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Few periods ofhistory have known such dramatic and thechurch preserved andadapted classical forms for profound change asthelateRoman world. Thevery itsownpurposes. Anewvigorous, more abstract style essence of theolder, classical civilization wasbeing came to prevail inportraits and luxury goods foremchallenged, andwouldeventually perish. Likethe perors and atistocrats aswellasin artforthechurch: modern world, thelateRoman world wasmultitacial illustrations of Biblical stories, iconsof Christ, the andmultireligious. It wascompounded by extremes Virgin, andsaints, andsumptuous vessels forits litof thought, from themost dire pessimism to themost urgy. Bythesixth century, adistinctly Christian ideal fervent hope.It waswracked by ctisesin politics, dominated thearts of theMediterranean world. society, andreligion. Under anextraordinary succes- Thiscomplex andfascinating period is thesubject sionof emperors, from thethird to theseventh cen- of an exhibition to openat the Museum in midtury, theempire wastransformed from agreat power, November. Four hundred andfiftyobjects from over withits center at Rome, to a much reduced butstill 100 collections hereandoverseas will be brought dominant state witha newcapital atConstantinople.together in a dynamic arrangement thatwillprovide Devastating warsweakened its economy, andlands newinsights andnewpublic appreciation for Late wererelinquished forever as invaders advanced on Antique andEarly Christian art.Thecreative force theempire's borders. In 410Rome, once thegreatest behind Ageof Spirituality hasbeen Kurt Weitzmann, cityin theWestern world, wassacked bytheGoths. Professor Emeritus, Princeton University, andConThese shattering events werefelt by common man sultative Curator, Department of Medieval Artand andatistocrat alike, and,threatened by tremendous TheCloisters, whowrotethe introduction to this hardships, people bythethousands, turning from the Bulletin. Thecoordinator wasMargaret Frazer, CuraoldOlympian gods,sought comfort in mystery reli- tor,Department of Medieval Art,whoadapted these gions that offered hope of salvation. textsfrom a forthcoming catalogue of theexhibition. Against this background of change anduntest, Shewasably assisted bySandra Morgan andStephen Christianity emerged triumphant. It had ahumanistic Zwitn. Theshow wasmade possible bya grant from quality notfound in other faiths, andmany Romans theNational Endowment fortheHumanities, matched found solace in its tightly knitbrothethood. Despite bya grant from TheAndrew W.Mellon Foundation. intermittent persecution, Christians onlyincreased Further assistance was received fromthe Robert their numbers. Andin thefourth century, Emperor Wood Johnson Jr.Chatitable Trust. Under theArts Constantine, making oneof themostaudacious deci- andArtifacts Indemnity Act,indemnity wasgranted sions in history, granted Christianity hisofficial sanc- bytheFederal Council on theArtsandtheHumantion. A newera had begun. ities. Wearemost grateful to theCouncil's Executive Theadvent ofChristianity witnessed thedecline of Secretary, Lanni Lattin, andto herassistant, Nancy theclassical ideal of Greek andRoman art,although Lucia.
ThomasHoving Director

The Metropolitan Museum of ArtBulletin Autumn1977 VolumeXXXV,Number 2 Published quarterly. Copyright (r) 1977by The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Fifth Avenueand 82 Street,New York,N.Y. 10028.Second dass postagepaid at New York,N.Y. and additional entryoices. Subscriptions $11.50 a year.Singlecopies$2.95. Sent free to Museum members. Fourweeks'notice required for changeof address. Backissues available on microlSlm fromUniversity MicroElms, 313 N. First Street,Ann Arbor,Michigan. VolumesI-XXXVIII (1905-1942)available as a clothbound reprintset or as individual yearlyvolumesfrom ArnoPress,330 Madison Avenue,New York,N.Y. 10017,or fromthe Museum, Box 255, GracieStation,New York,N.Y. 10028.Photographsof Museum objects,unlessotherwisenoted,areby the Metropolitan Museum's Photograph Studio.Editorin Chiefof the Bulletin: JoanK. Holt; Editor:ShariLewis;Associate Editor:Sara HunterHudson.ArtDirector: Stuart Silver On the cover: Gennadios, detail of a gold glass (number41). Photograph: WilliamF. Pons. Frontispiece: Saint Theodore,detail of a textile (number73). Backcover:detailof the AntiochChalice(number81). Photograph: WilliamF. Pons

The Metropolitan Museum of Art is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve, and extend access to The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin ® www.jstor.org

Constantine production anartistic possible made conditions detailoftheTriumphal largess. fourth late in the still where.Thisrevival surmounted attimes had themselves theJews though emthefirst after Renaissance theTheodosian tousetheformal oftentermed began 53. overseveral extending asthe families senatorial bysuch of tatein theGreek Eastand owedmuch Christianity witheachother. ian's Thisbuilding successors. inRome.. uberant maintained Empire Roman thesupernational centuries.for example. centuries.With the construction wastheEdictof Milan actsas emperor Erst for 2). basilicas schools philosophical celebrated the of in 529.led to a flourishing program. ). andcompeted 32) in the Latin (number its Jewish Nicomachi andthe Symmachi to the factthatit outgrew success its ultimate In thearts temples. stantine's a complex was culture Christian triumphant finally theAposJulian bytheemperor toacounterreaction thetwocoexisted century. . fromthe coexisted cultures andChristian Theclassical by encompassed theperiod centuriesto theseventh third art. and extend access to The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin ® www. and I. its actual transcending to the other. Princeton Emeritus.West. in Arabs the arts. matter as fat as subject witha burstof exhadtriumphed imagery andChristian during encroachments many Despite productivity. distributing Rome.. these often coherence.6_. andhisimmediate byConstantine of some century. tookplace Empire of theRoman notonly division fathers church In theendtheGreek newreligion.vtd 6 . inwhich centuries. rhetand philosophy studied fathers church Cappadocian the comhieratic individual with walls. preserve. fromoneendof theMediterranean to travel legionnaires onwhich of roads network flung andthewidely These was still intact. Athens.315 worldandwas. Jewish intheir tooted artin a movement alsointoChristian spread thisin. transfer wasConstantine's event style.allof whom theclassical from elements many adopted and beginnings of a pure by the revival passed thismovement wasaccompanied twocenturies Almost ture it hadsetoutto dethrone.which one of their greatestpatrons.org .silverworkwas producedwith subjects from of thecapital. in 312.Whenthe in an elegantclassical mythology. hadrunits course. concerning matters in asthearbiter Rome ranked 2 The Metropolitan Museum of Art is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize. classical theirlingering overcame beforethe Christians 1).. trends abstract themore against styleas a reaction aversion.itself:"Theimage est level. cultural and economic. >t rb '\T . traveled missionaries andChristian thatspread Figure1. unique this into sponsored were elsewhere and Jerusalem.54) and ( seenumbers hibition ruletheEastern-Western whose under of thatname. successors process. (figure of Constantine in the Arch artsseen. of and ageof frescoes in turn. of of thefirstgenerations attitude theiconoclastic reversed arts to thehightherepresentational butelevated Christians. political..RE ':00:Ss Er < s Istroigctiov KurtWeitzmann University. closing. totherepresentational heritage.jstor.thatof the Sctipture ear. was pointsin history turning One of the mostcrucial at the once moreandfor the last time thoughonly briefly reMaxentius overthe emperor victory Constantine's In this rulerthe artsfound grandeur. Professor of Department Curator. Christian ofmonumental thebirth marked been Justinhas criticized Much building. . Mediterranean overthe entire theWest. illiterate and thedevout literate in 324-330. far-reaching It wasstill safeformerchants power. S tis a me."saidthe justwhatwordsareto a listening morial. andConsultative ArtandTheCloisters Medieval Conandartamong of culture Christianization and Therapid to therising classical fromthedying Thetransition fourth the of half second the in led. church to cover mosaics culture of oric. and wellintheEast equally understood Latin. E w C id - . he set the higheststandards and HagiaSophia(ISgure of Christianity for the practice tolerance established arts that went and all the decorative great churcharchitecture Erst The art.Oneof Constantine's storedto its previous Bridge of theMilvian Battle of in 313.likeGreek ArchofConstantine. of the peror themessage artto propagate of classical vocabulary in 395. which. the empirewas underJustinian In the sixth century. wasconcerned. classical Byzantium (formerly toConstantinople Rome from Persiato the lost Enally I (610-641) Heraclius emperor outsoon in 1204. classical theexhibitionbut. occupation thecrusaders' until notinvaded a temporary entered Empire Byzantine the 639.at theendof thisperiod. . thepagan reopened cul.But this actiondid not meanthat the classical for the ediScation stories of Biblical or series positions entirely:in the sixth andeven the seventh momentous was suppressed Thenext alike. in his treatise Johnof Damascus theologian eighth-century onholyimages.

