Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering

COMPUTER NETWORKS
IV B.Tech -I Sem

T LAKSHMI LAVANYA Asst. Professor

ELLENKI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY Patelguda,AND Patancheru(Mandal)
Medak (District).

Results Target Total Strength of the Class: S. No a. b. c.

Class / Division First Class with Distinction First Class Pass Class

No. of Students

Method of Evaluation

a . b . c . d e .

Internal Examination Unit Wise Assignments Descriptive Exam Objective Final Examination

2 4 2 2 1

Course Objective This course examines principles, design, implementation, and performance of computer networks. A focus will be placed on wireless networking, reflecting rapid advances in this area. Topics include: Internet protocols and routing, local area networks, wireless communications and networking, performance analysis, congestion control, TCP, network address translation, multimedia over IP, switching and routing, mobile IP, peer-to-peer networking, network security, and other current research topics. The coursework will involve readings from text, midterm (late in the term), two programming assignments, final project, and presentation. Students may formulate their own final projects based on their interests and background. The course will be conducted in a more seminar-like manner than lectures, but will have a more formal schedule.

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Addressing. HDLC.SONET. electronic mail.QoS.circuit switched networks. Block coding. congestion control. HTTP. flow and error control. Connecting LANs. uni-cast routing protocols. Data link Layer: Introduction. Page: 3 . FTP. Noiseless channels.forwarding.address mapping. Tranport Layer: Process to process delivery. noisy channels. UDP and TCP protocols.JNTU Syllabus Unit – I Unit – II Unit – III Unit – IV Unit – V Unit . DNS n internet. cyclic codes.SNMP. Layers in OSI model. channelization. multi-media. controlled access. Ethernet. Medium Access sub Layer: Random access. Datagram networks.Domain name space. checksum. Network Layer: Logical addressing.IGMP. internetworking. framing.transmission media. Fast Ethrnet. internet. point to point rotocols.QoS in switched networks.VIII Introduction to networks. multicast routing protocols. Application Layer.VII Unit . multiplexing. integrated services. network security. tunneling.IEEE standards. Virtual circuit networks. switch and Telephone network.Giga-Bit Ethrtnet. Physical Layer:digital transmission.ICMP. SCTP. TCP/IP suite. differentiated services. backbone networks and virtual LANs. frame relay and ATM. Analog and digital signals.VI Unit .Wireless LANs. WWW. Protocols and standards. Wireless WANs. the OSI model. data traffic. congestion.

K.Guidelines to Students Where will this subject help? In Systems Networking.Keshav.2006. 2. Pearson Education. 2nd Edition.Kurose. Computer Networks – Andrew S Tanenbaum. Forouzan.S. Pearson Education. Page: 5 . Gupta. Fourth Edition. P. Books / Material Text Books 1. Fourth Edition TMH. Suggested / Reference Books 1. Computer Networking: rd A Top-Down Approach Featuring the Internet. W . Pearson Education. A.C. James F. Data communications and networking. 3 Edition. 2. PHI 3.Behrouz.Ross. Data communications and Computer Networks. An Engineering Approach to Computer Networks.

QoS. UDP and TCP protocols. congestion. multi. backbone networks and virtual LANs. Block coding. tunneling. congestion control. integrated services. Ethernet. Medium Access sub Layer: Random access. noisy channels. DNS n Application internet. Virtual circuit networks. multicast routing protocols. Total Total No. of Hours 1 1 1 1 8 5 0 6 0 6 0 8 0 9 6 5 Page: 6 . channelization. Tranport Layer: Process to process delivery. internetworking. uni-cast routing protocols.SNMP. TCP/IP suite. switch and Telephone Data link Layer: Introduction. frame relay and ATM. Network Layer: Logical addressing. electronic mail. HDLC. Datagram networks. Layer. the OSI model. HTTP.network. controlled access.Domain name space. Noiseless channels.Course Schedule Number of Hours / lectures available in this Semester / Year Distribution of Hours Unit – Wise 65 Unit I I I II I I V V V I VII VIII Top ic Introduction to networks.address mapping. Analog and digital signals.media.transmission media.ICMP. Protocols and standards.forwarding. Fast Ethrnet. internet. framing. Addressing. Wireless WANs.circuit switched networks. point to point rotocols. checksum. Connecting LANs. flow and error control.IGMP. Physical Layer: digital transmission.QoS in switched networks. Layers in OSI model. cyclic codes. multiplexing.Wireless LANs. FTP. data traffic. SCTP. network security.Giga-Bit Ethrtnet.SONET. WWW.IEEE standards. differentiated services.

