiences of space. Here the venerated Brighton-based artist translates this visual language – new trend will be say. AO [laughs]…If you can pull it off. That story was the origin of positives. album covers. Was that a response to an urban reality at a particular The organic look of my designs came about from a child’s moment in time? description of a space. and I made . but if you aim to get as people basically wanted to talk about their aesthetic many as possible. of course. and a slightly shorter list of attributes they found positive. they’re making dens under tables and in cupboards out of cardboard boxes and blankets on a very intuitive level. I was interested in why people it that way. To what degree did this research influence the fragments and takes off into outer space… with sketches. you make a space that feels much more responses to space. to the way communities work. This kind one that has adorned tee-shirts. It should be that children have an entirely more intuitive response: about how people felt when they were in a building. And those that buck the trend are typically being Yes Stories driven by some sort of new technology. to remember. private and tranquil. JI without the constraints of an aesthetic inhibitor. concert posters and the walls of flexibility is the good side of capitalism. These are just some of the fantastic environmental elements comprising depressed areas and the depressed industries and follow the new technology jobs in whatever form they’re going Roger Dean’s universe: a hallucinatory flip-side known to many as simply ‘Yes to come in. it does Roger Dean have the downside that we have these large swings up and Interviewed by Jeffrey Inaba down. how right? Beginning with Fragile there is a planet that would you like to sleep?’. So I asked Yes album covers? There seems to be a story to them. Of course. As I extrapolated that into the rest of the house. I dis­ overed c was the way people should design buildings. He did it by waving his arms and we Roger Dean Well. but when I did Fragile I sketched out a story that were not liked. we need workers to move from the horizons. but it was much harder to find the with my brother Martin Dean. but I didn’t set out to do human psyche very well. I took it from children’s rooms to the the paintings that went from Fragile to Close to the Edge. to predict what the World’. ‘If you were making a house.

I guess And they have a similar exploration of a tangled growth that triangular shape balancing on its point was the key on the front and the back. the sea and know that there are currents – there are paths. In parallel to the research JI So fragments of Earth break apart and they relocate into another space? RD Yes. the idea of there being rivers of water within the water. I was doing about architecture. It seems JI In the series there’s also a painting with two to be on something different from the fragmented children sitting on what look like fantasy trees. I guess that’s right. they have nature on them. Some pathways through the landscape have such a p o w e r f u l s p i r i t u a l e f f e c t that they’re almost like a prayer. but a lot of other ideas are explored shows the hint of human involvement. and it was one of JI a series of four (Escape. I see what you mean with the spore in the RD It’s a creation myth – I guess sort of a Noah’s Ark background. around. Pathways. Was that a continuation or were they separate? RD Separate. What we’re looking 86 87 necessarily there. The straight line between two points might RD I would describe it as an ‘alternative now’ – it’s not work for an airplane or even a train.All images by Roger Dean JI What is the story? JI Yes. but never­ heless. breaking up and how he persuades his friends and neigh­ Was the spore-like thing envisioned as a hybrid – a bors to help him build a natural and urban element? space ark so they have some means of escape. Pathways. over and under. trees on the horizon and with the mushroom. followed by Awakening which is life coming about – there’s RD Well. It’s it’s ambiguous whether the fish are swimming around a very simple sequence of events. that What were you trying to achieve with the differences they’re t w i s t e d a n d g n a r l e d . but they all come through me. unlike any city you may be familiar with. It’s like a proto-city and the bridge and story. Fragile. JI JI Regarding the spore elements in Awakenings. not just from JI Were there particular attributes you wanted to A to B. Then Arrival gravity or it’s a space where water and air are is literally these spores l a n d i n g i n t h e o c e a n indistinguishable? In the Tales from Topographic Oceans series. What was exhausting. bikes and the future and it’s not the past. entangled nature of those trees is translated into cities and architecture with Relayer. final picture. RD I liked the energy in some very ancient trees. but at other times it is. after the small world disintegrates and segments of the It seems that the fantasy world is a place that lacks planet are being led through space like spores. whereas the fragmented world pieces have a pattern in the landscape that interested you? flatter tops and more stalagmite-like bases to them. You see it with on both sides of that album – it effectively has two fronts. Even then. One might speculate that the gnarled. The first event happens in water or whether they’re floating around in the air. to these things. Arrival. And I like pathway in the foreground. more were you trying to explore with the trees? Was it again curvilinear. You need to have a pathway that takes you through. really. They’re more mushroom-like. It’s about a boy who dreams about the world pathway suggest a human occupation of some sort. in the landscape. but for cars. for walking it doesn’t. into another world. So I thought between the two elements? I would make the shape out of that. the subject of the painting really was patterns plants and animals and finally the fourth one. RD Yeah. is that right? RD Yeah. but humans are not yet Volume 20 Volume 20 present at this point in the story. with a stairway that winds around a very naturalistic encouraging and inspiring? form. There was a painting RD I was looking for a family of shapes. many of my buildings look as if they could have grown rather than been built. I was fascinated by how we treat pathways. possibly a city with a bridge and a t At times it isn’t obvious. The humans come in the connector. And I was very interested JI When you developed the story what were you imagining that other world to be? in how pathways worked – in their choreography and landscaping. What pieces of the world. Pathways). but done very differently. they’re not really . (1971) JI In Arrival there’s a fish in the foreground. So I’m the at is not the humans yet. The background there too. Awakening. One is that you can look at a body of water like looks like a city. It’s just a different now. So I thought a lot about what made a pathway portray in that alternative place? Let’s take the painting attractive and what made it tiring. I guess. for example? RD That painting is called Pathways.

The straight line between two points might RD I would describe it as an ‘alternative now’ – it’s not work for an airplane or even a train. to these things. possibly a city with a bridge and a t At times it isn’t obvious. I guess that’s right. the idea of there being rivers of water within the water. RD I liked the energy in some very ancient trees. What was exhausting. One is that you can look at a body of water like looks like a city. Fragile. What pieces of the world. It’s it’s ambiguous whether the fish are swimming around a very simple sequence of events. and it was one of JI a series of four (Escape. Arrival. I guess. One might speculate that the gnarled. You need to have a pathway that takes you through. trees on the horizon and with the mushroom. but a lot of other ideas are explored shows the hint of human involvement. The humans come in the connector. Even then. but for cars. I see what you mean with the spore in the RD It’s a creation myth – I guess sort of a Noah’s Ark background. in the landscape. It’s about a boy who dreams about the world pathway suggest a human occupation of some sort. The first event happens in water or whether they’re floating around in the air. really. but humans are not yet Volume 20 Volume 20 present at this point in the story. Pathways. Was that a continuation or were they separate? RD Separate. they have nature on them. final picture. And I was very interested JI When you developed the story what were you imagining that other world to be? in how pathways worked – in their choreography and landscaping. There was a painting RD I was looking for a family of shapes. (1971) JI In Arrival there’s a fish in the foreground. but at other times it is. So I thought a lot about what made a pathway portray in that alternative place? Let’s take the painting attractive and what made it tiring. Awakening. that What were you trying to achieve with the differences they’re t w i s t e d a n d g n a r l e d . followed by Awakening which is life coming about – there’s RD Well. And I like pathway in the foreground. RD Yeah. So I thought between the two elements? I would make the shape out of that. but they all come through me. entangled nature of those trees is translated into cities and architecture with Relayer. What we’re looking 86 87 necessarily there. for example? RD That painting is called Pathways. You see it with on both sides of that album – it effectively has two fronts. breaking up and how he persuades his friends and neigh­ Was the spore-like thing envisioned as a hybrid – a bors to help him build a natural and urban element? space ark so they have some means of escape. over and under. They’re more mushroom-like. It’s just a different now. but done very differently. JI JI Regarding the spore elements in Awakenings. many of my buildings look as if they could have grown rather than been built. around. The background there too. into another world. I was fascinated by how we treat pathways.All images by Roger Dean JI What is the story? JI Yes. I was doing about architecture. is that right? RD Yeah. whereas the fragmented world pieces have a pattern in the landscape that interested you? flatter tops and more stalagmite-like bases to them. but never­ heless. So I’m the at is not the humans yet. the subject of the painting really was patterns plants and animals and finally the fourth one. It seems JI In the series there’s also a painting with two to be on something different from the fragmented children sitting on what look like fantasy trees. not just from JI Were there particular attributes you wanted to A to B. Some pathways through the landscape have such a p o w e r f u l s p i r i t u a l e f f e c t that they’re almost like a prayer. I guess And they have a similar exploration of a tangled growth that triangular shape balancing on its point was the key on the front and the back. for walking it doesn’t. bikes and the future and it’s not the past. In parallel to the research JI So fragments of Earth break apart and they relocate into another space? RD Yes. It’s like a proto-city and the bridge and story. Pathways). Then Arrival gravity or it’s a space where water and air are is literally these spores l a n d i n g i n t h e o c e a n indistinguishable? In the Tales from Topographic Oceans series. with a stairway that winds around a very naturalistic encouraging and inspiring? form. they’re not really . the sea and know that there are currents – there are paths. Pathways. after the small world disintegrates and segments of the It seems that the fantasy world is a place that lacks planet are being led through space like spores. more were you trying to explore with the trees? Was it again curvilinear. unlike any city you may be familiar with.

‘Pathways’ (1973) 88 89 .Volume 20 Volume 20 Yessongs.

Volume 20 Volume 20 Yessongs. ‘Pathways’ (1973) 88 89 .

‘Arrival’ (1973) 90 91 Relayer (1974) . ‘Escape’ (1973) Tales from Topographical Ocean (1973) Volume 20 Yessongs.Close to the Edge (1972) Yessongs. ‘Awakenings’ (1973) Volume 20 Yessongs.

‘Escape’ (1973) Tales from Topographical Ocean (1973) Volume 20 Yessongs. ‘Awakenings’ (1973) Volume 20 Yessongs.Close to the Edge (1972) Yessongs. ‘Arrival’ (1973) 90 91 Relayer (1974) .

And discerning what the It was a story that I needed to tell. so I had the challenge of figuring 92 93 . anticipation and disappointment. Where do we fit in. It’s not difficult to recall that this fragile time involves subjecting oneself to a continuous feedback cycle of exposure and protection. For me. you can kiss a boy or a girl for the first time. about that transitional and everything. doesn’t happen all at once. Hardwicke’s films depict the intensity of this learning process by detailing the yearnings and desperations of growing up. go to museums.Age of Reason Catherine Hardwicke Interviewed by Jeffrey Inaba and Talene Montgomery Director Catherine Hardwicke bridges the gulf between fantasy and reality in her feature-length works Thirteen. structive things to do with what she was going through. in a way. from a fucked-up LA teenager’s journey for affirmation to a vampire story of unrequited teenage love. matured very quickly. you can drink. I tried to get her to learn how to surf. It’s an awk­ ard back-and-forth negotiation where w family turned out to have kind of an enormous resonance teens often miscalculate the intentions of others and all around the world. Hardwicke is concerned with the blurry threshold between reason and uncontrolled emotion – the very territory one navigates in a state of crisis. Our special effects budget got slashed about a Volume 20 Volume 20 Thirteen was based upon real events whereas every time I went over to their house there was this kind month before shooting. Shining compassionate light on whatever coming-of-age story she tells. It’s got a lot JI of potential for drama. but no. and to you. per day – like we all are [pause] telling us to be sexy and and real encounters with people and events. and Your characters address the transition between a she was being bombarded by 3. Lords of Dogtown and Twilight. Catherine Hardwicke My films are all coming-of-age stories. But the story became so much bigger when I saw where everything is suddenly possible? You can drive. In this sense. And then when she ado­es­ ents face ‘adult’ situations for the first time they l c a c t e d o u t and did what society was telling her to do. to figure out our reality. in a life direct.000 advertising images formative fantasy world of love. because I was CH Well. She looked like a supermodel. must reconcile reality with their formed hopes and people were shocked! dreams. When hot and be cute and dress radical. This thirteen-year-old girl had people reckoning in one way or another with reality. having this trouble From Thirteen all the way to Twilight it seems that you and this crisis and me wanting to help her to find con­ are fascinated with portraying this dimension of youth. I wanted you to feel like this could really happen friends with this thirteen-year-old girl and her family. she really wanted to act. what she was really going through. friendship and family. engagement and detachment. and this whole world of choices is out there. What were you trying to interesting time of life. Jeffrey Inaba Your films all seem to deal with young of on-going struggle. achieve in dealing with something fantastical? Thirteen was forced upon me. moment in our life where we’re trying to figure ourselves okay. let’s write a story that you could act in and I could out. and I think it’s the most volatile and Twilight is a fictional story. draw in a way. And telling it in a very what the specific way about this specific girl and her mother and her real world is and ideal world is. it started with Nikki. So we said. the codes of interaction that they are experiencing. the girl. They are about youth.

Lords of Dogtown and Twilight. so I had the challenge of figuring 92 93 . and to you. per day – like we all are [pause] telling us to be sexy and and real encounters with people and events. They are about youth. friendship and family. must reconcile reality with their formed hopes and people were shocked! dreams. the girl. structive things to do with what she was going through. It’s got a lot JI of potential for drama. and this whole world of choices is out there. What were you trying to interesting time of life. to figure out our reality. you can kiss a boy or a girl for the first time. So we said. but no. it started with Nikki. you can drink. and I think it’s the most volatile and Twilight is a fictional story. moment in our life where we’re trying to figure ourselves okay. It’s not difficult to recall that this fragile time involves subjecting oneself to a continuous feedback cycle of exposure and protection. Shining compassionate light on whatever coming-of-age story she tells. matured very quickly.Age of Reason Catherine Hardwicke Interviewed by Jeffrey Inaba and Talene Montgomery Director Catherine Hardwicke bridges the gulf between fantasy and reality in her feature-length works Thirteen. the codes of interaction that they are experiencing. Where do we fit in. Our special effects budget got slashed about a Volume 20 Volume 20 Thirteen was based upon real events whereas every time I went over to their house there was this kind month before shooting. draw in a way. This thirteen-year-old girl had people reckoning in one way or another with reality. Hardwicke is concerned with the blurry threshold between reason and uncontrolled emotion – the very territory one navigates in a state of crisis. And discerning what the It was a story that I needed to tell. Hardwicke’s films depict the intensity of this learning process by detailing the yearnings and desperations of growing up. in a way. She looked like a supermodel. from a fucked-up LA teenager’s journey for affirmation to a vampire story of unrequited teenage love. anticipation and disappointment. It’s an awk­ ard back-and-forth negotiation where w family turned out to have kind of an enormous resonance teens often miscalculate the intentions of others and all around the world. achieve in dealing with something fantastical? Thirteen was forced upon me. engagement and detachment. For me. what she was really going through. Catherine Hardwicke My films are all coming-of-age stories. because I was CH Well. in a life direct. In this sense. about that transitional and everything. But the story became so much bigger when I saw where everything is suddenly possible? You can drive. having this trouble From Thirteen all the way to Twilight it seems that you and this crisis and me wanting to help her to find con­ are fascinated with portraying this dimension of youth. let’s write a story that you could act in and I could out. she really wanted to act. doesn’t happen all at once. Jeffrey Inaba Your films all seem to deal with young of on-going struggle. And telling it in a very what the specific way about this specific girl and her mother and her real world is and ideal world is. I wanted you to feel like this could really happen friends with this thirteen-year-old girl and her family. go to museums. And then when she ado­es­ ents face ‘adult’ situations for the first time they l c a c t e d o u t and did what society was telling her to do. and Your characters address the transition between a she was being bombarded by 3. When hot and be cute and dress radical.000 advertising images formative fantasy world of love. I tried to get her to learn how to surf.

well. Joyseph. so that by the time you’re on Hollywood Boulevard. In Twilight. Teens and to. Again. left to right): *clarity*. color. The emotional experience of certainty convey to the viewer? Does it maybe help the JI Yes. To feel alive. laughter and tears. when you go to the location. that is a very specific sensibility of your films. We didn’t have the money to build fantasy genre lends layers of metaphor that commu­ C-Lab a forest or have control of settings. falls apart. we tried to make it really respond to to be a really important part of the crisis experience. albmulay. while in others there CH Well. 94 95 quite a bit before and already loved it. I can try to answer that…it’s a pretty complicated are treatments with an overtly fictional feel. AngelsWings. t but we select that reality. moody atmos­ phere. Denver Dwellings. lensbug. mcost.lakis. emrank. What does that sense of Crisis is a circumstance which requires immediate attention. The way you talk about it makes me wonder more drugs. going on rainy days up in Vancouver. generally distinguishes itself by being very confident We were really up in the trees. and felt a real connection Volume 20 Volume 20 to the Pacific Northwest. tiny white lights. Subewl. and then there’s just a little bit of hope coming back in at the very end when the mom. Dolmang. What I tried to do – I think this could be related to architecture too – when you go in our dream world. Amadeus Serey Yàñez. right up to when a it seems that as a personal creative interest you metaphor is a pretty obvious metaphor for teenage constantly move between registers of realism and sexuality: coming to your own. timlewisnm. The palette was strictly controlled. So the movie is real things and real clothes and high school and every­ hing. llamafloor. feeling all these hormones thought must turn into an expression – leaving one to teeter momentarily between fantasy. subewl. and beautiful question [laughs]. It fascinates us because the bad. subewl. What stands out the most in this regard is your use of c o l o r . That brings it excitement or [pause] color gels in the lighting of the house. bowler1996p. gets more beautiful. like more golden skin tones – like the despite knowing that their discovery might come at fantasy world – and it continues as she takes more and a cost. Jeb Ro. Ferdinand Reus. nyki m. lanuiop. you really feel almost damp. the color there are things we may very well want to discover. and we didn’t have green screens or anything. Then when Evie deserts her. JonF119. ecazi.s a t u r a t i n g the if we are somehow attracted to crisis. A bit more golden light. We start h y p e r . glamorous girl comes into her life. HurleyFamily. I think that the vampire searching without the proper tools to formulate a response. MShades. And how do you find that kind of balance? I’ve heard adults both seem to respond to your aesthetics that a lot of boys sneak into the movie. we would really try to under­ stand the inherent qualities of the building or the place. The Wandering Angel. They don’t want of fantasy. but also to create that beautiful Pacific Northwest. Ana Filipa Machado. puts her arm around her. We had to shoot nicate things more realistic stories cannot? Fantasy outdoors. intersecting imagery from both. Thomas Ott. CH Yeah. a thing we gravitate towards. We used something in your life. yet for which there are no reliable references to set a course of action. Can you discuss that? JI That element of emotional processing seems CH In Thirteen. {dpade1337}. . well to drama. You just want to time. ecazi. and that’s what I really tried to do with the location. the way you portray them also is highly appeal­ grab the person next to you. There’s a raw beauty instilled into very realistic this uncharted territory bears similarity to a child’s encounter with a new situation. friedwater. In terms of art direction. or something that means it’s too bright and too intense and too saturated. and when everything [laughs] So that you can feel something. andrew mc d.chandru. Unhindered by Talent. so that it got garish that’s why we pick the wrong boyfriends or girlfriends. Phil Scoville. dariuszka. the emotions of the characters – the color – so that in the When there’s a sense of potential crisis oftentimes it’s beginning it is slightly dull. as if it fulfills an interest to explore their anyone to know that they sneak in when the lights go off. viewer to come to grips with their own sense of selfdoubt or uncertainty? It involves processing information in a state of complete vulnerability and demands tableaux in some instances. They’re trying to come to terms with their own feelings. and we go to a little bit more natural colors. So I had actually been there to that kind of [pause] almost inhospitable beauty. no sunlight is allowed in the movie because of course Edward (the vampire) can’t be in the sun. but you’re not supposed ing to an audience of a wide age range. At the same in your body telling you to do things. you know. therapycatguardian. wickenden. rolands. It’s very t desaturated by the end. in a way. mlkeewa. ordinary look. then when Evie. and hiked around flickr user names (top to bottom. indistinct boundaries to a far greater degree. iandeth. kessiye. the color drains away pretty dras­ ically. theogeo.out how to do everything that I want to do and create a Talene Montgomery Do you think working within the Facing the Crisis level of magical realism. in its own suppositions.

Amadeus Serey Yàñez. What does that sense of Crisis is a circumstance which requires immediate attention. llamafloor. iandeth. bowler1996p. we would really try to under­ stand the inherent qualities of the building or the place. when you go to the location. Can you discuss that? JI That element of emotional processing seems CH In Thirteen. dariuszka.lakis. gets more beautiful. generally distinguishes itself by being very confident We were really up in the trees. in its own suppositions. puts her arm around her. the emotions of the characters – the color – so that in the When there’s a sense of potential crisis oftentimes it’s beginning it is slightly dull. And how do you find that kind of balance? I’ve heard adults both seem to respond to your aesthetics that a lot of boys sneak into the movie. You just want to time. falls apart. albmulay. subewl. subewl. They don’t want of fantasy. as if it fulfills an interest to explore their anyone to know that they sneak in when the lights go off. indistinct boundaries to a far greater degree. rolands. but you’re not supposed ing to an audience of a wide age range. therapycatguardian. yet for which there are no reliable references to set a course of action. and we go to a little bit more natural colors. that is a very specific sensibility of your films. moody atmos­ phere. Joyseph. well. ecazi. and then there’s just a little bit of hope coming back in at the very end when the mom. There’s a raw beauty instilled into very realistic this uncharted territory bears similarity to a child’s encounter with a new situation. {dpade1337}. t but we select that reality. The emotional experience of certainty convey to the viewer? Does it maybe help the JI Yes. so that it got garish that’s why we pick the wrong boyfriends or girlfriends. Again. and hiked around flickr user names (top to bottom. and felt a real connection Volume 20 Volume 20 to the Pacific Northwest. wickenden.out how to do everything that I want to do and create a Talene Montgomery Do you think working within the Facing the Crisis level of magical realism. 94 95 quite a bit before and already loved it. We had to shoot nicate things more realistic stories cannot? Fantasy outdoors. and when everything [laughs] So that you can feel something. theogeo. Unhindered by Talent. Dolmang. left to right): *clarity*. andrew mc d. So I had actually been there to that kind of [pause] almost inhospitable beauty. ecazi. and beautiful question [laughs]. in a way. and we didn’t have green screens or anything. Phil Scoville. lensbug. kessiye. lanuiop. while in others there CH Well. viewer to come to grips with their own sense of selfdoubt or uncertainty? It involves processing information in a state of complete vulnerability and demands tableaux in some instances. glamorous girl comes into her life. the way you portray them also is highly appeal­ grab the person next to you. A bit more golden light. I can try to answer that…it’s a pretty complicated are treatments with an overtly fictional feel. or something that means it’s too bright and too intense and too saturated. It fascinates us because the bad. Jeb Ro. like more golden skin tones – like the despite knowing that their discovery might come at fantasy world – and it continues as she takes more and a cost. friedwater. mlkeewa. intersecting imagery from both. What stands out the most in this regard is your use of c o l o r . Subewl. CH Yeah.chandru. feeling all these hormones thought must turn into an expression – leaving one to teeter momentarily between fantasy. Then when Evie deserts her. but also to create that beautiful Pacific Northwest. color. you really feel almost damp. To feel alive. no sunlight is allowed in the movie because of course Edward (the vampire) can’t be in the sun. We used something in your life. mcost. the color there are things we may very well want to discover. We start h y p e r . you know. so that by the time you’re on Hollywood Boulevard. In Twilight. then when Evie. emrank. right up to when a it seems that as a personal creative interest you metaphor is a pretty obvious metaphor for teenage constantly move between registers of realism and sexuality: coming to your own. Teens and to. ordinary look. a thing we gravitate towards. I think that the vampire searching without the proper tools to formulate a response. laughter and tears. At the same in your body telling you to do things. we tried to make it really respond to to be a really important part of the crisis experience. We didn’t have the money to build fantasy genre lends layers of metaphor that commu­ C-Lab a forest or have control of settings. The palette was strictly controlled. well to drama. The Wandering Angel. Ana Filipa Machado. and that’s what I really tried to do with the location. That brings it excitement or [pause] color gels in the lighting of the house. HurleyFamily. The way you talk about it makes me wonder more drugs. In terms of art direction. going on rainy days up in Vancouver. AngelsWings. MShades. What I tried to do – I think this could be related to architecture too – when you go in our dream world. nyki m. Thomas Ott. They’re trying to come to terms with their own feelings. Denver Dwellings. Ferdinand Reus. tiny white lights.s a t u r a t i n g the if we are somehow attracted to crisis. It’s very t desaturated by the end. JonF119. . timlewisnm. So the movie is real things and real clothes and high school and every­ hing. the color drains away pretty dras­ ically.

mutilation and removal are central to the plots of his frequent collaborations with author Neil Gaiman. Within the narratives he illustrates. 96 97 . Their trans­ formation. his treatments are distinct from mainstream children’s depictions that excessively enlarge characters’ eyes to imply naiveté. From the pinhole orbit to the black sclera to the prosthetic. McKean’s eyes instead allude to a moment of lost innocence that occurs when negotiating between reality and the perilous Volume 20 Volume 20 All images by Dave McKean unknowns of a fantasy world.Staremaster Dave McKean Illustrator and director Dave McKean has a compulsion with eyes.

96 97 . his treatments are distinct from mainstream children’s depictions that excessively enlarge characters’ eyes to imply naiveté. Their trans­ formation.Staremaster Dave McKean Illustrator and director Dave McKean has a compulsion with eyes. mutilation and removal are central to the plots of his frequent collaborations with author Neil Gaiman. From the pinhole orbit to the black sclera to the prosthetic. McKean’s eyes instead allude to a moment of lost innocence that occurs when negotiating between reality and the perilous Volume 20 Volume 20 All images by Dave McKean unknowns of a fantasy world. Within the narratives he illustrates.

Volume 20 Volume 20 98 99 .

Volume 20 Volume 20 98 99 .

let alone seen – an Ostrich. The gardens contained all the flora and fauna of the kingdom. there was beautiful palace surrounded by elaborate gardens. . the King received an encyclopedia of his kingdom as a gift from a neighboring ruler. a gigantic bird that cannot fly. but could run faster than a lion. but he knew his neighbor was wise. in a far away land. It looked and sounded so strange that the King nearly thought it was a lie. One day.THE TECHNOSTRICH by C-Lab O nce upon a time. so much so that it contained one thing the King had never heard of. The book was perfectly complete.

so much so that it contained one thing the King had never heard of. It looked and sounded so strange that the King nearly thought it was a lie. a gigantic bird that cannot fly.THE TECHNOSTRICH by C-Lab O nce upon a time. The book was perfectly complete. The gardens contained all the flora and fauna of the kingdom. let alone seen – an Ostrich. One day. but could run faster than a lion. the King received an encyclopedia of his kingdom as a gift from a neighboring ruler. in a far away land. but he knew his neighbor was wise. . there was beautiful palace surrounded by elaborate gardens.

