Oil Platform:
 This is a large structure with facilities to drill wells, to produce and process oil and natural gas, and to store the processed fluids. temporarily

 Some platforms may contain housing units for the crew accommodation
 Structural frame analysis, environmental load predictions, transportation analyses, and installation procedures are important considerations during the construction stages of an offshore structure design and

 Classifications of Oil Platforms
 Fixed platforms
  Manned and Unmanned platforms Monopod and Tripod platforms

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Jack-up Semi-submersible

Compliant towers
  Guyed towers Tension-leg platforms

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Floating production systems Gravity-based structure Spar platforms

OFFSHORE STRUCTURES Fixed Platforms  Built on concrete or steel legs or both.  Anchored directly onto the seabed  Designed for long term use  Installed in water depths up to 1700ft  Handles production up to 50.000Bbl/d  Types include:   Steel jackets: vertical sections consist of tubular steel components usually piled into the seabed Concrete caissons: In-built storage tanks used as a floatation capability .



OFFSHORE STRUCTURES Manned platform Unmanned platform (Toadstools)  Small platforms designed to be remotely operated  Shallow waters .

OFFSHORE STRUCTURES  Monopod oil platform .

OFFSHORE STRUCTURES  Tripod oil platforms .

OFFSHORE STRUCTURES Jack-up rigs  Self-elevating unit capable of raising its hull above sea (water) level  Design to move from one place to another  Legs are deployed to the seabed using a rack and pinion gear system on each leg to anchor  Typically used in water depths up to 500ft .


and sufficient weight to keep it upright  Partially submerged and movable  Can be ballasted up or down (i.e.OFFSHORE STRUCTURES Semi-submersible platforms  They have hulls (columns and pontoons) of sufficient buoyancy to cause the structure to flow. buoyancy tanks) .

wire rope or polyester rope.OFFSHORE STRUCTURES Semi-submersible platforms (Cont.)  Anchored by combinations of chain.000ft . or both.  Stabilized by anchoring and ballasting  Can also be positioned by using „dynamic positioning‟  Water Depth: 200 – 10.

3.000ft .200 .OFFSHORE STRUCTURES Compliant (Guyed) Towers  Based on “compliancy” principle (Non-rigid)  Similar to fixed platforms (Tower-wise)  Consist of a narrow flexible tower attached to a (pile) foundation on the seafloor  Able to absorb effect of high cyclic wave force  Designed for deep-water  Depth: 1.

300ft .  Tethered to the seabed to eliminate vertical movement of the structure  Conventional 4-column design looks similar to a semi-submersible  Depth: up to 7000ft  Proprietary versions(Seastar and MOSES mini TLPs) are cheaper and used in water depth between 600-4.OFFSHORE STRUCTURES Compliant (Tension-leg) Towers  Also based on “compliancy” principle.

500ft . FPSO  FPSOs consist of large monohull structures equipped with processing facilities  They are moored to a location for long duration  Water depth: 650 – 6. FSO.OFFSHORE STRUCTURES Floating production systems  Large ships of varying offshore operations‟ applications: FSU.

by either wet-tow and/or drytow. and self-installing by controlled ballasting of the compartments with sea water  Concrete gravity structures can handle production up to 200.OFFSHORE STRUCTURES Gravity-based structure  GBS can be steel or concrete anchored directly onto the seabed  Installed by pulling off the yard.000Bbl/D  Largest GBS (Hibernia) has storage capacity of 1.3MMBbls  Steel GPSs are used when there is limited availability of crane barges to install a conventional fixed offshore platform  Water depth limitation around 700ft .

OFFSHORE STRUCTURES Spar platforms  Moored to the seabed like TLPs  While a TLP has vertical tension tethers. a spar has more conventional mooring lines  More stable than the TLPs  There are three (3) design configurations:  Conventional spar  Truss spar  Cell spar  Water depth: Floats in depth up to 8.000ft  World‟s deepest platform built at a cost of .

) .OFFSHORE STRUCTURES Spar platforms (Cont.

OFFSHORE STRUCTURES Integrated Development Systems  System design covers all aspects of: • Topsides (structures and process) • Hull • Mooring system • Riser system • Subsea components  Expensive – anywhere from $300M to $2B  Design must cover all aspects of system life including installation and decommissioning .

post drilling  Gas Disposal Requirements  Local Content Requirements  Field Life  Metocean (meteorology & oceanography) Conditions. . predrilling vs.OFFSHORE STRUCTURES Primary Drivers for Deep-water FPUs  Water depth  Payload  Production Characteristics – Well Access Requirements  Availability of Infrastructure & Market location  Platform drilling.

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