Lakshmi Lavanya Unit I: Introduction to networks Unit # I I I Page: 7 Topic as per JNTU syllabus Introduction to networks.Tech Subject Code : 57037 Faculty Name : T. Layers in OSI model. The OSI model. internet Protocols and standards. TCP/IP suite TCP/IP suite . internet Protocols and standards.No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Name of the Topic Introduction to networks. Lesson # 1 1 Suggeste d Books ** T2(Refer T1 .3 3 3 3 3 No.Topic wise Coverage: Unit I: Introduction to networks LEARNING OBJECTIVES: S.Addressing Analog and Digital signals Overview Conclusion Reference book code 3 1 . of classes required 2 1 1 2 1 2 2 LECTURE PLAN: Total no_ of classes: 08 LESSON PLAN : Subject Name : COMPUTER NETWORK S Class : I V B. The OSI model.

Addressing TCP/IP Analog and Digital signals Overview Conclusion 1 1 1 T T1 T1 LECTURE PLAN: Total no_ of classes: 11 Page: 8 .I I I V V V I VII Layers in OSI model. TCP/IP suite suite .

TCP g. is an example of what? a. followed by adding an IP header.Ethernet b. TCP Ans:c 2.TheOSImodel d.Ethernet b. and then a data link header and trailer is an example of what? Page: 9 .IP d.UDP e.Adjacent-layerinteraction c. Which of the following protocols are examples of TCP/IP transport layer protocols? a. and the receiving computer then acknowledging the receipt of segment 1.Same-layerinteraction c. All the other answers are correct. Ans:d 4.HTTP c. The process of TCP on one computer marking a segment as segment 1.IP d. 5.TheOSImodel e.SMTP f. The process of HTTP asking TCP to send some data and make sure that it is received correctly is an example of what? a. None of these answers are correct Ans: e.Adjacent-layerinteraction d.OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS : 1. Which of the following protocols are examples of TCP/IP network access layer protocols? a.Same-layerinteraction b. The process of a web server adding a TCP header to a web page.SMTP f.UDP e.HTTP c. PPP Ans: f 3.Dataencapsulation b.

Layer4 e.Layer1 b.Packet f.Layer2 c. Ans: f 7.Layer1 b.Layer6 g.a.Layer4 e. Which OSI layer defines the functions of logical network-wide addressing and routing? a.Layer2 c. None of these there is no encapsulation by the data link layer.Layer2 c.Layer3 d.Frame e.Layer3 d. All of these answers are correct.Layer6 g.Layer1 b.Layer4 e.Data b. Which OSI layer defines the standards for data formats and encryption? a. Which of the following terms is used specifically to identify the entity that is created when encapsulating data inside data link layer headers and trailers? a. Which a. Layer7 Ans:a 9.TheOSImodel d.Layer5 f.Layer5 f.Chunk c.Dataencapsulation b.Layer3 d.Layer5 OSI layer defines the standards for cabling and connectors? Page: 10 .Same-layerinteraction c. Layer7 Ans : c 8.Segment d. Ans:d 6.

Presentation e.f.Transmission d. Layer 7 Ans :f 10. List out the advantages and drawbacks of ring topology. Which of the following terms are not valid terms for the names of the seven OSI layers? a. Since there is a central control point. iii) Point-to-point links to its adjacent nodes (moderate cost) Disadvantages: i) The repeater introduces a delay ii) The topology fails if any link disconnects or a node fails.Datalink c. Ans: Advantages: i) Data insertion. Why star topology is commonly preferred? Ans: It gives high reliability. Short Answer Questions: Q-1. data reception and data removal can be provided by repeater ii) It can provide multicast addressing.Application b. List out the advantages and drawbacks of bus topology. Session Ans:c DESCRIPTIVE QUESTIONS : 1. the control of network is easy and priority can be given to selected nodes. ii) Maximum cable length restriction imposed due to delay and signal unbalancing problem. more flexible and higher bandwidth. Q-4. Ans: Advantages: i) Easy to implement ii) It is very cost effective because only a single segment required iii) It is very flexible iv) Moderate reliability. iii) Direct link not provided iv) It provides complex management Q-3. Is there any relationship between transmission media and topology? Page: 11 . Q-2. v) Can add new station or delete any station easily (scalable) Disadvantages: i) Required suitable medium access control technique.Internet f.Layer6 g.

of classes required 2 2 2 2 Topic as per JNTU syllabus digital transmission. for bus topology coaxial cable medium is suitable. UNIT-II : Physical Layer LEARNING OBJECTIVES: LECTURE PLAN: Total No_ of Classes: S.Protocols and standards. multiplexing.Ans: Yes. ASSIGNMENT QUESTIONS: 1.transmissi on media.Layers in OSI model.T2 No. Datagram networks 2 2 LECTURE PLAN: Total no_ of classes: 13 Page: 12 . medium should be selected based on the topology.circuit switched networks.No 8 9 1 0 1 1 Unit # I I I Name of the Topic digital transmission. Datagram networks Virtual circuit networks. For example. the OSI model. Overview conclusion Reference book code 4 4 4 4 Suggeste d Books ** (Refer T 2 T1. switch and Telephoneand network. multiplexing. and for ring/star topology twisted-pair or optical fiber can be used. TCP/IP model.transmission media. 2.circuit switched networks.

