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Shunga sex and pleasure in Japanese art Edited by Timothy Clark C. Andrew Gerstle Aki
Shunga sex and pleasure in Japanese art Edited by Timothy Clark C. Andrew Gerstle Aki

Shunga sex and pleasure in Japanese art

Edited by

Timothy Clark C. Andrew Gerstle Aki Ishigami Akiko Yano

Published to accompany the exhibition Shunga: sex and pleasure in Japanese art at the british museum from 3 october 2013 to 5 January 2014.

Supported by Shunga in Japan LLP

Part of Japan 400

This exhibition has been made possible by the provision of insurance through the Government Indemnity Scheme. The british museum would like to thank the Department for Culture, media and Sport, and Arts Council england for providing and arranging this indemnity.

© 2013 The Trustees of the british museum

The authors have identified their right to be identified as the authors of this work.

First published in 2013 by The british museum Press

A division of The british museum Company Ltd

38 russell Square, London WC1b 3QQ

britishmuseum.org/publishing

A catalogue reference for this book is available from the british Library.

ISbn:

978-0-7141-2476-6

Designed by Andrew Shoolbred Printed in Spain by Graphos SA, barcelona

Papers used by The british museum Press are recyclable products and the manufacturing processes are expected to conform to the environmental regulations of the country of origin.

many of the works illustrated in this book are from the collection

of the british museum. museum reference numbers are included in

the image captions. Further information about the museum and its

collection can be found at britishmuseum.org.

Frontispiece: detail from cat. 53, see pp. 208–11

Contents

Director’s Foreword

6

The Censorship of Shunga in the modern era

278

Sponsor’s Foreword

8

ISHIGAmI AKI

List of Lenders

10

Shunga Studies in the Sho - wa era (1926–89)

290

Contributing Authors

11

SHIrAKurA yoSHIHIKo

Acknowledgements

12

 

4

Contexts for Shunga

294

The Cultural Historical Significance and Importance

 

Traditional uses of Shunga

296

of Japanese Shunga

14

yAmAmoTo yuKArI

KobAyASHI TADASHI

 

Introduction

16

The Distribution and Circulation of erotic Prints and books in the edo Period

300

What Was Shunga?

18

LAurA moreTTI

TImoTHy CLArK AnD C. AnDreW GerSTLe

Cats 79–86

304

Who Were the Audiences for Shunga?

34

Shunga and Parody

318

HAyAKAWA monTA

 

C. AnDreW GerSTLe

Cats 1–9

 

48

Cats 87–109

332

1

Early Shunga before 1765

60

Popular Cults of Sex organs in Japan

364

 

62

 

-

Shunga Paintings before the ‘Floating World’

SuzuKI KenKo

 

AKIKo yAno

 

Cats 110–112

368

Cats 10–19

 

74

 

Grotesque Shunga

374

Chinese Chunhua and Japanese Shunga

92

ISHIGAmI AKI

ISHIGAmI AKI

 

Cats 20–22

 

104

Violence in Shunga

378

 

HIGuCHI KAzuTAKA

Shunga and the rise of Print Culture

108

Cats 113–116

382

 

-

-

ASAno SHu Go

Cats 23–37

 

120

Foreign Connections in Shunga

390

 

TImon SCreeCH

2

Masterpieces of Shunga 1765–1850

152

Cats 117–121

394

The essence of ukiyo-e Shunga

154

KobAyASHI TADASHI

 

Children in Shunga

404

 

AKIKo yAno

erotic books as Luxury Goods

158

eLLIS TInIoS

 

Shunga and the Floating World

410

 

-

 

mATSubA ryo Ko

 

Listening to the Voices in Shunga

162

Cats 122–147

418

HAyAKAWA monTA

 

Cats 38–61

 

170

5

Shunga in the Meiji Era

452

 

erotic Art of the meiji era (1868–1912)

454

The Tale of Genji in Shunga

228

roSInA buCKLAnD

 

-

464

SATo SAToru

 

Cats 148–157

Cats 62–67

 

234

 

The modern West’s Discovery of Shunga

478

3

Censorship

 

242

rICArD bru

Timeline of Censorship

244

Cats 158–165

490

Shunga and Censorship in the edo Period (1600–1868)

246

JennIFer PreSTon

 

biographies of Shunga Artists and Authors

507

 

Concordance of Shunga Titles of Works exhibited

511

Graph of approximate output of shunga print series

 

bibliography

513

and books

259

Photographic credits

525

Cats 68–78

260

Index

526

List of Lenders

Denmark

michael Fornitz collection

Contributing Authors

AKAMA Ryo - (Ar), ritsumeikan university, Kyoto

ASANO Shu - go (AS), The museum yamato bunkakan, nara

Ricard BRU (rib), barcelona City Council Culture Institute, barcelona

-

Japan

Rosina BUCKLAND (rob), national museum of Scotland, edinburgh

Art research Center, ritsumeikan university

Timothy CLARK (TC), The british museum, London

Hakutakuan collection

Alan CUMMINGS (AC), SoAS, university of London

International research Center for Japanese Studies

Julie Nelson DAVIS (JD), university of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia

Ishiguro Keisho - collection

Menno FITSKI (mF), rijksmuseum, Amsterdam

Itasaka noriko collection

Amaury GARCÍA RODRÍGUEZ (AGr), el Colegio de méxico, mexico City

mitsui memorial museum

C. Andrew GERSTLE (CAG), SoAS, university of London

Private collection

Alfred HAFT (AH), The british museum, London

Taki rentaro - collection

HAYAKAWA Monta (Hm), International research Center for Japanese Studies, Kyoto

uragami mitsuru collection

HIGUCHI Kazutaka (HKa), mitsui memorial museum, Tokyo

Monika HINKEL (mH), SoAS, university of London

 