wasnot displayed in a temple but. Whileby the religions. skeptics of theempire. Having originated in Thrace.liketheKoinetheOlympian pantheon hadfound spititual satisfaction and the formof the Greeklanguage spoken throughout the consolation in the teachings of the major philosophical Greco-Roman area wasunderstood in all centers of the schools the Platonic. Other mystery cultsoriginated in theEast: from Egypt came thepopular cultof Isis(number 33). eithernarratively or symbolically. asdocumented While certain bythethird-century synagogue major temples were nolonger erected orcultstatues created. throughout thewhole of theLatin AX7est aswell. Art. cally oriented intelligentsia. hibition. whose ritual provided certain features forChristianity. and the Mediterranean world. Thegreat introduced on a chair. which. having established itself asa temporal power.not onlybecause Theinfusion intosome scenes of liturgical theyremained studded or dogmatic wealthy overtones led to thecreation commercial centers. Theonslaught of Islam marked theendof anera.the Epicurean. Interiorview of HagiaSophia. of hieratic along comwithRome. Theitartistic aspitations weresatisfied chiefly To bring order to theheterogeneous material of theexby statues andpaintings of the founders of theseschools. for representations thatlater became themodels forextremely severalreasons. tookplace. of artistic Christ no longer sat activity.positions imperial iconography Onlylaterwereadded Withanunsurpassed Constantinople (in 381) andJetu.like Butno matter how different the tenetsof the various a collector's item. richness of imsalem (in 451). from Persia came thepowerful cult ofMithras (number 30). atDura ontheEuphrates. it profited It was afterall the offspring fromwhichit from thedisaffection of large sections of thepopulation theOldTestament for adopted andmany of its moral precepts. Yet.we have dividedit into Sve realms. at least in . theJews possessed anapparently many temples werestillstanding. Allfivepatriarchates church fullyrealized werecreative the extraordinary centers ages. When Christianity began to spread. Where representa. Against thishistorical YetChristianity background thebattle wasnot thefirstto invent of ideologies Biblical art. turiesthe monarchy was the moststableinstitution. especially theEgyptian andSyrian provinces. Whilecentralized but in imperial governments hadmade first Biblical Rome andthenConstantinople century theparaphernalia of imperial leading centers in thearts.starting. Especially popular was thecultof Orpheus. butbecause. thestate-supported Olympian religion. arts.could be represented in every possible poseandemotion. Peripatetic. they assumed inwhich theborrowings greatecclesiastical from poweras patriarchates. metropolises butlikean emperor Alexandria and Antioch on a jewelcontinued to play likea teacher major throne.andspread thoughout theNear East.andadopted ceremonial pomp from court. whowithhismusic soothed thewild passions evenof animals (number 31) andwho was at times associated withChrist himself (number 66).popularity derived fromtheirpromise of salvation of the soul. to Constantinople. effectiveness of pictorial language.Istanbal(ConstantinoChristianity. period. andfromAsiaMinor came thecultof Cybele. with the imperial.In thethird stories. hadaspired. It wasmainly thiseschatological aspect thatmade thesecults strong competitors withChristianity. whose in the goldenage of Augustus and continuing. toles in the arts.andlater soon developed a well-organized bureaucracy. Orpheus's birthplace. as. in Dura. Thistrend wasstrongly decline.in the palace of Lausos. ThisGreco-Roman styleis felt evenat the periphery of Even before Christianity hadbecome a power. in more remote quests of Alexander hadbrought abouta standardization rural districts. andwith it a flourishing reflected in the period in the artswas theimperial century simple representations illustrated eclipsed. aslateasthesixth and seventh centuries.areonlytooobvious. and. Ontheother hand. tooted Themasses were attracted bythemystery religions. ready to be reopened.the Christian of Christian art.bynomeans primitive. the Stoic.forexample. having been brought cover oneof thesynagogue walls(Egure 3 ). under theRoman tions ofpagan gods and heroes didsurvive inConstantinople emperors. andalmost succeeded. it is a reflec. In these turbulent cenpopulat portraits of thefoutEvangelists. Theconhad begun to suppress overt pagan worship. ple). shortly before thetimeof Constantine. they were nolonger It wasan anthropocentric artin whichthe human figure objects of veneration butartobjects owned bya humanisti. at wellestablished representational art. of theartistic language thatoriginated in Hellenistic Greece pagan cultssurvived somewhat longer. Constructed 532-537.resurrection. thecultspread throughout the empire. became a statewithin thestate. thetimeof Julian's revolt.thepagan clear cults Butwhathasbecome onlyfairly recently is thatat a were notabruptly abandoned withtheEdict of Milan. anda better life in the otherworld. Figure 2.elaborate and quite sophisticated scenic representations based tionof thechange incultural climate thatbyabout thefifth on illustrations fromvarious books of the OldTestament century theOlympian Zeus byPhidias. to become theoWicial statereligion. of Judaism. theMagna Mater ("Great Mother" ). theformal vocabulary by which artists expressed fourth century in thegreat citiesthe strengthened Church themselves pictorially wasthe same everywhere. thefourth power was intothepictorial othercitieshadtheitshare language.

p The Empire at the Death of Theodosius. or nymphs. of media fromglyptics. retreated imagery rich devel.Christian bythecourt. 565 A. emperor's The ber 6).D.oftencannot 2 ).300-700 The LateRomanEmpire. vatiety greatest to a either withcertainty be asctibed 6 ). werecommissioned thebestartists of all kindsPersoniIScations afterlife. ora Christian por. Aspersonifications artsincreas. 395 The Empire at the Death of Justinian.forexample. Christian (num. as collectors' opment. of poems epic illustrated Through intellectual. Thesecond and of Euripides 37). thehunt(number and of virtue as symbols theywerevenerated to its itesbecause language pictorial using 14) thereby (number circus andChristians for pagans appeal strong having inhisconscious. There identiISed at times theemperor Christian. (number cities the in rendered and quality highest of the those wereamong isoothers whentheyappeat andmany months. inhistole especially Apollo. Among imagery. thepatron 45). selecChristian the demonstrates classical. godswasSnally of thepagan worship monuments. When theseimperial highamong traitsis relatively where.of physicians would 22).Of turies Church. 58).the emperors' of the god Sarapis.Egypt because with Christian arts. or gemcarvings seasons. 27) (number gods river 26). orvatious 11). andsarcophagi catacombs representa.asleader of themuses. as universal displayed of publicly the goddess was portrait Aphrodite. Since bucolic (number plates on theCyprus asDavid disguise. be in two.alike. lated. that the vine. asdidAsklepios. tothe statemonuments repulsive been in official have symbols. Imperial mosaic.pagan anddatable of dated thepercentage since Furthermore. tionsof emperors. in thetound. insignia.their of stylistic basisfor the study a sound theyprovide of the the curiosity theycouldsatisfy items. to ivory(number (number 1).andvintage of Christ important in thename scenesbecame hisvictories hadachieved peror enjoyed likewise love. nessof being of happy scenes to theChristians: in logically unobjectionable appears. the realm. to sugandelsewhere. actsof warfare (number processions whether as favor24) emerged (number in the (number 25) andAchilles performances 17). andotherofficials gestthe paradisic consuls. dimensional acandbecame of paganism by the emperor. advantage fullest ideorepresentations wereothermythological him. and depiction (number themoststriking buteventually the of inspitation. empresses. Ages. sym. especially media. books. dramas andVergil(number cen. abandoned. adoption losthismajor course. andhis revelty Dionysos thetraditional Although to or replaced bolswereadded the emkantharos. cleat the made it was Christians. (number ceptable in Christian 9 ).fortitude. establishment theXrm the Eastern after in brought Zeus he survivedmainly though of Christianity position. Moreover. Heraclius Egures: Biblical self withrenowned of intothedecoration introduced life. aspropaganda. of hisidentification in thevisual reflected thatwere changes must and the lowerworld. great (number of a statue populatity stillin theform forawhile before. mainly intomedia. to bronze (number milieu.muses the bonds sponsored transcended theceremonies inglystressed Herakles theheroes. the entireMiddle of theChristian through Empire.Homer for several godsandheroes tiveuse of theOlympian 4 .

connotations. or selling artbegan to unfold.shipping. andEuripides. In its initial andthelike. distinctions themain of Adam on man's land. since thisis notquite floor mosaics.in unmatched a repertory of fullestuse of them. thepropa. Many portrayed inhisnatural (number hadhimself likeanemperor arts often throne on parallels arebased classimi. technical. (number beitlg he may purchasing on theowner's 67).70).(numbers realm intheexhibition of a Jewish Theinclusion today of theicon littleremains very 69. andthatChristian tried on a vastscale Biblical stories represent liturgieschatological. tations fromthesynagogue tole in classical played sucha leading 5 . oneof themajor de. portrait.if hecould.ticmode. diating spititual a striking example: of Christ is The figure few or no changes. of the by thetransformation enhanced toutilize implements began century. andtextiles instruments. medical. realm. mosaics.the anchor. lavished theirgreatest of as hasso oftenbeendone.symbolic serving language asis thepictorial Aspowerful art. inonecomposition tosummatize Jewish antecedents. and (number erecting a anarchitect hisproduct. Samson of theprofessional (number Members Endymion stor. likea handbook This itsrecognizability. studded 68). These arytexts(numbers but "symbolic. or painted walkof life.centuries of thebook. orbotanical.notonly tooted in classical is deeply Biblical imagery The not all artis tiedto ideologies.Herakles a winemerchant occupations: at their soforth.In lateantiquity through themedium fully and.adapted reveal doesnot necessatily power. wasmo. andhe sits on a jewel(number Alsoin representations scenes environment.those on a scale andcopied werecomposed pedic compendia art. by suchsymbols its beliefs tentto express character of Chrisritualistic theincreasingly Moreover. ing. hadbeendeveloped cycles picture down itselfwasnotnew:such was alsohanded sciences of classical Knowledge like classics of thegreat fortheillustration before encyclo. displayed: thesacred book withitsjewel(number 79). astitulat saints.with pagan Syria. as a divine oftenthannot depends of the Heliosor Orpheus a patron of daily life. andpearl-studded artists Christian likethese 85). it. ofasingle scene thecontent whereby likeanherbal mode. such the as thecross.detail of a frescowith Biblicalrepresen.andothers. culture.the dove. thepointof viewof stylebutalso. Onobjects quaries (number be lesscorrect Nothing could skills. influence scenes canalsohave complete correct. But tianartwasgreatly leaf. Christian art. richness waspassed onto theearly imagery mythological embarked life. andthe ideafroma representation withspeciSc of Philanthropy. selves portrayed 58).to a considerable in every from forconsumers artproduced includes seculat realm artist the Christian possible Wherever of content.Sctipture a fixed helped toestablish of miniatures Thecopying cycles. creation depicted than vineonthe belesslavishly under thegourd owner may Jonah byPrometheus. donor figures. while in 1932of thesynagogue (number bythediscovery tivated primatily thehieramedia transmitting 72).somewhat covers. The importance (figure the Old Testament books of A focal elements. unless more teacher of anobject as arephilosophers splendor by disciples or decorative Thepreciousness he is surrounded with be associated power. The commissioned who of theperson ligious ailiations context froma bucolic theformis taken carrier arethesame aseveryone as a lamb wears orjewelty a person garments as a symbols.ourEfth stage. decorative art. known inclassical existed a second however. anddogmatic by liturgical to pointof creativity werethefirst thattheJews it proves thefind is twofold: often heretheartist since wastheapse. whenJ inabout of theliturgy intoelaborate the Theposition purposes. During these inthethird century. building. evenwhenra.the reliand.ments. in Jewish treatises developed illustration existed that scientific It is typical OldTestament Greece.fromtheOldandNewTestaments Thefeudal aresociological. a classical the re. although realm like the Cleveland in the Christian a few statues of their association (number 55) theodium Jonah Egures of art. the palm fish. it made artsfordidactic therepresentational bythecultstatue temple occupied in thepagan were thechiefimplements on which wastaken bythealtar 81) (number likethechalice vessels. 40). pictures exerted 34.developing andthelike. aswe nowknow. Themethod picture withextensive onits illustration raphy. atleast there existed.whichhad this branch idolsbrought Figure3.andartists to Christian wascentral iconog.where 66)." sculpture wasdying monumental centuries. frescoes covered withelaborate whose walls are of Dura.and. them heor sheentiches else's.anddogmatic on such depended Bible illustrations eleorhistorical aswellas topographical wascon. In addition handbook.fromclassical the Creation thehunt of a rich mythology: although of thecourt. Christianity thethird and precious objects. on midwifery. 245-256 at DuraEuropus." hasbeenwidelytermed 35) and andsarcophagi (number such astextiles onother media. theGospel and thepaten later.a wealth handbooks mythological Menander. tated thestyle that ofhisemperor.often and artfully aslavishly illustrated were frequently paintings art-catacomb applied to funerary mostly a wide mode. cal. likea surveyor's whether wasabbreviated. TheHoly ancient by anyother andvatiety Christians. there to thenarrative.A sculpted with a whole scene figure or.degree.where of an"iconic" of areentiched 3 ). antiquity. to a halt. hieratic century a more Inthefourth ivories. The Exodus. them. media wassogreat upon other influence Theicon's scenes fromvatious thatonemayspeak of narrative picting a richrepertory compositions art. just enough topreserve leaving asliter. gation of ideologies.sleeping class liked tO have andDavidon middle 55)."objects thanto labelthem. byHomer un. withhismedical oraphysician ascanstillbe seenin frescoes. out.