4.T2. terminator 4. By-Pass 9. One can easily add any new node or delete any node with-out affecting other nodes.T2. Bus and will force a maximum length of shared medium which can be used in BUS topology. 5. not. Mesh Topology is flexible and has a expandability 3. unidirectional. The two alternatives for the operation of the central node in STAR topology are: and 7. repeater.R1 T1. this makes this topology easily 5. Overview Conclusion 2 2 T1. Solutions: 1. Ans: Advantages: i) Easy to implement ii) It is very cost effective because only a single segment required iii) It is very flexible iv) Moderate reliability. Tree 10. In BUS topology. signal unbalancing 6. v) Can add new station or delete any station easily (scalable) Page: 13 . 10is suitable for use in star and ring topologies 11. Delay. In Ring Topology. In Ring Topology. the links are that is. expandable. In BUS topology. Listen. at each end of the bus is a which absorbs any signal. Repeater works in 3 modes: 9. 6. switch 7. switch and Telephone network. List out the advantages and drawbacks of bus topology. Number of links to connect n nodes in a mesh topology is 2.R1 OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS : 1. one 8. data are transmitted in direction only and all are oriented in the same way 8. Twisted pair 11. n(n-1)/2 2.II I I V Virtual circuit networks. BUS DESCRIPTIVE QUESTIONS : Q1. Coaxial cable is suitable for use in topology. _ topology can be considered as an extension to BUS topology. Transmit. poor 3. removing it from the bus.

iii) Direct link not provided iv) It provides complex management Q3. 2. medium should be selected based on the topology. Is there any relationship between transmission media and topology? Ans: Yes. more flexible and higher bandwidth. No. iii) Point-to-point links to its adjacent nodes (moderate cost) Disadvantages: i) The repeater introduces a delay ii) The topology fails if any link disconnects or a node fails. List out the advantages and drawbacks of ring topology.What is Tramission Media? 3.Explain Twisted pair cables. Q-2.Enumerate the main responsibilities of data link layer ? UNIT-III : Data link Layer v LEARNING OBJECTIVES: LECTURE PLAN: Total No_ of Classes: S. Block Reference book code 1 . and for ring/star topology twisted-pair or optical fiber can be used. Q4. the control of network is easy and priority can be given to selected nodes.No 1 2 Page: 14 Name of the Topic Data link Layer: Introduction. for bus topology coaxial cable medium is suitable.Disadvantages: i) Required suitable medium access control technique. data reception and data removal can be provided by repeater ii) It can provide multicast addressing. ASSIGNMENT QUESTIONS: 1. Why star topology is commonly preferred? Ans: It gives high reliability. ii) Maximum cable length restriction imposed due to delay and signal unbalancing problem. of classes required 2 . What are the reasons for using layered protocols ? 4. For example. Since there is a central control point. Ans: Advantages: i) Data insertion.

checksum.T2. 1 .T2 T1. Overview Conclusion 2 2 2 2 LECTURE PLAN: Total no_ of classes: 13 OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS : Page: 15 . switch and Telephone network. point to point rotocols. Data link Layer sub Layers Conclusion 1 .3 1 . 1 . Datagram networks Virtual circuit networks.R1 T1. Noiseless channels. Suggeste d Books ** (Refer T 2 T1. noisy channels.circuit switched networks. cyclic codes.T2.1 3 1 4 1 5 1 6 1 7 coding. multiplexing.transmissi on media. 2 1. framing flow and error control.2 . HDLC.R1 1 1 2 1 1 Unit # I I I I I I V V Topic as per JNTU syllabus digital transmission.

10is abbreviated as CSMA/CD and is also known as 11. Reservation and 6. is an example of centralized control and is an example of distributed control Version 2 CSE IIT. expressed as throughput S. In pure ALOHA. 5. In slotted ALOHA. ‘Where’ refers to whether the control is exercised in a or manner.1. a technique known as is used Page: 16 . if there is no data. 8. To achieve stability in CSMA/CD back off scheme. In technique. Round-Robin. usually a message is sent back. each node gets a chance to access the medium by rotation. In Polling technique. 4. in terms of the offered load G is given by 9. 3. while it is percentage for pure ALOHA. Kharagpur 7. The basic question which has to be answered by the medium-access control techniques is “How Goes 2.Where and the control is exercised. channel utilization. The techniques can be broadly categorized into three types. The key issues involved in MAC protocol are . a maximum throughput of percent at 100 percent of offered load can be achieved.