1 The Mapmaker traveled to the edge of the kingdom and asked the Ostrich if she would appear at court. ‘Here. commanded the King. The little Prince immediately fell in love with the Ostrich and rode her everywhere. gardeners or even the royal astrologers knew.‘W here does the Ostrich live?’. He entertained the court by holding races between the Ostrich and his other animals. He unrolled a map and pointed to a remote corner of the land. The Ostrich agreed. ‘She lives here where it is dry and plants barely grow. But none of the King’s advisors. .’ ‘Bring the Ostrich to court’. asked the King. generals. T he new animal fascinated the King. which the Ostrich always won.’ at last announced the Royal Mapmaker. who had visited the entire kingdom.

The little Prince immediately fell in love with the Ostrich and rode her everywhere. But none of the King’s advisors.’ at last announced the Royal Mapmaker. T he new animal fascinated the King. ‘She lives here where it is dry and plants barely grow. ‘Here.1 The Mapmaker traveled to the edge of the kingdom and asked the Ostrich if she would appear at court. commanded the King.’ ‘Bring the Ostrich to court’. which the Ostrich always won. . generals. He unrolled a map and pointed to a remote corner of the land. gardeners or even the royal astrologers knew. who had visited the entire kingdom. asked the King. The Ostrich agreed.‘W here does the Ostrich live?’. He entertained the court by holding races between the Ostrich and his other animals.

‘My Technostrich is poor in comparison with the King’s Ostrich. O ne day.3 The Technostrich also did everything the little Prince wanted and never got tired. Homesick. some­ times slower and sometimes she barely won. the King received another gift from his neighbor – a life-size. mechanical Ostrich made of gold and covered in diamonds. the Ostrich slipped away.2 .’ The King accepted his neighbor’s humble note with a laugh. The Technostrich was beautiful and ran as fast as the Ostrich. however. She ran back to the desert that she missed. driving the crowd wild.T he King began to hold races with both birds. happy that the Prince had a new companion. The Technostrich. was steady and perfect – which pleased the crowd even more. It had a card around its neck on silk thread that read. The real Ostrich’s races were fraught with suspense – sometimes she ran faster. He loved his new toy.

He loved his new toy.3 The Technostrich also did everything the little Prince wanted and never got tired.’ The King accepted his neighbor’s humble note with a laugh. the Ostrich slipped away. driving the crowd wild. however. The Technostrich. She ran back to the desert that she missed. Homesick. It had a card around its neck on silk thread that read.T he King began to hold races with both birds. O ne day. some­ times slower and sometimes she barely won. The real Ostrich’s races were fraught with suspense – sometimes she ran faster. The Technostrich was beautiful and ran as fast as the Ostrich. mechanical Ostrich made of gold and covered in diamonds.2 . was steady and perfect – which pleased the crowd even more. ‘My Technostrich is poor in comparison with the King’s Ostrich. happy that the Prince had a new companion. the King received another gift from his neighbor – a life-size.

They passed mountains and plains.4 Finally. The Prince told his father how the Ostrich had saved him. ‘I can not live here’. and bumping up and down.5 T he Prince awoke. He was moving very fast. ‘It nearly killed the Prince – the people are calling for it to be destroyed!’6 . everything went black. she said.O ne day shortly thereafter. After days of travel under the scorching sun. ‘I need to return to the desert and save the Technostrich.’ ‘No!’ commanded the King.’ The Ostrich graciously declined the King’s invitation. She was taking him home. the Technostrich began to slow. hills and forests. The King forgave her for leaving. leaving the Prince stranded. Sand was accumulating and sticking in its gears. the Technostrich could go no further and broke. It was overheating. ‘and we will celebrate the Prince’s return. he said. Suddenly. The Prince was becoming very hot and very thirsty. ‘You will stay’. He looked down and saw the back of his old friend the Ostrich. the little Prince decided to explore the kingdom on the Technostrich. and finally reached the desert.

everything went black. He looked down and saw the back of his old friend the Ostrich. and bumping up and down. she said. ‘I can not live here’. Suddenly. the Technostrich began to slow. the Technostrich could go no further and broke. the little Prince decided to explore the kingdom on the Technostrich.5 T he Prince awoke. ‘You will stay’. ‘I need to return to the desert and save the Technostrich.4 Finally. The Prince was becoming very hot and very thirsty.’ ‘No!’ commanded the King. The Prince told his father how the Ostrich had saved him. leaving the Prince stranded. They passed mountains and plains.O ne day shortly thereafter. and finally reached the desert. ‘It nearly killed the Prince – the people are calling for it to be destroyed!’6 . She was taking him home. After days of travel under the scorching sun. ‘and we will celebrate the Prince’s return. It was overheating. He was moving very fast. hills and forests.’ The Ostrich graciously declined the King’s invitation. The King forgave her for leaving. Sand was accumulating and sticking in its gears. he said.

Despite 3. of the 75. moval. tives. infrastructure. Some ad­ for drinking. but perhaps none dam entirely. dam technology pro­ ided un­ v which have mostly adapted to lim­ted growth. However. spread and i their presence in the last fifty to soon dams be­ ame a major c sixty years. A happy Tech­ ology Begin To Surface. the Cybostrich. and as such. Eventually. it represented an unprecedented shift in pact. have been removed. flaws in the ro­ an­ m ted by both compromise and coa­ ticized dam technology narrative lescence. albeit one that is ing and others were incapable of producing as approached with hopeful caution. By in- s cluding acknow­edgel ments of dams’ limits and uncertainties in a technology narra- tive. v By the 1960s. Throughout history engineers are exploring dam de­ people were forced to find innovative ways of coping com­ issioning as a means of re­ m with the volatility of river supply. he said. In exchange for water for the natural systems. to stimulate nor is dam technology inherently the regional economy and detrimental. a compatible re- lationship be- tween technology and na- ture can still be established – which in ef- fect could lead to a reallife ‘Ostrich/Technostrich’ love story. in the US.000 dams built world – to China. 2. With time. sanitization and energy. the nascent sci- ence of dam removal offers an opportunity to reconsider the nar- rative itself. Growing Obsession With And the shortcomings and dangers Dependence On Technology that many existing dams do pre­ Leads To A Disconnect With The sent. As long as weaknesses began to appear. However. Desire To the 1970s. through an explo- ration of dam re.‘I t just needs water and to be cleaned’. The belief that for their respective ecosystems. Dams infrastructure is ageing and is now were said to regularize the normative fundamentally unsafe. much of the With The Capabilities of Technology. Europe. agriculture. What needs to be acknow­­ l the Great Depression as the edged is the fact that the dam is foundation of an electricity not an agent of its own narrative. The baby was said to have social. ratives of improvement. Howo m And according to some. they fell in the explicitly natural – like flooding – to economic and love and had a hybrid baby. scripting of its narrative.’7 In the most general terms the technology ‘narrative’. forcing the relocation of hundreds of thousands of people and flooding their homes and land to make reservoirs. dams began to negatively affect overall water quality and the tremendous investments required to build them put many governments into debt. When the justments can be made to existing multi-purpose dam was introduced in the US in the dams to reduce environmental im­ 1930s. An Under­ cycle of flooding and drought. but standing Develops That Even Though were quickly used for myriad other Technology Is Employed As A Solu­ purposes. scientists and more critically than water. I will bring you all the news of your kingdom. 8. nascent environ­ men­ al groups began generating a counter­ ar­ t n ra­ ive to industrialization. Failures And Shortcomings of dam narrative unfinished. Attention Returns To The Limits of A Natural Resource To Accommodate Technology. they lived happily ever after. . as typically occurs in tech­ ology narran 5. may be consti­ u­ t Over time. By n 1. n future. Fascination v upstream. In this way. such as providing electricity for better living the wisdom of its mother and the extraordinary power of its father. This conviction and By Technology And Nature. when it is applied to ‘I promise I will come and visit often. such as the addition of fish the human control of water supply due to the ladders to allow salmon to swim inter­ ention’s sheer scale. a major source of fresh­ ater w storing river ecologies. much electricity as had been promised. from l to the desert and rescued the Technostrich. Now. leaving the 4. Anti-dam sentiment grew steadily as en­ i­ onmentalism extended into political vr are­ as through NGOs and lobbying groups. slowed dramatically worldwide. standards and industrial devel­ p­ ent. Some still allowed flood­ technology. Today. Soon everyone tirely new series of complications wanted a dam. . When potential complications and pit- f ­alls are not present- ed early in dis­ ussions c about a technology. and by default. however. the t dam story. By the 1960s. They were lity to affect both good and bad built in the West to trans­ outcomes is essential for the reform deserts into farmland. these were p relationship between nature and rarely mentioned. They were expensive and disruptive. Civilizations have long sought to From this counter-narrative e­ erg­ m harness natural resources for human e ­ d a move towards exor­ is­ng the c i consumption and use. involves identifying a specific environmental opportunity – or Technostrich. both technological po- tential and natural sys- tems are compromised. As part of other nar­ tion. A Cognitive Dissonance Between Dams’ Narrative And The Actuality of Implementation. None­ was trans­ orted all over the p theless. ‘So it shall be’. Despite the fact are disclosed within the narrative that many were successful – pro­ itself and design allowances are viding more water. The Technology Narrative C-Lab ‘The Prince didn’t use it properly – it’s not its own fault it broke. 7. One example is the you will be the wisest King – but you must never reveal the source of case made for the multi-purpose dam in the US. less than six hundred Africa and South America. perhaps renewable energy source – just as many there is still room for a productive under­ erformed. India. dam construction had Capture The Natural Resource. Understanding its abi­ to provide jobs. the Ostrich explained. expos- ing flaws in the narrative’s coherence. dams This isn’t a problem in and of were built in the South during itself. updates and pro­ iding an independent and v and even destruction. reducing flooding made for adjustments.’ The King agreed. Dams began to be perceived as technological failures when their negative effects began to outweigh the benefits. Engineers and policy makers your information. the dec- binge of large dam and ade-long other infrastructure projects had rendered environ- ­ mental abuse visible. She raced claimed dams could address a host of prob­ems. It Also Will Create Problems. the dams’ limitations were not adequate- ly considered or disclosed as a part of that argument for technological inter­ ention.8 ever. their removal poses an en­ Resource Itself. A Potential Happy symbol of mod­ rnized power e Ending Lies In A Mutual Embrace Of over nature. problem – and proposing a solution in the name of progress. open up new and different solutions for con­ ideration. 6.

. it represented an unprecedented shift in pact. When potential complications and pit- f ­alls are not present- ed early in dis­ ussions c about a technology. the t dam story. perhaps renewable energy source – just as many there is still room for a productive under­ erformed. he said. One example is the you will be the wisest King – but you must never reveal the source of case made for the multi-purpose dam in the US. Howo m And according to some. dams began to negatively affect overall water quality and the tremendous investments required to build them put many governments into debt. of the 75. but standing Develops That Even Though were quickly used for myriad other Technology Is Employed As A Solu­ purposes. expos- ing flaws in the narrative’s coherence. I will bring you all the news of your kingdom. As part of other nar­ tion. However. A happy Tech­ ology Begin To Surface. a major source of fresh­ ater w storing river ecologies. Throughout history engineers are exploring dam de­ people were forced to find innovative ways of coping com­ issioning as a means of re­ m with the volatility of river supply. much electricity as had been promised. Anti-dam sentiment grew steadily as en­ i­ onmentalism extended into political vr are­ as through NGOs and lobbying groups. have been removed. By n 1. Eventually. By the 1960s. but perhaps none dam entirely.‘I t just needs water and to be cleaned’. standards and industrial devel­ p­ ent. Dams infrastructure is ageing and is now were said to regularize the normative fundamentally unsafe. these were p relationship between nature and rarely mentioned. They were lity to affect both good and bad built in the West to trans­ outcomes is essential for the reform deserts into farmland. What needs to be acknow­­ l the Great Depression as the edged is the fact that the dam is foundation of an electricity not an agent of its own narrative. the nascent sci- ence of dam removal offers an opportunity to reconsider the nar- rative itself. scripting of its narrative. nascent environ­ men­ al groups began generating a counter­ ar­ t n ra­ ive to industrialization. However. both technological po- tential and natural sys- tems are compromised. the dec- binge of large dam and ade-long other infrastructure projects had rendered environ- ­ mental abuse visible. they lived happily ever after. Some ad­ for drinking. they fell in the explicitly natural – like flooding – to economic and love and had a hybrid baby. Now. much of the With The Capabilities of Technology. Desire To the 1970s. as typically occurs in tech­ ology narran 5. 6. . open up new and different solutions for con­ ideration. such as providing electricity for better living the wisdom of its mother and the extraordinary power of its father. By in- s cluding acknow­edgel ments of dams’ limits and uncertainties in a technology narra- tive. As long as weaknesses began to appear. updates and pro­ iding an independent and v and even destruction. They were expensive and disruptive. dam technology pro­ ided un­ v which have mostly adapted to lim­ted growth. may be consti­ u­ t Over time. 7. tives. dams This isn’t a problem in and of were built in the South during itself. slowed dramatically worldwide. albeit one that is ing and others were incapable of producing as approached with hopeful caution. and by default. Growing Obsession With And the shortcomings and dangers Dependence On Technology that many existing dams do pre­ Leads To A Disconnect With The sent. in the US. however. Failures And Shortcomings of dam narrative unfinished. Engineers and policy makers your information. the Ostrich explained. Fascination v upstream. agriculture. Despite 3. spread and i their presence in the last fifty to soon dams be­ ame a major c sixty years.8 ever. The Technology Narrative C-Lab ‘The Prince didn’t use it properly – it’s not its own fault it broke. such as the addition of fish the human control of water supply due to the ladders to allow salmon to swim inter­ ention’s sheer scale. leaving the 4. scientists and more critically than water. Some still allowed flood­ technology. a compatible re- lationship be- tween technology and na- ture can still be established – which in ef- fect could lead to a reallife ‘Ostrich/Technostrich’ love story. to stimulate nor is dam technology inherently the regional economy and detrimental. infrastructure. In exchange for water for the natural systems. n future. The baby was said to have social. None­ was trans­ orted all over the p theless. Europe. involves identifying a specific environmental opportunity – or Technostrich. Dams began to be perceived as technological failures when their negative effects began to outweigh the benefits. forcing the relocation of hundreds of thousands of people and flooding their homes and land to make reservoirs. With time. reducing flooding made for adjustments. less than six hundred Africa and South America. the Cybostrich. from l to the desert and rescued the Technostrich. ratives of improvement. Soon everyone tirely new series of complications wanted a dam. moval. sanitization and energy. problem – and proposing a solution in the name of progress. Despite the fact are disclosed within the narrative that many were successful – pro­ itself and design allowances are viding more water. dam construction had Capture The Natural Resource. It Also Will Create Problems. and as such.’ The King agreed. This conviction and By Technology And Nature. when it is applied to ‘I promise I will come and visit often. The belief that for their respective ecosystems. their removal poses an en­ Resource Itself. through an explo- ration of dam re. 8. the dams’ limitations were not adequate- ly considered or disclosed as a part of that argument for technological inter­ ention. Attention Returns To The Limits of A Natural Resource To Accommodate Technology. 2. ‘So it shall be’.000 dams built world – to China. A Potential Happy symbol of mod­ rnized power e Ending Lies In A Mutual Embrace Of over nature. v By the 1960s. India. flaws in the ro­ an­ m ted by both compromise and coa­ ticized dam technology narrative lescence. In this way. Civilizations have long sought to From this counter-narrative e­ erg­ m harness natural resources for human e ­ d a move towards exor­ is­ng the c i consumption and use. When the justments can be made to existing multi-purpose dam was introduced in the US in the dams to reduce environmental im­ 1930s. Understanding its abi­ to provide jobs.’7 In the most general terms the technology ‘narrative’. A Cognitive Dissonance Between Dams’ Narrative And The Actuality of Implementation. Today. She raced claimed dams could address a host of prob­ems. An Under­ cycle of flooding and drought.

But there tainable water use appear to be at cross-purposes. pletely. but are driving in the right direction. these I could mention other pressures on water resources are other uses that we can make of that water. As you can imagine. The difficulties of managing a substance that challenges? beings. water as a resource consequences for the mitigation of carbon emissions. there are a set of An example is hydropower. is making use of effluent. irrigated areas of South and East Asia really are intelligent about the trade-offs we make. that there’s a set of trade-offs.s u m or defeatist in saying that everything ultimately is going to m o v e . Ground water is in some sense a much more needs to be disposed. we are beginning to understand that’s of the desert just because we’ve got effluents available? not the case. policy perspective. sus­ two resources – if not flip sides of the same coin – with water resource sustainability in most regions and we as revolve around a set of trade-offs. for hydropower and for cities have available is more highly variable – which gets a lot has been increasing at a pace that far exceeds the natural of attention. lakes and fresh there are clear examples of failures. like those So. Another is making use of we’re looking for opportunities where it isn’t an either/ demand drivers and a set of management options and groundwater: pumping it out of aquifers for agriculture or. I’m not trying to say that everything energy. the demands of water resources or degrading water quality through human use. good. t r e a t . There’s a significant amount of landscaping irrigation in public parks and on school campuses that is necessary for more and more. Certain regions may be warming which will Or do we want to make more intelligent use of it? influence weather patterns and cause either more or less One final remark: we’ve known for a long time that the rainfall to occur. management systems that will help us through the next Where we put in pumps. if we It is increasingly understood that energy and water are the human demand driver and climate change – affect populated. technologies. The human swamp that signal in terms of the region having increased or decreased rainfall? But we’re drivers actually not grasping in a careful-enough fashion how the activ­ amount of water that we will have of acceptable quality for many uses. So do we really want to re-supply or re-source water over time. nations needs to treated as actually a resource. nor am I alarmist t Mexico use a major share of their total energy just manage water resources that don’t pose a z e r o . but instance. don’t have to exacerbate that tension. or no water. Basically. larger water politics of the region? JI Interesting. and areas like California. and the Volume 20 JI sump­ ion in a way that can be managed? Some t natural system’s ability to recharge that water. There are ways to look at these things and is going to tend toward sus­ainability. When it’s done at it is possible to have a continuous cycle of con­ a scale and a pace that is significantly in excess of the Volume 20 To get to the issue of trade-offs. water bodies that sustain important ecosystems and it’s where in a particular location. to ‘waste water or effluent’ that That sustainable water resource management in arid and semi-arid regions vexing problem when it comes to water manage­ represents a system of trade-offs – between uses. Christopher Scott Today’s set of issues in the densely But the way I hear you saying it is that. like emerging sustainability where it wouldn’t need to come into contact with human of water-challenged cities. same trade-offs affect both the physical shape and economic prospects that I see as issues today. as University of Arizona water expert driver to the supply and demand equation. Southwest. we’re often using water on a decade. we’re potentially burning more carbon to put in place that deal with groundwater. groundwater. what is the ultimate much more rapid time scale and time frame than it took mate change because we’re putting out more emissions. So while it’s important But this is the problem: most of the approaches have to that we look at climate change. within CS We’ve tended to assume the ability of ecosystems to be building more green golf courses in the middle climate change. it’s actually a secondary do with adaptation. really comes between human use of water and water CS Yes. story in water management? Is it a thing where for that water to be deposited there. CS So all three of these – the water-energy nexus. most of the options actually look for synergies on how to use water that sustainability come with efforts that aren’t there com­ we consider are energy-intensive. management on the power grid are very high and rising. Urbanistically. So we’re opportunities to actually strive for sustainability. How do we deal with our particular Christopher Scott contends. Jeffrey Inaba Can you elaborate on your former people might be more alarmist: they see the water ities we undertake and the technologies we employ in the role as Asia Regional Director for the Inter­ ational n supply issue will ultimately lead to the failure coming decades may actually have significant negative Water Management Institute (IWMI)? What are the of larger systems. But now. it could be running it through power plants. there are opportunities for sustainability and not yet been fully understood from a management and in natural river systems. That demands significant amounts of for human productive purposes at the cost of eco­ c o n t i n u u m . Most urban supply actually comes Now the third part: we’re going to have to be much more intelligent about reusing the water we have or that we’ve . California and other areas in the US have Now we’re pumping it out on a yearly or even monthly gone past the paradigm of ‘waste water as waste’ that time scale. variability due to climate change. whole notion of t o i l e t t o t a p arose. So this is how the and policies – comes into sharp relief when sustainable energies and sus­ because of the difficultly of limiting access. but then Some interesting examples around water systems and as we adapt over the shorter term. Scott water’ because that water may have been there for tens of treatment. but that may in aggregate terms exacerbate cli­ avoidance of a zero-sum game. with lies in avoiding a zero-sum game. This gets to the second point: the energy-water nexus. we talk 110 111 currently converted. So to an extent. and we need ment because of scale and invisibility issues and also to be intelligent about how we use it.Liquid Pro Quo about ‘aquifer over-extraction’ or sometimes ‘fossil back as wastewater or sewage (depending its degree Christopher A. r e c o v e r a n d r e c l a i m g a m e – meaning taking water out of ecosystems to end in a crisis or failure with no option out. even while there appears to be less. trying to explore that trade-off at one level. For that aren’t high water management policy priorities. The essential trade-off tainable practice is possible? significant commonalities and intersections that have societies and decision makers must be prepared to deal with all of them. it bears those names) – so areas like the Interviewed by Jeffrey Inaba of thousands or even hundreds of thousands of years. In other words. which means that the water we actually societal drive for irrigation. Arizona and northwest systems. JI Yes. is something that will become extremely limited. So you don’t necessarily have to make use of water policies allowing that context to f a l l o n t h e and other uses.

management on the power grid are very high and rising. In other words. irrigated areas of South and East Asia really are intelligent about the trade-offs we make. There’s a significant amount of landscaping irrigation in public parks and on school campuses that is necessary for more and more. Southwest. there are opportunities for sustainability and not yet been fully understood from a management and in natural river systems. same trade-offs affect both the physical shape and economic prospects that I see as issues today. it bears those names) – so areas like the Interviewed by Jeffrey Inaba of thousands or even hundreds of thousands of years. Jeffrey Inaba Can you elaborate on your former people might be more alarmist: they see the water ities we undertake and the technologies we employ in the role as Asia Regional Director for the Inter­ ational n supply issue will ultimately lead to the failure coming decades may actually have significant negative Water Management Institute (IWMI)? What are the of larger systems. what is the ultimate much more rapid time scale and time frame than it took mate change because we’re putting out more emissions. As you can imagine. good. it’s actually a secondary do with adaptation. So we’re opportunities to actually strive for sustainability. is something that will become extremely limited. larger water politics of the region? JI Interesting. it could be running it through power plants. The human swamp that signal in terms of the region having increased or decreased rainfall? But we’re drivers actually not grasping in a careful-enough fashion how the activ­ amount of water that we will have of acceptable quality for many uses. that there’s a set of trade-offs. So this is how the and policies – comes into sharp relief when sustainable energies and sus­ because of the difficultly of limiting access. So to an extent. For that aren’t high water management policy priorities. Christopher Scott Today’s set of issues in the densely But the way I hear you saying it is that. don’t have to exacerbate that tension. nations needs to treated as actually a resource. like emerging sustainability where it wouldn’t need to come into contact with human of water-challenged cities. JI Yes. but then Some interesting examples around water systems and as we adapt over the shorter term. these I could mention other pressures on water resources are other uses that we can make of that water. really comes between human use of water and water CS Yes. and areas like California. So do we really want to re-supply or re-source water over time. but that may in aggregate terms exacerbate cli­ avoidance of a zero-sum game. Urbanistically. Scott water’ because that water may have been there for tens of treatment. technologies. within CS We’ve tended to assume the ability of ecosystems to be building more green golf courses in the middle climate change. lakes and fresh there are clear examples of failures. variability due to climate change. and the Volume 20 JI sump­ ion in a way that can be managed? Some t natural system’s ability to recharge that water. like those So. So you don’t necessarily have to make use of water policies allowing that context to f a l l o n t h e and other uses. There are ways to look at these things and is going to tend toward sus­ainability. water bodies that sustain important ecosystems and it’s where in a particular location. there are a set of An example is hydropower. management systems that will help us through the next Where we put in pumps. most of the options actually look for synergies on how to use water that sustainability come with efforts that aren’t there com­ we consider are energy-intensive. The difficulties of managing a substance that challenges? beings. we talk 110 111 currently converted. How do we deal with our particular Christopher Scott contends. CS So all three of these – the water-energy nexus. we’re often using water on a decade. to ‘waste water or effluent’ that That sustainable water resource management in arid and semi-arid regions vexing problem when it comes to water manage­ represents a system of trade-offs – between uses. nor am I alarmist t Mexico use a major share of their total energy just manage water resources that don’t pose a z e r o . whole notion of t o i l e t t o t a p arose. we’re potentially burning more carbon to put in place that deal with groundwater. sus­ two resources – if not flip sides of the same coin – with water resource sustainability in most regions and we as revolve around a set of trade-offs. we are beginning to understand that’s of the desert just because we’ve got effluents available? not the case. and we need ment because of scale and invisibility issues and also to be intelligent about how we use it. Ground water is in some sense a much more needs to be disposed. trying to explore that trade-off at one level. or no water. But there tainable water use appear to be at cross-purposes. but instance. the demands of water resources or degrading water quality through human use.Liquid Pro Quo about ‘aquifer over-extraction’ or sometimes ‘fossil back as wastewater or sewage (depending its degree Christopher A. Most urban supply actually comes Now the third part: we’re going to have to be much more intelligent about reusing the water we have or that we’ve . Certain regions may be warming which will Or do we want to make more intelligent use of it? influence weather patterns and cause either more or less One final remark: we’ve known for a long time that the rainfall to occur. California and other areas in the US have Now we’re pumping it out on a yearly or even monthly gone past the paradigm of ‘waste water as waste’ that time scale. water as a resource consequences for the mitigation of carbon emissions. Arizona and northwest systems. if we It is increasingly understood that energy and water are the human demand driver and climate change – affect populated. which means that the water we actually societal drive for irrigation. pletely. as University of Arizona water expert driver to the supply and demand equation. Another is making use of we’re looking for opportunities where it isn’t an either/ demand drivers and a set of management options and groundwater: pumping it out of aquifers for agriculture or. groundwater. is making use of effluent. When it’s done at it is possible to have a continuous cycle of con­ a scale and a pace that is significantly in excess of the Volume 20 To get to the issue of trade-offs. The essential trade-off tainable practice is possible? significant commonalities and intersections that have societies and decision makers must be prepared to deal with all of them. for hydropower and for cities have available is more highly variable – which gets a lot has been increasing at a pace that far exceeds the natural of attention. So while it’s important But this is the problem: most of the approaches have to that we look at climate change. policy perspective. story in water management? Is it a thing where for that water to be deposited there. But now. Basically. t r e a t . with lies in avoiding a zero-sum game. even while there appears to be less. That demands significant amounts of for human productive purposes at the cost of eco­ c o n t i n u u m . r e c o v e r a n d r e c l a i m g a m e – meaning taking water out of ecosystems to end in a crisis or failure with no option out. but are driving in the right direction. This gets to the second point: the energy-water nexus.s u m or defeatist in saying that everything ultimately is going to m o v e . I’m not trying to say that everything energy.