wealth of material fromthisperiod. Icons focus even media. silverwork intocheaper by the tionsof ambitious materials. 12). mostluxurious (number manuscripts 83). regardless ofhisreligious plates(number affilia58). dissemination of imperial propaganda.Christians imperial diptychs (number 68) ingly adopted bytheChristians. ful. The As a two-dimensional art. miniature painting. likethesardonyx with abattle scene (number stories. Afterthe introduction ordinary household utensils areto someextent transformaof the durable parchment and the establishment. Once Sinai.signiScant when hewasdrinking outof a bowl. and perhaps on theimages themost of Christ. Among especially the goldandsilver.is texwhoserepresentations areoften to have tile.usually theimpression is thatspecial effort tion of holy images wasmade tobring during the Iconoclastic controversy more. likethe theperiod ofimpressive. huge silver plates showing such sub.demonstrates knowledge of theBiblical stories. jects astheemperor in majesty giving gifts. recent findsat Mount lines. werewritten in goldandsilver elsinsilver on purple andevenon gold-stained parchment (number Another medium. bookon thealtar more Traditionally emphasizing became focalpoints forthedevelopment shapes. Egures andscenes appear frequently (number 38) ing is the vastamount of silverthathasbeenpreserved. of a thiasos (theDionysian down. objects of thecodex used in theChristian astheprincipal service. 80).fresco painting wasmore notonlyimitated will. Precious metals. of the Constantinian reliefson the Archof Constantine (Egure1 ) withthatof many sarcophagi ( number 56 ) . especially onsarcophagi (num. butafter the rise of anymedium was thatof high century theartwent intoeclipse. ). butcameos ofgreat perfection nenceon walls.with its sharp-edged in theChristian ritewaspanel painting in theform Christian straight and goldglass. theiconis stillelusive because of large-scale destruc.armygenerals as well as by churches.Good fortune haspreserved inthedrysands of Egypt overlaid an withliturgical anddogmatic overtones.reliquary repercome scenes outletforfrescoes.theyobviously This explains. Yetit is signiScant revelry ) ( number 21). Thecontrast between itspreandflourished through thefourth andEfthcenturies in the viousutilitarian use. Butthehighest purpose Christian period it wasoftenusedsolely fordisplay. 77. forexample. distributed. on a blueground (numbers 15. andits newelevated position is particularly striking. theGospel is glass. Within theChristian realm While inclassical antiquity silver served mainly ashandsome storyenjoyed particular popularity.Imperial and consular diptychs (numbers 6.Hellenistic Augustan ages. subjects to the closeattention (726-843 of the beholder. * . at leastsomeexamples of whichare 63). elaborate thebasilicas of OldSaint caskets. While nitytospread in theclassical period themosaic Theartof glyptics predominantly served to reached its greatest perfection in the coverfloors(number and 36). 41. withitsfluent of icons. mosaics stillcarved depicted inthefourth Biblical were century. usedchiefly for the invention of storytelling cycles. andthesaints (number Thelastof themajor transcended thelimitations 72).is achieved Virgin Enthroned (number 69).In somecases mental it canbe proven (number 24) or several andin smallnarrative scenes. in the LateAntique-Early the Joseph of its association withEgypt. For fourth century. decoration of modThe sers. 8 ) suddenly beber56).In spiteof somestartling design of golden figures. form likelamps forbooks. likebronze andterracotta. Thesimilarityof style in suchluxurymanuscripts as the Vergitius . surely beandoftenelegant tableservice. Christian artists also strove fora levelof competence in thisimperial The mostspectacular craft. in thefourth andfifth rlc :] lmagery. 17. A occur it is highly likely thatthesame workshops cycle of David produced scenes is evendistributed overa whole setof others forany customer. theidentity apparently of style owned by wealthy landholders and entpurposes. Relief sculpture waslessobjectionable inthefifth and sixth centuries. art. artaswellasinChristian art. pagan andChristian subjects IsisorCybele cults. Allthemore astonish. 6 What survived longest were thestatues of emperors and emNever before hadivory beensowidely used in theartsas presses (number 5 ). whoseacquisitions of implements likeprecious chalices andpatensin silver( numbers78. Yetthefactthatthey could threaten thefounda. TheBible andespecially than justtableware. Thehuge hoards of LateAntique and artobjects Christians started tobury their dead in sarcophEarly Christian silver found in allprovinces of theRoman tion. withAriadne. The roleplayed by Egurative representing thegodeither alone.When Empire depended areproofthatluxurious onsculptors trained fordiffersilver objects werewidely agi.Mosaics competed in their splendor withfrescoes. heldpositions enormous textiles area great number withDionysian subof importance in all ancient cultures. displayed on them covering thewallswithextensive toryof OldandNewTestament anewthattheChristians tookevery Oldand opportuNewTestament cycles fortheedification of thefaith. 81 ) hadhighpriority.predominantly for furniture andaptriumphal columns andotherstatemonuments of imperial plique.like frescoes.asvaluable Other astheywerein media. orthelifeofAchilles ineither onemonusideby side. some orcenminiature bronze painting casters achieved copied thehighest thefigurative artistic quality. 67). No great artistic skillwasbestowed on fifth theillustration of papyrus rolls. texture. tionsof theempire highlights their importance. centuries glass workers stressed twospecial types fortherich Onemedium of figurative thatcompeted artsimultaneously withthebookfor a central display in thepagan andthe position realms: cut glass. Texthat intheEfth and sixth centuries part usmuch about thepopularity of theDionysos cult large goldmedallions (number 10) wereimportant in the tilesteach Among a variety of mythological subjects. bucolic and even serially ( number 39).in lateantiquity. oras goldis difficult to judge because so much of it wasmelted jects. Therich werea wel. and other Peter's orSaint liturgical Paul's objects. Thisis cause when atextile is turned intoaholy image. andthegreat of ornamental feasts. it wasnowgivenmorepromi.ordeities of the Cleveland In every medium discussed. of anenormously graceful andcolor. came a means forthemanifestation of stateauthority. unlikely theVirgin. thevastinterior forpyxides surfaces of butusedivory (numbers 60.