Page: 17 . distributed 5. token passing 3. all packets have a fixed duration λ. which is represented by a parameter ‘a’ as defined below. Maximum value of G = 0. token passing 7. On the other hand. Listen-While-Talk .In what situations contention based MAC protocols are suitable? Ans: Contention based MAC protocols are suitable for bursty nature of traffic under light to moderate load. probability of the occurrence collision increases leading to reduction in throughput. where G is the total number of packets. in CSMA/CD scheme.Solutions: 1. wastage of time is reduced leading to improvement in performance. 11. S/G = e-2G or throughput S = G e-2G . vulnerable period is λ and S/G = e-G or throughput S = G e-G . Here. How throughput is improved in slotted ALOHA over pure ALOHA? Ans: In pure ALOHA vulnerable period is 2λ. simple and easy to implement. Polling. there is some delay and depending on the value of ‘a’ collision occurs. How 4. Q-4. Contention 6. But in practice. 18 10. If vulnerable period is long. lower is the vulnerable period and higher is the efficiency. centralized. 37. asynchronous. it sends a jamming signal by which other station comes to know that a collision occurs. it does not stop transmission leading to some wastage of time. Whenever a collision is detected. Let. So. If propagation delay is zero. Then vulnerable period is 2λ in pure ALOHA scheme and λ in slotted ALOHA scheme. poll reject 8.5 or maximum throughput Smax = 1/2e. Next 2. Carrier Sensed Multiple Access with Collision Detection. binary exponential back off DESCRIPTIVE QUESTIONS : 1. whenever a station detects a collision. These techniques are always decentralized. S=Ge-2G 9. How performance is improved in CSMA/CD protocol compared to CSMA protocol? Ans: In CSMA scheme. In slotted ALOHA. Q-3. a station monitors the channel before sending a packet. propagation delay a = -------------------------------packet transmission time Smaller the value of propagation delay. maximum value of G is 1 and maximum throughput Smax = 1/e. As a result. Q-2. Q-5. collision cannot occur in CSMA scheme. What is the parameter ‘a’? How does it affect the performance of the CSMA protocol? Ans: The efficiency of CSMA scheme depends on propagation delay. What is vulnerable period? How it affects the performance in MAC protocols? Ans: The total period of time when collision may occur for a packet is called vulnerable period.

1 .No 1 8 1 9 2 0 2 1 Name of the Topic Medium Access sub Layer: Random access.3 1 .T2. IEEE standards.Wireless LANs Reference book code 1.2 .R1 T1. controlled access.Write Data link Layer Sublayers 2.T2. Overview Conclusion Lesson # 2 2 2 2 T 2 T1.Compare the maximum window size in go-back-N and selective-repeat ARQs. 4. controlled access.ASSIGNMENT QUESTIONS 1. IEEE standards Virtual circuit networks.Why does ATM use the cell of small and fixed length UNIT-IV : Medium Access sub Layer v LEARNING OBJECTIVES: LECTURE PLAN: Total No_ of Classes: 15 S.R1 LECTURE PLAN: Total no_ of classes: 15 Page: 18 . of classes required 2 1 1 1 Unit # I I I I I I V V Topic as per JNTU syllabus Medium Access sub Layer: Random access. Ethernet. channelization. Fast Ethrnet Giga-Bit Ethrtnet. No. 1 .Explain about CSMA and CSMA/CD 3. switch and Telephone network.T2 T1.