as well as like you’re doing similar work. A reservoir (Dan Jiang Kou) actions including dismissals for EPB officials who fail in 1966 when local fisherman banded together to patrol the health of the at the top of our Middle Han Waterkeeper’s river is going to investigate and penalize any violators after detecting to be the starting point for the central section of the or receiving reports on violations. He gave us an overview so her group can have an ongoing idea of the water That’s a signal that China is taking its environmental of water pollution laws in China and which NGOs are quality along that section of the river. GB What are particular water concerns in China. Because they (the local EPBs) have to publicize the Stephanie von Stein explains how this type of non-governmental intervention GB Who are ‘they’? data in a certain number of local forums including local on Chinese rivers reinforces private companies’ adherence to environmental SvS The central government.Waterkeepers The north is extremely dry. 112 113 business and bring in revenue. they’ll have to in terms of having direct control over provincial EPBs. e nent environmentalists in China. which China is known for. 2006 we met with Ma Jun. She is doing Kate Meagher Are there any other solutions that attempt by the central government to get more power Waterkeeper programs in China. even though these a little bit m o r e p o w e r . SvS Right. For instance. And if necessary. There’s public does have more access to data. on a waterway. China has enor­ Volume 20 at the local level will be promoted to the degree which is a tributary of the Yangtze and it’s a pretty big Volume 20 corruption is involved. As the Asia Program Coordinator of Waterkeeper Alliance. their water-availability problems. and that this is one Gavin Browning You started the first two powerhouse named Yun Jianli. Waterkeeper Alliance was born in New York State central and eastern route. in a boat. in the response when we did. and really. it will be cleaner simply because of the prevention efforts along her stretch of the river. When its flows are diminished by to their data – before the government sees that they a third. and that they want the new Ministry working on water issues. tion and Control Act was enacted calling for disciplinary Spanning 185 countries. watching take about a third of her water from the Han River via the Law enacted in May 2008 makes the local EPB staff reservoir and send it to the northern cities to alleviate responsible for publicizing local pollution information over the waters. then the incentives are by which their province has developed economically. central newspapers and magazines and on their website. while helping to create transparency and accountability between the government endeavor. the people who know r e a c h e d o u t . and it seems Protection Bureau (EPB). They will call the local Environmental than SEPA had in the past – even if it’s still somewhat out to them. they could be held activists come to us. and the south is relatively not really there to enforce. really fight a diversion project. the Open Government Environmental Information ferable model of advocacy: one person. Can you tell true Waterkeeper work in that she has a boat – we you or Waterkeeper would advocate for restoring over what happens in the provinces. that the problem gets resolved. EPB Provinces. the way can say about the issue. Yun can’t reinforce and build upon cooperation that already exists. it’s tough. and among those NGOs who Let’s say they see a discharge pipe putting out black of Environ­ ental Protection (MEP) to have more power m would be the best fit to be Waterkeepers. so China has initiated a huge infrastructure project But new incentives have been created. because the EPBs are going diversion projects are going to have massive deleterious to be wanting to know what they know – and have access effects on the rivers. an official SvS One Waterkeeper program is on the Han River. But there was an enthusiastic the law. I think it’s just going to concentrated. she will call the EPB again [pause] she’ll just make sure A lot of the time. issues seriously. and we reached or red water. she’s trying to clean up her river to the point where even after the water-flow is diminished. and because the It’s powerful. and she takes school kids. river in its own right. And even now. to have In terms of pollution. thing that a NGO then later reported. she will call them again. the laws. because it’s a really us about them? helped her find funding for a boat – called the Middle the water. officials. and for enforcing disclosure of data by industry. Other communities soon took note of this effective and trans­ South-North Water Diversion Project. then towns and villages. . than quantity] issues. GB This law really goes against Western notions of China as nontransparent. She’s been responsible officials have an incentive to look the other way because and how does the program address them? for getting waste-water treatment facilities improved a factory owner will pay them. last Interview by Gavin Browning and Kate Meagher called the called the South-North Water Diversion Project spring an amendment to China’s Water Pollution Pre­ en­ v that is going to consist of three channels: a western. on a number of facilities or factories along her stretch of the Han River. It runs through Hubei and Hunan What are the issues? I t ’ s h u g e . from a membership in the Alliance. because it’s people from private companies on the boat. Han Waterkeeper Boat. They’re going to Also. and that they find us. in that w e polluting and tell them that they need to comply with cial EPBs as of yet. they’re still not complying. the question is really enforcement. ‘This is our model. Hudson River. careful with the wording. and. and this is going really nothing that the local provinces or towns along to help NGOs with enforcement. even though Ms. She goes patrolling on it once SvS Waterkeeper deals mostly with water quality [rather of the situation. besides prevention? tangible way for them to check that the EPBs are on top Stephanie von Stein Yes. accountable. It’s an enormous. We said.’ go and talk to the private company that is doing the They really don’t have clear authority over these pro­ in­ v So this was an unusual situation. Stephanie von Stein wet. So if pro­ o­ions are based upon being able to attract m t Yun Jianli and her boat. So. She has five set moni­ because the water laws are there. and the woman on that river is an amazing mous pollution as well as water availability problems. because it puts information in the hands some environmental activists in China. a grassroots movement. But we did have a dialogue with a first hand look at the waterway. I think it will give NGOs local and central governments in burgeoning State conservation efforts. the pollutants in the Han River will be a lot more neglected to report something. and data. If a company has been called by the EPB and what’s going on are the people on the ground. I think it’s a signal that China is really serious about environmental enforcement. In January of toring sites along the middle stretch of the Han and State Environmental Protection Agency was recently of individuals. He’s one of the most prom­­ i she keeps a water quality log for all of those checkpoints strength­ ned and elevated to a cabinet-level ministry. and maybe you’d benefit out to do a check. So. If an EPB did not did not report some­ because one of Waterkeeper’s requirements is that a week or more. who will then send somebody limited in terms of personnel on the ground.

they’ll have to in terms of having direct control over provincial EPBs. tion and Control Act was enacted calling for disciplinary Spanning 185 countries. and this is going really nothing that the local provinces or towns along to help NGOs with enforcement. And if necessary. If an EPB did not did not report some­ because one of Waterkeeper’s requirements is that a week or more. they’re still not complying. She has five set moni­ because the water laws are there. For instance. then towns and villages. Yun can’t reinforce and build upon cooperation that already exists. and among those NGOs who Let’s say they see a discharge pipe putting out black of Environ­ ental Protection (MEP) to have more power m would be the best fit to be Waterkeepers. But there was an enthusiastic the law. and data. careful with the wording. And even now. We said. and maybe you’d benefit out to do a check. because it’s people from private companies on the boat. Other communities soon took note of this effective and trans­ South-North Water Diversion Project. because the EPBs are going diversion projects are going to have massive deleterious to be wanting to know what they know – and have access effects on the rivers. 112 113 business and bring in revenue. Waterkeeper Alliance was born in New York State central and eastern route. she will call the EPB again [pause] she’ll just make sure A lot of the time. . she will call them again. which China is known for. There’s public does have more access to data. then the incentives are by which their province has developed economically. river in its own right. besides prevention? tangible way for them to check that the EPBs are on top Stephanie von Stein Yes.’ go and talk to the private company that is doing the They really don’t have clear authority over these pro­ in­ v So this was an unusual situation. the question is really enforcement. it will be cleaner simply because of the prevention efforts along her stretch of the river. while helping to create transparency and accountability between the government endeavor. and. she’s trying to clean up her river to the point where even after the water-flow is diminished. and that this is one Gavin Browning You started the first two powerhouse named Yun Jianli. it’s tough. a grassroots movement. and that they want the new Ministry working on water issues. so China has initiated a huge infrastructure project But new incentives have been created. and the south is relatively not really there to enforce. because it puts information in the hands some environmental activists in China.Waterkeepers The north is extremely dry. Because they (the local EPBs) have to publicize the Stephanie von Stein explains how this type of non-governmental intervention GB Who are ‘they’? data in a certain number of local forums including local on Chinese rivers reinforces private companies’ adherence to environmental SvS The central government. their water-availability problems. GB This law really goes against Western notions of China as nontransparent. I think it’s a signal that China is really serious about environmental enforcement. 2006 we met with Ma Jun. China has enor­ Volume 20 at the local level will be promoted to the degree which is a tributary of the Yangtze and it’s a pretty big Volume 20 corruption is involved. They’re going to Also. to have In terms of pollution. in the response when we did. than quantity] issues. So. that the problem gets resolved. the Open Government Environmental Information ferable model of advocacy: one person. and really. on a waterway. in a boat. As the Asia Program Coordinator of Waterkeeper Alliance. they could be held activists come to us. really fight a diversion project. I think it’s just going to concentrated. as well as like you’re doing similar work. who will then send somebody limited in terms of personnel on the ground. the laws. It’s an enormous. ‘This is our model. Han Waterkeeper Boat. the pollutants in the Han River will be a lot more neglected to report something. She is doing Kate Meagher Are there any other solutions that attempt by the central government to get more power Waterkeeper programs in China. even though these a little bit m o r e p o w e r . from a membership in the Alliance. But we did have a dialogue with a first hand look at the waterway. She’s been responsible officials have an incentive to look the other way because and how does the program address them? for getting waste-water treatment facilities improved a factory owner will pay them. When its flows are diminished by to their data – before the government sees that they a third. central newspapers and magazines and on their website. GB What are particular water concerns in China. Hudson River. e nent environmentalists in China. It runs through Hubei and Hunan What are the issues? I t ’ s h u g e . the way can say about the issue. So if pro­ o­ions are based upon being able to attract m t Yun Jianli and her boat. thing that a NGO then later reported. an official SvS One Waterkeeper program is on the Han River. They will call the local Environmental than SEPA had in the past – even if it’s still somewhat out to them. In January of toring sites along the middle stretch of the Han and State Environmental Protection Agency was recently of individuals. the people who know r e a c h e d o u t . in that w e polluting and tell them that they need to comply with cial EPBs as of yet. issues seriously. She goes patrolling on it once SvS Waterkeeper deals mostly with water quality [rather of the situation. He’s one of the most prom­­ i she keeps a water quality log for all of those checkpoints strength­ ned and elevated to a cabinet-level ministry. and because the It’s powerful. I think it will give NGOs local and central governments in burgeoning State conservation efforts. on a number of facilities or factories along her stretch of the Han River. and she takes school kids. He gave us an overview so her group can have an ongoing idea of the water That’s a signal that China is taking its environmental of water pollution laws in China and which NGOs are quality along that section of the river. even though Ms. Can you tell true Waterkeeper work in that she has a boat – we you or Waterkeeper would advocate for restoring over what happens in the provinces. last Interview by Gavin Browning and Kate Meagher called the called the South-North Water Diversion Project spring an amendment to China’s Water Pollution Pre­ en­ v that is going to consist of three channels: a western. If a company has been called by the EPB and what’s going on are the people on the ground. EPB Provinces. watching take about a third of her water from the Han River via the Law enacted in May 2008 makes the local EPB staff reservoir and send it to the northern cities to alleviate responsible for publicizing local pollution information over the waters. A reservoir (Dan Jiang Kou) actions including dismissals for EPB officials who fail in 1966 when local fisherman banded together to patrol the health of the at the top of our Middle Han Waterkeeper’s river is going to investigate and penalize any violators after detecting to be the starting point for the central section of the or receiving reports on violations. and that they find us. and it seems Protection Bureau (EPB). officials. Stephanie von Stein wet. and we reached or red water. So. and for enforcing disclosure of data by industry. accountable. SvS Right. and the woman on that river is an amazing mous pollution as well as water availability problems. because it’s a really us about them? helped her find funding for a boat – called the Middle the water.

It’s equally ironic to see how China’s land-oriented family mode contributes to the global industrial revolution14 and globalization. betting that a new sustainable energy could be found to support mobility-oriented modernization before the old one was exhausted. in which China was thought to be the orthodox center of both the geographic and the mental world. It’s not a new thing for China that laissez-faire must succumb to supervisory power in order to utilize the energy of Pandora’s Box without harming the patriarchical system or unitive politics12. Paper-making and type printing facilitated the civil services advocated by Confucianism2 to ensure the long lifespan of each dynasty and a continuous civilization. Agriculture economy3 stabilized local power via its land-oriented production mode and local collectivism. the Chinese economy is compelled to relieve its production overcapacity into the hinterland. but the amplifier of the crisis. Climate Crisis22 Energy Crisis23 A typical migrant factory worker’s dormitory in South China Over 20 buildings of a million square meters each were abandoned during the bubble economy of the Special Economy Zone Hainan Island in 1990s. on high-end technology. However. Confucian culture4 synchronized the two into ‘one­ ness’ with its state-family isomorphic structure. Barbarians were those uncivilized tribes living in the peripheral nowhere that constantly sought to invade China. the internal. It’s dramatic to see billions of peasants migrating season­ ally from their land to the world’s factories. successively led by the bourgeois and the proletariat. The stability and sustainability of pre-modern China was defined by this trinity. while vitality was reserved for the future – a more oriental notion of eternity. experiencing seasonal ups and downs. Classic of Mountains and Rivers. Recycled/Polluted in China18 China’s reliance on Consumed-in-the-West17 has caused it to return to its hinterland just as its export-oriented economy is collapsing. This is another form of national collectivism – a denial of the western notion of democracy. and the ideological subjection to nature combined to generate a highly developed handicraft industry11. However.China’s Sustainability: Asynchronous Revolutions The traditional Chinese family and its genealogy contribute not only to vertical lineages spanning dynasties and eras. more elements of modernity could be extracted from pre-modern China. Balanced diversity conserves vitality and catalyses sustainability. As pre-modern China utilized paper and printing over gunpowder and the compass. national industrial development in the 1920s and The Great Leap Forward in the 1950s. Yet given the upper limit of land pro­ uc­ ivity. Industrial Revolution14 Handicraft is generated by human power9 while modern industry is powered by machine power10. the two revolutions were not synchronous in China. The inten­ sity of energy reflects the speed of consumption. as well t as the differentiation in their global effects. Since it contributes even more as a greatly cohesive but exclusive com­ u­ ity of common interests m n and a highly autonomous intermediate organization. energy23 and economic24 global crises. it is no surprise that s communal space becomes rich and powerful. This polarized urbanism is putting the sustainability of both environment. Not only had the land-oriented nature of Chinese local society been subverted. Development focused on human power stifled the development of technology that could replace man­ ower and hence change the organizational p mode of Local Collectivism. exhausting nature of the regime must have compelled them to finally choose a more sustainable development. . Given a long enough timeline. compass The asynchronicity of the two revolutions resulted in a para­ oxical d urbanization when China resumed importing Western modernization models into its planning system in the 1980s. but the vertical relationship of families was also trans­ formed into horizontal class-based relationships which resulted in increasing disparity between urban and rural areas as well as massive numbers8 migrating from the impoverished countryside to cities. or the expansion7 of consumption19. Urbanization is materialized on the basis of industrial revolution14. What gunpowder and the compass unlocked from Pandora’s Box of capitalism was the desire for consumption19 and expansion7. The concept of a ‘Har­ o­ ious Society’ is officially m n cited from the Book of Rites – an ancient book on the diversity-ordered structure of an ideal society15 – as delayed compensation for the unac­ om­ c plished democratic revolution half a century ago. China’s first modern. has long been ignored. was finally solidified by Communism in the 1950s. Modernization was supposed to carry out two revolutions parallel to its western paradigms: industrial revolution14 and democratic revolution15. the culture industry might be the last sustainable way for consumption to expand7 into the interior of humanity instead of the exterior of space and time. Jiang Jun Population Crisis The opening ceremony of the Beijing Olympics broadcast China’s ‘Four Great Inventions’ as the contributions of an ancient and creative power. The official discourse of the late pre-modern Chinese indus­ trial revolution14 was merely a tactic to play one barbarian state against another. The massive-population-strategy was used by Mao in fighting against his machinery-armed enemies. It dumped the circulation rule of slow culture. the Chinese family balances the interests of the state and individuals. The repression of demilitarization5 l and the extrication in self-organization resulted in periodic massive population increases8. The first part of industrialization was an accelerating process in which automation technologies were constantly updated and mobility was greedily maximized until its unsustainability was unveiled in the energy crisis23. was the latent principle behind all dynasties of pre-modern China. Made-in-China16 stimulated by Consumed-in-the-West19 comes along with Polluted-in-China18. had a clear military application5. had more to do with cultivation1. Militarism Made in China16 The dependence of industrialization14 on energy and the uneven distribution of fossil fuels thoroughly changed global geopolitics and even triggered two World Wars . It has been proven to be highly unsustainable both economically and ecologically by the recent climate22. They also un­ocked m l the Pandora Box of industriali­ ation14 and globaliza­ ion13 – z t a revolution that put sustainability in danger. As global capitalism preaches consumerism throughout the world it threatens the world with potential crises: unchecked consumption has led to climate22 and energy crises23. but also delayed the industrial revolution14 whose subversive nature would interrupt the sustainability itself. 19 Planning capitalism17 has recently become overwhelming as a Chinese model of modernization and an option for post-capitalism27. a nominal victory of gunpowder and the compass over paper and printing. while the other two. The former takes mobility as the main form of modernization while the latter emphasizes the equal distribution of mobility as part of human rights. The self-sufficiency of the inward developing empire could not have been broken but by external forces. agriculture economy3 as the social mode of production. Civilization itself was like agriculture. Human power9 is apparently more sustainable than all the fossil fuels used since the Industrial Revolution14. the historical distinc­ ion among the four inventions. more sustainability can be found in words than in wars. Planning Capitalism17 People’s City20 Global Economy13 Sustainability. Should global consumption cool down. However. the insufficiency of democratic revolution15 tilts mobility towards the superior and thus causes an unequal share of revolution’s achievements. while gun­ powder and the compass resulted in wars and colonialism at the other end of the Eurasian land­ ass. This is a de-globalized globalization and a backward option to its development tradition. society and mobility at risk. urban planning commis­ ioner and infrastructure developer. Farming employs a recyclable form of productivity. However. To maintain consumption will be a risky adventure in the nonlinear labyrinth of these intertwined crises. Unitive politics2 minimized internal exhaustion6 by virtue of its centralized instruction system and national collectivism. Since the 1980s. as well as to slow down the stalling vehicle of modernization . Hi-Tech Green Industry Revolution26 Financial Crisis24 Colonialism Machine Power10 Created in China21 Post-Capitalism27 Consumed in the West19 China used to be one of the revolutionary powers against capitalism whose evil side (described by Karl Marx) has produced a ‘general crisis’ after several golden decades. This social and environmental sustainability is the result of the most valuable quality of pre-modern China. p Handicraft Industry11 type printing Four Inventions0 Slow Culture Public spaces in China with ‘People’ in the title Peasants making steel with self-made furnaces exemplify bottom-up industrialization during China’s Great Leap Forward in the late 1950s. mechanized navy was defeated in the Sino-Japanese War of 1894–1895. Given that the distribution of mobility deals directly with the possession of resources in a modern city while distribution decisions are always made within a top-down system in which the government functions as land owner. gunpowder and the compass. Low-Tech 8 Unitive Politics2 paper-making Cultivation1 local collectivism Confucian Culture4 The low cost maximized accessibility for the masses while the low-tech minimized exploitation and pollution. Four Great Inventions stamps published in Hong Kong The ‘People’s Republic of China’ is a country in which public spaces are supposed to be for the people. A village recycling electronic rubbish sent from the United States to south China. This is the difference between ‘the machine is part of the human being’ and ‘the human being is part of the machine’. Cultural Sustainability25 Democratic Revolution15 It was based on three aspects of civilization: unitive politics2 as the organizational mode of the state. Industri­ li­ ation14 was actually a z a shift away from nature’s consumption speed. and Confucian culture4 as its ideology. which in turn was followed by economic depression. The sustainability of the state was therefore resolved into the sus­ ain­ t abi­ity of all those local families. wonton credit spending has led to financial and economic crisis. symbolized by gun­ owder and the compass. These fundamental changes motivated potential revolutions that attempted to establish a new superstructure for these new socio-economic relationships. paper-making and type printing. democratic revolution15. the global polarization of manufacturing and consumption has made the issue of China’s sustainability a global concern. symbolized m by paper and printing. the population is congenitally d t confined. Most mechanical inventions were supposed to merely reinforce human power9 not replace it. In 1964 the new petroleum city Daqing was set up as an industrial model and the oil worker Wang Jinxi became the Chinese working class representative. Unitive Politics12 state-family isomorphic structure Massive-Population-Strategy8 Human Power9 Exhaustion6 gunpowder Militarization5 Expansion7 As China suffered from internal warfare before becoming a unitive power over 2000 years ago. which was then followed by massive land reclamation and cultivation1 until the demographic dividend was exhausted. Throughout Chinese history population always rose with economic growth. Given Chinese civilization’s longevity. over-population. and the global reliance on Made-inChina16 and Polluted-in-China18 forces the development of a more sustainable model of globalization before it turns to recycling disasters. World atlas in a Chinese Bestiary with China at the center. while the industrial civilization is going to launch a ‘green industrial revolution26’ and ‘green energy revolution’ to match the recyclability and sustainability of agriculture. Discovery of Daqing freed China from the energy crisis23 in order to support its industrialization in 1960s. The massive-population-strategy later used by Mao to fight his better armed enemies was a double-edged sword. The impact on China – a country with a deeply-rooted tradition in agriculture3 and handicrafts11 – was earthshaking. This might be the origin of the prejudice against machines and Imperial Chinese arrogance toward the West. However. but also to an expanded network of family and acquaintances horizontally. Global industry transfer was not only the buffer for the time-lag. more climate22 and energy issues can be expected to promote consumption within this huge domestic market. The ultimate ambition of the industrial revolution14 was to construct a mechanical utopia in which human beings would be liberated from physical labor by automatic machine output. Two of the four inventions. a modern description of ‘long life’. Indus­ trial revolution14 was nearly completed through the Westernization Movement in the 1870s. national collectivism Agriculture Economy3 The rejection of high-end machinery. The offensive term ‘barbarian’ came from the most ancient Chinese book on geography. these rulers were ultimately diluted by the massive population8 and assimilated. It could be understood as the final state­ ent of an imperial civil government. Historically China failed several times to successfully fight off these ‘barbarians’ and was consequently subjected to minority rule.

