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PROJECT REPORT 2008-2009 Submitted by: (team name)


Guided by: Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the Award of Diploma in ----------------------------------------By the State Board of Technical Education Government of Tamilnadu, Chennai.

Department : College name: Place: COLLEGE NAME COIMBATORE DEPARTMENT PROJECT REPORT-2008-2009 This Report is certified to be the Bonafide work done by Selvan/Selvi ---------------Reg.No.-----------of VI Semester class of this college.


Head of the Department

Submitter for the Practical Examinations of the board of Examinations,State Board of Technical Education,Chennai, TamilNadu.On --------------(date) held at the -----------(college name),Coimbatore

Internal Examiner

External Examiner



At this pleasing movement of having successfully completed our project, we wish to convey our sincere thanks and gratitude to the management of our college and our beloved chairman------------------------.who provided all the facilities to us. We would like to express our sincere thanks to our principal ------------------for forwarding us to do our project and offering adequate duration in completing our project.

We are also grateful to the Head of Department prof., for her/him constructive suggestions &encouragement during our project.

With deep sense of gratitude, we extend our earnest &sincere thanks to our guide --------------------, Department of Mechanical for her/him kind guidance and encouragement during this project we also express our indebt thanks to our






1 2 3 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 4 4.1 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

Literature review Description of equipments Battery IR sensor DC Motor Gears Railway track Control unit Design and drawing General machine Specifications fabrication Working principle Merits applications List of materials Cost Estimation Conclusion Bibliography photography


LIST OF FIGURES Figure Number Title

3 5 6 7 8 9 10

Stand Track Motor Gear Wheel Wheel rod Battery I. r. sensor Overall Diagram



D=Diameter of shaft(mm) w=width of the track (mm) L=Length of the track(mm) N=speed of the motor (rpm) P=power of the motor(w)



The project relates to the detection of cracks in the railway tracks using IR sensor and solar panel. According to a possible embodiment, the railway carriage carrying the control equipments is provided with sensor orientated to detect the crack. This project pertains to a process for monitoring the condition of rail on train tracks and more specifically has the object of the identification of defects detected by monitoring equipment on the tracks to be checked to allow maintenance crews to subsequently find these defects. Two medal sensors are fixed in the wheels of the train is used to find out the crack on the rail. Each sensor will produce the signal related position with the rail. If the track is said to be normal on its position when both the sensor gives the constant sensed output. If any one misses their output condition to fail then there is defect on that side. It will inform this by giving alarm. Where sensors and alarm should connected to the microcontroller I/O lines and microcontroller is programmed to our needs.




INTRODUCTION There are many reasons why rail tracks crack. In bygone days, it was common for a rail crack to start near the joint between discrete rail segments. Manufacturing defects in rail can cause fissures. Wheel burns can also contribute to rail cracks by changing the metallurgy of a rail. Rails are also more likely to crack when the weather is cold, when the ballast and ties/sleepers aren't providing as much support as they should, and when ground or drainage condition is such that 'pumping' occurs under heavy load. All of these conditions can contribute to a broken rail, and in turn a possible derailment. MANUFACTURING DEFECTS IN RAIL: The quality of rail steel has improved dramatically since the early days of railroading. The trend toward using continuously welded rail (CWR) requires a higher quality rail, due to the cyclic thermal expansion and contraction stresses that a CWR would be required to endure. In addition, rail operations in general have been trending toward higher speed and higher axle-load operation. Under these operating conditions, rail pieces rolled in the 19th century would likely break at an unacceptable rate. Despite the improved rail quality and

rail metallurgy, if impurities find their way into rail steel and are not detected by the quality assurance process, they can cause rail breaks under certain conditions. Recent rail-making processes have also been trending toward a harder rail, requiring less frequent replacements under heavy loads. This has the side-effect of making the rail more brittle, and thus more susceptible to brittle fracture rather than plastic deformation. It is therefore imperative that unintentional impurities in rail be minimized. WHEEL BURN-RELATED RAIL CRACKS: When a locomotive wheel spins without moving the train forward (also known as slipping), the small section of rail directly under the wheel is heated by the forces of friction between the wheel and itself. The wheel rests on an area of rail no larger than a dime in size, so the heating effect is very localized and occurs very quickly. While wheel burn typically does not cause the entire rail section to melt, it does heat the steel to red-hot temperatures. As the locomotive stops slipping and starts moving--or worse still, slips forward by a matter of inches and heats a different piece of rail--the heated spot cools down very quickly to normal temperature, especially when the weather is cold.