Thehighlysensitiveartisthasemployed the abstract form for the divinity and more naturalistic forms for human Egures.thecatacomb in theViaLatina wherea variety of subjects fromancient mythology.of the interminglingof pagan and Christianculture is the Projecta casket (number45). his body is flat and dematerialized. Withinthis ecumenical style. andthe threeapostles Peter.charioteers.548-565 Note. Abstraction was not used exclusivelyin works of lower quality. Here.Milan. and Jamesare very lively and emotionaland their bodies quitecorporeal andvital. severalfourth-andfifth-century workshops specialized in the production of gold-glassdrinkingbowls depicting scenesfromthe life of Achilles. These two modes are the foundation of the great vatietyof stylesfoundin the artof the MiddleAges. Detailof apsemosaic with theTransfiguration of Christ Saznt Catherine's Monastery. 67) In Palestine glassflaskswith appropriate symbols were apparently sold at holy places. therenevertheless existedconsiderable variations due to geography and time. Seen froma widerperspective. f z:4 Figure4. which depicts theTransEguration of ChristChrist's faceis rendered in abstract lines. 53. from sculptural to two-dimensional arts for the sake of dematerialization and spiritualization.and Ravenna.however. In the tencts datesof emperors' reignsaregiven within parentheses aftertheir names 7 . Imperial commissions in provincial citiessuchas Jerusalem. while others show a great numberof Old Testamentand a few New Testament scenes.a greatartistcouldachieve thehighest refinement and sophistication. which containsVergil'sGeorgics and Aeneid. including some laborsof Herakles. TheGreco-Roman style. even withinthe sameworkof art. and from spatialsettingsto geometric order. too. and especially outside Italy.the greatmetropolises Alexandria and Antioch.Clearlythe artist consideredneither of the two modessuperior to the other. Threeremarkable caseshavecometo light within the lastdecades: a burial chamber underSaintPeter's.The best example of this combination is the apsemosaicof SaintCatherine's Monasteryat MountSinaifounded by Justinian ( Egure 4 ). On the other hand. MountSinai. andJonahunderthe gourdvine. whichhas a mosaic with Helioson a quadriga in the apexof its ceiling andaJonah sceneon its walls. Old andNew Testament scenesor Jewishsymbols(numbers 15. outsidethe imperial residences of Rome.venerated by eitherChristians or Jews.through its use.predominant in imperial Rome? was not only sllaredby Constantinople but preserved in this capital morestrongly thanin anypartof the empire into the sixth and seventhcenturies(number58 ).anda tombchamber in Alexandria. andthe Germanic territories. Naturalistic-classical and abstract modes of expression couldbe applied simultaneously. artistic revivals andotherfactors producedobjects in whichthe classical heritage wasoftenmuch betterpreserved thanin otherworksof art produced contemporaneously in the sameregions. impactof barbarian invasionsor the influence of folklore. the generaltrendof stylisticdevelopment was fromnaturalism to abstraction.a lambcarrier who maywell be the Good Shepherd.still clingingto classical tradition as late as the thirdandfourth centuries began to succumbto the native styles of their hinterlands-CopticEgypt in the case of Alexandria and Palmyrene Syriain the case of Antioch. wheretheyabounded.Moreover. while thefacesof Moses.theyareusedfor different purposes. the classicalheritage weakened rapidly andwas inSltrated by what is calledC4Migration of Nations"art. in the provinces of Gaul. where a scene of daily life with oxen turninga water wheel is placedalongside a hermset in a sacred grove. whichtowardsthe end of this periodwas broken up by the barbarian invasions in the West and the rise of Islamin the East.Vaticanus.Britain.Elijah.where at times the naturalistic-classical and at times the abstract elements prevailed. The clearestexample. andtheQuedVinburg ItaVa butwasmotivated witha fragment by the desireto achieve fromtheBooksof a higher degree of Kingscanhardly be explained otherthanby the assumption thattheyweremadein the sameRoman scriptorium.Suchabstraction was not due solelyto the spirituality thancouldbe attained by naturalistic expression.John.Sll some chambers. nurtured by the imperialcourt and humanistic intellectuals. in the West. a bridalcasketupon which a noble Christian ladyis represented next to the toiletof Aphrodite.Spain. Yet this turning away from the classicaltradition was not a lineardevelopment. The atmosphere of toleranceimpliedby the workshop practices is confirmed by commonburialchambers where members of one familybelonging to different religions had depicted subjects fromdif3erent religious repertories sideby side.

wasa 8 ). andpublic statues today even that games.Ubiquitous terms ity intovisual of his anddepictions of the emperor portraits suchas trimonuments actson public official a his rule throughout asserted arches umphal inthewest Spain from stretched that vastempire in the northto in the east. marble. of Constantine. mostskillful cities. theArch theacclamareceiving and acts official performing en1). to subjects message the imperial at wereconcentrated monuments Mostimperial Rome particularly of government.v <- Imperial Realm an wasprimarily realm Theartof theimperial by whichthe andcelebration artof persuasion authortheir translated andhisofficials emperor for all to see. personal aswellasgreat empire Themostprecious artis richandostentatious.England to Syria thatencompassed in thesouth a domain Egypt objects. processional squares. chitectural livedin colorfully sumptuously. his obligations. Thepostof consul (seenumber circus pastand. enlarged shown likethefinecameo 10). usedforsmall-scale andarsculpture wereusedforlarger porphyry arisand Theemperor embellishment. and Washington of theruling andmembers theemperor Since of the the resources classhadat theirdisposal imperial wealth. to thecapital overtheempire imof itspatrons.andemployed palaces decorated all from whowereattracted artists.likemany Republican relicof Rome's of thelanded bymembers wasSlled offices. the and aristocracy ::: g6s' x 8 . and buildings huge of cumulation routes. dressed tocracy the andvillas. of hisvirtue proof in thehunt. thesmallest Even peoples. other theemshared who military. status theexalted Toreflect on Thereliefs ceremonial.ivory. bore (number goldmedallion or a splendid of the realm. forpublic arenas large and as capitals of such thecharacter affect cities these NewDelhi. He is rigidly tionof his people(figure above elevated physically and spiritually throned. depict on the arch reliefs Other his attendants. shared officials emperor's ceremonial principally performed like consuls. objects. artwasstiffly perial him show forexample. Some. and bronze. gold. monuments. in battleandexcelling conquering Constantine The andcourage. different many at theright. the centers acwastheir So impressive andConstantinople.andgems were materialssilver. in the of games asthesponsoring such functions.

fromcreamy whiteto bright orange. thecouple's bearing is strictly imperial: they arelarger in scale andmore richly dressed than theirretinue. 1. probably Maximianus Herculeus (286-310)andhis son Maxentius (306-312). Thetwo senior emperors were called Augusti andthetwojunior. is thelSgure ofChrist blessing. Therulers were thought ofasunited intheir rule.theartof theimperial realm forms animpressive and appropriate opening to an exhibition of LateAntique and Early Christian art. butabove hishead. peror's pride andresourcefulness in thehunt. or tetrarch. thesenior Augustus at the left.emerald. Justinian andhis wife. Maximianus. Caesars. Washington. Rome.is distinguished by hislarger sizeandindependent gaze.( 1 11/16in.). Justinian (527-565). aconcept clearly stated bythepairs of embracing emperors in twoporphyry sculptures from Constantinople onthefasade of Saint Mark's inVenice. In the mosaics of SanVitalein Ravenna. Although thecontext is purely Christian. The quality of the carving.14 9 .Onthiscameo theemperors areshown in a close-knit composition thatemphasizes their solidarity. enhanced by the gem's subtle coloration. traditional imperial images wererecast in Christian terms. Theodora. Such images ofdivine majestywere oneof themostimportant bequests of theimperial realm to theemerging artof a new age. When emperors became Christian.D. Thecameo is setasa pendant in a lateRoman.. a system devised bytheemperor Diocletian (284-305)to overcome the governmental chaos of thethird century.3cm. 306-310. In its all-encompassing role. andclear-glass drops. Dumbarton Oaks Collection. Diocletian divided the empire intofoursections. Width ofgem: 4. eachgoverned by an emperor. overseeing hisvictory. goldmount andhungwithchains terminating in smoothly cut beryl.C. although Maxentius wasnever officiallyrecognized. Thischalcedony gemis carved withthebusts of two rulers.for example.. appear in a symbolic procession honoring thededication of thechurch. Theyruled. andtheyarethe onlylSgures not overlapped byothers. during the period of the Tetrarchy. is exceptional. 47. hadhimself portrayed on anivory diptych (number 6) as a traditional Roman conqueror. butnotcontemporary.


I (306-337), sonof emperor, Constantine 2. TheSrstChristian ) andHelena,was bornat I ( 293-3()6 the tetrarch Constantius wherethe bronze headat Nis, in Yugoslavia, Naissus, modern Augustus by the Roman the left was found.He was acclaimed milia seriesof brilliant in 306 and,through armyin England victories, gainedcontrolof the westernpart taryandpolitical of the of the empirein 312. In 324 he becamesole emperor Roman world. With startlingeyes the pupils and itises are gold-and is among themost around theears,thisportrait traces of gilding to proclaim madefor publicdisplay impressive of Constantine part of a throughout the empire.Originally his sovereignty feacharacteristic statue,theheadshowssomeof Constantine's jaw,largenose, the square tures,knownfromotherportraits: renmoreabstractly in general andcaplike hair.It is, however, the atNaissus during dered, pointing to theworkof a localartist diConstantine's gaze underlines late 320s. The unwavering Height24 cm. ( 9 7/16 in.) . National vinelyinspired authority. Museum, Belgrade

head, of the bronze to the schematic conception 3. In contrast amethyst intaglio( above,left) of Constantius the magnilScent andrichlymodson, is carefully II (337-361), Constantine's is strongin the squarejaw, eled. While familyresemblance brows,these eyesunderprominent "Roman" nose,andstaring treatment of the cheeks, by the expressive features aresoftened only mouth,andloosecurlsat the napeof the neck.Although typical of hasthe monumentality 13/8 incheshigh,thisportrait dynasty. Constantinoof the Constantinian imperial sculpture Kulturbesitz, Museen,Preussischer ple, about360. Staatliche Misc.30931 Berlin, Antikenabteilung, ( 375) of theemperor Gratian head( above, right 4. Themarble Augustus at the age of nine, blendsthe au383), appointed in keeping with his clasthorityof his officewith a sensitivity Once undertheEnest poetof the age,Ausonius. sicaleducation modin its delicately this portrait, partof a bust or statuette, thatof Aelia surface andsmallscale,anticipates eled polished 5 ). Height14 cm. (51/2in.). Constantinople, Flacilla (number Geneva. Photo:O. Widmer OrtizCollection, about375.George

S. The art of the Theodosian ) muted period( abollt 380-450 sometimes the boldly abstract, art rudeformsof Constantinian mod2 ) witha softly (seenumber treatmcnt cled, almostsensuous Thisbeauandsurface. of volume marblcstatuettcof Aelia tiil Is exwifcof llleodosius Flacilla, in thc thcnewharmony emplifies elegantly draperies classicizing herbodyandthe around wrapped of the depiction full,yetidealized, its sensitivDespite faceandhair. a lessfaithisprobably ity,theface thanthatof Constanful portrait gem( number tiusII onthecarlier arched under gaze, 3 ). Thedistant the spiritualforeshadows brows, portraits Christian of later ization 68-73). The neck(see numbers of andtheinlays laceandearrings stonesthatonce glassor colored musthave thestatuette decorated dimension-a addeda strange that intensienrichment physical material between fiedthecontrast qualities and the abstract reality 78 cm. ( 303/4 of theface.Height 380o390. in.). Constantinople, Paris, Nationalew Bibliotheque 13 desMEdailles, Cabinet

at the plaque 6¢The magnificent wasmost halfof a diptych, right, ( 527likely madefor Justinian as appears 565). The emperor of the earth,personiconqueror the beneath fied by the woman one andof the barbarians, horse, the emperor's of whomtouches The as a signof submission. lance athisleftprobablfr Victory winged oru reath, a crown onceptesented carlikethatheldby thestatuette Below,repreriedbsrthesoldier. Euro nations, ofcaptive sentatives offertribute. peanandOriental, is blessing a bustof Christ Above, sucChristian byangels, supported Victories. to theclassical cessors Justinian The ivorvcelebrates andhistriof thefaith asdefender umphantreign under Christ's mila specific than rather guidance itary conquest.Its masterfull of a conis thework relief carved dingmote Bycrou artist. summate than panel thecentral into figures he contain, it couldcomfortablv witha bursting theivorv endowed itS exultant thatsupports energy Height34.1 cm. (13 statement. Musee 7/16 in.). Constantinople. OA9063 Paris, duLouvret