Global industry transfer was not only the buffer for the time-lag. while vitality was reserved for the future – a more oriental notion of eternity. has long been ignored. However. the insufficiency of democratic revolution15 tilts mobility towards the superior and thus causes an unequal share of revolution’s achievements. This is the difference between ‘the machine is part of the human being’ and ‘the human being is part of the machine’. Unitive politics2 minimized internal exhaustion6 by virtue of its centralized instruction system and national collectivism. symbolized m by paper and printing. The massive-population-strategy later used by Mao to fight his better armed enemies was a double-edged sword. while the industrial civilization is going to launch a ‘green industrial revolution26’ and ‘green energy revolution’ to match the recyclability and sustainability of agriculture. and the global reliance on Made-inChina16 and Polluted-in-China18 forces the development of a more sustainable model of globalization before it turns to recycling disasters. Not only had the land-oriented nature of Chinese local society been subverted. but the vertical relationship of families was also trans­ formed into horizontal class-based relationships which resulted in increasing disparity between urban and rural areas as well as massive numbers8 migrating from the impoverished countryside to cities. which was then followed by massive land reclamation and cultivation1 until the demographic dividend was exhausted. China’s first modern. on high-end technology. more elements of modernity could be extracted from pre-modern China. Civilization itself was like agriculture. It’s dramatic to see billions of peasants migrating season­ ally from their land to the world’s factories. the historical distinc­ ion among the four inventions. Farming employs a recyclable form of productivity. these rulers were ultimately diluted by the massive population8 and assimilated. Throughout Chinese history population always rose with economic growth. over-population. but also to an expanded network of family and acquaintances horizontally. betting that a new sustainable energy could be found to support mobility-oriented modernization before the old one was exhausted. had more to do with cultivation1. in which China was thought to be the orthodox center of both the geographic and the mental world. it is no surprise that s communal space becomes rich and powerful. the culture industry might be the last sustainable way for consumption to expand7 into the interior of humanity instead of the exterior of space and time. the population is congenitally d t confined. Since the 1980s. a nominal victory of gunpowder and the compass over paper and printing. Hi-Tech Green Industry Revolution26 Financial Crisis24 Colonialism Machine Power10 Created in China21 Post-Capitalism27 Consumed in the West19 China used to be one of the revolutionary powers against capitalism whose evil side (described by Karl Marx) has produced a ‘general crisis’ after several golden decades. compass The asynchronicity of the two revolutions resulted in a para­ oxical d urbanization when China resumed importing Western modernization models into its planning system in the 1980s. This is a de-globalized globalization and a backward option to its development tradition. Made-in-China16 stimulated by Consumed-in-the-West19 comes along with Polluted-in-China18. As pre-modern China utilized paper and printing over gunpowder and the compass. society and mobility at risk. They also un­ocked m l the Pandora Box of industriali­ ation14 and globaliza­ ion13 – z t a revolution that put sustainability in danger. successively led by the bourgeois and the proletariat. which in turn was followed by economic depression. What gunpowder and the compass unlocked from Pandora’s Box of capitalism was the desire for consumption19 and expansion7. Four Great Inventions stamps published in Hong Kong The ‘People’s Republic of China’ is a country in which public spaces are supposed to be for the people. Balanced diversity conserves vitality and catalyses sustainability. Industri­ li­ ation14 was actually a z a shift away from nature’s consumption speed. Low-Tech 8 Unitive Politics2 paper-making Cultivation1 local collectivism Confucian Culture4 The low cost maximized accessibility for the masses while the low-tech minimized exploitation and pollution. the Chinese economy is compelled to relieve its production overcapacity into the hinterland. . In 1964 the new petroleum city Daqing was set up as an industrial model and the oil worker Wang Jinxi became the Chinese working class representative. It dumped the circulation rule of slow culture. had a clear military application5. It’s not a new thing for China that laissez-faire must succumb to supervisory power in order to utilize the energy of Pandora’s Box without harming the patriarchical system or unitive politics12.China’s Sustainability: Asynchronous Revolutions The traditional Chinese family and its genealogy contribute not only to vertical lineages spanning dynasties and eras. more sustainability can be found in words than in wars. It could be understood as the final state­ ent of an imperial civil government. or the expansion7 of consumption19. Given that the distribution of mobility deals directly with the possession of resources in a modern city while distribution decisions are always made within a top-down system in which the government functions as land owner. The concept of a ‘Har­ o­ ious Society’ is officially m n cited from the Book of Rites – an ancient book on the diversity-ordered structure of an ideal society15 – as delayed compensation for the unac­ om­ c plished democratic revolution half a century ago. Classic of Mountains and Rivers. gunpowder and the compass. Barbarians were those uncivilized tribes living in the peripheral nowhere that constantly sought to invade China. The repression of demilitarization5 l and the extrication in self-organization resulted in periodic massive population increases8. The stability and sustainability of pre-modern China was defined by this trinity. 19 Planning capitalism17 has recently become overwhelming as a Chinese model of modernization and an option for post-capitalism27. the Chinese family balances the interests of the state and individuals. Historically China failed several times to successfully fight off these ‘barbarians’ and was consequently subjected to minority rule. a modern description of ‘long life’. The impact on China – a country with a deeply-rooted tradition in agriculture3 and handicrafts11 – was earthshaking. mechanized navy was defeated in the Sino-Japanese War of 1894–1895. However. The former takes mobility as the main form of modernization while the latter emphasizes the equal distribution of mobility as part of human rights. The ultimate ambition of the industrial revolution14 was to construct a mechanical utopia in which human beings would be liberated from physical labor by automatic machine output. Planning Capitalism17 People’s City20 Global Economy13 Sustainability. Most mechanical inventions were supposed to merely reinforce human power9 not replace it. Industrial Revolution14 Handicraft is generated by human power9 while modern industry is powered by machine power10. p Handicraft Industry11 type printing Four Inventions0 Slow Culture Public spaces in China with ‘People’ in the title Peasants making steel with self-made furnaces exemplify bottom-up industrialization during China’s Great Leap Forward in the late 1950s. the global polarization of manufacturing and consumption has made the issue of China’s sustainability a global concern. the internal. and Confucian culture4 as its ideology. However. national industrial development in the 1920s and The Great Leap Forward in the 1950s. To maintain consumption will be a risky adventure in the nonlinear labyrinth of these intertwined crises. Since it contributes even more as a greatly cohesive but exclusive com­ u­ ity of common interests m n and a highly autonomous intermediate organization. Unitive Politics12 state-family isomorphic structure Massive-Population-Strategy8 Human Power9 Exhaustion6 gunpowder Militarization5 Expansion7 As China suffered from internal warfare before becoming a unitive power over 2000 years ago. However. wonton credit spending has led to financial and economic crisis. Climate Crisis22 Energy Crisis23 A typical migrant factory worker’s dormitory in South China Over 20 buildings of a million square meters each were abandoned during the bubble economy of the Special Economy Zone Hainan Island in 1990s. Paper-making and type printing facilitated the civil services advocated by Confucianism2 to ensure the long lifespan of each dynasty and a continuous civilization. However. was the latent principle behind all dynasties of pre-modern China. democratic revolution15. but the amplifier of the crisis. It has been proven to be highly unsustainable both economically and ecologically by the recent climate22. more climate22 and energy issues can be expected to promote consumption within this huge domestic market. Agriculture economy3 stabilized local power via its land-oriented production mode and local collectivism. The offensive term ‘barbarian’ came from the most ancient Chinese book on geography. as well as to slow down the stalling vehicle of modernization . urban planning commis­ ioner and infrastructure developer. Militarism Made in China16 The dependence of industrialization14 on energy and the uneven distribution of fossil fuels thoroughly changed global geopolitics and even triggered two World Wars . the two revolutions were not synchronous in China. The first part of industrialization was an accelerating process in which automation technologies were constantly updated and mobility was greedily maximized until its unsustainability was unveiled in the energy crisis23. Urbanization is materialized on the basis of industrial revolution14. Human power9 is apparently more sustainable than all the fossil fuels used since the Industrial Revolution14. as well t as the differentiation in their global effects. energy23 and economic24 global crises. This is another form of national collectivism – a denial of the western notion of democracy. Yet given the upper limit of land pro­ uc­ ivity. Confucian culture4 synchronized the two into ‘one­ ness’ with its state-family isomorphic structure. A village recycling electronic rubbish sent from the United States to south China. As global capitalism preaches consumerism throughout the world it threatens the world with potential crises: unchecked consumption has led to climate22 and energy crises23. World atlas in a Chinese Bestiary with China at the center. Development focused on human power stifled the development of technology that could replace man­ ower and hence change the organizational p mode of Local Collectivism. Cultural Sustainability25 Democratic Revolution15 It was based on three aspects of civilization: unitive politics2 as the organizational mode of the state. The inten­ sity of energy reflects the speed of consumption. while gun­ powder and the compass resulted in wars and colonialism at the other end of the Eurasian land­ ass. and the ideological subjection to nature combined to generate a highly developed handicraft industry11. Modernization was supposed to carry out two revolutions parallel to its western paradigms: industrial revolution14 and democratic revolution15. The massive-population-strategy was used by Mao in fighting against his machinery-armed enemies. but also delayed the industrial revolution14 whose subversive nature would interrupt the sustainability itself. Discovery of Daqing freed China from the energy crisis23 in order to support its industrialization in 1960s. Given Chinese civilization’s longevity. symbolized by gun­ owder and the compass. This polarized urbanism is putting the sustainability of both environment. exhausting nature of the regime must have compelled them to finally choose a more sustainable development. national collectivism Agriculture Economy3 The rejection of high-end machinery. Should global consumption cool down. The official discourse of the late pre-modern Chinese indus­ trial revolution14 was merely a tactic to play one barbarian state against another. experiencing seasonal ups and downs. This social and environmental sustainability is the result of the most valuable quality of pre-modern China. Jiang Jun Population Crisis The opening ceremony of the Beijing Olympics broadcast China’s ‘Four Great Inventions’ as the contributions of an ancient and creative power. was finally solidified by Communism in the 1950s. The sustainability of the state was therefore resolved into the sus­ ain­ t abi­ity of all those local families. Given a long enough timeline. Recycled/Polluted in China18 China’s reliance on Consumed-in-the-West17 has caused it to return to its hinterland just as its export-oriented economy is collapsing. Indus­ trial revolution14 was nearly completed through the Westernization Movement in the 1870s. paper-making and type printing. Two of the four inventions. while the other two. agriculture economy3 as the social mode of production. This might be the origin of the prejudice against machines and Imperial Chinese arrogance toward the West. These fundamental changes motivated potential revolutions that attempted to establish a new superstructure for these new socio-economic relationships. It’s equally ironic to see how China’s land-oriented family mode contributes to the global industrial revolution14 and globalization. The self-sufficiency of the inward developing empire could not have been broken but by external forces.

all McLuhan w h J Th ars ay e u r. cynics and even murderers. to er b f fairy wishes and desi res our . They usually h re yo ave yo mo u ny hman of m a a N ac be Br bi nd at ab e R zl design. in ke – g tha t pr wa thin ot it ly ec on educe it or ki r l o not alway is u e L is 118 Tr ion: it is B art h Is adult entertai nm y ur en F g as a fairy t tk k din ale c d … la we h ng fairy tales a i y ad g m re ing in fa ain rt liev iry be An de ian r st tasy. re fa nt ir g terribly. Little Red Ridi er n ng od Ho m e of stories. ar imag ation. – C am he f et ill n I’ d i m m e.– you’d b ar .– ati ha em gend about fr e e fl nd de ua m yo – le. m se int he – er el tt e the pleas li an eciat ur r e ost wo o pp em nd th s Do not as ewish k B or So important a thi too rr ng far Somewh is ere e ss e eu b ed . – R io ch fo t ri cu athaway ie s eH D If nn y A young. not a o e d tom d. fa ow in a iry ta answ on on War e must taining our a nter d ult S ne s? Some re ton ld – da Hil hi yy ris s the tim o ce i e Pa in lieve in lo v sc b Ar u question Prov en be s believe in fairy n’t tal do es .– – o y h a nc e a n d m rt O c ys ve een te a c t t ha w he f tp t t e ite – Luis B uñ r.Wish Upon A Star Fairy tales resonate not just with children who wish upon a star. de e Dr ou sp ts f f altoge to th li probable Volume 20 nce upo ith ‘O na nw tim olitical and ga p e ec b e b ou t on a eas good er lk ha wh s l. e forgotten how to Yo hav tel le u l lberg Go op Spie d m a st Pe en ad ev tional s tory St emo e . anso ag M re B in pa rilyn ld enough e eo a to M ll b st wi n girls a whe u qu e if it l ns C – Ha hr i e. – Osc ar ce i y de W ns Christ Ha i y es infex l airy tales. e r likely .–A te ou les in ta ved. eG mu ac th i y. L rs ak ds that an e ian dren? Or is kill chil ing ur ou g o eautiful and whi r in te b . Whatev e m ion. be r e or an you th exact m ies e m at giv h ’s a qualit an y ere o Th o stops wh le a ridd er s – John Wayn rder.I seriously abo .o s ge o fu er Wonderla not in nd ’re an ym We ing commerc or ial sing s. on ha e If y o e y ser ed uw s Ruk ar n an iel re ty ad them more ur M . but also with intellectuals. –A die er r a confe no an d ol em I’m going .– c ill e. D ink. – n Let the g er li t t rue le yK I like no dd de nse fairy il re W ns F in e. .– rt les t ta Eve ry n se s Wainw righ – Rufu ly! t uf the brain c yo Li ell s up f s. While fairy tales set young readers free to imagine fantasy worlds. ter ge rib ein l fb l fairy tale .S e and sta . t et yth t m a either a lie n s n.a have a mi nd am ddl don’t e es eo i dr ra Ia tor se he loves r S cau n sto y. ve a f a a h l ho u yo I am you r f ai ry t al e.S r fre om.I – the tc ank Zapp ou – Fr a s. Th is ma to be more s. id alk ut t k . Le wi s Ad ug ol C. – . – M arl no t m en the sp Ia e ark t and s le du . M w y tales. – ss ss a myth. fairy t Yea a les I wa al a r ner nt l t nW ly on t h e v o t a ore ro is u rm a Child fa re ier n m ak e s rie an g to live in goin st th ju e r w a nt t o b s m e ho yt Myt to h i Andy d your hun ger s t an hir an rt d u .Y . ke wet c e li e ar impre an n ott m Gi rs ago. . they also serve as an adult pathway to a darker orbit of reality. I am elected ’. I’ on e going to be a ’r m uiller m ou aG op lm know they a we ll b w eg les – Ro no iry ta na i ’… ic fa ld di R m goo mage o s no nt. fair – a ni m If y f. ‘If th Ca Evil is ba wi se n n ga d ea . bu e ca l tw . – Lars vo a ll n at falls on th er . the ou v ol ecret of life is ad s w re The to L if e i t s e a lf e i ild Andersen n a es – J tal – so A clo Manson rl e s wn ha c being eate an –C nb n to ge e. Hai Dr ale par t fairy t of the it. – Kl o u r dr aus dy K an in sk t never stops beg od tha i in fo ni r ing mputer ca ng n’t e co nn . sc th es li e eep tryin ry ek g pl t o Reali ty l ue – Jor g . tio y t th lic bjec n to be intel e A li dre o ge w h il o nt lbert Eins rc . Th te gi ll g is t h ee y ssin ye v mi br ike a pe t’s s.

– rt les t ta Eve ry n se s Wainw righ – Rufu ly! t uf the brain c yo Li ell s up f s.Wish Upon A Star Fairy tales resonate not just with children who wish upon a star. ve a f a a h l ho u yo I am you r f ai ry t al e.– c ill e. fair – a ni m If y f.o s ge o fu er Wonderla not in nd ’re an ym We ing commerc or ial sing s. Whatev e m ion. m se int he – er el tt e the pleas li an eciat ur r e ost wo o pp em nd th s Do not as ewish k B or So important a thi too rr ng far Somewh is ere e ss e eu b ed . . – C am he f et ill n I’ d i m m e. – Kl o u r dr aus dy K an in sk t never stops beg od tha i in fo ni r ing mputer ca ng n’t e co nn . –A die er r a confe no an d ol em I’m going .–A te ou les in ta ved. fa ow in a iry ta answ on on War e must taining our a nter d ult S ne s? Some re ton ld – da Hil hi yy ris s the tim o ce i e Pa in lieve in lo v sc b Ar u question Prov en be s believe in fairy n’t tal do es . Le wi s Ad ug ol C. Little Red Ridi er n ng od Ho m e of stories. bu e ca l tw . . – R io ch fo t ri cu athaway ie s eH D If nn y A young.– ati ha em gend about fr e e fl nd de ua m yo – le. – M arl no t m en the sp Ia e ark t and s le du . Th te gi ll g is t h ee y ssin ye v mi br ike a pe t’s s. sc th es li e eep tryin ry ek g pl t o Reali ty l ue – Jor g . the ou v ol ecret of life is ad s w re The to L if e i t s e a lf e i ild Andersen n a es – J tal – so A clo Manson rl e s wn ha c being eate an –C nb n to ge e.S e and sta . – ss ss a myth. – .I seriously abo . in ke – g tha t pr wa thin ot it ly ec on educe it or ki r l o not alway is u e L is 118 Tr ion: it is B art h Is adult entertai nm y ur en F g as a fairy t tk k din ale c d … la we h ng fairy tales a i y ad g m re ing in fa ain rt liev iry be An de ian r st tasy. cynics and even murderers. they also serve as an adult pathway to a darker orbit of reality.a have a mi nd am ddl don’t e es eo i dr ra Ia tor se he loves r S cau n sto y. – n Let the g er li t t rue le yK I like no dd de nse fairy il re W ns F in e. Th is ma to be more s. tio y t th lic bjec n to be intel e A li dre o ge w h il o nt lbert Eins rc . Hai Dr ale par t fairy t of the it. While fairy tales set young readers free to imagine fantasy worlds. L rs ak ds that an e ian dren? Or is kill chil ing ur ou g o eautiful and whi r in te b . eG mu ac th i y. ar imag ation. all McLuhan w h J Th ars ay e u r. ke wet c e li e ar impre an n ott m Gi rs ago. They usually h re yo ave yo mo u ny hman of m a a N ac be Br bi nd at ab e R zl design. e r likely . I am elected ’. – Osc ar ce i y de W ns Christ Ha i y es infex l airy tales.Y . anso ag M re B in pa rilyn ld enough e eo a to M ll b st wi n girls a whe u qu e if it l ns C – Ha hr i e. D ink.I – the tc ank Zapp ou – Fr a s.– – o y h a nc e a n d m rt O c ys ve een te a c t t ha w he f tp t t e ite – Luis B uñ r. – Lars vo a ll n at falls on th er . t et yth t m a either a lie n s n. be r e or an you th exact m ies e m at giv h ’s a qualit an y ere o Th o stops wh le a ridd er s – John Wayn rder. not a o e d tom d.– you’d b ar . ‘If th Ca Evil is ba wi se n n ga d ea . I’ on e going to be a ’r m uiller m ou aG op lm know they a we ll b w eg les – Ro no iry ta na i ’… ic fa ld di R m goo mage o s no nt. but also with intellectuals. fairy t Yea a les I wa al a r ner nt l t nW ly on t h e v o t a ore ro is u rm a Child fa re ier n m ak e s rie an g to live in goin st th ju e r w a nt t o b s m e ho yt Myt to h i Andy d your hun ger s t an hir an rt d u . id alk ut t k . ter ge rib ein l fb l fairy tale . re fa nt ir g terribly. to er b f fairy wishes and desi res our . M w y tales. e forgotten how to Yo hav tel le u l lberg Go op Spie d m a st Pe en ad ev tional s tory St emo e .S r fre om. on ha e If y o e y ser ed uw s Ruk ar n an iel re ty ad them more ur M . de e Dr ou sp ts f f altoge to th li probable Volume 20 nce upo ith ‘O na nw tim olitical and ga p e ec b e b ou t on a eas good er lk ha wh s l.

In the People’s Republic of China’s public ability is actually a question of quality-of-life. She has fantasies about families celebrating taking it to Shanghai. she has but sail back empty. A lot of his fairy to see the Little Mermaid they learned about in school. We’re reintroducing also read ‘The Little Matchstick Girl’. So we are She is about to freeze to death so she starts lighting the filling a container with a million liters of harbor water and matches. Here. tales are quite socialist. to bring specific stories to Shanghai from societies where the story in which the king was basically naked. port has become so clear you can swim in it. BIG prin­ ipal Bjarke Ingels shares his proposal with Volume. We don’t just talk about harbor baths – people can jump in and feel if the symbol of Denmark – the Little Mermaid statue located in Copenhagen Harbor which you’re of the sea. Another Hans Christian can put on a swimsuit and dive in to discover for them­ Andersen tale Chinese pupils read is ‘The Little Mermaid’. as an ultimate symbol of the real expe­ moving to Shanghai. slogans or statements maybe in the future people could swim in it – now that to Shanghai.Welfairy Tales Bjarke Ingels Interviewed by Jeffrey Inaba BIG has employed Scandinavia’s famous social-democratic.3 billion Chinese the chance Volume 20 And you’re topping all of this off with a Volume 20 JI Hans Christian Andersen is central. We can hitch a ride for free with the next morning she is found dead. Then. So we’re not just talking about bicycles – would be a true Welfairytale! people can actually try them and see what it feels like to get a bicycle for free and ride around. They load water on to the ships no more heat. Why the Little Mermaid? BI water’s clean and what it feels like to swim in the middle rience. It’s a sort of socialist. Finally the last one is gone. The to keep them stable. Even this is sustainable. selves how clean metropolitan harbor water can be. 120 121 . a story about this the bicycle – which has become forbidden in some places poor girl who is selling matchsticks on Christmas Eve. The water in Copenhagen’s ened that she can’t return until she sells all the matches. which is why China is so happy Bjarke Ingels With Welfairytales we show that sustain­ with him. At We wanted to bring some real evidence and life expe­ the moment the Huangpu River is seriously polluted but riences rather than just images. water and whoever wants to experience it in Shanghai sad story about rich and poor. We’re trying school curriculum they read ‘The Emperor’s New Clothes’. but she doesn’t dare to go home. They sustainability functions in this way. because Christmas together so she lights more and more matches normally ships sail full of goods from China to Denmark to keep her warm. we will actually give 1. Jeffrey Inaba Tell us about BIG’s proposal. ‘quality-of-life’ standards – as well as Danish fairy tale iconography – in Welfairytales. and through water. in Shanghai – by donating a thousand Danish bikes to She is afraid to go home because her father has threat­ Shanghai. c explaining his version of a happy ending and exactly why Hans Christian Andersen is so relevant to China. their winning proposal for the Danish Pavilion at next year’s Shanghai World Expo.

She has fantasies about families celebrating taking it to Shanghai. The to keep them stable. port has become so clear you can swim in it. we will actually give 1. We can hitch a ride for free with the next morning she is found dead. but she doesn’t dare to go home. It’s a sort of socialist. ‘quality-of-life’ standards – as well as Danish fairy tale iconography – in Welfairytales. water and whoever wants to experience it in Shanghai sad story about rich and poor. A lot of his fairy to see the Little Mermaid they learned about in school. in Shanghai – by donating a thousand Danish bikes to She is afraid to go home because her father has threat­ Shanghai. In the People’s Republic of China’s public ability is actually a question of quality-of-life. because Christmas together so she lights more and more matches normally ships sail full of goods from China to Denmark to keep her warm.3 billion Chinese the chance Volume 20 And you’re topping all of this off with a Volume 20 JI Hans Christian Andersen is central. We don’t just talk about harbor baths – people can jump in and feel if the symbol of Denmark – the Little Mermaid statue located in Copenhagen Harbor which you’re of the sea. So we’re not just talking about bicycles – would be a true Welfairytale! people can actually try them and see what it feels like to get a bicycle for free and ride around. We’re trying school curriculum they read ‘The Emperor’s New Clothes’. They sustainability functions in this way. So we are She is about to freeze to death so she starts lighting the filling a container with a million liters of harbor water and matches. Why the Little Mermaid? BI water’s clean and what it feels like to swim in the middle rience. which is why China is so happy Bjarke Ingels With Welfairytales we show that sustain­ with him. a story about this the bicycle – which has become forbidden in some places poor girl who is selling matchsticks on Christmas Eve. They load water on to the ships no more heat.Welfairy Tales Bjarke Ingels Interviewed by Jeffrey Inaba BIG has employed Scandinavia’s famous social-democratic. selves how clean metropolitan harbor water can be. Even this is sustainable. At We wanted to bring some real evidence and life expe­ the moment the Huangpu River is seriously polluted but riences rather than just images. We’re reintroducing also read ‘The Little Matchstick Girl’. BIG prin­ ipal Bjarke Ingels shares his proposal with Volume. Another Hans Christian can put on a swimsuit and dive in to discover for them­ Andersen tale Chinese pupils read is ‘The Little Mermaid’. Here. slogans or statements maybe in the future people could swim in it – now that to Shanghai. Then. c explaining his version of a happy ending and exactly why Hans Christian Andersen is so relevant to China. to bring specific stories to Shanghai from societies where the story in which the king was basically naked. their winning proposal for the Danish Pavilion at next year’s Shanghai World Expo. as an ultimate symbol of the real expe­ moving to Shanghai. tales are quite socialist. and through water. Finally the last one is gone. The water in Copenhagen’s ened that she can’t return until she sells all the matches. Jeffrey Inaba Tell us about BIG’s proposal. 120 121 . she has but sail back empty.

Volume 20 Volume 20 122 123 .

Volume 20 Volume 20 122 123 .

Not to be mistaken for little fairies.g. alter­ native-rock progenitors The Pixies apparently were aware of these mischievous deeds when writing the song. her hand accessorized with a dildo and she has been used as a prop for many a political statement. A case in point is the statue of Hans Christian Andersen’s Little Mermaid in Copenhagen harbor. Wave of Mutilation (Little Mermaid version) Cease to resist. Though a fictional construction. The physical manifestation of a fictional character can even be the subject of real world violence.Waves of Mermaid Mutilation C-Lab Sometimes a fairy tale character takes on a life of its own. former US Vice President Dan Quayle’s denunciation of the TV character Murphy Brown). her arm removed. Her head has been sawed off twice. draped in a burka Dildo in hand set to vibration Could find their way to the marina On a wave of mutilation Wave of mutilation Wave of mutilation Wave Wave Wave of mutilation Volume 20 Volume 20 Wave of mutilation 124 125 Wave of mutilation Wave Wave . ‘Wave of Mutilation’.. defacing the mermaid Tossed her head into the ocean You’ll think she’s dead. but she always stays On a wave of mutilation Wave of mutilation Wave of mutilation Wave Wave She’s fixed her gaze. the figure assumes such symbolic importance that it is regarded as a subject worthy of public commentary (e. An unreleased version Image: flickr user maggiejp recently discovered by C-Lab recounts the history of the violated sea creature.

her arm removed.g. Her head has been sawed off twice. draped in a burka Dildo in hand set to vibration Could find their way to the marina On a wave of mutilation Wave of mutilation Wave of mutilation Wave Wave Wave of mutilation Volume 20 Volume 20 Wave of mutilation 124 125 Wave of mutilation Wave Wave . the figure assumes such symbolic importance that it is regarded as a subject worthy of public commentary (e. Though a fictional construction. The physical manifestation of a fictional character can even be the subject of real world violence. but she always stays On a wave of mutilation Wave of mutilation Wave of mutilation Wave Wave She’s fixed her gaze..Waves of Mermaid Mutilation C-Lab Sometimes a fairy tale character takes on a life of its own. Not to be mistaken for little fairies. former US Vice President Dan Quayle’s denunciation of the TV character Murphy Brown). A case in point is the statue of Hans Christian Andersen’s Little Mermaid in Copenhagen harbor. alter­ native-rock progenitors The Pixies apparently were aware of these mischievous deeds when writing the song. defacing the mermaid Tossed her head into the ocean You’ll think she’s dead. her hand accessorized with a dildo and she has been used as a prop for many a political statement. An unreleased version Image: flickr user maggiejp recently discovered by C-Lab recounts the history of the violated sea creature. Wave of Mutilation (Little Mermaid version) Cease to resist. ‘Wave of Mutilation’.

even after having built such a major exception into it. this cavalier attitude pointed directly to where the real crisis lay: the breakdown of the strict export regulations. it is usually to illustrate 126 127 of attention. and over. and that. It is an idea war international law. he essentially accused the media of heritage inflation: ‘The images you are seeing on television’. devised to avert a crisis. the 1954 Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict. In part because of this Lucia Allais bad publicity. but rather to make the crisis permanent. the category its dissemination to an unregulated international market – has been of heritage was invented not to avert a crisis. it stopped being a newsworthy act of Volume 20 geopolitical history. If the US publicly snubbed the Hague Convention. in times of crisis. As a collection is delayed. the museum was eventually secured – but only after the international art market had been flooded with antiquities. Secretary of State t r Donald Rumsfeld argued that looting was a symptom of freedom.6 is a distancing device. and UN-imposed economic sanctions. Advocates are now hoping to shame international agencies into stricter the Iraq National Museum was looted in the early days of the US-led invasion in April. they became icons of rupture. and over. perfectly consistent with the neo-conservative rationale for the invasion.7 Yet it is not 2003. and the image of the US as pioneer in the Volume 20 by traffickers and periodically appearing on eBay. the fate of Iraq’s heritage – objects that. Even in its incarnation as a set of international laws. heritage continues to focus attention on political crises while obscuring the cultural continuities that lie beneath. When the r e v o l u t i o n a r y f e r v o r that swept late-eighteenth quietly it abided by two other Conventions to which it is a party: the 1970 Convention century Paris began manifesting itself in the destruction of aristocratic property and on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Import. he insisted. iconoclasm. and you see it twenty times. were there that many vases? Is it possible that there were that many vases in the whole country?”4 Ironically. under attack. But once the crisis had been laid bare and the story became that of dispersed objects. Indeed the first codification of cultural property. Iraq’s heritage made the news. that had hitherto carefully kept Iraq’s vast collection of vases born of crisis: the crisis of the Enlightenment. Nor did the US invoke the ‘military necessity’ clause of the Convention. This clause was originally meant to regulate the choice between preserving monuments and saving lives. a spacer. which it negotiated along with the UK. In a sense. the Allies had concentrations of heritage will deal with a broad extra-national dispersal of value and successfully protected the monuments of Europe using this same briefing procedure during World War II.5 So in a sense. Whether the precedent was applicable was irrelevant. Heritage political liberation with economic liberalization. which con­nected masking the continuity between the cultural values of old and new regimes. . with ‘freedom’ the avowed military goal. and in Iraq. ‘My goodness. based on the expe­ ience of World War II. for instance. fueling a growing black market in Mesopotamian artifacts. Soon Iraq’s archaeological sites also became the targets of a vigorous illicit digging campaign. and the 1995 UNIDROIT Convention. Instead of belonging to the realm of history in which wars and revolutions unfold. the crisis of modern and other artifacts ‘in the country’. this lack of foresight showed that US military planners failed to grasp the concept of ‘cultural property’. To heritage advocates. in contrast. or more precisely. also written into post­ Heritage as Crisis Heritage has become a way to stabilize crises by stabilizing meanings. tracked by INTERPOL. with UNIDROIT. Rumsfeld might even have pointed out that the US never ratified the Hague Convention. shadowed This abstracted realm is now a few centuries old and has acquired a complicated the multi-layered nature of contemporary wars as image-wars. When a crisis of heritage makes the news. be held in custody on behalf of a collectivity that UNESCO calls ‘Mankind’. but the meaning of ‘necessity’ is no­o­ iously flexible. nation-building. In accordance ments as republican patrimony in order to spare them from destruction. cultural entrepreneurs designated fragments of these monu­ m Ownership of Cultural Property. This investigation spoils could not be valued by the same criteria that gave them legitimacy in the has unmasked an intricate web of connections between the black market. Export and Transfer of religious monu­ ents.’ In this sense. enforcement by linking ‘trading antiquities’ with ‘supporting terrorism’. ‘you are seeing over. these with INTERPOL. the New York Times reported that the Pentagon had been briefed on the location clear how inter­ ational legal instruments that were designed to protect institutional n of Iraq’s cultural sites but failed to secure them. The point 2 was to expose the trampling of not one. When. which published a list of most wanted antiquities. Instead. it belongs to an abstracted realm where ownership Yet the dissemination of artifacts has also diluted media coverage. the US military commissioned a follow-up investigation in collaboration this was an emergency measure. are the property of all. and it’s the same picture of some person walking out of some building with a vase. but two mythical images: the image of Mesopotamia as birthplace of civilization. Yet once salvaged. ‘national War. as defined in postwar international law: a type of property which should. to provide an exception r when cultural property interferes with the attainment of war goals. was designed to prevent exactly the combination of military neglect and civilian vandalism that occurred in Iraq.3 But – to put it in terms familiar to Carl Schmitt – Rumsfeld d i d n o t e v e n b o t h e r making the exceptionalist argument available to him. belonging to no-one. and you think. the First Gulf eyes of the monarchy: in the nation-state. 1 All but two of INTERPOL’s Most Wanted Works of Art have been recovered.International Style Heritage legislation of the rules of war since the Lieber Code of 1863.