This heat-quench process results in annealing of the rail steel and causes substantial changes to its physical property. It can also cause internal stresses to form within the steel structure. As the rail surface cools, it may also become oxidized, or undergo other chemical changes by reacting with impurities that are on the surface of the rail. The net result of this process is that an area of the rail that is more susceptible to crackage is created. WHEEL FLAT-RELATED RAIL CRACKS: If the brakes are dragging or the axle ceases to move on a rail vehicle while the train is in motion, the wheel will be dragged along the head of the rail, causing a 'flat spot' to develop on the wheel surface where it contacts the rail. When the brakes are subsequently released, the wheel will continue to roll around with the flat spot, causing a banging noise with each rotation. This condition is known as wheel out of round. The banging of flat wheels on the rail causes a hammering action that produces higher dynamic forces than a simple passage of a round wheel. These dynamic forces can exacerbate a weak rail condition and cause a rail crack.




Track-caused derailments are often caused by wide gauge. Proper gauge, the distance between rails, is 56.5 inches (four feet, eightand-a-half inches) on standard gauge track. As tracks wear from train traffic, the rails can develop a wear pattern that is somewhat uneven. Uneven wear in the tracks can result in periodic oscillations in the truck, called 'truck hunting.' Truck hunting can be a contributing cause of derailments. A rail breaks cleanly, it is relatively easy to detect. A track occupancy light will light up in the signal tower indicating that a track circuit has been interrupted. If there is no train in the section, the signaler must investigate. One possible reason is a clean rail break. For detecting the rail break this way, one has to use signal bonds that are welded or pin brazed on the head of the rail. If one uses signal bonds that are on the web of the rail, one will have a continued track circuit. If a rail is merely cracked or has an internal fissure, the track circuit will not detect it, because a partially-broken rail will continue to conduct electricity. Partial breaks are particularly dangerous because they create the worst kind of weak point in the rail. The rail may then

easily break under load--while a train is passing over it--at the point of prior fissure. RENEWABLE ENERGY: Renewable energy is energy generated from natural resources such as sunlight wind, rain, tides and geothermal heat which are renewable (naturally replenished). In 2006, about 18% of global final energy consumption came from renewable, with 13% coming from traditional biomass, such as wood-burning. Hydroelectricity was the next largest renewable source, providing 3%, followed by solar hot water/heating, which contributed 1.3%. Modern technologies, such as geothermal energy, wind power, solar power, and ocean energy together provided some 0.8% of final energy consumption. Climate change concerns coupled with high oil prices, peak oil and increasing government support are driving increasing renewable energy legislation, incentives and commercialization. European Union leaders reached an agreement in principle in March 2007 that 20 percent of their nations' energy should be produced from renewable fuels by 2020, as part of its drive to cut emissions of carbon dioxide, blamed in part for global warming. Investment capital flowing into

renewable energy climbed from $80 billion in 2005 to a record $100 billion in 2006.

BENEFITS OF NATURAL ENERGY It is cheap Readily available in abundance Pollution free Less maintenance Doesnt cause global warming SOLAR ENERGY: Solar electricity is generated directly from sunlight using solar or photo-voltaic cells.the word photo voltaic refers to an electric voltage caused by light. The solar cell is made up of semiconductor, in that most solar cells are made of form of silicon semiconductor materials, in that most solar cells are made of a form of silicon semiconductor. This is a hard material that is either dark blue or red in appearance .the blue cells are made as thin discs or squares, which are quite fragile. the red type of silicon is coated on a glass as a thin film, as sunlight shines on the surface of the silicon, electricity is

generated by a process known as the photo voltaic effect, as in physics. Each silicon solar cell produces about 0.5V,so just several batteries are needed to built the voltage up, solar cells are connected together to produce a higher voltage that is more useful. Connected in this way, they are often called solar panels but the name used by the suppliers is solar cell modules. Photo-voltaic modules or just PV modules.