Contention 6. 8. binary exponential back off DESCRIPTIVE QUESTIONS : 1. a maximum throughput of percent at 100 percent of offered load can be achieved. in terms of the offered load G is given by 9. channel utilization.OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS : 1.5 or maximum throughput Smax = 1/2e. Polling. 4. distributed 5. poll reject 8. if there is no data. To achieve stability in CSMA/CD back off scheme.Where and the control is exercised. What is vulnerable period? How it affects the performance in MAC protocols? Ans: The total period of time when collision may occur for a packet is called vulnerable period. 10is abbreviated as CSMA/CD and is also known as 11. asynchronous. probability of the occurrence collision increases leading to reduction in throughput. is an example of centralized control and is an example of distributed control Version 2 CSE IIT. Reservation and 6. In slotted ALOHA. centralized. 3. vulnerable period is λ and S/G = e-G or throughput S = G e-G . How throughput is improved in slotted ALOHA over pure ALOHA? Ans: In pure ALOHA vulnerable period is 2λ. usually a message is sent back. S=Ge-2G 9. Carrier Sensed Multiple Access with Collision Detection. So. token passing 3. token passing 7. Page: 19 . These techniques are always decentralized. each node gets a chance to access the medium by rotation. In technique. In Polling technique. simple and easy to implement. Listen-While-Talk . 5. where G is the total number of packets. How 4. a technique known as is used Solutions: 1. ‘Where’ refers to whether the control is exercised in a or manner. 37. expressed as throughput S. Maximum value of G = 0. In slotted ALOHA. If vulnerable period is long. Here. while it is percentage for pure ALOHA. Let. Q-3. In pure ALOHA. Q-2. Kharagpur 7. 18 10. The basic question which has to be answered by the medium-access control techniques is “How Goes 2. The key issues involved in MAC protocol are . The techniques can be broadly categorized into three types.In what situations contention based MAC protocols are suitable? Ans: Contention based MAC protocols are suitable for bursty nature of traffic under light to moderate load. S/G = e-2G or throughput S = G e-2G . Next 2. 11. Round-Robin. Then vulnerable period is 2λ in pure ALOHA scheme and λ in slotted ALOHA scheme. all packets have a fixed duration λ.

in CSMA/CD scheme. 1 1 .Write Data link Layer Sublayers 2.maximum value of G is 1 and maximum throughput Smax = 1/e. 2 1 2 . But in practice. ASSIGNMENT QUESTIONS 1. How performance is improved in CSMA/CD protocol compared to CSMA protocol? Ans: In CSMA scheme. Q-5. Virtual circuit networks. Suggeste d Books ** (Refer . whenever a station detects a collision.5. 2 1.2 2 . it sends a jamming signal by which other station comes to know that a collision occurs. which is represented by a parameter ‘a’ as defined below. lower is the vulnerable period and higher is the efficiency.How can you Justify Aloha datarate is 18. UNIT-V: Connecting LANs. there is some delay and depending on the value of ‘a’ collision occurs. propagation delay a = -------------------------------packet transmission time Smaller the value of propagation delay. Q-4.Explain pure aloha and aloha.No 2 2 2 3 2 4 2 5 2 6 Unit Page: 20 Name of the Topic Connecting LANs. Over view Conclusion Topic as per JNTU syllabus Reference No. a station monitors the channel before sending a packet. 4. v LEARNING OBJECTIVES: LECTURE PLAN: Total No_ of Classes: S. it does not stop transmission leading to some wastage of time. backbone networks and virtual LANs. collision cannot occur in CSMA scheme. What is the parameter ‘a’? How does it affect the performance of the CSMA protocol? Ans: The efficiency of CSMA scheme depends on propagation delay.Explain about CSMA and CSMA/CD 3. Whenever a collision is detected. switch and Telephone network. On the other hand. wastage of time is reduced leading to improvement in performance. If propagation delay is zero. of classes book code required 1 2 . As a result. backbone networks and virtual LANs.3 1 2 .

6 which is also known as 4. The 802.I I I I I I V V Connecting LANs. switch and Telephone network. and 3.R1 LECTURE PLAN: Total no_ of classes: 12 OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS : 1. baseband. 100 Mbps.T2. long wavelength over optical fiber cable will be abbreviated as 6. Overview Conclusion 2 2 2 2 T 2 T1.R1 T1. 2. backbone networks and virtual LANs Virtual circuit networks. Ethernet uses encoding An swe rs: 1.2 standard describes the which is the upper part of the data link layer. IEEE 802 bundle also includes a MAN standard IEEE 802. 100Base-T2 means 5. LLC (logical link Page: 21 .T2. LLC offers three types services: Unreliable datagram service. backbone networks and virtual LANs.T2 T1.

List the functions performed by the physical layer of 802. 1000Ba se F 6. Functions of physical layer are: i) Data encoding/decoding (To facilitate synchronization and efficient transfer of signal through the medium). ii) Collision detection (It detects at the transmit side) iii) Carrier sensing (Channel access senses a carrier on the channel at both the transmit and receive sides) iv) Transmit/receive the packets (Frame transmitted to all stations connected to the channel) v) Topology and medium used (Mediums are co-axial cable. namely – To promote compatibility – Implementation with minimum efforts – Accommodate diverse applications Q-2. Distributed Queue Dual Bus (DQDB) 4. the size of frame has been found to be 64 bytes such that the above condition is satisfied. 100 Mbps. Acknowledged datagram service. over two twisted-pair cables 5. Reliable connection oriental service 3. Q-4. Considering maximum delay with five Ethernet segments in cascade.3 standard? Ans. What are the different types of cabling supported by Ethernet standard? Page: 22 . twisted pair and fiber optic cable) Q-3. it is essential that a sender continue sending a frame and at the same time receives another frame sent by another station. baseband. Bi-phase Manchester DESCRIPTIVE QUESTIONS Q-1 What are the goals in mind of IEEE 802 committee? Ans: IEEE 802 committee has few goals in mind.layer) 2. Why do you require a limit on the minimum size of Ethernet frame? Ans. To detect collision.