the Allies had concentrations of heritage will deal with a broad extra-national dispersal of value and successfully protected the monuments of Europe using this same briefing procedure during World War II. it stopped being a newsworthy act of Volume 20 geopolitical history. or more precisely. it belongs to an abstracted realm where ownership Yet the dissemination of artifacts has also diluted media coverage. even after having built such a major exception into it. these with INTERPOL. but the meaning of ‘necessity’ is no­o­ iously flexible. under attack. iconoclasm. Instead. Yet once salvaged. In a sense. and over. which it negotiated along with the UK. but two mythical images: the image of Mesopotamia as birthplace of civilization. This clause was originally meant to regulate the choice between preserving monuments and saving lives. Instead of belonging to the realm of history in which wars and revolutions unfold. Advocates are now hoping to shame international agencies into stricter the Iraq National Museum was looted in the early days of the US-led invasion in April. If the US publicly snubbed the Hague Convention. he insisted. cultural entrepreneurs designated fragments of these monu­ m Ownership of Cultural Property. When.7 Yet it is not 2003. When a crisis of heritage makes the news. with ‘freedom’ the avowed military goal. As a collection is delayed. Iraq’s heritage made the news. this cavalier attitude pointed directly to where the real crisis lay: the breakdown of the strict export regulations. with UNIDROIT. the US military commissioned a follow-up investigation in collaboration this was an emergency measure. The point 2 was to expose the trampling of not one. ‘My goodness. and UN-imposed economic sanctions. this lack of foresight showed that US military planners failed to grasp the concept of ‘cultural property’. that had hitherto carefully kept Iraq’s vast collection of vases born of crisis: the crisis of the Enlightenment.3 But – to put it in terms familiar to Carl Schmitt – Rumsfeld d i d n o t e v e n b o t h e r making the exceptionalist argument available to him. enforcement by linking ‘trading antiquities’ with ‘supporting terrorism’.5 So in a sense. belonging to no-one. Indeed the first codification of cultural property.International Style Heritage legislation of the rules of war since the Lieber Code of 1863. which published a list of most wanted antiquities. the crisis of modern and other artifacts ‘in the country’. and that. Rumsfeld might even have pointed out that the US never ratified the Hague Convention. When the r e v o l u t i o n a r y f e r v o r that swept late-eighteenth quietly it abided by two other Conventions to which it is a party: the 1970 Convention century Paris began manifesting itself in the destruction of aristocratic property and on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Import. Secretary of State t r Donald Rumsfeld argued that looting was a symptom of freedom. and it’s the same picture of some person walking out of some building with a vase. he essentially accused the media of heritage inflation: ‘The images you are seeing on television’. nation-building. the 1954 Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict. devised to avert a crisis. the museum was eventually secured – but only after the international art market had been flooded with antiquities. which con­nected masking the continuity between the cultural values of old and new regimes. But once the crisis had been laid bare and the story became that of dispersed objects. Export and Transfer of religious monu­ ents. ‘you are seeing over. was designed to prevent exactly the combination of military neglect and civilian vandalism that occurred in Iraq. they became icons of rupture.’ In this sense. a spacer. and the 1995 UNIDROIT Convention. to provide an exception r when cultural property interferes with the attainment of war goals. To heritage advocates. In part because of this Lucia Allais bad publicity. tracked by INTERPOL. be held in custody on behalf of a collectivity that UNESCO calls ‘Mankind’. it is usually to illustrate 126 127 of attention. In accordance ments as republican patrimony in order to spare them from destruction. Soon Iraq’s archaeological sites also became the targets of a vigorous illicit digging campaign. based on the expe­ ience of World War II. the category its dissemination to an unregulated international market – has been of heritage was invented not to avert a crisis. were there that many vases? Is it possible that there were that many vases in the whole country?”4 Ironically. ‘national War. Nor did the US invoke the ‘military necessity’ clause of the Convention. in times of crisis. fueling a growing black market in Mesopotamian artifacts. heritage continues to focus attention on political crises while obscuring the cultural continuities that lie beneath. shadowed This abstracted realm is now a few centuries old and has acquired a complicated the multi-layered nature of contemporary wars as image-wars. and in Iraq. also written into post­ Heritage as Crisis Heritage has become a way to stabilize crises by stabilizing meanings. It is an idea war international law. the First Gulf eyes of the monarchy: in the nation-state. and over. the fate of Iraq’s heritage – objects that. and you think. for instance. the New York Times reported that the Pentagon had been briefed on the location clear how inter­ ational legal instruments that were designed to protect institutional n of Iraq’s cultural sites but failed to secure them. 1 All but two of INTERPOL’s Most Wanted Works of Art have been recovered.6 is a distancing device. are the property of all. but rather to make the crisis permanent. . This investigation spoils could not be valued by the same criteria that gave them legitimacy in the has unmasked an intricate web of connections between the black market. Heritage political liberation with economic liberalization. and the image of the US as pioneer in the Volume 20 by traffickers and periodically appearing on eBay. Even in its incarnation as a set of international laws. in contrast. and you see it twenty times. perfectly consistent with the neo-conservative rationale for the invasion. as defined in postwar international law: a type of property which should. Whether the precedent was applicable was irrelevant.

aside from evidence that the very cultural politics they are supposed post-conflict heritage acts as a vast iconographic program. whether through medieval itineracy of Warsaw and the transformation of the Genbaku Dome at Hiroshima into a memorial. Still. legal instrument whose sole purpose is to ensure that the world is always ‘briefed’ on With the architectural modernism of the mid-twentieth century. In theory. The similarity is helped by three facts: that many monuments to twentieth- diplomacy became plainly evident in the statement made by Information Minister century warfare belong to utilitarian typologies.’15 Destruction. while seemingly arising from regional rebuilding. with aid from agencies in the East and the West.distinguishes between art and architecture as ‘movable’ and ‘immovable’ property. which is sustained ethnic factions in Mostar agreed that the influx of money and attention was needed world­ ide by international agencies of conflict management. However create a plat­orm of exchange between certain tropes of architectural preservation. international actors such as UNESCO. so International Style heritage In the face of this continual slippage. Taking has repeatedly failed.13 It is the impulse destroyed monuments. and after some debate. where UNESCO o f r e t r o s p e c t i o n a n d m o r b i d i t y . based on structural integrity. NATO and a growing number of NGOs promote the idea that heritage benefits the ideology of international bureaucracies. The Stari Most exemplifies how the structural rationalism inherited from down the statues by dynamite or shelling as both of them have been carved in a cliff. But the point is not to force a and various member states proposed to dismantle the statues and reconstruct them historiographic parallel. The project unfolded over five years and under the banner of ‘integrity’. this distinction reflects a difference in protective mechanisms. The style has its origins in the middle of the twentieth century. such as the reconstruction of the center built pious display into their historiographies. and under the rationalized supervision of a French bridge engineer. that provides the crucial link. signature aesthetic that results – clean-lined and clean-cut. and the preservation of the site of the Bamiyan of structure as neutrality and the logic of conspicuous display as constitutive of a global Buddhas after they were dynamited in March 2001. but an army that has d e s t r o y e d a b u i l d i n g is under no obligation ample use of the engineering metaphor of integrity to publicize its success in enforcing to rebuild it (Hague 1954). 10 Certainly the practice of turning sites of humanitarian tragedies into Buddhas are a case in point: the Taliban’s 2001 announcement of their intent to popular tourist attractions has produced a c o m m e r c i a l a e s t h e t i c o u t destroy the statues triggered a cycle of intensive cultural diplomacy. These practices a white-gloved neutrality that voids this witnessing act of much of its value. The Bamiyan authorship. But the themselves with cultural institutions in crisis. The NATO-led Stabilization Force.8 There exists such as integrity and authenticity. Early works d i s p l a y . The first when art historians theorized the first International Style (Gothic art. a cultural equivalent of the scenario that was later hood.14 But it is only in the architectural heritage of twentieth-century More recent examples include the reconstruction of the Old Bridge in Mostar (or Stari warfare itself that the International Style has found a support for both the metaphor Most) after its shelling in April 1993. You can’t knock nineteenth-century restoration theory has combined with twentieth-century inter­ ational n Volume 20 played out in the UN as a build-up to the Iraq war. followed the . the second found in modern architecture a structural Esperanto. it is the result of a persistent search for I use the phrase ‘International Style’ somewhat in jest. made t 1995). But the Mullahs considered their edict against the Buddhas heritage shares a more obvious set of architectonic traits. while destruction UNESCO/J. in other words. left to display. In practice. A stolen object remains ‘illicit’ until it is returned to its state of origin (UNIDROIT documen­a­tion of the original structure. the effect of this split is that theft is considered legally reversible. who imprint every project with is a peaceful concern. The point is to re-politicize heritage alongside other large-scale outside Afghanistan. the crisis-relief potential the ‘Stability Pact’. 11 a type of ’briefing’ too. It legitimates political insti­ to represent – where international governance arises from shared global experience – tutions of global governance. or modern museology. The phrase International Style is most useful. a third a cultural message. that applied decorative elements have Qudratullah Jamal after a week of silence. It is the style of restoration. circa 1400) search found in the Middle Ages a c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n t r a u m a a n d and architects formalized the second (Modern architecture. the monuments of this third International Style have little with its monumental picture cycles sponsored by new patterns of courtly patronage. aesthetic experience. this time invoking the 1972 World Heritage Convention. rather than replicas. The 128 129 same strict professional ethic as reconstruction – it was based on material integrity. and both include projects associated with World War II. To justify this drastic measure preservationists appealed once iconographic programs that have been vehicles for consolidating power by spreading again to ‘integrity’. the period monuments to mirror on an aesthetic plane the nascent geopolitical order. and the only Donar Reiskofer Barkan has called an ‘international morality’ – as the restitution of objects. except in the cynical sense that both today an International Style of architectural heritage restoration. circa 1940). 9 a cue from Erwin Panofsky. as an artifact of the twentieth century itself: as a historiographic construct. The stylisic stakes of this heritage Volume 20 treat every monument as if it were a work of modern architecture. f authentically restored. volumetric legibility and material consistency. if they are conducted with a strict technological ethos based on detailed is not. almost Brutalist – inevitably the World Bank. They are firmly attached to the mountain. preserving the sites of war crimes and generally concerning to bear witness that leads restorers to alternately erase or impose destruction. International norms of preservation Theirs was a pre-emptive image war. although it is a useful heuristic. International Style the location of its heritage. Sorosh Wali International Style Heritage Today these cultural continuities reside in objects and buildings alike. such as pro­ portionality and military necessity. and certain tropes of modern warfare. heritage is equally available to iconoclasts celebrates collective cultural identity while emitting an unmistakable nostalgia for heroic and salvagers as a way to concentrate attention and formalize conflicts. but heritage law bridge was rebuilt by NATO. Sadly. a preservation criterion that says reconstructions are authentic. even without this obligation.12 Yet as Michael Igniatieff has shown. SFOR. By helping to rebuild w to maintain their city’s value as a bargaining chip in a virtual war. lasting ico­ ographic certainty to have been embedded into it is NATO’s ‘integrity’ n as an international force. Like the first International Style. we may push the analogy further: just as late-Gothic art was a two-faced display of collective melancholia that announced the rise of bourgeois Monumental Concentrations urbanity while mourning the ‘autumn’ of feudalism. all these efforts to maintain of archi­ecture has undeniably come to carry the same ethical charge – what Elazar t the tectonic integrity of the ‘new old bridge’ coincided with its complete collapse as a political symbol of unification. then. usually long disappeared and that their preservation has museumified them into neutrality. when footage of the destruction was finally released: ‘The destruction work is not as easy as people would think. the Stari Most is a stylized representation indeed. they proceeded with the destruction. and its preservation a humanitarian activity. through an agreement between Bosnians and Croats. rather than the nature of what is being restored. designed for object­ diplomacy to produce an unmistakably modernist style of tectonic neutralization.

It legitimates political insti­ to represent – where international governance arises from shared global experience – tutions of global governance. Taking has repeatedly failed. A stolen object remains ‘illicit’ until it is returned to its state of origin (UNIDROIT documen­a­tion of the original structure. The Bamiyan authorship. To justify this drastic measure preservationists appealed once iconographic programs that have been vehicles for consolidating power by spreading again to ‘integrity’.8 There exists such as integrity and authenticity. lasting ico­ ographic certainty to have been embedded into it is NATO’s ‘integrity’ n as an international force. International norms of preservation Theirs was a pre-emptive image war. or modern museology. preserving the sites of war crimes and generally concerning to bear witness that leads restorers to alternately erase or impose destruction. and its preservation a humanitarian activity. But the Mullahs considered their edict against the Buddhas heritage shares a more obvious set of architectonic traits. You can’t knock nineteenth-century restoration theory has combined with twentieth-century inter­ ational n Volume 20 played out in the UN as a build-up to the Iraq war.14 But it is only in the architectural heritage of twentieth-century More recent examples include the reconstruction of the Old Bridge in Mostar (or Stari warfare itself that the International Style has found a support for both the metaphor Most) after its shelling in April 1993. all these efforts to maintain of archi­ecture has undeniably come to carry the same ethical charge – what Elazar t the tectonic integrity of the ‘new old bridge’ coincided with its complete collapse as a political symbol of unification. where UNESCO o f r e t r o s p e c t i o n a n d m o r b i d i t y . but an army that has d e s t r o y e d a b u i l d i n g is under no obligation ample use of the engineering metaphor of integrity to publicize its success in enforcing to rebuild it (Hague 1954). it is the result of a persistent search for I use the phrase ‘International Style’ somewhat in jest.13 It is the impulse destroyed monuments. the Stari Most is a stylized representation indeed. The stylisic stakes of this heritage Volume 20 treat every monument as if it were a work of modern architecture. such as the reconstruction of the center built pious display into their historiographies. The first when art historians theorized the first International Style (Gothic art. and the preservation of the site of the Bamiyan of structure as neutrality and the logic of conspicuous display as constitutive of a global Buddhas after they were dynamited in March 2001. The Stari Most exemplifies how the structural rationalism inherited from down the statues by dynamite or shelling as both of them have been carved in a cliff. the period monuments to mirror on an aesthetic plane the nascent geopolitical order. aesthetic experience. The NATO-led Stabilization Force. SFOR. if they are conducted with a strict technological ethos based on detailed is not. that applied decorative elements have Qudratullah Jamal after a week of silence. then.distinguishes between art and architecture as ‘movable’ and ‘immovable’ property. Still. The phrase International Style is most useful. international actors such as UNESCO. while seemingly arising from regional rebuilding. volumetric legibility and material consistency. The point is to re-politicize heritage alongside other large-scale outside Afghanistan. The style has its origins in the middle of the twentieth century. except in the cynical sense that both today an International Style of architectural heritage restoration. even without this obligation. By helping to rebuild w to maintain their city’s value as a bargaining chip in a virtual war. aside from evidence that the very cultural politics they are supposed post-conflict heritage acts as a vast iconographic program. In theory. and under the rationalized supervision of a French bridge engineer. a third a cultural message. so International Style heritage In the face of this continual slippage. These practices a white-gloved neutrality that voids this witnessing act of much of its value. although it is a useful heuristic. whether through medieval itineracy of Warsaw and the transformation of the Genbaku Dome at Hiroshima into a memorial. Sadly. while destruction UNESCO/J. the crisis-relief potential the ‘Stability Pact’. we may push the analogy further: just as late-Gothic art was a two-faced display of collective melancholia that announced the rise of bourgeois Monumental Concentrations urbanity while mourning the ‘autumn’ of feudalism. and both include projects associated with World War II. which is sustained ethnic factions in Mostar agreed that the influx of money and attention was needed world­ ide by international agencies of conflict management. who imprint every project with is a peaceful concern. based on structural integrity. made t 1995). designed for object­ diplomacy to produce an unmistakably modernist style of tectonic neutralization. signature aesthetic that results – clean-lined and clean-cut. But the themselves with cultural institutions in crisis. almost Brutalist – inevitably the World Bank. rather than the nature of what is being restored.’15 Destruction. that provides the crucial link. The project unfolded over five years and under the banner of ‘integrity’. this time invoking the 1972 World Heritage Convention. and the only Donar Reiskofer Barkan has called an ‘international morality’ – as the restitution of objects. a preservation criterion that says reconstructions are authentic. They are firmly attached to the mountain. with aid from agencies in the East and the West. followed the . Sorosh Wali International Style Heritage Today these cultural continuities reside in objects and buildings alike. International Style the location of its heritage. Early works d i s p l a y . this distinction reflects a difference in protective mechanisms. The 128 129 same strict professional ethic as reconstruction – it was based on material integrity. circa 1400) search found in the Middle Ages a c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n t r a u m a a n d and architects formalized the second (Modern architecture. and after some debate. through an agreement between Bosnians and Croats. the second found in modern architecture a structural Esperanto. and certain tropes of modern warfare. Like the first International Style. f authentically restored. the effect of this split is that theft is considered legally reversible. 9 a cue from Erwin Panofsky. It is the style of restoration. NATO and a growing number of NGOs promote the idea that heritage benefits the ideology of international bureaucracies. The similarity is helped by three facts: that many monuments to twentieth- diplomacy became plainly evident in the statement made by Information Minister century warfare belong to utilitarian typologies. such as pro­ portionality and military necessity.12 Yet as Michael Igniatieff has shown. but heritage law bridge was rebuilt by NATO. as an artifact of the twentieth century itself: as a historiographic construct. circa 1940). they proceeded with the destruction. a cultural equivalent of the scenario that was later hood. legal instrument whose sole purpose is to ensure that the world is always ‘briefed’ on With the architectural modernism of the mid-twentieth century. In practice. rather than replicas. the monuments of this third International Style have little with its monumental picture cycles sponsored by new patterns of courtly patronage. when footage of the destruction was finally released: ‘The destruction work is not as easy as people would think. in other words. 11 a type of ’briefing’ too. heritage is equally available to iconoclasts celebrates collective cultural identity while emitting an unmistakable nostalgia for heroic and salvagers as a way to concentrate attention and formalize conflicts. However create a plat­orm of exchange between certain tropes of architectural preservation. 10 Certainly the practice of turning sites of humanitarian tragedies into Buddhas are a case in point: the Taliban’s 2001 announcement of their intent to popular tourist attractions has produced a c o m m e r c i a l a e s t h e t i c o u t destroy the statues triggered a cycle of intensive cultural diplomacy. left to display. usually long disappeared and that their preservation has museumified them into neutrality. But the point is not to force a and various member states proposed to dismantle the statues and reconstruct them historiographic parallel.

and Hitchcock saw Modern Archi­ tecture as born in ‘the chief engineering architecture of the past. Lieber and the Laws of War’. 161. then one way out of the current fare that occurs exclusively in the cultural realm. the Island of Gorée and the Aapravasi Ghat. Genbaku Dome (built 1915. 1999). inscribed 1996). 2000). 1953). and the E. and even war-time protection requires peace-time insti­utions (as Iraq’s antiquities show). the As with the politics of integrity. eds. in Patrimoine et Cité (Paris: Confluences. c2008). Translation mine. Only the two on the right numbered 3 (gaming board) and 6 (lioness attacking a Nubian) are still wanted. Eds. ‘Lincoln. in American Journal of Inter­ ational Law. a European urbanity is built into current heritage law. tion. 7 May 2003). dyna­ ited 2001. the bridge fits into a familiar urban morphology and a reassuring Tracy Hunter has been based on this coincidence of population density and monument concentra­ Jesse Wilson spaces as the civilians that they attacked from the air. 12 Nov 1997) to the last (‘Mostar Bridge is standing up’.21 World Heritage only had space for the Holocaust as one ‘event’. 5  First-hand accounts include: Matthew Bogdanos. in Early Nederlandish Painting (Cambridge: n Harvard University Press. a sculp­ ture historian who curated in the 1890s the revolutionary spoils Grégoire helped save a century earlier. 11  Henry-Russell Hitchcock and Philip Johnson. A return to the precedent of World War II is useful. ‘The Terrorist in the Art Gallery’.20 The first site in this exclusive list. 1929). in the middle of one region was presented as a model for conflict-resolution worldwide.17 Where both sides agree is that the physical densation. 213-231. Left to its own devices. The high point of usage was the 1962 The International Style exhibit at the Walters Art Gallery. 2  Frank Rich. Carnaha. regularity over symmetry. ‘Rapport sur les destructions opérées par le vandalisme’. SFOR operated between NATO’s implementation As force.S. Peter G. from top left: Gothic Art: Duc de Berry. This only is because international bureaucracies. it is because specific urban morphologies ensured the proximity of mass-murder and monument-reconstruction. invisible archaeological diggers and ubiquitous souvenir-hunters – probably offers a better model for understanding the public space in which ‘Mankind’ resides today. in Empire Lite (Toronto: Penguin. Barcelona Pavilion (built 1929. This detachment of heritage-commemoration from the sites of humanitarian tration of every kind: of funding. in The New Cambridge Medieval History Vol. The Guilt of Nations (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins. m inscribed 2003).16 To the Taliban and its observers. 435-449. this project will be a monument to a new type of image war­ ends against civilian means) and proportionality as a cultural control-mechanism (that transforms historical crises into global display objects). the shadowy world of internet-antiquities Three international styles since the black plague. and all subsequent heritage law Permission from Art Resource The cultural sites protected by the Allies in World War II existed in the same urban image of public space that legitimates a concentric type of power. like nation-states. and rejection of applied ornament. at the center of one town. was inscribed in 1979 only on condition that no other a crucial conflation: between propor­ionality as a military variable (that weighs military t 130 131 ‘sites of a similar nature’ be inscribed in the future. this styli­ ation of history relies on heritage to perform z Volume 20 Volume 20 camp of Auschwitz-Birkenau. trading – which links tax-haven art collections and mainstream cultural institutions. Bamiyan Buddha Niche (built 507. where the same international style has reigned uninterrupted since the thirteenth century.)19 In contrast. The rhetoric of constructive success spans from the first report (‘Operation Complete’. but the phrase has stuck. Lawrence Rothfield. 2005). April 27. December 10. Works of Art Unit: Unpublished email communication with the author. but by historic con­ of UN-imposed economic sanctions. 4  Transcript of DoD News Briefing – Secretary Rumsfeld and General Myers. Geoff Emberling & Katharyn Hanson. 12  a stabilization force. This blurring t of categories goes directly against the stylizing tendencies of international heritage practices. 8  Elazar Barkan. in International Journal of Cultural Property. This ‘public respect’ was to be the antidote to ‘vandalism’. 223-229. New York Times. ‘The Early Fifteenth Century and the ‘Inter­ ational Style’. SFOR Informer. Clockwise. April 11. and this precedent has been followed ever since. plans to display fragments in a museum and bittersweet discoveries of cultural heritage made visible by the destruction. . of effort and of attention. To UNESCO. a term Grégoire also coined. Catastrophe! The Looting and Destruction of Iraq’s Past (Chicago: University of Chicago Oriental Institute. 3  For a parallel history of the Lieber Code and ‘military necessity’ see Burrus M. ‘Court Patronage and International Gothic’. Antiquities Under Siege: Cultural Heritage Protection After the Iraq War (Lanham: AltaMira Press. Stone and Joanne Farchakh Bajjaly. The International Style: Archi­ tecture since 1932 (New York: 1932). ‘Mobilizing Shame’.’ Hitchcock. For more on shame see Thomas Keenan. the High Gothic of France. 1  ‘Que le respect public entoure particulièrement les objets nationaux qui. transforms historical continuities into spatial ruptures: not through neutral integrity the episode commemorates the humanitarian crisis that befell Afghanistan as a result but through consolidation of power. 10/2 (2001). 222-233. 217-245. 7  Matthew Bogadnos. This is why the reconstruction of the Stari Most has been an attractive project for aid agencies: apart from being a model of early-modern engineering and a symbol of multiculturalism.S and Hague 1954. ‘The Bridge Builder’. Modern Architecture: Mies van der Rohe. Panofsky complicated Huizinga’s story by describing a dichotomy between a ‘flamboyance’ due to the ‘fluidity … between art production and art consump­ion’ and a ‘nocturnal aspect’ reflecting the way ‘melancholia… t assumed its modern meaning of a purely psychological dejection—a state of mind rather than a disease. 2008).’ Abbé Grégoire. 13  Michael Ignatieff. The Destruction of Cultural Heritage in Iraq (Woodbridge: Boydell.18 In short. International Heritage: Jan Letzel. E v e n e m b e d d e d m o n o l i t h s c a n b e c o m e m o v a b l e (as the Bamyian Buddhas show). until recently translated as The Waning of the Middle Ages. Meeting of the Magi (1411–1416). Nowhere is this clearer than in UNESCO’s struggle to curate the geographic ‘diversity’ of its World Heritage List.22 If much of what passes for straightforward ethical discourse in heritage management today is in fact a set of massmelancholia will be to let these tropes reflect more accurately how heritage highly sophisticated architectonic tropes. 10  The ‘autumn’ formulation belongs to Johan Huizinga’s 1919 The Autumn of the Middle Ages. n’étant à personne. 9  The expression International Style is attributed to André Courajod. bombed 1945. Alfred Barr summarized the three criteria invented by Hitchcock & Johnson as volume over solidity. The hidden continuity here is between war-time heritage reconstruction and peace-time preservation.’ Erwin Panofsky. ed. disas­ embled s 1930. 92/2 (Apr 1998). 1995-2005). which derives value from ‘an event’. which concentrate in space phenomena that were once distributed in time. both practices invested in urban contextualism. EUFOR. and is laying the discursive groundwork for an International Style com­ memoration at the site: debates over how to reconstruct. Adjoining these two narratives yields a grand conspiracy. Thieves of Baghdad (New York: Bloomsbury. 14  historians and curators actively theorized the relationship between Art modern and medieval culture: Millard Meiss recounted the variations of the concept of International Style with contemporary moods in his 1974 The Limbourg and their Contemporaries.’ INTERPOL General Secretariat. SFOR Informer. New York Times. along with other sites of humanitarian significance like the Hiroshima Dome. 2005. The concentration of effort. not by spatial proportionality. as if global proportionality had its own iconographic value. 2003). On the U. 2:00pm.’s peace-keeping mission. As international legal instruments designed to deal with concentration and prox­m­ i ity are increasingly deployed against dispersal and remoteness. Ratification’. to a rare list of sites valued according to ‘Criteria (vi)’ alone. IFOR. ‘And Now: Operation Iraqi Looting’. trauma marks a shift in the iconography of International Style heritage. or at least a better medium for the public opinion in whose name image wars are fought. reproduced 1986). Modern Architecture (New York: Payson & Clark. the best review of sub­ sequent work is Paul Binski.U. the two spatio-temporal categories built into heritage law – movable/immovable and war/peace – become increasingly difficult to sustain. on one monument. 2003. Barkan’s optimism has been challenged. VII (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. n see ‘War and Cultural Property: the 1954 Hague Convention and the Status of U. favor monumental concen­ amplified its humanitarian overtones. 2003. in SAQ 103:2/3 (2004).. 6  ‘[T]he four items displayed on the left have meanwhile been recovered. 72.Joanne Farchakh-Bajjly UNESCO has now placed the empty niches and the remains of the colossi on the World Heritage List. (Hence the first person to petition for bridge recon­ struction was the architect-urbanist who spent the 1980s restoring the Mostar city center to a pristine medieval state. 2008). Inter­ ational Style heritage will continue to mask n detachment of the heritage project from any specific site of humanitarian tragedy has the growing remove between humanitarian crises and international intervention. sont la propriété de tous. 37. If the twentieth century added a humanitarian dimension to the original humanist dilemma of heritage. Finding the Stari Most and the Bamyian Buddhas in the List is revealing: they belong. 4 December 2008.