A solar cell or photovoltaic cell is a wide area electronic device that converts solar energy into electricity by the photovoltaic effect. Photovoltaic is the field of technology and research related to the application of solar cells as solar energy. Sometimes the term solar cell is reserved for devices intended specifically to capture energy from sunlight, while the term photovoltaic cell is used when the source is unspecified. Assemblies of cells are used to make solar modules, or photovoltaic arrays.


Cells are used for powering small devices such as electronic calculators. Photovoltaic arrays generate a form of renewable electricity, particularly useful in situations where electrical power from the grid is unavailable such as in remote area power systems, Earth-orbiting satellites and space probes, remote

radiotelephones and water pumping applications. Photovoltaic electricity is also increasingly deployed in grid-tied electrical systems. Similar devices intended to capture energy from other sources include thermo photovoltaic cells,

betavoltaics cells, and optoelectric nuclear batteries.

The aim of this project is to find out the cracks developed on the railway tracks, due to continuous use or while manufacturing. This is achieved by installing IR (Infra red) sensor and solar power to the maintenance crews wagon.





Battery is use for storing the energy produced from the solar power. The battery used is a lead-acid type and has a capacity of 12v; 2.5A.the most inexpensive secondary cell is the lead acid cell and is widely used for commercial purposes. A lead acid cell when ready for use contains two plates immersed in a dilute sulphuric acid (H2SO4) of specific gravity about 1.28.the positive plate (anode) is of Lead peroxide (PbO2) which has chocolate brown colour and the negative plate (cathode) is lead (Pb) which is of grey colour. When the cell supplies current to a load (discharging), the chemical action that takes place forms lead sulphate (PbSO 4) on both the plates with water being formed in the electrolyte. After a certain amount of energy has been withdrawn from the cell, both plates are transformed into the same material and the specific gravity of the electrolyte (H2so4) is lowerd.the cell is then said to be discharged. There are several methods to ascertain whether the cell is discharged or not.

To charge the cell, direct current is passed through the cell in the reverse direction to that in which the cell provided current. This reverses the chemical process and again forms a lead peroxide (PbO2) positive plate and a pure lead (Pb) negative plate. At the same time, (H2so4) is formed at the expense of water,restoring the electrolyte (H2so4) to its original condition. The chemical changes that Occur during discharging and recharging of a lead-acid cell


CIRCUIT DIAGRAM DETAILS: In our project we are using secondary type battery. It is rechargeable Type. A battery is one or more electrochemical cells, which store chemical energy and make it available as electric current. There are two types of batteries, primary (disposable) and secondary (rechargeable), both of which convert chemical energy to electrical energy. Primary batteries can only be used once because they use up their chemicals in an irreversible reaction. Secondary batteries can be recharged because the chemical reactions they use are reversible; they are recharged by running a charging current through the battery, but in the opposite direction of the discharge current. Secondary, also called rechargeable batteries can be charged and discharged many times before wearing out. After wearing out some batteries can be recycled. Batteries have gained popularity as they became portable and useful for many purposes. The use of batteries has created many environmental concerns, such as toxic metal pollution. A battery is a device that converts chemical energy directly to electrical energy it

consists of one or more voltaic cells. Each voltaic cell consists of two half cells connected in series by a conductive electrolyte.

One half-cell is the positive electrode, and the other is the negative electrode. The electrodes do not touch each other but are electrically connected by the electrolyte, which can be either solid or liquid. A battery can be simply modeled as a perfect voltage source which has its own resistance, the resulting voltage across the load depends on the ratio of the battery's internal resistance to the resistance of the load.

When the battery is fresh, its internal resistance is low, so the voltage across the load is almost equal to that of the battery's internal voltage source. As the battery runs down and its internal resistance increases, the voltage drop across its internal resistance increases, so the voltage at its terminals decreases, and the battery's ability to deliver power to the load decreases.