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M 10036 . Thecluttered composition and hieratic display of richly adorned {igures is characteristic of many contemporary consulat diptychs. (125/8 in. Constantinople. Kunsthistorisches Museum. Below. Medallions of Emperor Anastasius (491-518 ) and ofhiswife. similat portraits mayhavebeenplaced in the consul's box at the circus. inthearena. a memberof thestreet-building commission of Ephesos. in the third quarter of thefifth century thisportrait ofEutropios.). Liverpool. he supervises theceremony of sparsio. I 880 8. Ivory. thisdiptych leafcelebrates the appointment in 513 of Clementinus as consul in Constantinople. According to its insctiptions. creates an expressive likeness. wherethe marble headbelowwasfound.). Enthroned. withits elongated faceandstrongly stylized hait.7. Thetreatment of the head.Height 32cm. (153/8 in. servants pour the riches fromsacks. Merseyside County Museums.eyes.Atiadne. Vienna.andbeard. wasplaced onaninsctibed wallconsole asa more attractive and impressiverecord of his civiccontribution. flank thecross atthetop of thepanel. Personifications of Romeand Constantinople stand behind thenewconsul's throne assymbolsof hisputative authority. Antikensammlung. Whiletoday large painted signsannounce thegovernor responsible for thecreation of a newhighway. capturing the spititual life of theman rather than merely mitroring hisphysical self. height 39 cm.nowbroken fromthe shoulders. Sculpted portraits of officials linedthe streets andforums oflateRoman cities likeEphesos ontheeast coast of the Mediterranean. thedistribution of money andprizes during thecircus games athisinauguration.

of geniito joina group carried aloftby twowinged is borancestors.1 15 . perhaps Libra band. an (see number perhaps thatof the Symmachi the to keepalive pagan family thatsought aristocratic spatial Theambiguous andcustoms. ona cart drawn ingground is a youth atop ofwhich is afuneral pyre. (107/8 in. in a quadriga. wasextremely deways thatwere in strictly traditional official duties objects as andon private picted on statemonuments well.7 cm. ceremony celebrating by an elaborate when wasmade in thefifthcentury. is at thetopof thepanel thesungod. bypart of thezodiacal dered on theright is a bustof Helios.10Museum. his apotheosis. followed death wasusually theemperor's perial times. theeHigy Behind byfourelephants. ascending emperor. London. 13.). theelephants in the which were caged Thetwoeagles. Inasociety ceremony Antique world. peror would tradition.Themonogram 32). ancient religion indicate withheavy faces and stout Egures relationships date.and social bylaws asseverely regimented 9.ordeification. In early of a Roman osis. pyteand released is thesoulof theemperor Above. Heaven his deiSed figures. customs as thatof theLate their Emperors performed important. the symbolize when it wassetaflame. the Efth-century 57.Height27. TheBritish Probably Rome. pagan memorial to anextinct as a nostalgic is taken to theburnof theemperor Here. andin thecorner through Pisces. represents theapothediptych Thisleafof anivory imemperor. Since thisivory statereligion andno emwastheofficial Christianity intended it wasprobably have been deified.

shows awarrior. 58). Egypt. riding over fallen barbarians. Length 66 cm. it may commemorate the victories of Constantine oroneof hissons. make upthegirdle above. freeing acityunder barbarian siege. In thetradition of earlier Roman gems decorated withimperial triumphal imagery. Theclassical subject and warrior's dress recall portraits of Alexander theGreat. which wasfound in Cyprus (see numbers 52. as Christian emperors oftensawtheirownheroic deeds in OldTestament terms (seenumber 58). Fruhchristlich-Byzantinische Sammlung.Emperor Maurice (582-602) assumed theconsulship at Constantinople.Emperors.Metropolitan Museum. Barbarians. 17.Opposite. Together. which shows Roman soldiers. some onhorseback. Berlin. along withthestyle of thefigures and theitdifference inscale. hadgoldmedallions struck to giveto hisofficials. themedallions and coins weigh nearly onepound.). Height 15cm. andon theback in military dress standing in a quadriga. whothen hadthem mounted to display theimperial favor he enjoyed.).190. Four of theseandsmaller coins of his reign. which. indicate alatefourthorearly fifth-century date. an allusion to Joshua's rescue of Gibeon (Joshua 10) mayalsobe intended. In 583 and602.( 173/4 in. Probably 583. aswellasthose of several earlier emperors. of about 325350. 4782. ( 57/8 in.147 11. It is exquisitely carved to make themost ef3ective useof thedifferent colored strata of the stone. a fragment of a splendid sardonyx cameo. Belgrade 16 . Such giftswere meant for onlya very important official. Although a contemporary battle is depicted here. Preussischer Kulturbesitz. wearing adiadem. Photograph: Jorg Anders 12. Giftof J. whether pagan orChristian.10.). and. probably Ashmunein. their leaders arehung from forked stakes infront of thecitywalls. Adding to thescene's excitementarethe frank portrayal andgeneral overloading of imagery. carrying a standard withChrist's monogram (barely visible attheleft).in celebration. are being driven offorkilled.(251/2 in. Pierpont Morgan. Height 45cm. Staatliche Museen. On the front of themedallions Maurice is shown in imperial regalia. commemorated their military conquests on statemonuments andon smaller objects likethe woodsculpture at theright. National Museum.

17 .

i .

Thebronze horseat the left was probably one of four that drewa model chariot. werestaged in thecircuses of Rome andConstantinople. probablyhighoSicials. a pagan ritual to appease thegodsat thestart ofaperformance. It mayhavebeena commemorative sculpture to a victorious charioteer ora copy of anemperor'sceremonial quadriga ( see number 10). Thecentral figure pours a libation from a shallow bowl. buttheanimals and hunters. Toledo Museum of Art. The agonyof the dying animals contrasts dramatically with thebusinesslike attitude of thehunters andthe withdrawn gazeof the patrons. resembles Justinian's mount on the ivory plaque (number 6 ).67. Liverpool. made in Rome in theErst halfof the fifthcentury. In stylethehorse.7cm.greens.(21/2 in. depicts anelk huntin anarena observed bythree men. with its stocky bodyandstylized mane. Gamesand entertainments forthepublic. ProbablyConstantinople. Thecurved arena is shown in a flattened bird'seyeview. Theviolent contests andanimalhunts("venationes") appealed to the masses pentup in the great cities. Geneva.). Below.Photograph: O.Horse: height13. ( 115/8 in.13-15.aresuperimposed in registers. Chariot races werealsoparticularly popular. likeparticipants inamodern bullfight. sponsored by theemperor andhisoSicials.11.). Merseyside County Museums.4 cm. Plaque:height29. andthefactions supporting the four teams the reds.a smallgoldglassof the second halfof thefourth century portrays a triumphant charioteer named Vincentius and his horseInvictus ("Unconquerable" ).4cm. Widmer 19 . blues. a mixture of perspectives withalong history inRoman art.). One hunter spears anelkwhile others lean outof thedoors ready to provide distraction. andwhites evenbecame powerful political forces. The ivoryplaqueon this page.Giftof Edward Drummond Libbey.GeorgeOrtizCollection. ThereddecorationonVincentius's tunic andonhis horse's trappings identiSes himasbelonging to theredfaction. (5 7/16 in. Glass: diameter 6. M 10042. seenfrom theside.

Antikenabteilung. of the animals by the tightcompression heightened scale of thegroom. withtheir plates survive dogold-glass Italy. game of thedanger unaware such aslions details bytranquil thatactasfillers from trees hanging hunting horns and inlay technique Therich vignettes." family and your a boar. its glorifies plate at theright Thescene on theglass It is insctibed: inthehunt.red. justas it hadbeenby monarchs lateRoman intimes in theNeatEast.andcourage.originally Thebronze scenesof hunting shows a spectrum per. Probably Vase: height Museen.andniello. portraits of theruling contemporary exthisartist in which of goldglass.68 Jr.Plate:diameter 30244. Preussischer IngridGeske.Alexander is of thescene importance Thesymbolic to theright. of themid-third tocrat hair.mid-third C.Rarely rim.Photograph: The century. genuity. 17.7 cm. Italy.It required sinceancient vittues necessary thesame skill.. royal was withlionhuntsin goldandsilver inlaid blades found.( 105/16 in. Thetechnique was skill. thesmall space and intothecirculat AlexAlthough theboar. Museum Cleveland 69. roundel. objects anddomestic furniture copwithsilver. 25.). Kulturbesitz. arches triumphal of artfrom works andprivate public struggle to man's (where theyreferred andsarcophagi it) to luxurious of conquering hishope and withdeath likethese. andthenwasenlivened glassroundel. onhorseand Richly dressed friends. Staatliche century. Purchase. to a greenish on a sheetof goldfoil applied incised by white. whiletwo stagsflee attacks back.Bequest. Thesport of the family andthenobility inbytheimperial gaged world. identity ander's thestyleof thehead.resembles andsensitively class.Thedesign extraordinary demanded celled. scenesentiched Hunting to wagewat successfully. face. overthefirst. century. on footflushing lionsandhunters speating horsemen effect is enhanced Thedecorative from theforest.wasfused withtheplate's rims intact. Hanna.close-cropped shaped withits triangularly thatof other drawn eyes. A second brown and russet green. inlaid vase. Leonard of Art. glass paint. 26. halfof thefourth second Berlin.2cm. (101/8in. and success courage owner's may youlive [longlwith man. fortunate "Alexander. 20 . thedogtoattack whoreleases anarishewasprobably is notknown.).enwasenthusiastically ot hunting 16. thelivelier between and centuries and fourth in thethird populat wasvery Age Bronze back to theLate dating along tradition had dagger of bronze where a pair tombs atMycenae.