-

Netherlands

HINOHARA Kenji (HKe), ukiyo-e o ta memorial museum of Art, Tokyo

Ferdinand bertholet collection

ISHIGAMI Aki (IA), ritsumeikan university, Kyoto

Private collection

ISHIGURO Keisho - (IK), The Japan Society for Arts and History of Photography

rijksmuseum

KOBAYASHI Fumiko (KF), Ho - sei university, Tokyo

KOBAYASHI Tadashi (KT), emeritus, Gakushu - in university, Tokyo

UK

MATSUBA Ryo - ko (mr), nanzan university, nagoya

The british museum

Laura MORETTI (Lm), university of Cambridge

ebi collection

Joshua MOSTOW (Jm), university of british Columbia, Vancouver

 

-

Israel Goldman collection

NAITO Masato (nma), Keio - university, Tokyo

matsuba Foundation

NAKANO Mitsutoshi (nmi), emeritus, Kyushu university

muban Foundation

Jennifer PRESTON (JP), SoAS, university of London

Jeffrey W. Pollard and ooi-Thye Chong collection

SADAMURA Koto (SK), university of Tokyo

10

List of Lenders

Private collection

Victoria & Albert museum

USA

brooks mcCormick Jr collection

Private collections

-

SATO Satoru (SS), Jissen Women’s university, Tokyo

Timon SCREECH (TS), SoAS, university of London

Naoko SHIMAZU (nS), birkbeck College, university of London

SHIRAKURA Yoshihiko (Sy), Independent scholar

SUZUKI Kenko - (SK), Kyoto Seika university

TANAKA Yu - ko (Ty), Ho - sei university, Tokyo

Ellis TINIOS (eT), emeritus, university of Leeds

YAMAMOTO Yukari (yy), Tama Art university and Wako - university, Tokyo

Akiko YANO (Ay), SoAS, university of London

Contributing Authors

11

260 Censorship Nishikawa Sukenobu (artist, 1671–1750) and Hachimonji Jisho - (author, d. 1745) Large-size
260 Censorship Nishikawa Sukenobu (artist, 1671–1750) and Hachimonji Jisho - (author, d. 1745) Large-size

260

Censorship

Nishikawa Sukenobu (artist, 1671–1750) and Hachimonji Jisho - (author, d. 1745)

Large-size illustrated book, woodblock, 2 vols, published by Hachimonjiya Hachizaemon, Kyoto, 28.5 x 19.5 cm (covers)

The British Museum, Asia,

1979,0305,0.70.1-2

Provenance: Jack Hillier

Literature: Suzuki Ju - zo 1979; Kurakazu 2003, pp. 30–40; Buckland 2010, p. 31; Ishigami 2013a, pp. 71–85

Scenes illustrated:

(Above) Volume one begins with an image of three court ladies of the highest status: a female emperor, an emperor’s consort and a princess.

(Below) Volume two, in contrast, begins at the other end of the official social scale, showing sex workers from the Shimabara pleasure quarter in Kyoto. Six elegant women are shown in the street (from the right):

tayu - (highest-class courtesan), shinzo - (teenage apprentice), hikifune (assistant), yarite (manager), kamuro (child attendant) and tsubone (lower rank).

-

1 See Rodríguez 2013. Jenny Preston argues that Sukenobu’s erotic book Fu - fu narabi no oka of 1714 may have contributed to the 1722 ban on ko - shokubon; see cat. 69.

68 Hyakunin joro - shinasadame (Commentaries on One Hundred Young Women), 1723

This work depicts in two volumes the everyday life of Edo-period women, collecting in its pages images of court and samurai ladies, townswomen, country girls, geisha and sex workers, who perform a kaleidoscope of daily tasks and amusements. The images are preceded by considerable comment on the different kinds of women and their activities. Volume one begins with a female emperor and court ladies (top), and then introduces samurai women and a broad range of classes of women at various tasks. Volume two, in contrast, begins with ‘professional’ women of pleasure, the high-ranked courtesans of Shimabara, Kyoto’s official pleasure quarter (bottom). We are then introduced to the women of Edo’s Yoshiwara and Osaka’s Shinmachi quarters, leading to the final image in the book, a ‘night hawk’ streetwalker, or yotaka. All the women are depicted as elegant and gentle, one hardly different from the other. Sex workers were officially considered to be outcasts, below the class and status ranking system. So giving them equal space in the same book to all the other recognized classes put together was significant. This is further complicated by the fact that in the Edo period the word ‘joro - ’ of the title could refer to upper-class women and to women in general, as well as to sex workers. Hyakunin joro - shinasadame was published in Kyoto in 1723, immediately after the banning of erotic books (ko - shokubon), and it is famous today because it was censored by the Bakufu authorities, even though it shows only women and includes absolutely no scenes of sex or romance. This title, and its erotic sequel Hime kagami, which does depict samurai and courtiers having sex, appeared at a period of high tension during the Kyo - ho - reforms of the 1720s, particularly with regard to the newly enacted regulations on publishing. 1 These books may have been banned simply because they transgressed a fundamental premise of the samurai government – strict distinctions of social class and status. Any attempt to make different spheres of social life appear to be equal and homogenous was considered an affront to the Tokugawa system. Later editions of the book, even in the modern era, often excluded the empress illustration. [AGR]

Censorship

261