3.2 ir sensor: Ir transmitter: PLASTIC INFRARED LIGHT EMITTING DIODE:



The QED22X is an 880nm AIGAAS LED encapsulated in clear, purple tinted, plastic T-1 package.

FEATURES: =880nm Chip material :AIGAAS Package type:T-1 (5mm lens diameter) Matched photo sensor: QSD 122/123/124 Medium wide emission angle: 40 High output power Package material and colour: clear, purple tinted plastic.


ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS: (TA=250c unless otherwise specified) PARAMETER Operating temperature Storage temperature Soldering SYMBOL TOPR TSTG TSOL-I RATING -40 to100 -40 to100 240 for 5 sec 260 for 10sec UNIT 0 C


temperature(iron) Soldering TSOL-F temperature (flow) Continuous forward current Reverse voltage Power dissipation Peak forward current

100 5 200 1.5

mA V mW A

VR PD IF peak

Electrical /optical characteristics (TA =250C) PARAMETERS TEST SYMBOL MIN TYP MAX UNITS

Peak emission




880 +20 -

1.7 10 20

nm deg V A mW/sr

wavelength Emission angle IF=100mA Forward IF=100mA,tp=20ms VF voltage Reverse current Radient Intensity QED221 Radient Intensity QED222 Radient Intensity QED223 Rise time Fall time IF=100mA IF=100mA tr tf IF=100mA,tp=20ms IE IF=100mA,tp=20ms IE VR=5V IR

IF=100mA,tp=20ms IE






800 800

ns ns

1. Derate power dissipation linearly 2.67 mW/C above 25C. 2. RMA flux is recommended. 3. Methanol or isopropyl alcohols are recommended as cleaning agents.

4. Soldering iron 1/16 (1.6mm) minimum from housing. 5. Pulse conditions; tp = 100 S, T = 10 ms.



Narrow response range (660nm peak) Single hetrostruture on the substrate

APPLICATIONS: Optical communications Safety equipment


MAXIMUM RATING: PARAMETERS Storage temperature Operating temperature Soldering temperature OPTICAL AND ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS: Temperature =25oC unless otherwise specified PARAMETERS Active area Peak sensitivity Spectral bandwidth at

VALUE -40 +90 -40 +85 240

UNIT 0 C 0 C

SYMBOLS MIN TYP MAX UNIT A smax A 0.5 0.13 660 700 25 Mm2 nm nm


50% Acceptance angle at 50% S Responsivity at 660 nm Short-circuit current Dark current Vr=0 V VR = 0, Ee=1 mW/cm VR = 5 V, Se ISC ID VR

40 0.42 0.85 40 10 40 200

deg A/W A pA V pF

Ee=0 Reverse voltage IR = 10 A Junction VR = 0, capacitance Rise time Fall time Ee=0 RL = 50 , VR = 5 V

Tr Tf

15 30


Light source is an AIGaAs LED with a peak emission wavelength of 660 nm.


Infrared transmitter is one type of LED which emits infrared rays generally called as IR Transmitter. Similarly IR Receiver is used to receive the IR rays transmitted by the IR transmitter. One important point is both IR transmitter and receiver should be placed straight line to each other. The transmitted signal is given to IR transmitter whenever the signal is high, the IR transmitter LED is conducting it passes the IR rays to the receiver. The IR receiver is connected with comparator. The comparator is constructed with LM 741 operational amplifier. In the comparator circuit the reference voltage is given to inverting input terminal. The non inverting input terminal is connected IR receiver. When interrupt the IR rays between the IR transmitter and receiver,

the IR receiver is not conducting. So the comparator non inverting input terminal voltage is higher then inverting input. Now the comparator output is in the range of +12V. This voltage is given to base of the transistor Q1. Hence the transistor is conducting. Here the transistor is act as switch so the collector and emitter will be closed. The output is taken from collector terminal. Now the output is zero. When IR transmitter passes the rays to receiver, the IR receiver is conducting due to that non inverting input voltage is lower than inverting input. Now the comparator output is -12V so the transistor is cutoff region. The 5v is given to 40106 IC which is the inverter with buffer. The inverter output is given to microcontroller or PC. This circuit is mainly used to for counting application, intruder detector etc.