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Political. the Romandependence on Greekmodelsprogressively gaveway to otherinfluences. they adapted both subject matterandstyle from the classical repertory.The hound.gesturing goddessAthena.who is a personiScation of Delos. it presents an assembly of classical deitieson the islandof Delos. theRomans equated Greek godswiththeirown. ( 19 in.fallen stag.andgriHin at the footof thecomposition aresymbolsof thetwins. Alnwick Castle.who standat the far left and far right..3 cm.chose Greek models in literature.Foundin 1734 on the banksof the Tynein northern England. Of central importance was the human figure.Theypreserved the imageof classical culture for latergenerations. The lanxmayhavebeenmadeat Ephesos in honorof his visit in 363 to Delos. Illusionistic painting andthe cleargrammar of architectural orders also determined the basicformof Romanartisticproduction. especially theexploits of heroes(number 23) andpersoniScations (number 26). passionately nostalgic ef3orts to keeptheoldorder aliveafterChristianity hadtriumphed produced exquisite pagan objects such as the ivory diptychof Asklepiosand Hygieia (number 22 ) or the silverdish at the left.Width48.). and standing beside her is Ortygeia. and intellectual upheaval provoked a spiritof expressionism seen in official portraiture (number 7 ). G. K. the representation of pagan godsforcult purposes was abandoned. continued to decorate luxury objects. His Grace the Duke of Northumberland..yne r X 23 . andthe influxof mysteryreligions fromthe EastandEgyptinto the heart of the empirebrought an increased use of symbolto replace natural depiction. In their art. Illustrations of epics( number37 ) andof scientiSc texts ( number 34 ) as well as bucolicthemes(numbers 38. 39) alsoremained popular.also venerated on the isIand. Afterthe Efthcentury.C1455iC4/Realm As the self-appointed heirsof classical Greekculture. as in the limestone reliefof the Persian godMithras (number 30 ) thatwas found in Rome. the birthplace of the twins ArtemisandApollo.completesthe group.D.economic.Theconscious classicism of thegraceful Sguresis so intensein this work that it is often relatedto the strenuous effortsof the emperor Julian the Apostate(360-363) to revitalize paganism. Leto'ssister.Leto. but the depiction of mythological subjects. Seatednext to Apollo is the twins' mother.. oftenproducing careful copies or free interpretations of Greeksculpture and painting.In thefourth andfifthcenturies. The resplendent silverlanx at the left a large shallowdishwhichmayhaveserveda ritualistic purpose-is one of the masterpieces of the last phaseof pagan art. wherehe offereda sacriSce to Apollo. The armed.and employedGreek sciencein their technological achievements. renderedwith an idealized naturalism. 18. Newcastleupon. After the secondcentury A.

The vigorous presentation of the deitiesand the culticparaphernalia.WadeFund.Thevibrant colors.Paris.). in a leopardskin. (54 3/8in.Dionysos. Below. and Pan.Charles PotterKlingFund. Opposite: wool andlinentapestry. The piece. 75. andgraceful yet mannered figures testifyto the weaver's skillandto therichness andmonumentality of lateRoman wallhangings. The splendid textileoppositeis a fragment of a large third-to fourth-century hanging depicting Dionysosand his companions.culminatedin animaland sometimes even humansacriSces.6. Sincehe was the god of the grapeharvest andwine was a basiccommodity in the Roman world. while a maenad andPan (right) peer frombehindher legs.right:height36.8cm. wheretheseobjects weremade. TheCleveland Museum of Art.Boston.) . including a wineskin. a kantharos. Ariadne.according to Greekmyths.H. showa stillactiveappreciation of thecult.J. walkagainst a background cluttered with cultobjects.19-21.a signof distinction in paganart.appears on the sixth-century ivory below. Museum of Fine Arts. The styleof its highreliefandthe tightSt of the smaller figuresbehindAriadneresemble those featureson the ivoryof Justinian ( number 6 ).TwoErotesholda marriage wreath overherhead. with his shepherd's crook.CL 455. herea satyrandmaenad with haloes. Below. height138 cm. godof wineandfertility. ( 141/2 in.Dionysos. which preserves the shapeof the elephant'stusk. Photograph: HirmerFotoarchiv. andmusical instruments. (161/2in.18 24 .participating in the cultic revel.left: height42 cm. On the fifth-to sixth-century textilebelow.his cultpersisted intothesixthcentury in otherwise Christianized areas like Egypt. was probably madeto decorate furniture. Museede Cluny. however. The impassive facesandstiffposescontrast sharply with the classicizing styleof the earlier hanging.53.decorative architectural setting.). whomDionysosmarried afterTheseusabandonedher on Naxos. wasworshiped in ecstaticrevelsthat.


22. Thebeautiful ivorydiptych belowwasprobably made in Italyin theearly fifthcentury. It depictstwomarble cultstatues of Asklepios, thegod of medicine, andHygieia, goddess of health, that pethaps stood in thetemple of Asklepios in Rome. Asklepios leans on a club,around which is twined abearded snake. A young boyin a hooded garment, thespititTelesphoros, stands beside him.Hygieia, leaning ona tripod, offers aneggto a snake, pethaps symbolizing hertoleasa fertility goddess. AnEros looks upather. Both statues areflanked bycolumns supporting cultobjects. Theclassicistic style,particularly theloosely draped, gracefully posed figures, reveals theconscious imitation of earlier models that is characteristic of other pagan ivories of theperiod (see number 32). Height31.4 cm. (123/8in.). Merseyside County Museums, Liverpool, M10004

in waspopulat 23. TheGreekmythof Bellerophon textile, times.On this fifth-century EarlyChristian he kills,with the hanging, whichis partof a larger Chithe monster aid of the wingedhorsePegasus, compositeof lion, goat, and maera,a terrifying the portrayed, the actionis clearly snake.Although is andlandscape of the Egures spatialrelationship by NiloticsubThe sceneis surrounded confused. with Ssh, jects-Erotes, or cupids,intermingled plants,and waterfowl that are untelatedto the on as decoration Presented story of Bellerophon. myth classical of deeds heroic objects,the secular the MiddleAges as adwere enjoyedthroughout religious freedfromanyovertpagan stories, venture dogma. with Christian thatwouldconflict conterlt Patis,Gu duLouvre, Musee Woolandlinen.Egypt. Chuzeville Maurice 1230.Photograph:



Theexcitementof thestruggle is heightened by the colorful inlay of copper andtwoshades of silver.found in theRhone near Avignon. Theintricate coiling of themonster's body is echoed in thehero's raised arms and right legand intherippling contour of hislion-skin cloak. a blatantly unclassical approach to thisclassical subject. At the left.Seated in the center is Achilles. the Stoicheropar excellence. while Achilles talks to Odysseus. The impressively largefourth-century plateat theleft. richdisplay of armor.(271/2 in. (73/8 in. 25. The Art Museum. 71-35 29 . Thefourth-century bronze plaque at the rightshowsHerakles. Bibliotheque Nationale. Achilles andHerakles.). clubbing oneof thefiveheads of thehydra of Lerna during thesecond of his twelve labors. subtly modeled figures. andthe decorative moldings make theplate a truly magnificent testimony tothetaste and wealth of thelate Roman world.24. Patis. A similarly selective combination of events is found in EarlyChristian illustrations of the Bible andis typical of theperiod (number 56).Plaque: height18. combines several episodes from theTrojan War.). Thesubjects of the otherepisodes canonlybe inferred sincetheyarerepresented by single elements excerpted from fuller depictions. whocame withtheembassy of Phoenix andAjax (Iliad 9: 162657).8cm. Patroklos leads Briseisfrom Achilles's tent(Iliad 1: 326-356 ). Perhaps Egypt. Princeton University. 2875. Themajestic scale. LateAntique andEarly Christian society extolled courage andfortitude in thehuntandin circus combats. andtherefore it wasonly natural thatthebold deeds of twovery popular Greek heroes. Plate: diameter 70 cm. a scene found inPompeian painting. Cabinet des Medailles. weregreatly admired.

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N >' RW Rff P 31 .891 . of theimpressive ivory diptych at theleft arealmost made in a bower of lotusblossoms.butthatof Constantinople stantinople.CitieswerepersoniISed as female butrivers were mature.). per. sinceConstantine did not ensammlung. bout Fund. andusually bearded.diaSlled bythevoluminous figures of Rome and Constan.TheRomans. Lesstypical arehercornucopia arld painted musthavemade it a particularly impressive torch. Saidto havecomefromHerakleopolis Magna allof herpersonifications wereasuniform asthose of (Ahnas ). TheBrooklyn Museum. 27. evenmore than theGreets. its sincethe creation of the image of Antioch in early abstract qualities andthe fact thatit was brightly Hellenistic times. Theleaves the Nile in the limestone in Egypt in thesecond halfof theEfth century. a matic gemmed mural crown-onein theform of a bastioned country cousin of thegorgeous metropolitan personificitywall thathadbeen used forcitypersonifications cations of Rome andConstantinople. thatwere a staple of theclassical repertory.26. thisEgure is a wears herusualattribute. X 37.Relief: width 64.Reclining tinople. Charles Edwin Wiltheoldcapital. In herveiled lefthand sheholds a celestial orb nature surmounted by a Victory. image when seenin place.). Rome is identified byherhelmet and military demed and bearing a torch. theimage of Rome hada venerable Diptych: height 27. theNile. Antikwasa relative newcomer. as is thefigure sonified concepts andgeographical of locales in figures male.( 103/4 in. 41. Nevertheless.(253/8 transfer hiscapital there until330.4cm.5cm. architectural reliefbelow. who extends a triumphalthefertility of theNileValley. 38. Executed in theschewreath.Consequently. When these plaques were carved. Constantinople linear style common to theregion. Kunsthistorisches Museum. jutting outfrom thefagade it once decorated. Possibly Conhistory asa subject in art. is accompanied bya female deityholding fruitandflowers emblematic of dress. Vienna. in thelatefifthor of thebuilding early sixth century. not in.