Geoff Emberling & Katharyn Hanson. 7  Matthew Bogadnos. tion. 1995-2005). plans to display fragments in a museum and bittersweet discoveries of cultural heritage made visible by the destruction. This only is because international bureaucracies. New York Times. in SAQ 103:2/3 (2004).’ Abbé Grégoire. the best review of sub­ sequent work is Paul Binski. in the middle of one region was presented as a model for conflict-resolution worldwide. 1929). 435-449. December 10. Meeting of the Magi (1411–1416). (Hence the first person to petition for bridge recon­ struction was the architect-urbanist who spent the 1980s restoring the Mostar city center to a pristine medieval state. 12  a stabilization force. 4  Transcript of DoD News Briefing – Secretary Rumsfeld and General Myers. Barkan’s optimism has been challenged. 12 Nov 1997) to the last (‘Mostar Bridge is standing up’. ‘The Terrorist in the Art Gallery’. n’étant à personne. along with other sites of humanitarian significance like the Hiroshima Dome. 3  For a parallel history of the Lieber Code and ‘military necessity’ see Burrus M. 1999). and is laying the discursive groundwork for an International Style com­ memoration at the site: debates over how to reconstruct. it is because specific urban morphologies ensured the proximity of mass-murder and monument-reconstruction. this project will be a monument to a new type of image war­ ends against civilian means) and proportionality as a cultural control-mechanism (that transforms historical crises into global display objects). IFOR. and even war-time protection requires peace-time insti­utions (as Iraq’s antiquities show). Catastrophe! The Looting and Destruction of Iraq’s Past (Chicago: University of Chicago Oriental Institute. 92/2 (Apr 1998). m inscribed 2003). not by spatial proportionality. in Empire Lite (Toronto: Penguin. reproduced 1986). but the phrase has stuck.16 To the Taliban and its observers.20 The first site in this exclusive list. transforms historical continuities into spatial ruptures: not through neutral integrity the episode commemorates the humanitarian crisis that befell Afghanistan as a result but through consolidation of power. 14  historians and curators actively theorized the relationship between Art modern and medieval culture: Millard Meiss recounted the variations of the concept of International Style with contemporary moods in his 1974 The Limbourg and their Contemporaries. Alfred Barr summarized the three criteria invented by Hitchcock & Johnson as volume over solidity. a sculp­ ture historian who curated in the 1890s the revolutionary spoils Grégoire helped save a century earlier.)19 In contrast. . The International Style: Archi­ tecture since 1932 (New York: 1932). then one way out of the current fare that occurs exclusively in the cultural realm. For more on shame see Thomas Keenan. Stone and Joanne Farchakh Bajjaly.Joanne Farchakh-Bajjly UNESCO has now placed the empty niches and the remains of the colossi on the World Heritage List. Nowhere is this clearer than in UNESCO’s struggle to curate the geographic ‘diversity’ of its World Heritage List. 2005. 2003. The Destruction of Cultural Heritage in Iraq (Woodbridge: Boydell. Finding the Stari Most and the Bamyian Buddhas in the List is revealing: they belong.. and all subsequent heritage law Permission from Art Resource The cultural sites protected by the Allies in World War II existed in the same urban image of public space that legitimates a concentric type of power. ‘Mobilizing Shame’. and Hitchcock saw Modern Archi­ tecture as born in ‘the chief engineering architecture of the past. 2008).17 Where both sides agree is that the physical densation. the As with the politics of integrity. Translation mine. EUFOR. a term Grégoire also coined. 9  The expression International Style is attributed to André Courajod. 37. disas­ embled s 1930. Lieber and the Laws of War’. ‘Lincoln. 6  ‘[T]he four items displayed on the left have meanwhile been recovered. Carnaha. c2008). 2:00pm. 2005). at the center of one town. which concentrate in space phenomena that were once distributed in time. 7 May 2003). 5  First-hand accounts include: Matthew Bogdanos. and rejection of applied ornament. until recently translated as The Waning of the Middle Ages. April 11. and the E. where the same international style has reigned uninterrupted since the thirteenth century. The Guilt of Nations (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins. a European urbanity is built into current heritage law. 217-245. New York Times. 8  Elazar Barkan. in The New Cambridge Medieval History Vol. 10  The ‘autumn’ formulation belongs to Johan Huizinga’s 1919 The Autumn of the Middle Ages. ‘The Bridge Builder’. This blurring t of categories goes directly against the stylizing tendencies of international heritage practices. favor monumental concen­ amplified its humanitarian overtones.22 If much of what passes for straightforward ethical discourse in heritage management today is in fact a set of massmelancholia will be to let these tropes reflect more accurately how heritage highly sophisticated architectonic tropes. ed. and this precedent has been followed ever since. as if global proportionality had its own iconographic value. Clockwise. n see ‘War and Cultural Property: the 1954 Hague Convention and the Status of U.U. of effort and of attention. 4 December 2008. trading – which links tax-haven art collections and mainstream cultural institutions. ‘The Early Fifteenth Century and the ‘Inter­ ational Style’. Inter­ ational Style heritage will continue to mask n detachment of the heritage project from any specific site of humanitarian tragedy has the growing remove between humanitarian crises and international intervention.S. 2003. Thieves of Baghdad (New York: Bloomsbury. from top left: Gothic Art: Duc de Berry. ‘Court Patronage and International Gothic’. The concentration of effort. to a rare list of sites valued according to ‘Criteria (vi)’ alone. in Patrimoine et Cité (Paris: Confluences. On the U. The high point of usage was the 1962 The International Style exhibit at the Walters Art Gallery. This detachment of heritage-commemoration from the sites of humanitarian tration of every kind: of funding. this styli­ ation of history relies on heritage to perform z Volume 20 Volume 20 camp of Auschwitz-Birkenau. on one monument. 223-229. which derives value from ‘an event’.’s peace-keeping mission. ‘Rapport sur les destructions opérées par le vandalisme’. The rhetoric of constructive success spans from the first report (‘Operation Complete’.21 World Heritage only had space for the Holocaust as one ‘event’. Left to its own devices. To UNESCO. 1  ‘Que le respect public entoure particulièrement les objets nationaux qui. SFOR operated between NATO’s implementation As force. invisible archaeological diggers and ubiquitous souvenir-hunters – probably offers a better model for understanding the public space in which ‘Mankind’ resides today. both practices invested in urban contextualism. SFOR Informer. the bridge fits into a familiar urban morphology and a reassuring Tracy Hunter has been based on this coincidence of population density and monument concentra­ Jesse Wilson spaces as the civilians that they attacked from the air. 1953). 2008). As international legal instruments designed to deal with concentration and prox­m­ i ity are increasingly deployed against dispersal and remoteness. Modern Architecture: Mies van der Rohe. in American Journal of Inter­ ational Law. VII (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. in International Journal of Cultural Property. International Heritage: Jan Letzel. This ‘public respect’ was to be the antidote to ‘vandalism’. regularity over symmetry. like nation-states. eds. Modern Architecture (New York: Payson & Clark. E v e n e m b e d d e d m o n o l i t h s c a n b e c o m e m o v a b l e (as the Bamyian Buddhas show). Adjoining these two narratives yields a grand conspiracy. Only the two on the right numbered 3 (gaming board) and 6 (lioness attacking a Nubian) are still wanted. 72. Genbaku Dome (built 1915.’ Hitchcock. or at least a better medium for the public opinion in whose name image wars are fought. Eds. the High Gothic of France. the two spatio-temporal categories built into heritage law – movable/immovable and war/peace – become increasingly difficult to sustain. the Island of Gorée and the Aapravasi Ghat. Barcelona Pavilion (built 1929. in Early Nederlandish Painting (Cambridge: n Harvard University Press.’ Erwin Panofsky.S and Hague 1954. This is why the reconstruction of the Stari Most has been an attractive project for aid agencies: apart from being a model of early-modern engineering and a symbol of multiculturalism.’ INTERPOL General Secretariat.18 In short. 161. 222-233. the shadowy world of internet-antiquities Three international styles since the black plague. Panofsky complicated Huizinga’s story by describing a dichotomy between a ‘flamboyance’ due to the ‘fluidity … between art production and art consump­ion’ and a ‘nocturnal aspect’ reflecting the way ‘melancholia… t assumed its modern meaning of a purely psychological dejection—a state of mind rather than a disease. 2003). Antiquities Under Siege: Cultural Heritage Protection After the Iraq War (Lanham: AltaMira Press. Lawrence Rothfield. 13  Michael Ignatieff. April 27. SFOR Informer. The hidden continuity here is between war-time heritage reconstruction and peace-time preservation. sont la propriété de tous. Peter G. 213-231. inscribed 1996). dyna­ ited 2001. trauma marks a shift in the iconography of International Style heritage. 2000). Works of Art Unit: Unpublished email communication with the author. 11  Henry-Russell Hitchcock and Philip Johnson. bombed 1945. Bamiyan Buddha Niche (built 507. If the twentieth century added a humanitarian dimension to the original humanist dilemma of heritage. A return to the precedent of World War II is useful. 10/2 (2001). ‘And Now: Operation Iraqi Looting’. was inscribed in 1979 only on condition that no other a crucial conflation: between propor­ionality as a military variable (that weighs military t 130 131 ‘sites of a similar nature’ be inscribed in the future. but by historic con­ of UN-imposed economic sanctions. 2  Frank Rich. Ratification’.

20  Criterion (vi) carries a caveat: ‘The Committee considers that this criterion should preferably be used in conjunction with other criteria’. and Human 132 133 . 46-54. Will to Art: Cultural Internationalism and the Modernist Aesthetics of Monuments 1932–1964. Image wars and disciplinary wars are complicit in determining the type of international action they attract. writing long essays on the value of their heritage that avoid any mention of national history in favor of a proto-internationalist history of civilizations. 16  Francesco Francioni. ‘The Destruction of the Buddhas of Bamiyan and Inter­ national Law’. 19  The original restoration provoked a debate on heritage inflation when it was awarded the Aga Khan Award for Architecture. ‘Mostar’ in Metropolis (October 1994). http://whc. Animal. chief of the Afghan Foreign We Ministry’s press department.’ The tension can be felt by comparing the discourse nation-states must use to get a property listed as World Heritage list. with the nationalist arguments they must make to appeal for objects to be repatriated. Report of the Third Session. 1992) and Inga Saffron. 17  are very disappointed’. World Heritage and World Heritage in Danger. Paris. in Architectural Record (Jan 1987). 94-99. See Mostar ‘92: Urbicide. (Mostar: Hrvatsko vijeće obrane Općine Mostar. 30 November 1979. ‘that the international community doesn’t care about the suffering people but they are shouting about the stone statues of Buddha’. cited by AP. said Ahmed Faiz. UNESCO/ CC-79/CONF. See ‘A Call for Affirmative Action’. in European Journal of International Law 14/619 (Sep 2003). all while suppressing the one spatial distinction that is consistently encountered by practitioners and scholars alike.unesco. 12 March 2001. Kathy Gannon. that unless it is physically embedded in a national narrative. Will to War. 12 March 2001.org/en/criteria/ 21  ‘The Committee decided to enter Auschwitz concentration camp on the List as a unique site and to restrict the inscription of other sites of a similar nature’ UNESCO World Heritage Commmittee.003/13. Alibi June 24. namely. 2009 Isle de San Cristobal de Groüt Volume 20 Volume 20 Farming / Geothermal Energy / Water Management / Ecology. See John Henry Merriman’s seminal essay. 22  similar historic stylization is evident in UNESCO’s division of heritage A into two timelines. 18  This spatial and strategic conflation is the subject of a chapter in my doctoral dissertation. cultural property loses its value completely. the tension between national and international values. Echoes of these disci­ plinary debates are heard in recent complaints that heritage inflation is at work in the undeserved attention paid to a utilitarian Ottoman bridge. ‘Two ways of thinking of cultural property. Associated Press (26 March 2001).15  Interview with CNN.

chief of the Afghan Foreign We Ministry’s press department. that unless it is physically embedded in a national narrative. and Human 132 133 . Will to Art: Cultural Internationalism and the Modernist Aesthetics of Monuments 1932–1964. Will to War. Paris. 12 March 2001. 18  This spatial and strategic conflation is the subject of a chapter in my doctoral dissertation. with the nationalist arguments they must make to appeal for objects to be repatriated. ‘Mostar’ in Metropolis (October 1994).unesco. 1992) and Inga Saffron. Echoes of these disci­ plinary debates are heard in recent complaints that heritage inflation is at work in the undeserved attention paid to a utilitarian Ottoman bridge. http://whc. 19  The original restoration provoked a debate on heritage inflation when it was awarded the Aga Khan Award for Architecture. ‘The Destruction of the Buddhas of Bamiyan and Inter­ national Law’. 12 March 2001. Kathy Gannon. in Architectural Record (Jan 1987). See ‘A Call for Affirmative Action’.’ The tension can be felt by comparing the discourse nation-states must use to get a property listed as World Heritage list. Report of the Third Session. Animal. See Mostar ‘92: Urbicide. World Heritage and World Heritage in Danger. 17  are very disappointed’. all while suppressing the one spatial distinction that is consistently encountered by practitioners and scholars alike. 22  similar historic stylization is evident in UNESCO’s division of heritage A into two timelines. ‘Two ways of thinking of cultural property. 46-54.org/en/criteria/ 21  ‘The Committee decided to enter Auschwitz concentration camp on the List as a unique site and to restrict the inscription of other sites of a similar nature’ UNESCO World Heritage Commmittee. Associated Press (26 March 2001). the tension between national and international values. See John Henry Merriman’s seminal essay. Image wars and disciplinary wars are complicit in determining the type of international action they attract. cultural property loses its value completely. in European Journal of International Law 14/619 (Sep 2003).003/13. 2009 Isle de San Cristobal de Groüt Volume 20 Volume 20 Farming / Geothermal Energy / Water Management / Ecology. 30 November 1979. 16  Francesco Francioni. writing long essays on the value of their heritage that avoid any mention of national history in favor of a proto-internationalist history of civilizations. 20  Criterion (vi) carries a caveat: ‘The Committee considers that this criterion should preferably be used in conjunction with other criteria’. 94-99.15  Interview with CNN. UNESCO/ CC-79/CONF. cited by AP. ‘that the international community doesn’t care about the suffering people but they are shouting about the stone statues of Buddha’. Alibi June 24. (Mostar: Hrvatsko vijeće obrane Općine Mostar. said Ahmed Faiz. namely.

announced his plan to relocate the entire population of the island to another country due to pro­ec­ions that rising sea levels will subsume it this century. islands have become symbolic of a global condition. the practices of island urbanism are more commonplace than one might think. Although it is rare for a single island to possess nearly all the elements which have enabled island cultures around the world to survive. IdSCdG is an extreme example of island living. In this issue we take you to one of the world’s most remotely populated territories: the Isle de San Cristobal de Groüt. In November of 2008. ‘We are all Maldivians. Island urbanism exists in every corner of the planet and collectively constitutes a large area of land. Thus the story of IdSCdG and all the features that support its natural and built environment in effect provide a condensed overview of the day-to-day existence of island cultures. IdSCdG isn’t really an island at all. Mohamed Nasheed. then the Isle de San Cristobal de Groüt crystallizes the paradoxes and challenges of every island.’1 If islands as universal symbols and test sites have the ability to serve as particular cases of a general phenomenon. preventing any catas­ trophe from obliterating it in its entirety and creating a series of miniature ecological systems in which cities can coexist with untouched nature. drawing ships to its harbor. its peculiar make up (island made of numerous islands) has allowed the various zones of IdSCdG to evolve independently. No one knows its exact location because an electromagnetic field emanating from its volcanoes disables satellite navigation. Africa and Australia. Islands are also home to a significant proportion of the earth’s inhabitants: one in ten humans today is an islander. But anyone can find it – it is the only piece of land for hundreds of kilometers and ocean currents converge on its shores.000 islands the largest 150 of which have a landmass equal to Europe. With climate change and the threat of rising sea levels. IdSCdG only emerged as a tourist destination when its airport was enlarged and modernized in the 1990s by the ISRO (Indian Space Research . the travel guide that enhances your journeys with information about urbanization past and present.2 Even so. The inhabitants have ingeniously pieced together these land outcroppings to form a continuous land mass. but a group of atolls formed over thousands of years by coral sedimentation. microcosms that will be the first to experience one possible outcome of our common situation. President of the Maldives. There are over 100. IdSCdG is a small dot of land in the middle of the Indian Ocean midway between Asia.Volume 20 Volume 20 134 135 Welcome to another edition of ALIBI. His state­ j t ment prompted a journalist for The New York Times to declare. C-Lab takes you on a tour of this unusual example of survival against all odds – an island that incorporates every manner of technological and natural miracles.

islands have become symbolic of a global condition. then the Isle de San Cristobal de Groüt crystallizes the paradoxes and challenges of every island. the travel guide that enhances your journeys with information about urbanization past and present. No one knows its exact location because an electromagnetic field emanating from its volcanoes disables satellite navigation.000 islands the largest 150 of which have a landmass equal to Europe. Africa and Australia.Volume 20 Volume 20 134 135 Welcome to another edition of ALIBI. IdSCdG is an extreme example of island living. President of the Maldives. With climate change and the threat of rising sea levels. announced his plan to relocate the entire population of the island to another country due to pro­ec­ions that rising sea levels will subsume it this century. preventing any catas­ trophe from obliterating it in its entirety and creating a series of miniature ecological systems in which cities can coexist with untouched nature. Island urbanism exists in every corner of the planet and collectively constitutes a large area of land. IdSCdG only emerged as a tourist destination when its airport was enlarged and modernized in the 1990s by the ISRO (Indian Space Research .’1 If islands as universal symbols and test sites have the ability to serve as particular cases of a general phenomenon. But anyone can find it – it is the only piece of land for hundreds of kilometers and ocean currents converge on its shores. IdSCdG isn’t really an island at all. The inhabitants have ingeniously pieced together these land outcroppings to form a continuous land mass. Islands are also home to a significant proportion of the earth’s inhabitants: one in ten humans today is an islander. its peculiar make up (island made of numerous islands) has allowed the various zones of IdSCdG to evolve independently. but a group of atolls formed over thousands of years by coral sedimentation. His state­ j t ment prompted a journalist for The New York Times to declare. Although it is rare for a single island to possess nearly all the elements which have enabled island cultures around the world to survive. microcosms that will be the first to experience one possible outcome of our common situation. Mohamed Nasheed.2 Even so. the practices of island urbanism are more commonplace than one might think. There are over 100. C-Lab takes you on a tour of this unusual example of survival against all odds – an island that incorporates every manner of technological and natural miracles. ‘We are all Maldivians. IdSCdG is a small dot of land in the middle of the Indian Ocean midway between Asia. In this issue we take you to one of the world’s most remotely populated territories: the Isle de San Cristobal de Groüt. Thus the story of IdSCdG and all the features that support its natural and built environment in effect provide a condensed overview of the day-to-day existence of island cultures. In November of 2008. drawing ships to its harbor.

5 Nevertheless IdSCdG’s isolation contributes to weaknesses in the gene pool. a distant relation of the better-known French naturalist and a contemporary of Darwin who advanced his own theory of natural selection based on his observations of IdSCdG’s Pink Swamp-hens. Rather. After the dissi­ ation of radioactive fallout the island was resettled and p rebuilt in its current form.8 In exchange for use of part of the island. only to become extinct in their native ecosystems. A succession of famines. they were brought there on ships from other small islands.Organization) as an emergency landing site for their space shuttle.) The monoliths serve as a reminder of the fragility of human existence on the island and as such are a popular sight for tourists. Taiwanese pirates captured Lamarck’s ship on its return voyage and he was killed. Because of this. the island has more extinct species than anywhere else in the world despite its diversity. native. t All that remains of the first inhabitants are a series of enormous coral mono­ liths vaguely shaped like ships. leaving his life’s work unrecognized. All told. French officials agreed to relocate the IdSCdG’s population – who were then in the midst of a great famine – to Nice and compensate them with land and money.000 plant and 600 vertebrate endemic species. though some have speculated that the radioactivity might also account for the greater rates of mutation and the emergence of new species in subsequent decades. diseases and internecine warfare from the thirteenth to the seven­eenth century effectively wiped out the earlier island settlements. Volume 20 IdSCdG is home to immense biodiversity including hundreds of species not found elsewhere. Many of IdSCdG’s species are unique to the island. But the animals he studied remain. Its natural wonders were first chronicled by Jean-Louis Lamarck.4 Unfortunately. strictly speaking. The island’s modern cities were only established in the 1960s when the island was resettled following French nuclear tests. Many animal species were made extinct by the tests. The impossibility of migration means that any threat to its environment is disastrous for animal populations. IdSCdG supports 8.3 Its terrestrial isolation made it all the more desirable as a spaceport for interplanetary travel and ISRO quickly expanded its operations. The Grand Duke of IdSCdG shrewdly negotiated for ISRO to finance additional facilities for commercial aircraft which along with its beautiful beaches and tropical forests has made the island an eco-tourism destination. though not. The island’s history is thus a succession of discontinuous inhabitation punctuated by social collapse.6 Its civilizations have led an equally precarious existence.7 (Some believe that the monoliths were the remains of an extensive shipbuilding operation in preparation for a mass exodus. Volume 20 Ecology 136 137 .

Its natural wonders were first chronicled by Jean-Louis Lamarck. Volume 20 Ecology 136 137 . The impossibility of migration means that any threat to its environment is disastrous for animal populations. a distant relation of the better-known French naturalist and a contemporary of Darwin who advanced his own theory of natural selection based on his observations of IdSCdG’s Pink Swamp-hens. After the dissi­ ation of radioactive fallout the island was resettled and p rebuilt in its current form. A succession of famines. though some have speculated that the radioactivity might also account for the greater rates of mutation and the emergence of new species in subsequent decades. t All that remains of the first inhabitants are a series of enormous coral mono­ liths vaguely shaped like ships. But the animals he studied remain. The Grand Duke of IdSCdG shrewdly negotiated for ISRO to finance additional facilities for commercial aircraft which along with its beautiful beaches and tropical forests has made the island an eco-tourism destination.000 plant and 600 vertebrate endemic species. strictly speaking. leaving his life’s work unrecognized. Because of this. All told. the island has more extinct species than anywhere else in the world despite its diversity.) The monoliths serve as a reminder of the fragility of human existence on the island and as such are a popular sight for tourists.7 (Some believe that the monoliths were the remains of an extensive shipbuilding operation in preparation for a mass exodus.6 Its civilizations have led an equally precarious existence. The island’s modern cities were only established in the 1960s when the island was resettled following French nuclear tests.Organization) as an emergency landing site for their space shuttle. French officials agreed to relocate the IdSCdG’s population – who were then in the midst of a great famine – to Nice and compensate them with land and money.4 Unfortunately. only to become extinct in their native ecosystems. The island’s history is thus a succession of discontinuous inhabitation punctuated by social collapse.3 Its terrestrial isolation made it all the more desirable as a spaceport for interplanetary travel and ISRO quickly expanded its operations. Many animal species were made extinct by the tests. Rather. IdSCdG supports 8. Many of IdSCdG’s species are unique to the island.8 In exchange for use of part of the island. Taiwanese pirates captured Lamarck’s ship on its return voyage and he was killed.5 Nevertheless IdSCdG’s isolation contributes to weaknesses in the gene pool. though not. they were brought there on ships from other small islands. Volume 20 IdSCdG is home to immense biodiversity including hundreds of species not found elsewhere. diseases and internecine warfare from the thirteenth to the seven­eenth century effectively wiped out the earlier island settlements. native.