3.3. MOTOR:
D.C.MOTOR PRINCIPLE: A machine that converts direct current power into mechanical power is known as D.C Motor. Its generation is based on the principle that when a current carrying conductor is placed in a magnetic field,

the conductor experiences a mechanical force. The direction if this force is given by Flemings left hand rule.

WORKING OF A DC MOTOR: Consider a part of a multipolar dc motor as shown in fig. when the terminals of the motor are connected to an external source of dc supply; (i) The field magnets are excited developing alternate N and S poles. (ii) The armature conductors carry currents. All conductors under N-pole carry currents in one direction while all the conductors under S-pole carry currents in the opposite direction. Suppose the conductors under N-pole carry currents into the plane of paper and those under S-pole carry current out of the plane of paper as shown in fig. Since each armature conductor is carrying current and is placed in the magnetic field, mechanical force acts on it. Applying Flemings left hand rule, it is clear that force on each conductor is tending to rotate the armature in anticlockwise direction. All these forces add together to produce a driving torque which sets

the armature rotating. When the conductor moves from one side of the brush to the other, current in the conductor is received and at the same time it comes under the influence of next pole which is of opposite polarity. Consequently the direction of force on the conductor remains same.

PRINCIPLES OF OPERATION: In any electric motor, operation is based on simple electromagnetism. A current-carrying conductor generates a magnetic field; when this is then placed in an external magnetic field, it will experience a force proportional to the current in the conductor, and to the strength of the external magnetic field. As you are well aware of from playing with magnets as a kid, opposite (North and South) polarities attract, while like polarities (North and North, South and South) repel. The internal configuration of a DC motor is designed to harness the magnetic interaction between a current-carrying conductor and an external magnetic field to generate rotational motion.

Let's start by looking at a simple 2-pole DC electric motor (here red represents a magnet or winding with a "North" polarization, while green represents a magnet or winding with a "South" polarization).

Every DC motor has six basic parts -- axle, rotor (armature), stator, commutator, field magnet(s), and brushes. In most common DC motors, the external magnetic field is produced by high-strength permanent magnets. The stator is the stationary part of the motor -this includes the motor casing, as well as two or more permanent magnet pole pieces. The rotor (together with the axle and attached commutator) rotate with respect to the stator. The rotor consists of windings (generally on a core), the windings being electrically connected to the commutator. The above diagram shows a common motor layout -- with the rotor inside the stator (field) magnets.

The geometry of the brushes, commutator contacts, and rotor windings are such that when power is applied, the polarities of the energized winding and the stator magnet(s) are misaligned, and the rotor will rotate until it is almost aligned with the stator's field magnets. As the rotor reaches alignment, the brushes move to the next commutator contacts, and energize the next winding. Given our example two-pole motor, the rotation reverses the direction of current through the rotor winding, leading to a "flip" of the rotor's magnetic field, driving it to continue rotating. In real life, though, DC motors will always have more than two poles (three is a very common number). In particular, this avoids "dead spots" in the commutator. You can imagine how with our example two-pole motor, if the rotor is exactly at the middle of its rotation (perfectly aligned with the field magnets), it will get "stuck" there. Meanwhile, with a two-pole motor, there is a moment where the commutator shorts out the power supply. This would be bad for the power supply, waste energy, and damage motor components as well. Yet another disadvantage of such a simple motor is that it would exhibit a high amount of torque "ripple" (the amount of torque it could produce is cyclic with the position of the rotor).