.'t_ 5*/ .. half of 400 enframed State spirited objects classical disprowas delight yellow.. \ is are of and since executed sea rampant The sheer lotuses equestrian about the evidenced right. found fish... blue..anda procession bearing loping sea monsters in thatformthe handles taurs on occur scenes lost._> .+__w t. \as . fish._:^s^''t% - { & \ 1^ ) t r -T _ -.^.0 . The Textile MuD.is -ffi s 'v #X5 % t ^ s ... 4 x t w <! 4Kii w 't_S*.Wf _ t longfavored themes 28. Height slnce lion. seum. thoseon the earlier with endowed are similarly they The texspiritedmovement.... linen tapestry.5 Herin Amin the a Rr . ablesilver-gilt a batarea hunt.-z ¢> ...t _ _.. _r _ _ 32 J l J red. overlooks half been artist's medium Sea coloration to in... ^s* ...__ * > .tt_v>. i/) illustratlon Nereids...).g / | ids riding on marine creatures . and severai shades of green thoroughly charmsthe viewer.C. \\ ttr a. where (numbers oftensymbolizevictoryinwarfare.. and ) the areso have the a...*_.AX S ..1.BattlesceneswithAmazons umphsoverEasternadversaries. representing perhaps iS more the imagery Although more andthe figures cluttered than conceived schematically amphora.uas < wa # =_t \4 / vft . (823/4 in. .> =wg3 \ \ s s * / .. '. This > many 27... I' itage Museum. of winged by a border Pegasus....4_tsS#Y^L fi y_ __ __0g)' j_ s teeming in a red"sea" cavort with Erotes in boats. .ZX' si ^ /\ that the _ aquatlc tile's v }.r.f ='ffidllC _' '' o{7i}_W \ }.. ' _ 1||P7 l __z_ *(4 <_ si . # *_vs y [. 2160/l indecorationandinthecolorful L - . X ^F. They and (The Antique goat at used sixth-century area. 8 . 'creature cm. f. NereEgypand cenfrom been work 42.... o tip tr _..t*.8 X4..48 Washington. ..) Hunting _ t ' rG \< _--46. {{ t 54 _> * .@.. the j tian s *v j \29. >. had beautifully 165/8 Greeks hanging rich The hippocamp. textile 5thefigures s one ... > @ W !tHere......p t J. ( fifthBlack timesbyGreekstoalludetotri33).) -s>E<xf SL_''/ < t 2 .Jv. (numbers repertory theNilotic horses.w \ s 5. they 16..¢t X _ [. 23.. tw -_r ^ / t_ r .>_ + .. Late blrds..zX . Three art decin GreekandRoman oratethebodyof thisremarkFrom amphora. r_ t. pink...._ ..<) .. i_ / 9 '! It-_ss _ Jv 7^_ ^ 81 * itio}3q _r.. topto bottom andAmaGreeks tle between of galzons.Wool and height 212 cm. threeNereids on of the sea.wXK3l ^ .gambol nymphs of theHellenthreespecimens menagerie-a istic maritime J _{ /'- . _ < 9' t i & W h w > < ..Below. the standing between portion azons. 17).Leningrad..

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Romisch-Germanisches 0. overthesurrounding a lyre. maenads.slaughters of thenatural thecontinuation guaranteed things.whoseregenerative mos. *g *-s =-s > --§ o%w 35 .1968. satyrs.Thescorpion. At theupper genitals. and of summer cycle of the earthto the a symbol andthe snake. of Navigius in thefactory-workshop been made have ArtMuseum. theThracian on thesecondcomposition In a powerful caps.andMrs. in power a beneScial theblood. Roman century blood. in.). growth winter.2cm.sacred anddecay. (371/2 Relief: Amphora: E.While at theleft relief on thelimestone those decorative. theforces andcalmed beasts charmed andornaments side.s *' *t. drink Greeks.presides playing of Orpheus. to the Persians.39570 Mainz.31.Thefigures on theother areshown rodite may which to theamphora. to all living Thedog. gifts that or for his musical returnfrom the Underworld AresandAphof nature.). figure and Victory.112.Thedominant about Africa inNorth made of theamphora. mystery Roman herewiththe Eastby bothassociated Orpheus.Fletcher Zentralmuheight24 cm. seum. Phrygian their thecosin a caverepresenting Mithras. relief.Helios.beneScial thebull.Variations left is the all-conquering havebeenfoundin salvation anduniversal of personal image toMesopotamia. a wreath-bearing anda silenus. thebull's Near East. andapplied separately molded were inTunisia. successful forOrpheus's may be a reward Thewreath Hermes. Cincinnati width95. Giftof Mr.attacks theAncient of this sungod. Nyce. ofthetwoprecedingworks subjects thetraditional 30. (91/2in. werelargely the needsof the late belowserved amphora andthe redware and Mithras thePersian cultsof twodivinities. Britain from temples Mithraic on theface of figures is thelooseassemblage Lesssuccessful 300.

'-31. the great bythepersoniEmpire.g. of sixth-century on a number arefound 78). cance goddess Egyptian andcompassionate ingIsis. Erotes. and of thecityof Rome a resocorrespondence..<Rt. Rome. celebrated.scattering ingfruitand to by the alluded of Dionysos. Museum. of playful noses. Heis accompanied (above (seenumbers andseaanimals lotuses. oldorder. in theSgures' ivywound in the is revealed character oak tree. the artistof the pyxis a Egyptin the sixthcentury.).. border style. Aurelius members their Flavito Nicomachus marriage 402).X=SE.andthehair thick likethat ivories. hisvoluminous es andespecially of the defender unsuccessful yet ultimately lute.e:w .its palmette figure quietclassicistic Roman In earlier of the inscription.33. less self-conscious fromanother. ischer t }t.5. (33/8 in.5 height Pyxis: 212-1865. shows Theplaque Ere on overa small incense wine. covers buthereit incorrectly oneface. hair. > R skte m. latefourth-century ingtheplaque's the at a feastcelebrating whorecline Theparticipants pyxisat theright(below)are Isison theivory goddess in Working tradition. andthe lettering on draped been have would of thealtat thefestoon work. as thefaceswithprominent traits 27.).@ cults pagan to twoother related twoworks 32.. betraytwosides.through aconsul.subtle. Museum 7865 Altertumer.4X . theRoman throughout worshiped otherside on the pyxis's of the Nile reclining Scation imagery Nilotic bytheusual ).>5 S. behere in401may anus hisspeechwas...These ivory splendid The in style. 8 '. (number Menas ofSaint Victoria 29cm. thatunited marriage 340(about Symmachus wasQ. leaf:height Diptych 8. world and Roman in theGreek boxused cylindrical small purposesshunned andreligious of seculat fora variety signifito focuson thesymbolic in order illusion spatial ashonorbe identiSed Thefeastmay of theevent. bya boyholdattended a priestess.Its retrospective motif. r:¢ . different not be more could thatwascreated attheleftis oneleafof a diptych plaque pagan andpowerful rich of twoenormously formembers andNicomafamilies the Symmachi senatorial Roman The of Christianity. Such curls of tight in a series organized lips. Albert and NassauSammlung Wiesbaden.( 115/8 in.25tS5 . whosedaughter's aprefect Symmachus.'g>. date. . London. 29)..'0g. in honor perhaps analtar bythe invoked andZeus. theencroachment chi whoresisted a to commemorate commissioned wereprobably plaques among Outstanding thetwoclans. cm.

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is illusory. Universiteitsbibliotheek.height138 cm. 99 fols.34. however. in the late Stst century. Manyearlyilluminated bookswith scientiSc texts havebeen lost.908.I. different varietiesof Ssh appearto be swimming in clearshallowwater. Leiden. wereoftenillustrated with diagrammatic drawings.the WaterBearer.an effectheightened by the shadows they cast. Therealism.Lyons. TheSshwerenotdrawn fromnature butfromthe weaver'smodelbook. Egypt. With the invention. fol.Height22.qu. probably made in northern France in thecircle of theCarolingian emperor Louisthe Pious. of the more easilyhandled codex.48v 35.5 cm. but later manusctipts provide accurate copies. whichultimately drew upon a scientiScstudyor perhaps even an illustrated cookbook. writtenon papyrus scrolls.).C.Marvelous illustrations of manyseacreatures arefoundon the walls of Hellenistic tombsanddecorate Roman worksfromfloormosaics to glassbowls. In the third-century textile at the right.). that is a copy of-a fourth-or Efth-century versionof the Phaenomena of Aratus of Soloi( a poetof the fourthto thirdcentury B. Thepicture above is froma ninth-century book. EarlyscientiSc treatises. illustrations became morelavishandsometimes eventookprecedence overthe text.) .held a particular fascination for the peopleof the ancient world.andits subsequent widespread use.like astrological signs.Lat. Wool andlinen. Therichcolorsandthe sweeping movement makethismanuscript one of the mosthandsome of any age. MuseeHistorique desTissus. (87/8 in.79.thebookformwe knowtoday.116 38 . Voss. who poursa showerof starsfroma vesselheldoverhis shoulder.Thisfull pageof Aquatius showsthe ancient concept of the eleventh constellation. (541/4in. Fish. Theso-called "Aratea" was a populatastronomical treatise givingthe locations andconfigurations of the stars.

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hisfeatures mask of comedy. Richard Margolis Tunis.of thetheater. and orange depict green. Musee Height crossed. Photograph: mask rests on duBardo.). of thefirst halfof thethird onRoman portraits shown.Illustrations of thetheater of theactor.(843/4 in. does not forhisrole. and hesits age. tobeprepating of thethird cen. components intorelief thecentral itsessential background throws lozenges. The figure standing scene ofanactor and hewears is thetype of beard are notidealized.whoappears of scrolls. which wasused it is acircular case pethaps patronofhisappreciation. beneath found stand. llibrating withcontrasting Although the ofpoet. of theater. who isechoed bythat contemplative attitude in theHouse of the poet's mosaic below. pethaps a writing shown intheguise of thehouse. of a thinker. therefore betheowner forthestorage Hemay called acapsa. Heleans against peii.a cabinet were very populat 36.The masks werestored in thetheater. Thescene. actor. presumably National 215cm. with butis a tableau anactual performance black. and inhonor on a ofaplaywright theplays of thepoet. thestriking from Pomthat of Euripides in a portrait poseresembles attheright is the poet's poet.seems is a fineexample Masks at Sousse in Tunisia. Atthelefta tragic intheclassic pose 40 . incompletely a stand. in which such in thelateRo. The poet's legsare platform behind theactor. Thefloor however. white. whoholds thegrinning century. actor. found man world. tury. and masks.