They use hydroponic growing methods to maximize the yield from a relatively small area. Nuclear power is not an option because the island has no place to store radioactive waste and is located in a seismically active zone near the fault line between the tectonic plates of . it must offset its attractiveness while still drawing capital and visitors. Popular activities include swimming with Cristobalian River Porpoises and excursions into the heart of the island in search of rare species like the Panther Chameleon and the Razor-beaked Nightingale. with fertilizer and carbon dioxide supplied by spraying. the government leaks a story of a fresh environmental disaster to counteract the potential onslaught of new visitors. Likewise. The beauty of its white coral beaches.11 To stem the tide of vacationers the Ministry of Tourism has devised a brilliant strategy: every time the island receives a positive review from a travel writer. many of the residents have plots of land on their terraces for personal use and a few larger buildings have public farms on rooftops. and garbage and wear on the coral monoliths and other archaeological sites have led to calls for more regulation of the island’s heritage. when a new luxury resort is planned. Over time the islanders have found it more economic and a better use of their limited land to pay for food to be imported from the continents and use the underground farms to ensure an independent source of staple crops. the Ministry constructs an artificial neighborhood of simulated urban decay in order to discourage tourists and preserve a veneer of authenticity to the island’s cities. using their economic resources to pay for food to be grown elsewhere. 138 139 Energy IdSCdG needs to generate its own energy. The farms are lit by vast arrays of LEDs. for IdSCdG to maintain its balance and prevent tourism from crowding out its inhabitants. As with all islands. In this respect the inhabitants of IdSCdG are similar to those of other islands in that they meet their demand through virtual farming. Despite these efforts the island relies on imports for many foods that can’t be grown in large enough quantity in underground and rooftop farms alone. It has compensated for the lack of space with six underground farms that produce many of the fruits and vegetables the islanders eat.10 Nevertheless the influx of tourists has begun to threaten the island’s oldest sites. virgin rainforests and mysterious artifacts of earlier civilizations attract tens of thousands of visitors annually.  Agriculture Volume 20 Volume 20 IdSCdG has little land for agriculture. the island’s cultural resources and funds groups like the Society m for the Preservation of Island Patrimony.Tourism is indeed an important aspect of the island’s ecology.9 The industry helps pay to maintain the environ­ ent.12 In addition to under­ ground farms.

virgin rainforests and mysterious artifacts of earlier civilizations attract tens of thousands of visitors annually. when a new luxury resort is planned. Popular activities include swimming with Cristobalian River Porpoises and excursions into the heart of the island in search of rare species like the Panther Chameleon and the Razor-beaked Nightingale. In this respect the inhabitants of IdSCdG are similar to those of other islands in that they meet their demand through virtual farming.  Agriculture Volume 20 Volume 20 IdSCdG has little land for agriculture. Over time the islanders have found it more economic and a better use of their limited land to pay for food to be imported from the continents and use the underground farms to ensure an independent source of staple crops. As with all islands. It has compensated for the lack of space with six underground farms that produce many of the fruits and vegetables the islanders eat.10 Nevertheless the influx of tourists has begun to threaten the island’s oldest sites. Nuclear power is not an option because the island has no place to store radioactive waste and is located in a seismically active zone near the fault line between the tectonic plates of . They use hydroponic growing methods to maximize the yield from a relatively small area. the government leaks a story of a fresh environmental disaster to counteract the potential onslaught of new visitors. the Ministry constructs an artificial neighborhood of simulated urban decay in order to discourage tourists and preserve a veneer of authenticity to the island’s cities. using their economic resources to pay for food to be grown elsewhere. Despite these efforts the island relies on imports for many foods that can’t be grown in large enough quantity in underground and rooftop farms alone. many of the residents have plots of land on their terraces for personal use and a few larger buildings have public farms on rooftops.11 To stem the tide of vacationers the Ministry of Tourism has devised a brilliant strategy: every time the island receives a positive review from a travel writer. for IdSCdG to maintain its balance and prevent tourism from crowding out its inhabitants.9 The industry helps pay to maintain the environ­ ent. the island’s cultural resources and funds groups like the Society m for the Preservation of Island Patrimony.Tourism is indeed an important aspect of the island’s ecology. 138 139 Energy IdSCdG needs to generate its own energy.12 In addition to under­ ground farms. it must offset its attractiveness while still drawing capital and visitors. The beauty of its white coral beaches. Likewise. and garbage and wear on the coral monoliths and other archaeological sites have led to calls for more regulation of the island’s heritage. with fertilizer and carbon dioxide supplied by spraying. The farms are lit by vast arrays of LEDs.

15 A technological solution was devised to save the water supply and carry it throughout the city: a 300-foot fountain with flexible conduits that directs freshwater from the aquifer into a series of aqueducts. however. 3  This was a response to NASA’s construction on Easter Island of an emergency landing strip for its space shuttle. The New York Times.14 Water Volume 20 Volume 20 For many years IdSCdG took its water from an aquifer at the center of the island. 14 Like Iceland. its population and environment neither too fragile nor too stable. 10 As in Venice tourist industry revenue helps support preservation efforts.000 endemic plant species. 6 Like Madagascar. 2 Similar to the land reclamation projects in Venice. leaving the urban center flooded and abandoned. The island has become an experiment in carbon-neutral energy production and the plants themselves are a tourist attraction. After years of struggling to maintain its endangered existence. Balancing its collective consumption and production. But for now the island is safe. The gradual draining of the aquifer caused the ground to subside and seawater to flow in. for instance. Eventually the aquifer ran out of water. 7 Similar to the monolithic heads of Easter Island. its use and replenishment of potable water. 15  Venice’s subsidence in the middle of the twentieth century was due to ground water depletion. 5  The island of Madagascar has 8. its physical geography is also critical to the island’s survival and self-sufficiency.100 islands contain more endemic vertebrate species (460) than anywhere else on Earth. it runs the potential risk of ecological stasis. 8 May 2009. 16 Similar to the plan for Singapore’s bay. the Galapagos or Venice. 8 Similar to the US test near Tristan da Cunha or the Bikini Atoll.13 While the volcanic activity on IdSCdG constantly threatens to annihilate its inhabitants. twice the number of the entire US. some scientists have speculated that soon IdSCdG could become the victim of its own success by achieving an almost magical equilibrium.India. ‘Wanted: A New Home for My Country’. The Philippines’ 7.16 The reservoir will ensure safe drinking water and nearly double the agricultural production of the island. 11 Applies to many islands. 140 141 1  Nicholas Schmidle. The limited influence of external factors and the rigorous environmental practices among its inhabitants pose the possibility of a supernatural harmony with negligible growth and change. 13 Similar to Indonesia. Africa and Australia. so the government is building a dam at the mouth of the bay to turn it into a freshwater reservoir through natural flushing. energy and food. As a consequence of IdSCdG’s relatively successful technological inter­ ventions there is a new threat to the island. . 4 As the Galapagos Islands were for Darwin. 12 As in Japan. 9 Like Madagascar. The continuous seismic activity provides vast quantities of power which the islanders harness with geothermal plants to produce most of their energy.

3  This was a response to NASA’s construction on Easter Island of an emergency landing strip for its space shuttle. some scientists have speculated that soon IdSCdG could become the victim of its own success by achieving an almost magical equilibrium. Balancing its collective consumption and production. however. so the government is building a dam at the mouth of the bay to turn it into a freshwater reservoir through natural flushing. As a consequence of IdSCdG’s relatively successful technological inter­ ventions there is a new threat to the island.000 endemic plant species. ‘Wanted: A New Home for My Country’. The New York Times. The continuous seismic activity provides vast quantities of power which the islanders harness with geothermal plants to produce most of their energy. The gradual draining of the aquifer caused the ground to subside and seawater to flow in. its physical geography is also critical to the island’s survival and self-sufficiency.India. 2 Similar to the land reclamation projects in Venice. energy and food. 13 Similar to Indonesia. The island has become an experiment in carbon-neutral energy production and the plants themselves are a tourist attraction. 12 As in Japan. leaving the urban center flooded and abandoned. 15  Venice’s subsidence in the middle of the twentieth century was due to ground water depletion. The limited influence of external factors and the rigorous environmental practices among its inhabitants pose the possibility of a supernatural harmony with negligible growth and change. 140 141 1  Nicholas Schmidle. 9 Like Madagascar. 7 Similar to the monolithic heads of Easter Island. Africa and Australia.15 A technological solution was devised to save the water supply and carry it throughout the city: a 300-foot fountain with flexible conduits that directs freshwater from the aquifer into a series of aqueducts. 10 As in Venice tourist industry revenue helps support preservation efforts. 11 Applies to many islands.13 While the volcanic activity on IdSCdG constantly threatens to annihilate its inhabitants. 8 Similar to the US test near Tristan da Cunha or the Bikini Atoll. 8 May 2009. 14 Like Iceland. . The Philippines’ 7. for instance.100 islands contain more endemic vertebrate species (460) than anywhere else on Earth. Eventually the aquifer ran out of water.16 The reservoir will ensure safe drinking water and nearly double the agricultural production of the island.14 Water Volume 20 Volume 20 For many years IdSCdG took its water from an aquifer at the center of the island. its use and replenishment of potable water. After years of struggling to maintain its endangered existence. 4 As the Galapagos Islands were for Darwin. 5  The island of Madagascar has 8. the Galapagos or Venice. its population and environment neither too fragile nor too stable. 6 Like Madagascar. But for now the island is safe. 16 Similar to the plan for Singapore’s bay. it runs the potential risk of ecological stasis. twice the number of the entire US.

Volume 20 Volume 20 142 143 .

Volume 20 Volume 20 142 143 .

Tourism Driven Preservation. if you watch . Much of what we do in journalism – not all. Volume recently met with the journalist. It’s a methodical and rigorous process. ‘To what extent can we Volume 20 imposes Volume 20 Nuclear Testing Tristan da Cunha Darwin’s Observations. Nicholas Lemann It’s very hard for non-journalists to accept (about journalism) that although narratives are incredibly important there is no process by which anybody sits down and says. The principles of journalism Lemann advocates are described in his fascinating road­ ap ‘The Journalistic m Method’. but I am saying be more aware as you use narrative. accom­ anying the interview below. In other words. whether or not you’re being unconsciously drawn into them. Subsidence from Water Depletion Venice. If you’re aware of this tendency you check yourself instead of falling into it. the people and events included and its subjects’ Endemic Plant Species. p Carbon-neutral Energy Iceland Land Reclamation. but much – is narrative. Regulated Heritage. I’m proposing the Journalistic Method as a new way to practice journalism. It’s a powerful. Isolated Extinction Madagascar NASA Landing Strip. Most people think that there’s this thing called ‘the press’ that decides on narratives for various reasons and them on events. ‘This is the narrative. Regulated Heritage Galapagos Islands 144 145 JI What are examples that approximate the Journalistic Method? NL No one’s ever seen this except my students. How is that different than the shorter news cycle reporting that is going on now? NL I’d say it’s different in the particulars but not in the fundamental process. go follow it’. Be aware of how it can mislead. It’s a lot more complicated than that. Nicholas Lemann plays a major role in shaping the priorities that go into news reporting. Compre­ Seismically Located Indonesia hension comes to us through how the story is told – by way of its stated context. Japan Nucleat Testing Bikini Atoll Eco-Tourism and Offshore Operations Bermuda Islands Eco-Tourism and Offshore Operations Cayman Islands Endemic Vertebrate Species Phillippine Islands Desalination Reservoir Pungol Bay. be aware of these master narratives floating around. He c discusses journalism’s responsibilities in constructing news accounts and within the media landscape. problem or conflict. you talk a lot about the storytelling of Pulitzer and Hearst’s age. distributed process that’s very hard to explain exactly. To what degree is the narrative of the news considered or observed within the profession of journalism? as journalists apply some version of the scientific method?’ For the class I teach we show some exam­ ples of these narratives or framing devices that get so a b s o r b e d i n t o y o u r h e a d you may not even be aware of them.News Report Nicholas Lemann Interviewed by Jeffrey Inaba and Talene Montgomery As a staff writer for The New Yorker magazine and the current Dean and Henry R.’ Talene Montgomery In the piece you wrote in April for the New Yorker titled ‘Paper Tigers’. And how we under­ stand crises is through news narratives. and instead I am trying to see things in a completely different way. edu­ ator and author to discuss just how news stories are told. but George Orwell at his best employed the Journalistic Method because he’s saying ‘I am not accepting the received wisdom at the moment in my world. Singapore Jeffrey Inaba Fundamental to how we cope with crisis is how we understand it. Monolithic Heads Easter Island implied motives. I started working with social scientists around Columbia and asked them. Italy Underground Farming Tokyo. Luce Professor at Columbia University’s Graduate School of Journalism. I’m not saying eschew narrative.

Volume recently met with the journalist. Singapore Jeffrey Inaba Fundamental to how we cope with crisis is how we understand it. if you watch . you talk a lot about the storytelling of Pulitzer and Hearst’s age. problem or conflict. Monolithic Heads Easter Island implied motives. He c discusses journalism’s responsibilities in constructing news accounts and within the media landscape. I started working with social scientists around Columbia and asked them. but much – is narrative. It’s a lot more complicated than that.News Report Nicholas Lemann Interviewed by Jeffrey Inaba and Talene Montgomery As a staff writer for The New Yorker magazine and the current Dean and Henry R.’ Talene Montgomery In the piece you wrote in April for the New Yorker titled ‘Paper Tigers’. Luce Professor at Columbia University’s Graduate School of Journalism. Nicholas Lemann plays a major role in shaping the priorities that go into news reporting. In other words. To what degree is the narrative of the news considered or observed within the profession of journalism? as journalists apply some version of the scientific method?’ For the class I teach we show some exam­ ples of these narratives or framing devices that get so a b s o r b e d i n t o y o u r h e a d you may not even be aware of them. Subsidence from Water Depletion Venice. Japan Nucleat Testing Bikini Atoll Eco-Tourism and Offshore Operations Bermuda Islands Eco-Tourism and Offshore Operations Cayman Islands Endemic Vertebrate Species Phillippine Islands Desalination Reservoir Pungol Bay. Most people think that there’s this thing called ‘the press’ that decides on narratives for various reasons and them on events. Isolated Extinction Madagascar NASA Landing Strip. Tourism Driven Preservation. Regulated Heritage. Compre­ Seismically Located Indonesia hension comes to us through how the story is told – by way of its stated context. If you’re aware of this tendency you check yourself instead of falling into it. And how we under­ stand crises is through news narratives. ‘This is the narrative. whether or not you’re being unconsciously drawn into them. distributed process that’s very hard to explain exactly. p Carbon-neutral Energy Iceland Land Reclamation. Italy Underground Farming Tokyo. but I am saying be more aware as you use narrative. but George Orwell at his best employed the Journalistic Method because he’s saying ‘I am not accepting the received wisdom at the moment in my world. be aware of these master narratives floating around. It’s a powerful. Regulated Heritage Galapagos Islands 144 145 JI What are examples that approximate the Journalistic Method? NL No one’s ever seen this except my students. How is that different than the shorter news cycle reporting that is going on now? NL I’d say it’s different in the particulars but not in the fundamental process. I’m proposing the Journalistic Method as a new way to practice journalism. Be aware of how it can mislead. ‘To what extent can we Volume 20 imposes Volume 20 Nuclear Testing Tristan da Cunha Darwin’s Observations. Much of what we do in journalism – not all. The principles of journalism Lemann advocates are described in his fascinating road­ ap ‘The Journalistic m Method’. the people and events included and its subjects’ Endemic Plant Species. go follow it’. It’s a methodical and rigorous process. edu­ ator and author to discuss just how news stories are told. I’m not saying eschew narrative. accom­ anying the interview below. and instead I am trying to see things in a completely different way. Nicholas Lemann It’s very hard for non-journalists to accept (about journalism) that although narratives are incredibly important there is no process by which anybody sits down and says.

where social production refers to a good being produced by a l a r g e d i s t r i b u t e d n e t w o r k of people without any money changing hands. beware. It’s a TV show and there are characters who deal with things. there is likely to be a long‑running debate with a set of established compass points. to the greatest extent possible. The White House is kind of like an model of reporting has gone by the wayside and Volume 20 ongoing family drama. Instead. or having been primed to see the story in a certain way. and you should be able to read the primary material for yourself as a way of enriching what other people tell you about it. generally speaking. then the decisions that build the largest possible audience are in the public interest. when you set out. since more of the public are coming to your publication – that’s the proof. And more information would come out if you didn’t have journalist ‘gate-keepers’. or having mistaken correlation for causation.’ I think they are usually right. which actually is important. It’s what he thinks is most important. what we call ‘human interest stories’. and you should make some judgment as to whether the methodology and presentation are sound. The view is that journalists are ‘discourse-restricters’. which is fairly good and respectable. What follows is an attempt at a journalistic version of the scientific method. NL There’s always a focus on the White House. They appeal to people because they’re human stories. And that’s a good third of what’s on CNN. the use of anonymous sources should be kept to a minimum – you should always try to avoid saying something important with only the testimony of an unnamed person as proof. 4. unconscious rules. Journalists more often unwittingly let the narrative distort the analysis than vice versa. Awareness. That will be on CNN even though it’s not really of world importance. If you used a Venn diagram to rationally and scien­ if­ t ically map what important events you would expect to see on an international news channel and then com­ ared that to what actually is on CNN there p would be some overlap. It’s very hard in con­ en­ v tional journalism. There have been many claims made online over the last few years that news – the actual gathering of information. one on each side. in telling a story on TV compared to in print? that the many-to-many participatory model of news 146 147 JI Is it a foregone conclusion that the profes­ ional s 2. The old distinction in journalism between news and opinion is useful. and then ask yourself what would prove the hypothesis false and what would be an alternate hypothesis to explain whatever it is you are investigating. how to pursue your story further. They don’t naturally go together. If the Federal Reserve or the FDIC does some­ hing that fundamentally t changes the lives of millions of Americans. who between them can do justice to the subject. It’s the idea that in aggregate the function of jour­ nalism is not to produce information but to produce the flow of information. assessing its importance and con­ sidering its presentation – could be done through. On any complicated subject. So one could say. Instead. Are there significant differences NL The press is. a commercial 1. What journalists are supposed to do is follow the commercial imperatives up to a point and then set them aside and s e r v e t h e p u b l i c . . As a first step. you should try not just to prove but also to disprove your working hypothesis. but you should use attribution in your work in such a way that readers and colleagues can see. outside JI In general how is this effort to attract audience and opinion sharing is replacing it for financial. If you don’t design your reporting in such s a way that if your hypothesis is flawed you will find out before you finish the story. 5. social production. You should state a working hypothesis (to yourself. But that’s where the debate is now. As you report. That’s generally not the way the term is used. Therefore the idea that you can find ‘an expert’ who can explain the issue quickly over the phone is unrealistic. And I just don’t believe that. Evaluating the data. so is the idea that you can find two experts. through human interest stories balanced with the notion that the press reports news such as political JI You’ve discussed reporting by CNN and The events in the public’s interest? New York Times. but still fail to capture the truth of a situation. at least to some extent. t if neces­ ary. you should always stop and ask yourself what you have bought in before you have begun. Journalism is in a very dire A central problem in the practice of journalism is that most of the time. The Journalistic Method social and technological reasons? Nicholas Lemann NL It’s all in play. well. we are trying to engage in nar­ a­ r tive and analysis at the same time. you’d see a lot of these narrative hook stories: a little girl or a cat falls down a well. and where the debate stands at present. Mapping the discourse.just CNN. But we in journalism tend to cloak ourselves in the public interest and say that journalism’s a public trust and that is where we get squishy conceptually. Forming a hypothesis. then you are leaving yourself open to getting the story seriously wrong. as one of my web guru friends calls it. but calling them the ‘public interest’ is a little tendentious because there was no mechanism for the editor of The New York Times to consult the public and decide whether it’s in the public’s interest. but even print. or having succumbed to some other form of embedded misperception. But what that really means is: ‘operate according to internally-generated professional principles which may or may not be right. the overlap on CNN that So what’s wouldn’t be on your map? First of all. if they don’t have a So if you’re covering the White House you can fairly seamlessly move back and forth between the Obamas’ dog and Chrysler going bankrupt because it’s got a narrative frame. Journalism is not scholar­ ship and does not generally use bibliographies or footnotes. You should also find out whether somebody else has drawn a different conclusion about the same subject. and probably. to deal with issues that are incredibly important attached to it. from your work. 3. especially now. if you’re Hearst or Pulitzer or Fox News or whoever and you’re trying to build the largest possible audience. That’s very much like the days of Hearst and Pulitzer – working in real time to get the largest possible audience for a journalistic product. Even your journalistic competitors should be able to tell. Ask yourself why what’s on CNN is on CNN. but it also works on TV because it fits with the narrative nature of jour­ alism n because there’s a character. you should familiarize your­ self with the expert discourse on the subject. On any important issue. you should follow the steps that led to the conclusion. You don’t need to read everything. it’s incredibly hard for television to cover this. situation. not ‘discourse-enhancers’. anyway). Volume 20 institution driven by audience-building imperatives. Transparency. Therefore. and you should engage in a con­ inuing process of revision of the hypothesis. Essentially what drives that is audience. This participatory style works better in the realm of opinion than for news. but you need to know what the major schools of thought are. there’s a very powerful set of rules. aimed at protecting us from writing stories that are factually accurate and narratively compelling. Never accept a con­ clusion from an expert at face value. person JI Because there isn’t a character we already know to establish the plot? NL Exactly. particularly television. but not that much. Often these involve your having unwittingly accepted somebody else’s frame of reference. It’s healthier to admit to yourself that you have one than to go into a story with the idea that you have no presuppositions at all – that would be impossible. of overly simple concep­ tions of what ‘the story’ is. where your information came from and how you have reached your conclusions.

where your information came from and how you have reached your conclusions. Evaluating the data. but calling them the ‘public interest’ is a little tendentious because there was no mechanism for the editor of The New York Times to consult the public and decide whether it’s in the public’s interest.’ I think they are usually right. or having mistaken correlation for causation. when you set out. 3. at least to some extent. That’s generally not the way the term is used. not ‘discourse-enhancers’. but even print. and probably. That’s very much like the days of Hearst and Pulitzer – working in real time to get the largest possible audience for a journalistic product. but still fail to capture the truth of a situation. one on each side. and where the debate stands at present. On any complicated subject. Are there significant differences NL The press is. beware. person JI Because there isn’t a character we already know to establish the plot? NL Exactly. to the greatest extent possible. It’s a TV show and there are characters who deal with things. who between them can do justice to the subject. Journalists more often unwittingly let the narrative distort the analysis than vice versa. t if neces­ ary. of overly simple concep­ tions of what ‘the story’ is. The view is that journalists are ‘discourse-restricters’. Essentially what drives that is audience. And more information would come out if you didn’t have journalist ‘gate-keepers’. what we call ‘human interest stories’. It’s the idea that in aggregate the function of jour­ nalism is not to produce information but to produce the flow of information. As a first step. as one of my web guru friends calls it. social production. There have been many claims made online over the last few years that news – the actual gathering of information. 4. This participatory style works better in the realm of opinion than for news. Instead. Even your journalistic competitors should be able to tell. there’s a very powerful set of rules. outside JI In general how is this effort to attract audience and opinion sharing is replacing it for financial. Instead. you should try not just to prove but also to disprove your working hypothesis. the overlap on CNN that So what’s wouldn’t be on your map? First of all. from your work. If you don’t design your reporting in such s a way that if your hypothesis is flawed you will find out before you finish the story. Journalism is not scholar­ ship and does not generally use bibliographies or footnotes. through human interest stories balanced with the notion that the press reports news such as political JI You’ve discussed reporting by CNN and The events in the public’s interest? New York Times. If the Federal Reserve or the FDIC does some­ hing that fundamentally t changes the lives of millions of Americans. we are trying to engage in nar­ a­ r tive and analysis at the same time. there is likely to be a long‑running debate with a set of established compass points. It’s healthier to admit to yourself that you have one than to go into a story with the idea that you have no presuppositions at all – that would be impossible. the use of anonymous sources should be kept to a minimum – you should always try to avoid saying something important with only the testimony of an unnamed person as proof. you’d see a lot of these narrative hook stories: a little girl or a cat falls down a well. Volume 20 institution driven by audience-building imperatives. Journalism is in a very dire A central problem in the practice of journalism is that most of the time. then the decisions that build the largest possible audience are in the public interest. unconscious rules. especially now. you should always stop and ask yourself what you have bought in before you have begun. situation. They appeal to people because they’re human stories. But we in journalism tend to cloak ourselves in the public interest and say that journalism’s a public trust and that is where we get squishy conceptually. you should follow the steps that led to the conclusion. aimed at protecting us from writing stories that are factually accurate and narratively compelling. You don’t need to read everything. if you’re Hearst or Pulitzer or Fox News or whoever and you’re trying to build the largest possible audience. Forming a hypothesis. and you should be able to read the primary material for yourself as a way of enriching what other people tell you about it. Often these involve your having unwittingly accepted somebody else’s frame of reference. well. NL There’s always a focus on the White House. You should state a working hypothesis (to yourself. but you need to know what the major schools of thought are. Ask yourself why what’s on CNN is on CNN. or having been primed to see the story in a certain way. you should familiarize your­ self with the expert discourse on the subject. which is fairly good and respectable. The White House is kind of like an model of reporting has gone by the wayside and Volume 20 ongoing family drama. assessing its importance and con­ sidering its presentation – could be done through. but it also works on TV because it fits with the narrative nature of jour­ alism n because there’s a character. And I just don’t believe that. . it’s incredibly hard for television to cover this. then you are leaving yourself open to getting the story seriously wrong. a commercial 1. since more of the public are coming to your publication – that’s the proof. and you should engage in a con­ inuing process of revision of the hypothesis. if they don’t have a So if you’re covering the White House you can fairly seamlessly move back and forth between the Obamas’ dog and Chrysler going bankrupt because it’s got a narrative frame. where social production refers to a good being produced by a l a r g e d i s t r i b u t e d n e t w o r k of people without any money changing hands. Therefore the idea that you can find ‘an expert’ who can explain the issue quickly over the phone is unrealistic. And that’s a good third of what’s on CNN.just CNN. If you used a Venn diagram to rationally and scien­ if­ t ically map what important events you would expect to see on an international news channel and then com­ ared that to what actually is on CNN there p would be some overlap. how to pursue your story further. in telling a story on TV compared to in print? that the many-to-many participatory model of news 146 147 JI Is it a foregone conclusion that the profes­ ional s 2. Awareness. or having succumbed to some other form of embedded misperception. which actually is important. It’s what he thinks is most important. generally speaking. So one could say. particularly television. anyway). The old distinction in journalism between news and opinion is useful. to deal with issues that are incredibly important attached to it. Transparency. Never accept a con­ clusion from an expert at face value. Therefore. But that’s where the debate is now. The Journalistic Method social and technological reasons? Nicholas Lemann NL It’s all in play. so is the idea that you can find two experts. What follows is an attempt at a journalistic version of the scientific method. but you should use attribution in your work in such a way that readers and colleagues can see. As you report. and you should make some judgment as to whether the methodology and presentation are sound. That will be on CNN even though it’s not really of world importance. On any important issue. But what that really means is: ‘operate according to internally-generated professional principles which may or may not be right. 5. They don’t naturally go together. Mapping the discourse. but not that much. What journalists are supposed to do is follow the commercial imperatives up to a point and then set them aside and s e r v e t h e p u b l i c . and then ask yourself what would prove the hypothesis false and what would be an alternate hypothesis to explain whatever it is you are investigating. It’s very hard in con­ en­ v tional journalism. You should also find out whether somebody else has drawn a different conclusion about the same subject.