So since most small DC motors are of a three-pole design, let's tinker with the workings of one via an interactive animation (JavaScript required):

A few things from this -- namely, one pole is fully energized at a time (but two others are "partially" energized). As each brush transitions from one commutator contact to the next, one coil's field will rapidly collapse, as the next coil's field will rapidly charge up (this occurs within a few microsecond). We'll see more about the effects of this later, but in the meantime you can see that this is a direct result of the coil windings' series wiring:

There's probably no better way to see how an average DC motor is put together, than by just opening one up. Unfortunately this is

tedious work, as well as requiring the destruction of a perfectly good motor. The guts of a disassembled Mabuchi FF-030-PN motor (the same model that Solarbotics sells) are available for (on 10 lines / cm graph paper). This is a basic 3-pole DC motor, with 2 brushes and three commutator contacts. The use of an iron core armature (as in the Mabuchi, above) is quite common, and has a number of advantages. First off, the iron core provides a strong, rigid support for the windings -- a particularly important consideration for high-torque motors. The core also conducts heat away from the rotor windings, allowing the motor to be driven harder than might otherwise be the case. Iron core construction is also relatively inexpensive compared with other construction types. But iron core construction also has several disadvantages. The iron armature has a relatively high inertia which limits motor acceleration. This construction also results in high winding inductances which limit brush and commutator life. In small motors, an alternative design is often used which features a 'coreless' armature winding. This design depends upon the coil wire

itself for structural integrity. As a result, the armature is hollow, and the permanent magnet can be mounted inside the rotor coil. Coreless DC motors have much lower armature inductance than ironcore motors of comparable size, extending brush and commutator life.

The coreless design also allows manufacturers to build smaller motors; meanwhile, due to the lack of iron in their rotors, coreless motors are somewhat prone to overheating. As a result, this design is generally used just in small, low-power motors. Beamers will most often see coreless DC motors in the form of pager motors. Again, disassembling a coreless motor can be instructive -- in this case, my hapless victim was a cheap pager vibrator motor. The guts

of this disassembled motor are available (on 10 lines / cm graph paper). This is (or more accurately, was) a 3-pole coreless DC motor.

3.4. GEAR:
The gear is made out of nylon. The gears used in this project are spur gears. Spur gears are the simplest and most common type of gear. Their general form is a cylinder or disk. The teeth project radially, and with these "straight-cut gears", the leading edges of the teeth are aligned parallel to the axis of rotation. These gears can only mesh correctly if they are fitted to parallel axles WHEEL AND PINION: Whenever two toothed wheels are in mesh. The large wheel is called as the gear and the smaller one as the pinion, regardless of which one is the driver. GEAR MATERIAL: Numerous nonferrous alloys, cast irons, powder-metallurgy and even plastics are used in the manufacture of gears. However steels are most commonly used because of their high strength to weight ratio and low cost. Plastic is commonly used where cost or weight is a

concern. A properly designed plastic gear can replace steel in many cases; It often has desirable properties. They can tolerate dirt, low speed meshing, and "skipping" quite well. Manufacturers have employed plastic to make consumer items affordable. This includes copy machines, optical storage devices, VCRs, cheap dynamos, consumer audio equipment, servo motors, and printers.


Rail tracks are used on railways (or railroads), which, together with railroad switches (or points), guide trains without the need for steering. Tracks consist of two parallel steel rails, which are laid upon sleepers (or cross ties) that are embedded in ballast to form the railroad track. The rail is fastened to the ties with rail spikes, lag screws or clips such as Pandrol clips. The type of fastener depends partly on the type of sleeper, with spikes being used on wooden sleepers, and clips being used more on concrete sleepers. Usually, a base plate tie plate is used between the rail and wooden sleepers, to spread the load of the rail over a larger area of the sleeper. Sometimes spikes are driven through a hole in the base

plate to hold the rail, while at other times the base plates are spiked or screwed to the sleeper and the rails clipped to the base plate. Steel rails can carry heavier loads than any other material. Railroad ties spread the load from the rails over the ground and also serve to hold the rails a fixed distance apart (called the gauge.) Rail tracks are normally laid on a bed of coarse stone chippings known as ballast, which combines resilience, some amount of flexibility, and good drainage. Steel rails can also be laid onto a concrete slab (a slab track). Across bridges, track is often laid on ties across longitudinal timbers 3.6 CONTROL UNIT: In our project the main device is micro controller. It is help to control the whole unit of this project. In this we are using the motor to run the rear wheel to move on the track. In the front of the front wheel they are placed the sensor, which is connected through the control unit. The unit is connected with the battery. Microcontrollers are destined to play an increasingly important role in revolutionizing various industries and influencing our day to day life more strongly than one can imagine. Since its emergence in the early 1980's the microcontroller has been recognized as a