address mapping. multicast routing protocols. 2.address I mapping. iii) 10 BASE T . Network Layer: Logical addressing. 4. Types cabling are: of i) 10 BASE 5 . 3. I tunneling.IGMP.No 2 7 2 8 2 9 Name of the Topic Network Layer: Logical addressing.ICMP. iv) 10 BASE FL .Maximum cable length is 185 meters using 0.Maximum cable length is 2 Km using multimode fiber optic cable (125/62. UNIT-VI: Network Layer v LEARNING OBJECTIVES: LECTURE PLAN: Total No_ of Classes: S.Explain Different Connecting LANS.25” diameter CATV cable. Give Advantages of SONET. uni-cast routing protocols. Explain Wireless Connections. of Lecture classes required 2 2 2 Unit I Lesson # 2 2 Suggest ed Books T 2 T1. internetworking.ICMP.Maximum cable length is 500 meters using 4” diameter coaxial cable.forwarding.forwardin g.Explain about the ATM(Asynchrous Trammission Mode).5 micrometer). tunneling.T2 . ii) 10 BASE 2 . LECTURE PLAN: Total no_ of classes: 12 Page: 23 .IGMP. ASSIGNMENT QUESTIONS: 1.Ans. internetworking.What is SONET.Maximum cable length is 100 meters using twisted-pair cable (CAT-3 UTP). Topic as per JNTU syllabus Reference book code 1 1 1 No.

integrated differentiated services.T2 T1.T2. multicast Overviewrouting protocols. data traffic. I I SCTP.R1 UNIT-VII: Tranport Layer v LEARNING OBJECTIVES: LECTURE PLAN: Total No_ of Classes: S.QoS.R1 No. LECTURE PLAN: Total no_ of classes: 12 Page: 24 . QoS in switched networks Reference book code 1 .No 3 0 3 1 3 2 3 3 4 3 5 Unit # I Name of the Topic Tranport Layer: Process to process delivery. congestion. UDP and TCP protocols. control. 3 1 . congestionservices. data traffic. 3 1 .T2.. SCTP.II I I V uni-cast routing protocols. I UDP and TCP protocols. 1 .T2.1 1 Suggeste d Books ** (Refer T 2 T1. Conclusion 2 2 T1.R1 T1. of classes required 1 2 2 2 1 1 Topic as per JNTU syllabus Lesson # 2 2 2 Tranport Layer: Process to process delivery. I congestion.

there is a collision. 100Base-TX. the rest of the media is not involved in the transmission process. Ans: In Ethernet (IEEE 802.3 and switched Ethernet.QoS.R1 OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS : 1.I V congestion control. In Ethernet (IEEE 802. burst of packets DESCRIPTIVE QUESTIONS: Q1. 8. the collision domain of all the nodes in a LAN is 4.e. 100Base-X. PMA (Physical Medium Attachment) 10. 7. 10. Packet Bursting is an extension of. OverView and Conclusion 2 T1. the collision domain of all the nodes in a LAN is common. i. There are two techniques used in the implementation of Ethernet switches: and 5. Explain the basic difference between IEEE 802. integrated services. May 1996. The Gigabit Ethernet Alliance was formed in by companies. 9. The GMII is the interface between the layer and the layer. this collision domain is separated. as far as implementation is concerned. Packet Bursting is "Carrier Extension plus a Solutions: 1. 2.e. IEEE has designed two categories of Fast Ethernetand 6. each 2. i.3) the topology.T2. a device that can recognize the destination address and can route the frame to the port to which the destination station is connected. 11 8. In Switched Ethernet. switch 4. 100Base-T4 6. MAC. Switched Ethernet gives dedicated 10 Mb/s bandwidth on of its ports. 100-Base-X itself is divided into two: 7. Physical 9. star. Hub is replaced by a switch. common 3. store-and-forward. though physically is but logically is BUS. a sublayer of GMII provides a medium-independent means for the PCS to support various serial bit-oriented physical media.. if more than one station sends the frame. 100base-FX. Page: 25 . cut-through 5. Carrier Extension.3) the topology. though physically is start but logically is BUS. The switch can receive another frame from another station at the same time and can route this frame to its own final destination. In this situation only one frame can send the frame.