1  For more on Pro-Am journalism. but ultimately its perceptions are manip­ ­ated and that’s inevitable because the public ul is doing other things. What’s great about citizen journalism is that it is born from participation and it is created for your participation. for example – that you can only get if somebody is working on them full-time. ‘You know. really care JI You’ve discussed a hybrid form of journalism. I see that. So the press obviously has a duty to do that. where the press doesn’t have to take any particular side because the situation is well repre­ sented. have to figure out continually t how to bring the public alive. say. He was trying to be a realist about it.’ It’s not just a question of information either. you describe the fragility of the Volume 20 Jeffrey Inaba In your article. Rosen guides Volume through the landscape of traditional journalistic methodologies. www. in the reporting of facts and sional journalism compared to citizen journalism? And what is your take on it? events? Does this responsibility imply that jour­ nalists report comprehensively and impartially JR Well. because certain stories can only be gotten that way! So a l l o f t h o s e t h i n g s a r e a t r i s k and insofar as professional journalists are saying ‘Wait a minute. Can you talk about that? JR I’m interested in this thing people are calling Pro-Am journalism. and all the other people involved in arts. Jay Rosen Interviewed by Jeffrey Inaba and Talene Montgomery How do journalists decide how to tell stories? What are their responsi­ bilities when reporting a story? And to what extent do they write in the public’s interest? New York University journalism professor and press critic Jay Rosen discusses these issues in the context of the long-standing debate about whether journalists represent or create the public. I’m in their camp. see Rosen’s site. in a practical way. but you’re overlooking some­ thing. ‘The public is there to be informed and it’s something we have to bring to life’.NewsAssignment. including and especially people in government. ‘What Are Jour­ said about freedom of the press. That argues for professional journalism. Because engag­ng people successfully is a social problem we i have to figure out. Can you describe the role of the press in defining the ‘public’? Jay Rosen This goes back to a debate that Walter Lippmann and John Dewey had about the nature of the public and whether we just represent it or do it? Lippmann’s argument we also have to was: If you look at the public you’ll see it has very limited capacity. That is pure fiction. it can throw politicians in or out. But one of the things that it’s good at is having people who about issues guide you to news about those issues. they’re the ones who learned to take the freedoms of the web – which are vast – and bring enough discipline to them through forms that make blogging intelligible. need to be a degree of interpretation as to just what the public’s interest is and to construct the story accordingly? JR Journalists have a responsibility to tell us truth and that what’s going on and tell us the does require impartiality. argues for people who have that access. What’s good about citizen journalism? Well.1 Ultimately the strongest forms and the best discoveries will be made with ‘pro’ journalists working with networks of amateurs. How does that play out in the TM What is the prevailing argument about pro­ es­ f telling of the story. The bloggers have been the ones – like amateurs in other new arts – who have actually pushed the craft forward. but also how they can affect things. That’s like saying – and this is borrowed from another writer – that farmers’ markets can’t replace restaurants. yes. Also. but they report stuff that’s verifiable. Yet there are lots of other situations in which if you just let the existing players play. to provide access to the public itself. If you went to a contentious meeting – and other people who also have a stake in what you have wit­ nessed couldn’t go and they ask you what went on – you have a respon­ ibility to report to the other s people accurately and impartially. Citizen journalism is when ‘The People Formerly Known as the Audience’ pick up these tools and use them to inform one another. Finding out facts requires somebody working on it. Talene Montgomery What is Citizen Journalism? JR The great press critic AJ Liebling once famously public. We have more and better tools than ever to bring the public alive and surely this is what we’re supposed to be doing. And that’s what Dewey meant. we can’t lose those things’ – I totally agree. So to me. And there are other exceptional circumstances in which the powerful players them­ selves have an interest in t e a r i n g d o w n the accumulation of facts in order to present the truth as untrue. You seem to be suggesting that it is by no means a stable entity and thus ‘public interest’ is a mushy term. Dewey said. First: we need verified information. So what is citizen journalism good at? We don’t nec­ es­ arily know entirely yet. People want to know not just what occurred. Yet you have Volume 20 nalists For’. They’re the ones who learned to write with links. because we haven’t built s good structures for it.Fact and Friction other responsibilities too. So you. We know this from our normal lives. the public is there create to be informed and it is something we have to bring to life. And blogging means anyone can own one. There’s a whole class of things for which that is true. journalists have a duty to be involved – I would say this in much stronger terms than they would – to reverse that behavior or penalize people for trying to do it. But it’s not practical for them to provide access to the public at large. so we need representative figures to pose questions. connected through smart web tools and applications and motivated to produce new information. JI So you are saying that the press has a public responsibility. Second: there are some kinds of stories – investiga­ tive journalism. lots of things aren’t going to get represented. ‘I’m going to awaken the public’. who care about their stories and about having an effect are really saying. Now. says Rosen. It doesn’t require you to be a journalist. it’s an art and a com­ it­ ent. They’re going for a totally different reason. ‘Freedom of the press belongs to those who own one’. People have the tools and therefore they also have the powers of the press. there are normal political situations in which values conflict. It can say yes or no. pinpointing the ramifications of new models of journalism on the stories told. Walter. there is tons that citizen journalism can’t do. But I would say the important issues are the following. The essence of what they do is not just report stuff. Well. what does that means for the pro­ es­ f sion? Will they replace the press? That’s a whole other thing. The most impor­ tant reason for having professional journalism is it represents a verification system we otherwise would not have. I can’t disagree with you Walter. 148 149 Third: we need people with power. There’s no objective way of doing it. which is a better way of learning about them than depending on. That is a switch and ‘citizen journalism’ is simply a name for this fact. When that happens. At least fifty per­ ent of the arguments that journalists want me to c have with them engage in the proposition that citizen journalists can’t replace what ‘we’ do. we shouldn’t see them as opponents that with the aim of informing the public or does there meet and struggle. culture.net . its also one of art. Their participation and their power to affect the situation has some­ hing to do with their interest t in information and there’s a vital connection between those two things. Adding to this debate is the advent of citizen journalism and in particular the role of the public in formulating the news story. Just because people are going to the farmers’ market doesn’t mean they aren’t going to go to a restaurant. educa­ tion and poli­ ics. and me. I think really good journalists m m who care about telling the truth. no! It’s a completely different activity. And obviously that. the LA Times.

have to figure out continually t how to bring the public alive.’ It’s not just a question of information either. At least fifty per­ ent of the arguments that journalists want me to c have with them engage in the proposition that citizen journalists can’t replace what ‘we’ do. And obviously that. Can you describe the role of the press in defining the ‘public’? Jay Rosen This goes back to a debate that Walter Lippmann and John Dewey had about the nature of the public and whether we just represent it or do it? Lippmann’s argument we also have to was: If you look at the public you’ll see it has very limited capacity. So you. what does that means for the pro­ es­ f sion? Will they replace the press? That’s a whole other thing. its also one of art. it can throw politicians in or out. where the press doesn’t have to take any particular side because the situation is well repre­ sented. JI So you are saying that the press has a public responsibility. First: we need verified information. we can’t lose those things’ – I totally agree. including and especially people in government. But it’s not practical for them to provide access to the public at large. And there are other exceptional circumstances in which the powerful players them­ selves have an interest in t e a r i n g d o w n the accumulation of facts in order to present the truth as untrue. I’m in their camp. Walter. Can you talk about that? JR I’m interested in this thing people are calling Pro-Am journalism. When that happens. culture. Rosen guides Volume through the landscape of traditional journalistic methodologies. there are normal political situations in which values conflict. The essence of what they do is not just report stuff. Their participation and their power to affect the situation has some­ hing to do with their interest t in information and there’s a vital connection between those two things. but they report stuff that’s verifiable. Dewey said. need to be a degree of interpretation as to just what the public’s interest is and to construct the story accordingly? JR Journalists have a responsibility to tell us truth and that what’s going on and tell us the does require impartiality. argues for people who have that access. Because engag­ng people successfully is a social problem we i have to figure out. they’re the ones who learned to take the freedoms of the web – which are vast – and bring enough discipline to them through forms that make blogging intelligible. We know this from our normal lives. in the reporting of facts and sional journalism compared to citizen journalism? And what is your take on it? events? Does this responsibility imply that jour­ nalists report comprehensively and impartially JR Well. and me. That’s like saying – and this is borrowed from another writer – that farmers’ markets can’t replace restaurants. www. The bloggers have been the ones – like amateurs in other new arts – who have actually pushed the craft forward. 148 149 Third: we need people with power. That is a switch and ‘citizen journalism’ is simply a name for this fact. Also. ‘Freedom of the press belongs to those who own one’. see Rosen’s site. but ultimately its perceptions are manip­ ­ated and that’s inevitable because the public ul is doing other things. in a practical way. What’s great about citizen journalism is that it is born from participation and it is created for your participation. ‘You know. but you’re overlooking some­ thing. Yet you have Volume 20 nalists For’. there is tons that citizen journalism can’t do. What’s good about citizen journalism? Well. no! It’s a completely different activity.Fact and Friction other responsibilities too. which is a better way of learning about them than depending on. I can’t disagree with you Walter. We have more and better tools than ever to bring the public alive and surely this is what we’re supposed to be doing. it’s an art and a com­ it­ ent.NewsAssignment. There’s no objective way of doing it. because certain stories can only be gotten that way! So a l l o f t h o s e t h i n g s a r e a t r i s k and insofar as professional journalists are saying ‘Wait a minute. the LA Times. educa­ tion and poli­ ics. say. we shouldn’t see them as opponents that with the aim of informing the public or does there meet and struggle. People want to know not just what occurred. You seem to be suggesting that it is by no means a stable entity and thus ‘public interest’ is a mushy term. But one of the things that it’s good at is having people who about issues guide you to news about those issues. because we haven’t built s good structures for it. I see that. It can say yes or no. to provide access to the public itself. yes. ‘What Are Jour­ said about freedom of the press. Citizen journalism is when ‘The People Formerly Known as the Audience’ pick up these tools and use them to inform one another. They’re going for a totally different reason. And that’s what Dewey meant.1 Ultimately the strongest forms and the best discoveries will be made with ‘pro’ journalists working with networks of amateurs. so we need representative figures to pose questions. It doesn’t require you to be a journalist. really care JI You’ve discussed a hybrid form of journalism. 1  For more on Pro-Am journalism. So to me. Adding to this debate is the advent of citizen journalism and in particular the role of the public in formulating the news story. Second: there are some kinds of stories – investiga­ tive journalism. That argues for professional journalism. connected through smart web tools and applications and motivated to produce new information. says Rosen.net . That is pure fiction. ‘I’m going to awaken the public’. There’s a whole class of things for which that is true. but also how they can affect things. And blogging means anyone can own one. Finding out facts requires somebody working on it. The most impor­ tant reason for having professional journalism is it represents a verification system we otherwise would not have. journalists have a duty to be involved – I would say this in much stronger terms than they would – to reverse that behavior or penalize people for trying to do it. pinpointing the ramifications of new models of journalism on the stories told. People have the tools and therefore they also have the powers of the press. How does that play out in the TM What is the prevailing argument about pro­ es­ f telling of the story. If you went to a contentious meeting – and other people who also have a stake in what you have wit­ nessed couldn’t go and they ask you what went on – you have a respon­ ibility to report to the other s people accurately and impartially. Well. the public is there create to be informed and it is something we have to bring to life. They’re the ones who learned to write with links. So the press obviously has a duty to do that. Just because people are going to the farmers’ market doesn’t mean they aren’t going to go to a restaurant. But I would say the important issues are the following. Talene Montgomery What is Citizen Journalism? JR The great press critic AJ Liebling once famously public. who care about their stories and about having an effect are really saying. you describe the fragility of the Volume 20 Jeffrey Inaba In your article. I think really good journalists m m who care about telling the truth. He was trying to be a realist about it. So what is citizen journalism good at? We don’t nec­ es­ arily know entirely yet. ‘The public is there to be informed and it’s something we have to bring to life’. lots of things aren’t going to get represented. Now. Jay Rosen Interviewed by Jeffrey Inaba and Talene Montgomery How do journalists decide how to tell stories? What are their responsi­ bilities when reporting a story? And to what extent do they write in the public’s interest? New York University journalism professor and press critic Jay Rosen discusses these issues in the context of the long-standing debate about whether journalists represent or create the public. for example – that you can only get if somebody is working on them full-time. and all the other people involved in arts. Yet there are lots of other situations in which if you just let the existing players play.

I can hope to change the future. so you can see what astute observers of the human predica­ ent m have noticed over the last few thou­ and years. in the early days before we invaded Iraq. There’s a debate in Athens before the fleet sails with one general maintaining that it’s utter folly.’ What this is getting at is that there is a historical root to most everything. It bears rereading in these circumstances. a current event. When I was still at Harper’s Magazine. Marco Polo. See. but I can change the past. that’s why Shakespeare is still being performed in Central Park. Lapham Right. I mean. which is his polemic against the notion of colonialist. It’s the p o w e r o f e x p r e s s i o n a n d t h e f o r c e o f i m a g i ­ a t i o n that keeps n the narrative in print. So I take a subject that’s in the news. I wrote a long piece and brought that into the conversation. and Aristophanes exchange ideas. s Good writing is always new. I think history is full of navigational lights that can be useful on our voyage through time. I can’t change the present. Lewis H. And the only thing we can really change is the past. Lapham Interviewed by Jeffrey Inaba After serving thirty years at the helm of Harper’s Magazine. but at least some of them are present in Lapham’s Quarterly. There are infinite numbers of them. aspect of your quarterly is that it contextualizes current events within a long historical arc. the quarterly is where Dorothy Parker.G. which essentially destroyed the Athenian empire. the second is on ‘money’. Charlemagne. as you may suspect. What I’m trying to do in this journal is to supply some of those roots. ness dark­ Volume 20 reporting with the 24-hour news cycle. then ‘eros’ and ‘crime’. And the object of the Quarterly is to provide some kind of historical perspective: to bring the experience of the past to bear on the questions of the present. I mean history is story. literary icon Lewis H. problems and concerns are in the news all the time.I. The one we’re now doing is ‘travel’. I also brought Twain’s great letter to children sitting in . Investigating one theme per issue and enlisting ‘the council of the dead’ as well as material from the public domain to do so. imperialist expansion into the Philippines in the early part of the twentieth century. Volume recently met with Lapham to discuss his use of history to assess current affairs. because various facets of those questions. that’s what I’m trying to do. It’s also where the financial costs of all US wars are charted alongside body counts from the Rambo franchise. even for a thousand years. There’s an old Arab proverb: ‘We have less reason to be afraid of what might happen tomorrow than we do to beware of what happened yesterday. Notorious B. The first issue is on ‘war’. the third ‘nature’ and the fourth ‘education’. it’s w h a t p e o p l e b e l i e v e h a p p e n e d that is apt to carry more weight. it was an act of sub­ lime hubris that brought the collapse of the Athenian empire. You can read the debate in Athens prior to their expedition to Syracuse in 415 BC. A unique Volume 20 Jeffrey Inaba There’s an obsession in current 150 151 .All images by Talene Montgomery Letters From the Editor Lewis H. It’s all narrative. Lapham launched Lapham’s Quarterly in 2008. Karl Marx. history is a continuum. It’s not so much what happened. Ayn Rand.

I mean. that’s why Shakespeare is still being performed in Central Park. Notorious B. but I can change the past. it’s w h a t p e o p l e b e l i e v e h a p p e n e d that is apt to carry more weight. and Aristophanes exchange ideas. history is a continuum. s Good writing is always new. I can’t change the present. What I’m trying to do in this journal is to supply some of those roots. See. a current event. It bears rereading in these circumstances. that’s what I’m trying to do.’ What this is getting at is that there is a historical root to most everything. Karl Marx. aspect of your quarterly is that it contextualizes current events within a long historical arc. the quarterly is where Dorothy Parker. There are infinite numbers of them. even for a thousand years. imperialist expansion into the Philippines in the early part of the twentieth century. then ‘eros’ and ‘crime’. Volume recently met with Lapham to discuss his use of history to assess current affairs. Lapham Right. but at least some of them are present in Lapham’s Quarterly. which is his polemic against the notion of colonialist. Investigating one theme per issue and enlisting ‘the council of the dead’ as well as material from the public domain to do so. When I was still at Harper’s Magazine. There’s a debate in Athens before the fleet sails with one general maintaining that it’s utter folly. Lapham Interviewed by Jeffrey Inaba After serving thirty years at the helm of Harper’s Magazine. Ayn Rand. The one we’re now doing is ‘travel’. as you may suspect. It’s not so much what happened. in the early days before we invaded Iraq.G. The first issue is on ‘war’. And the only thing we can really change is the past. Marco Polo. It’s also where the financial costs of all US wars are charted alongside body counts from the Rambo franchise. the second is on ‘money’. I mean history is story. because various facets of those questions. Charlemagne.All images by Talene Montgomery Letters From the Editor Lewis H. the third ‘nature’ and the fourth ‘education’. You can read the debate in Athens prior to their expedition to Syracuse in 415 BC. Lewis H. So I take a subject that’s in the news. which essentially destroyed the Athenian empire. it was an act of sub­ lime hubris that brought the collapse of the Athenian empire.I. I think history is full of navigational lights that can be useful on our voyage through time. ness dark­ Volume 20 reporting with the 24-hour news cycle. A unique Volume 20 Jeffrey Inaba There’s an obsession in current 150 151 . Lapham launched Lapham’s Quarterly in 2008. I can hope to change the future. I also brought Twain’s great letter to children sitting in . It’s the p o w e r o f e x p r e s s i o n a n d t h e f o r c e o f i m a g i ­ a t i o n that keeps n the narrative in print. I wrote a long piece and brought that into the conversation. And the object of the Quarterly is to provide some kind of historical perspective: to bring the experience of the past to bear on the questions of the present. There’s an old Arab proverb: ‘We have less reason to be afraid of what might happen tomorrow than we do to beware of what happened yesterday. It’s all narrative. problems and concerns are in the news all the time. literary icon Lewis H. so you can see what astute observers of the human predica­ ent m have noticed over the last few thou­ and years.

who was court poet for Charles II. who else to call up and say. and ‘dreary island of my soul’. p because then we look at it and say. but it makes fun of the King. we have an image of a m person being censured for obscene speech or some media gaffe resulting in his dismissal and a related short paragraph news story. should it be on the state? JI What is your impression of the current state of politics? JI Each issue is centered around a topic. Could you speak about constructing these adjacencies? LL That’s the interesting part. you’re trying to provide an arc. That there is no serious class division in the US. The next issue. They know they don’t have any answers yet – there’s no answer on the Left that I know of – but a lot of people are trying to do that and at some point that notion will emerge. as was Charles II. LL Yeah. there are fourteen pieces in this section and ten of them are from the nineteenth century. He no longer enjoys the privileges of the court and he drifts into obscurity and drunken bank­ uptcy. but it’s the wrong poem. But again. which is on travel. And that also allows you to make juxta­ ositions. JI state. do I try to do an issue on democracy. ‘Talk to me about the thirteenth century’. That tells us what else to look for. What con game? LL That we have a democracy. The first is departure. Usually the issue’s content is divided into several sections. a paragraph out of a newspaper or a magazine or a recently published novel or a speech with a photograph. but otherwise I draw on the public domain and it is an aggregator. Some 152 153 . that’s right. rather it forms Lapham’s Quarterly seems to be a polemic about the future more than anything else. JI magazines are obsessed with predicting the future. Then you do a – just like in a film – and you’re taken back in time to a juxtaposition with an analogous photo­ raph and an analogous event or problem or g com­ entary. He was a court favorite. the freedom of the market instead of the f r e e d o m o f t h e m i n d . and of those five are American’. It’s a very entertaining poem. We then dissolve to the Earl of Rochester. LL Yeah. We have a new website in development and it won’t be just the magazine on-line. We have one lovely feature we call ‘Déjà Vu’ in which you take something right from the news. his disgrace is p e r m a n e n t . For example. you’re likely to see the ‘next big thing’ in the rear view mirror. That we still are giving pride of place to banks and property. A couple issues ago in The Nation there was a piece by Barbara Ehrenreich and Bill McKibbon groping towards some sort of community-based politics and a notion of society as opposed to a notion of the Volume 20 comparisons or relationships of ideas through JI Volume 20 That material is not chronological. LL I think Obama is trying to keep the con game going. We have the wonderful opening of Melville’s Moby Dick: ‘Call me Ishmael’. Do you see what I mean? Once you’ve decided on the structure. I don’t know how to phrase the new political idea. adjacency. In other words. that gives you a reason to choose this manuscript and not another. You’re dealing with an enormous subject and there’s no possible way you can be definitive. Doing that is the most challenging part of editing. There’s no point in using both the Melville and the Defoe. Within each section there’s a sequence of material. So how do you organize the mate­ rial? How do you give it structure? Some of the issues are divided into four parts. only it uses history largely from the public domain as its source. and ‘I leave the Isle of Manhattoes and set forth on a voyage’. comprehensive or have the last word on anything. then you can make those kinds of decisions. is divided into four parts. others into three or some­ times five. We have Matsuo Basho on the road north on the first day of one of his journeys. So we clearly must do better. do we call it the body politic. We have quite a few other pieces in that section and they’re all about ‘setting out’. so it operates like a news aggregator. That we can still play the part of the imperial power in Afghanistan. In the departure part this kind of question comes up. In this feature you also have a wonder­ r ful picture of the Earl of Rochester and the poem. He falls from favor. What are themes you want to address in the future? LL I’m trying to figure out how to address govern­ ance. [laughs] The King asks Rochester for his r latest and wittiest poem.JI Yes. It’ll be more fun than that – really it’s own thing. Otherwise it becomes such an embarrassment of riches that you’re easily lost. dissolve Once you’ve an idea how to frame it. So he is dismissed. He was a libertine. We also have a very fine passage from Defoe talking about r u n n i n g a w a y t o s e a when he was young and the arguments he was having with his father. The poem that he receives is an attack on the King’s dick. and he reaches into his pocket and hands the king the poem. right from today. the second part is in-transit. the third part is arrival and the fourth part is returning home. ‘My god. I mean. So rather than anticipating the ‘next big thing’. and there was a lot of what our celebrity press would call ‘misbehavior’ but what was stand­ ard operating procedure in London during The Resto­ ation. Lapham’s Quarterly uses history to show us what we may be encountering. What you are doing with the Quarterly is moving us forward by giving us sources to apprehend the future. At the back of each issue we have living authors. because he was good at that.

Some 152 153 . ‘My god. but otherwise I draw on the public domain and it is an aggregator. a paragraph out of a newspaper or a magazine or a recently published novel or a speech with a photograph. It’ll be more fun than that – really it’s own thing. but it’s the wrong poem. Otherwise it becomes such an embarrassment of riches that you’re easily lost. You’re dealing with an enormous subject and there’s no possible way you can be definitive. We then dissolve to the Earl of Rochester. What con game? LL That we have a democracy. That tells us what else to look for. So he is dismissed. because he was good at that. his disgrace is p e r m a n e n t . but it makes fun of the King. rather it forms Lapham’s Quarterly seems to be a polemic about the future more than anything else. so it operates like a news aggregator. you’re trying to provide an arc. He was a libertine. In the departure part this kind of question comes up. others into three or some­ times five. He falls from favor. comprehensive or have the last word on anything. [laughs] The King asks Rochester for his r latest and wittiest poem. There’s no point in using both the Melville and the Defoe. only it uses history largely from the public domain as its source. But again. ‘Talk to me about the thirteenth century’. and there was a lot of what our celebrity press would call ‘misbehavior’ but what was stand­ ard operating procedure in London during The Resto­ ation. We have a new website in development and it won’t be just the magazine on-line. then you can make those kinds of decisions. What are themes you want to address in the future? LL I’m trying to figure out how to address govern­ ance. We have Matsuo Basho on the road north on the first day of one of his journeys. that’s right. we have an image of a m person being censured for obscene speech or some media gaffe resulting in his dismissal and a related short paragraph news story. What you are doing with the Quarterly is moving us forward by giving us sources to apprehend the future. do I try to do an issue on democracy. They know they don’t have any answers yet – there’s no answer on the Left that I know of – but a lot of people are trying to do that and at some point that notion will emerge. I mean. It’s a very entertaining poem. And that also allows you to make juxta­ ositions.JI Yes. there are fourteen pieces in this section and ten of them are from the nineteenth century. Lapham’s Quarterly uses history to show us what we may be encountering. is divided into four parts. The next issue. and of those five are American’. JI magazines are obsessed with predicting the future. who else to call up and say. So rather than anticipating the ‘next big thing’. should it be on the state? JI What is your impression of the current state of politics? JI Each issue is centered around a topic. That we can still play the part of the imperial power in Afghanistan. Could you speak about constructing these adjacencies? LL That’s the interesting part. JI state. the second part is in-transit. Doing that is the most challenging part of editing. We have the wonderful opening of Melville’s Moby Dick: ‘Call me Ishmael’. that gives you a reason to choose this manuscript and not another. LL I think Obama is trying to keep the con game going. The first is departure. Do you see what I mean? Once you’ve decided on the structure. At the back of each issue we have living authors. He was a court favorite. and he reaches into his pocket and hands the king the poem. So how do you organize the mate­ rial? How do you give it structure? Some of the issues are divided into four parts. the freedom of the market instead of the f r e e d o m o f t h e m i n d . That we still are giving pride of place to banks and property. dissolve Once you’ve an idea how to frame it. Within each section there’s a sequence of material. We have one lovely feature we call ‘Déjà Vu’ in which you take something right from the news. In this feature you also have a wonder­ r ful picture of the Earl of Rochester and the poem. So we clearly must do better. which is on travel. For example. Usually the issue’s content is divided into several sections. In other words. do we call it the body politic. who was court poet for Charles II. LL Yeah. I don’t know how to phrase the new political idea. LL Yeah. We have quite a few other pieces in that section and they’re all about ‘setting out’. He no longer enjoys the privileges of the court and he drifts into obscurity and drunken bank­ uptcy. We also have a very fine passage from Defoe talking about r u n n i n g a w a y t o s e a when he was young and the arguments he was having with his father. A couple issues ago in The Nation there was a piece by Barbara Ehrenreich and Bill McKibbon groping towards some sort of community-based politics and a notion of society as opposed to a notion of the Volume 20 comparisons or relationships of ideas through JI Volume 20 That material is not chronological. right from today. Then you do a – just like in a film – and you’re taken back in time to a juxtaposition with an analogous photo­ raph and an analogous event or problem or g com­ entary. p because then we look at it and say. adjacency. you’re likely to see the ‘next big thing’ in the rear view mirror. That there is no serious class division in the US. the third part is arrival and the fourth part is returning home. The poem that he receives is an attack on the King’s dick. and ‘I leave the Isle of Manhattoes and set forth on a voyage’. as was Charles II. and ‘dreary island of my soul’.

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CAlm sUnDAY mORning. OPEn CiTY. aiap .iabr.pdf 1 16/05/09 17:07 4th International Architecture Biennale Rotterdam Open City: Designing Coexistence 24 Sep -10 Jan Rotterdam -Amsterdam www.VOLUME_page_200x267.nl smiling TOURisTs. THE CiTY is YOURs.

THE CiTY is YOURs. OPEn CiTY.pdf 1 16/05/09 17:07 4th International Architecture Biennale Rotterdam Open City: Designing Coexistence 24 Sep -10 Jan Rotterdam -Amsterdam www. aiap .VOLUME_page_200x267. CAlm sUnDAY mORning.iabr.nl smiling TOURisTs.

. globalization. interviews and experimental projects.COM This magazine is conceived in order to search for knowledge and predicaments of our continuously evolving society. and vice versa. to make the local Scandinavian debate accessible to an international audience. and environment are all vital motivators for architecture and urbanism. Politics.NEW INDEPENDENT MAGAZINE WWW. economy. theory-based articles.CONDITIONSMAGAZINE. CONDITIONS include Scandinavia in a broader international discourse on architecture. culture. By offering in depth.

CONDITIONSMAGAZINE. and vice versa. CONDITIONS include Scandinavia in a broader international discourse on architecture. theory-based articles. Politics. globalization. interviews and experimental projects. and environment are all vital motivators for architecture and urbanism. By offering in depth.NEW INDEPENDENT MAGAZINE WWW.COM This magazine is conceived in order to search for knowledge and predicaments of our continuously evolving society. culture. to make the local Scandinavian debate accessible to an international audience. . economy.

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