general purpose building block for intelligent digital systems. It is finding using diverse area, starting from simple children's toys to highly complex spacecraft. Because of its versatility and many advantages, the application domain has spread in all conceivable directions, making it ubiquitous. As a consequence, it has generate a great deal of interest and enthusiasm among students, teachers and practicing engineers, creating an acute education need for imparting the knowledge of microcontroller based system design and development. It identifies the vital features responsible for their tremendous impact; the acute educational need created by them and provides a glimpse of the major application area. A microcontroller is a complete microprocessor system built on a single IC. Microcontrollers were developed to meet a need for microprocessors to be put into low cost products. Building a complete microprocessor system on a single chip substantially reduces the cost of building simple products, which use the microprocessor's power to implement their function, because the microprocessor is a natural way to implement many products. This means the idea of using a microprocessor for low cost products comes up often. But the typical 8-bit microprocessor based system, such as one using a Z80

and 8085 is expensive. Both 8085 and Z80 system need some additional circuits to make a microprocessor system. Each part carries costs of money. Even though a product design may require only very simple system, the parts needed to make this system as a low cost product. To solve this problem microprocessor system is implemented with a single chip microcontroller. This could be called

microcomputer, as all the major parts are in the IC. Most frequently they are called microcontroller because they are used they are used to perform control functions. The microcontroller contains full implementation of a standard MICROPROCESSOR, ROM, RAM, I/0, CLOCK, TIMERS, and also SERIAL PORTS. Microcontroller also called "system on a chip" or "single chip microprocessor system" or "computer on a chip". A microcontroller is a Computer-On-A-Chip, or, if you prefer, a single-chip computer. Micro suggests that the device is small, and controller tells you that the device' might be used to control objects, processes, or events. Another term to describe a microcontroller is embedded controller, because the microcontroller and its support circuits are often built into, or embedded in, the devices they control.

Today microcontrollers are very commonly used in wide variety of intelligent products. For example most personal computers keyboards and implemented with a microcontroller. It replaces Scanning, Debounce, Matrix Decoding, and Serial transmission circuits. Many low cost products, such as Toys, Electric Drills, Microwave Ovens, VCR and a host of other consumer and industrial products are based on microcontrollers.





4.1 COMPONENTS AND ITS SPECIFICATION The railway track crack detector consists of the following components to full fill the requirements of complete operation of the machine. 1. Track 2. Battery 3. Control unit 4. Motor 5. Gears 4.1 GENERAL MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS: TRACK: Length of the track = 1770mm Height of the track = 45mm Width of the track = 230mm Material of the track: mild steel STAND: Height of the stand = 280mm

Width of the stand: 230mm Length of the stand = 325mm Material of the stand: mild steel Quantity =1 WHEEL: Inner diameter of the wheel = 60mm Outer diameter of the wheel = 70mm Inner thickness of the wheel = 5mm Outer thickness of the wheel = 2mm Material of the wheel: mild steel Quantity =4 WHEEL ROD: Length of the rod = 225mm Diameter of the rod =8mm Material of the rod = mild steel Quantity = 2 DRIVE GEAR: Diameter of the gear =30mm Thickness of the gear =10mm No of teeth = 24

Material of the gear: nylon Quantity = 1 SPUR GEAR: Diameter of the gear = 55mm Thickness of the gear = 10mm No of teeth =50 Material of the gear: nylon Quantity = 1 MOTOR: Length of the motor = 170mm Height of the motor = 60mm Dia of the motor = 60mm Quantity =1

General unit Size of machine (L x H x W) :325mm x280mm x 230mm






Here we are finding the cracks in the railway track with the help of sensors. In our project the sensor is placed in the front of the front wheel. When the model is moving in the track with the help of motor with gear arrangement to the rear wheel. The motor is runs with power supply it gets from the battery. The model is move on the track the sensor is send the signal where the crack is occur are not ,on the time of crack is find out it will send the signal to the control unit. The

control unit is also is controlled by the battery.the lead acid battery charging by solar power.this solar panel fixed horizontal another rectangle plate.