it is possible to connect various media types such as shielded and unshielded twisted pair. Q4. in each direction (2 bi-directional and 1 unidirectional). The encoding is 4B/5B and signaling in NRZ-I. With the GMII. It uses the same management interface as MII. *100 BASE TX: This option uses two category 5 UTP or two shielded (STP) cable to connect a station to hub. It is used for half-duplex communication using four wirepairs of the existing category 3 UTP cable. the distance between station and hub should be less than 2000 meters. on the other hand. and single-mode and multi mode optical fiber. What are the different categories of Fast Ethernet? Ans: IEEE has designed two categories of Fast Ethernet: 100Base-X and 100Base-T4. • developing technical proposals for the inclusion in the standard • establishment of inter-operability test procedures and processes Q5. Ans: The GMII is the interface between the MAC layer and the Physical layer. It allows any physical layer to be used with the MAC layer. It is an extension of the MII (Media Independent Interface) used in Fast Ethernet. and after an address lookup to determine the LAN destination port. The GMII provides 2 media status signals: one indicates presence of the carrier. it introduces longer delay of about 1. Because 100Mbps data cannot be handled by voicegrade UTP. *100 BASE FX: This option uses two Fiber optic cables. 100Base-X itself is divided into two: 100Base-TX and 100base-FX. It supports 10. PMA (Physical Medium Attachment) and PMD (Physical Medium Dependent). Explain the two techniques for implementing Ethernet switches. Q3.66Mbps flow. 100Base-X uses two cables between hub and the station while 100Base-T4 uses four. The cut-through switches. This means that there are 3 pairs to be used for carrying data.2 msec for forwarding a frame and suffers from the chance of loosing data due to reliance on buffer memory. the entire frame is captured at the incoming port. One pair is used to carry frames from the hub to the station and other to carry frames from station to hub. 100 and 1000 Mbps data rates.Q2. Store-and-forward approach provides a greater level of error detection because damaged frames are not forwarded to the destination port. In the first case. which is already available for telephone services in homes/offices. while using the same MAC controller. Two of four pairs are bi-directional. one carry frames from station to hub and other from hub to station. signaling is NRZ-I. stored in the switch’s memory. Page: 26 . a cut-through switch begins to transmit the frame to the destination port as soon as it decodes the destination address from the frame header. On the other hand. The lookup table is automatically built up. * 100 BASE-T4: This option is designed to avoid overwriting. Explain GMII (Gigabit Media Independent Interface) in brief. The distance between station and hub should be less than 100 meters. other two are unidirectional. What are the Objectives of The Gigabit Ethernet Alliance? Ans: The objectives of the alliance are: • supporting extension of existing Ethernet and Fast Ethernet technology in response to demand for higher network bandwidth. so it can support both full-duplex as well as half-duplex operation. It provides separate 8-bit wide receive and transmit data paths. Encoding is 4B/5B to handle 100 Mbps. this specification splits the 100 Mbps flow into three 33. Ans: There are two techniques used in the implementation of Ethernet switches: storeandforward and cut-through. It has three sub-layers namely: PCS (Physical Coding Sublayer). But. forwarded to the appropriate port. has reduced latency but has higher switch cost. and the other indicates absence of collision.

Is the nyquist theorem true for optical fibre or only for copper wire ? Explain.3 1 1 1 . 1 . Explain the following ARQ techniques in detail 1. DNS n internet. 4. 8. Explain the working of 3 bit sliding window protocol with suitable example.2 . WWW. multi-media. of classes required2 2 1 2 2 Page: 27 . What are the reasons for using layered protocols ? 6. network security. electronic mail FTP.Why does ATM use the cell of small and fixed length UNITVIII: Application Layer v LEARNING OBJECTIVES: LECTURE PLAN: Total No_ of Classes: S. Selective repeat ARQ 5. Compare the maximum window size in go-back-N and selective-repeat ARQs.SNMP. Justify? 2. HTTP. 10 Enumerate the main responsibilities of data link layer ? 7. Draw the IP datagram header format. Referen ce book code 1.Domain name space.No 3 6 3 7 3 8 3 9 4 0 Name of the Topic Application Layer. What are the principles that were applied to arrive at the seven layers in OSI model? 3. Why do data link layer protocols position the checksum in the trailer and not in the header ? 9. Stop and wait ARQ 2.ASSIGNMENT QUESTIONS: 1. “IP datagram has a checksum field still it is called an unreliable protocol”. No. 10.