Chapter -6



In this project we are using the sensor to find out the crack in the track; this will be useful for the production of track and Track maintenance. Track needs regular maintenance to remain in good order, especially when high-speed trains are involved. Inadequate maintenance may lead to a "slow order" being imposed to avoid accidents Track maintenance was at one time hard manual labour, requiring teams of labourers who used levers to force rails back into place on steep turns, correcting the gradual shifting caused by the centripetal force of passing trains. Currently, maintenance is facilitated by a variety of specialized machines.

In our project we are using the machine with the help of sensor used to find the crack in the track. The sensor is placed in the front of the front wheel and the controlled by the control unit. When the moving of the rear wheel with the help of motor with the gear arrangement the total model is move on that time the sensor send the signal to the control unit where the crack is in the track are not.




Low cost Reliable Compact in size




It is applicable in the production industries and the track maintenance




The various factors which determine the choice of material are discussed below. 1. Properties: The material selected must posses the necessary properties for the proposed application. The various requirements to be satisfied Can be weight, surface finish, rigidity, ability to withstand environmental attack from chemicals, service life, reliability etc.

The following four types of principle properties of materials decisively affect their selection

a. Physical b. Mechanical c. From manufacturing point of view d. Chemical The various physical properties concerned are melting point, thermal Conductivity, specific heat, coefficient of thermal expansion, specific gravity, electrical conductivity, magnetic purposes etc. The various Mechanical properties Concerned are strength in tensile, Compressive shear, bending, torsional and buckling load, fatigue resistance, impact resistance, eleastic limit, endurance limit, and modulus of elasticity, hardness, wear resistance and sliding properties. The various properties concerned from the manufacturing point of view are, Cast ability Weld ability Surface properties Shrinkage Deep drawing etc.

2. Manufacturing case: Sometimes the demand for lowest possible manufacturing cost or surface qualities obtainable by the application of suitable coating substances may demand the use of special materials. 3. Quality Required: This generally affects the manufacturing process and ultimately the material. For example, it would never be desirable to go casting of a less number of components which can be fabricated much more economically by welding or hand forging the steel. 4. Availability of Material: Some materials may be scarce or in short supply. It then becomes obligatory for the designer to use some other material which though may not be a perfect substitute for the material designed. the delivery of materials and the delivery date of product should also be kept in mind. 5. Space consideration: Sometimes high strength materials have to be selected because the forces involved are high and space limitations are there. 6. Cost:

As in any other problem, in selection of material the cost of material plays an important part and should not be ignored. Some times factors like scrap utilization, appearance, and nonmaintenance of the designed part are involved in the selection of proper materials.

S.No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

DESCIRPTION Stand Wheels Wheel rod Motor I.R sensor Control unit Spur Gear Drive gear

QTY 1 4 2 1 1 1 1 1

Material M.S M.S M.S Cast iron Electronic Electronic nylon nylon




1. MATERIAL COST. S.No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 DESCRIPTION Stand Wheels Wheel rod Motor I.R sensor Control unit Spur Gear Drive gear QTY 1 4 2 1 1 1 1 1 MATERIAL M.S M.S M.S Cast iron Electronic Electronic nylon nylon AMOUNT (Rs)

Lathe, drilling, welding, grinding, power hacksaw, gas cutting cost

The overhead charges are arrived by manufacturing cost Manufacturing Cost =Material Cost +Labour Cost

= = Overhead Charges =20%of the manufacturing cost =

Total cost = Material Cost +Labour Cost +Overhead Charges = = Total cost for this project =



The project carried out by us made an impressing task in the field of railway department. It is very useful for the workers work in the production of track. This project will reduce the cost involved in the concern. Project has been designed to perform the entire requirement task at the shortest time available.


1. Design data book


Machine tool design handbook Central machine tool Institute, Bangalore.

3. Strength of Materials


4. Manufaturing Technology


5. Design of machine elements- R.s.Kurumi