HTTP.R1 T1. multi-media.------. integrated services.SNMP. DNS n internet.Unit # I I I I I V V V I Topic as per JNTU syllabus Application Layer.Domain name space. network security.T2.T2 T1. and Conclusion Overview Lesson # 7 7 7 7 7 T 2 T1.R1 T1. To partition the hierarchy into subtrees called ----------a) Branch b) Node c) Region d) Zones 3. electronic mail WWW FTP.T2.T2.R 2 LECTURE PLAN: Total no_ of classes: 12 OBJECTIVE QUESTIONS : 1.SNMP depends on a companion specification called the --------a) SIP b) GET c) SET d) MIB 2.R1.is a character string that identifies a resource a) URL b) IMP c) UDP Page: 28 .

<CRLF> stands for a) Carriage – return – line – first b) Carriage – return – line – feed c) Control – return – line – feed d) Control – return – line – first 5. independent of transferring the message itself a) TCP b) SMTP c) SNMP d) IMAP Page: 29 .also define a set of message attributes that are exchanged as part of other Command .d) URI 4. ---------.

The encoding is called a) base46 b) base64 c) base23 d) base10 7.67 X106 METERS 11. 66. 01110.7 X103 METERS b. 8.Electromagnetic waves traveling through is considered as 2/3rd the speed of Light in a vacuum.802. 512Mbps g.a 300 Hz wave traveling through copper would have a wavelength of a. 6. 11001 d.Each protocol defines---------and-----------. say. Wi-Fi and WiMAX l. Function of switch is a)forward the packet b)connect different networks c)store and forward packets d)none of the above 9. 64 bytes then the throughput is e.6.15. MIME uses a straightforward encoding of binary data into the ASCII character set .multicast interface d)peer interface. In 4B/5B encoding. 01110. WiMax and Bluetooth Page: 30 .If the average packet is short. Bluetooth and Wi-Fi j.10011 c. 6.broadcast interface b)service interface. 64kbps 12. 1Gbps h.peer interface c)reliable interface. 01010. 667 X103 METERS d.16 and 802.1 are respectively i.multicast interface. a)packet interface. 11011 10. 00110.suppose a workstation can perform all necessary processing to switch 1 million packets each second . 11001 b. Bluetooth and WiMAX k. 5-bit code for 0110 and 1001 is respectively a.67 X103 METERS c. 512 bps f..

Certain protocols in computer networks are made up of layers. NumStations+ RingLatency x THT o. Briefly explain TFP. used to manage how data is transferred via computer networks... 3. What is Multi media? 4. the monitor watches for a passing token and maintains a timer equal to the maximum possible token rotation time. 3.What protocols are at the TCP-IP application layer? The TCP/IP suite includes the following protocols Data Link Layer: ARP/RARP Address Resolution Protocol/Reverse Address DCAP Data Link Switching Client Access Protocol Network Layer: DHCP Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol DVMRP Distance ASSIGNMENT QUESTIONS: 1.com/Q/What_3_protocols_operate_at_the_applica. Read More » Source: http://www. to detect a missing token.. Explain about the Application Layer. NumStations x THT + RingLatency n. Page: 31 .SNMP.answers. or guidelines.. NumStations + THT + RingLatency DESCRIPTIVE QUESTIONS : 1. 2..SNTP. Read More » Source: http://wiki...In Token-ring Maintenance. Write applications of network security.What protocols operate at the application layer of the OSI model? BGP · DHCP · DNS · FTP · Gopher · GTP · HTTP · IMAP · IRC · NNTP · NTP · POP · RIP · RPC · RTCP · RTP · RTSP · SDP · SIP · SMTP · SNMP · SOAP · SSH · STUN · Telnet · TIME · TLS/SSL · XMPP · to name a few bittorrent also..What Is Application Layer Protocol? Protocols are sets of standards.com/facts_7452589_application-layer-protocol_. THT + RingLatency x NumStations p.htm. This interval equals m.. 2. if you have to ch. each of which serves a major function in data communication and tran.ehow.13..

b) multiplexing. Error Detection? (2x5=20M) Marks: 10 Page: 32 .INDIVIDUAL TIME TABLE NAME OF THE FACULTY:T. Explain Physical Layer in OSI Model a) digital transmission.5010.403.50 2 9. Explain OSI Reference Model a) Analog and digital Sinaling b) need of Internet 2.30 7 2.Explain About Data link Layer . transmission c) media.40 3 10.Block coding. What is control Flow. cyclic codes.Tech -2013-Batch/I SEM (Sample I-MID DESCRIPTIVE) BRANCH:ECE SUB: Computer Networks TIME: 60 MINUTES SECTION-A Answer any TWO of the following: 1.30 4 11.20 L U N C H 5 1:00-1.4011. circuit 3.50 6 1.00-9.30 Computer Networks: Total no of theory classes : Total no of practical classes : Total no of classes : Ellenki Institute of Engineering & Technology IV B.502.3012.Lakshmi Lavanya Period Day/T i m Mon Tue Wed Thu Fr i Sa t 1 9. 4.

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