Width partof thisexpensively produced manuscript. thecave. Biblioteca Apostolica. thehorses are unnaturally small.queen of Carthage. Therelative importance ofthefigures isexpressed Latin poetVergil illustrates a critical episode in his epicthe over terms: DidoandAeneas arethelargest andmost Aeneid. is oneof twofifth-century copies of thisvery popular The unclassical. ). ments allcontribute to thesimple andordered presentation of onesensibly using his shield as anumbrella.108r 41 . Dido. which alsocontains Vergil's Eclogues and surrounding woods. Vatican City. tration betrays thehand of a provincial artist. Thedecorative 32. effect hehasachieved bytheuseof vibrant color is enhanced by lat.Theilluminated page from a manuscript of theworks of the thepattern thepage. Themanuscript.3867.cod. areseated in the thescene. fol. whoilluminatedwork that have survived from theEarly Christian period.of thedraperies and of thedistribution of thefigures 37. rendering Their horses aretethered to a treeattheleft. delightfully expressive styleof the illus. Theschematic of thefigures.and twosoldiers.Georgics. andtheother landscape elebrought about bythegoddess Juno tothrow thelovers together.( 123/4 in.3cm. andAeneas embrace in a in abstract caveafterhaving sought shelter froma rainandhailstorm brightly colored.

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who. In a common Roman diningarliterature from Theocritus to Vergil appealedrangement. three shepherds recline ona semiespecially to the intelligentsia of theRoman circular bolster andexchange stories.like Plinythe Younger in the theirfoodis prepared below. which extols thepleas. Sgures. Thestylized portrayal of the theeastern Mediterranean. is reflected in a large number of objects Like thepanel in all thetable. country a dogeagerly retreats.Ieft. 1939.).39.38.. is a winecontainer thisroundel. TheSt.indicates a fifthto sixth-century Louis ArtMuseum.Bucolic poetry. while world.The quietpastoral existence evoked in literature. (131/4 in. withherkid theirowners. Their loveofanidyllic awaits scraps from refuge Inthecenter. 12. is a kantharos. Thetextile attheleft. wasprobably sewnto a tunic. fourothers areknown.wasaninvention of theso. Although overhead in Egypt. which.stylistic Thecharming scene is bordered bya frieze of andSyrian work. 143a 43 .of a series. Thesomewhat earlier roundel below is one Charles Edwin Wilbour Fund. TheBrooklyn Museum.D.).phisticated phisticated city dwellers of the Hellenistic tileshows a typeof scene described inbucolic era.thetexlife. today.At the lower first century A. More sothanthepanel uresof rural at theleft. because of its judging found byits shape andscroll relationship withConstantinopolitan handles.1cm.a shepherd skins a carcass he hasstrung litical and social asit is stilldone pressures of themetropolis inGreece in upina tree. theroundel media. could be deat her side.sought refuge from thepo. opposite. 48.Hanging fromthe grape and resewn arbor tached onto newclothes. (43/4in. may have beenproduced in birds andvines. 44.7cm.woven inEgypt. goat's hair.Below: width date. asseenin therudimentary pattern of Left:height 33. Treasured by shows a shepherd suchadornments milking a goat.

height 16 cm. Constantinople. during thesecond century B. Onthepage attheright. Such wasthepopularity of bucolic scenes thattheywereevenintroduced intounrelated scientiSc treatises to embellish thetext. he popularized scientiISc textsby rendering themintoverse. Paris.fols.). Nicander lived inIonia. where thegiants areshown assnake-legged monsters. cod. whoareshown against alight blue sea. thecentral ISgure is a shepherd burning anantler on analtar to drive away snakes. (61/2 in.Parchment.suppl. Like Aratus (seenumber 34).47vand 48v .40. Bibliotheque Nationale. Thecomposition isprobably adapted from Roman illustrations of theGreek myth of the battle of gods and giants. seenfleeing to the right. gr. Theinfluence of bucolic themes is apparent intheuseof shepherds in thisand other illustrations in themanuscript andin theidyllic landscapes in which theyareoftenset. Thepage below vividly depicts hisaccount of thebirth of snakes from theblood of giants. onthewestcoast ofAsia Minor.C.Thisglowing tenth-century Byzantine manuscript copies a nowlostLate Antique bookcontaining thetreatises of Nicander of Colophon on poisonous insects andanimals and their antidotes.247.

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a type often foundin funerary mightbe conceived someof thelady's thisbustcaptures de. in the most accomplished as "Gennadios the floorof a rich man'shouse to the silverplate that the inscription art. 43 ) antd thebronze fromAugst( number perhaps as a pendant.and they displayed Goldglass:diameter 3. of herlearning. andwife. ber44 ) arecloselyalliedwith bucolicthemes.FletcherFund.of the Greekdialectof theirinsctiptions.SecelrRealm in the classical tradition ) is portrayed worksmadefor private (andon the cover The secular realmcomprises by He is identiSed halfof the thirdcentury. TheCloisin. and the jeweltyworn by privatecitizens whichwasprobably art.hairtightlycoiffed woman.andchin. AsiaMinor. bustof a woman marble At therightis a superb scenewitha mythcasket( number 45 ) blendsa domestic portrait of a husband partof a double ologicalone. their magniScent classes. 42. ( 15/8in. carving of theeyes. andas deldrawn musical withsubjects graced his table. thepreparations icate as a EneRenaissance largely fromdailylife harvests.andthe Snelypolished amount was the privilege in anyappreciable plate and bustto the latefifthor earlysixthcentury. although moremodestworksmadefor less affluent centuries. 66. thatenhanced of the second Ranging frommosaics use andenjoyment. this sapphire-blue Sshing.theyareornamented engraving.25 ters Graced with the beautyof Apollo.9 cm.258. imagery.gentlespitit:a modest worksillustrated nominator for the seculat in theEfthandsixth in a stylepopulat ingpagesis the highsocialclassandwealthof theirown.) . Portraiture Museum. of the upper Museum. Metropolitan jewelryin theirhousesandat festivalsfor all to admire. Jewish. was largelythe domain 41.thanjusta memorial."Exquisitely drawnon goldleaf. on the follow. datethe surface. of portraiture on a small medallion is a masterpiece glass of the for a marriage. Bust: height 53 cm. Thesensitive materials blematic Thepossession of precious citizens alsosurvive. on thesepagesreflect otherrealms: the portraits to Alexandria on the basis havebeenattributed the silverplate portraits portraiture.she carries a scrollemas a cultivated ers. ( 207/8 Collection.) .scale.the youngmanbelow 46 .or Christian her shewears andvittuousspouse. listic traditions of imperial The rimof the Ssherman (num. Manyof thesecrossthe boundaties glass otherof thesejewel-like Gennadios andseveral the sty. 26. Metropolitan classessince usuallythey alone were able to affordit.Projecta's glassis beveled of rank. of the ruling mouth. The common classical. But more with abstract patternsor imperial. formounting.

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The sumptuous silver-gilt andniello plate above is decorated withsubjects that. Romermuseum. like bucolic images. Thecharming bronze at the rightdepictsa fisherman carrying his emptynet over hisshoulder and what may bea roughhewntillerin his left hand. Hunting scenes of boar.whereit was found. fromwhicharchtwo loopsshaped like ISngers.Photograph: E.1962.full face. Probably Rome. Height 17. A palace with its outbuildings.2. hares. bears. It faces a seateeming witha great variety of matine lifeand Erotes fishing from gaily ornamented boats.43. maybe a copyof a nowlostmarble work and may have served only a decorative function. Rogers Fund.Thestrutbetween the Esherman's shoulder andthebollard is the typeof support usedto strengthen marble statues. evokethe goodlife amidst idealized nature.206 48 .8cm. including a smallrotunda at the upper left thatmaybe a bath.). therefore.anda seascape fillsthecentral medallion (opposite). The Egure's caplike hair. The bollard andloopsmayhaveacted as rope guides on a smallship. He stands in front of a bollard. but not needed on sturdier bronzes.but the statuette showslittlewear. likethoseof Jonah (number 55). perhaps in Italy. a curious butcommon motif. The plate was foundrecently in Switzerland with otherequally splendid dishes anda cache ofcoins that dates thehoard to theErst half of thefourth century.andsimple but realistically draped clothing indicate thatit wasmade in thelatefourth or early Efth century.(7 in. Schulz 44. a postformooring lines. a felicitous blending of scientiSc andNiloticsubjects. 63. MetropolitanMuseum.). (227/8in. Diameter: 58 cm. Augst.is enclosed by walls withcorner towers anda domed entrance. Theplates were probably prominently displayed intheir owner's villamuchas one wouldproudly exhibit a valuable teaservice today. This sculpture. andstags alternate with geometric patterns around the rim.

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andTurcius Projecta a womannamed on thelid ( illustrated medallion in thewreathed together thecouple exhorts the inscription at the left) .honored Esquiline shown Secundus.justasAphrodite sheprepares .eventin aristocratic was an important 45. on the ket above. Marriage unitingprominent often world. 46." On thefrontof thecasket been. bridewouldhave pagan doeson thelid. Nicomachi pagan families suchas the (number diptych ivory beautiful the who commissioned were that unions social or political forming and 32) A work of the secondhalf of the lavishlycelebrated. hertoilet.foundin 1793 with a largetreasure unionof the Christian Hill in Rome. life in the late Roman and Symmachi. Although very is portrayed muchas a Projecta to "livein Christ. cassilverandsilver-gilt the magniIScent fourthcentury.

on the four in arcades standing handmaidens. a ewer.12-29. tightly and primlyaroundher.2 cm. carry feetof thestand alHere. artof theISfth Coptic Casket:width 55 cm. The BritishMuheight50.andtwocaskets.Aphrodite. tourage fromEgyptat lampstand. to on hershell.is intended seated voluptuously goddess. Projecta's andutensilsas the sides.Nelson 51 .maybe applying hereyes. goddess. therightwaspossibly casket.perhaps on the seamonsters riding Nereids in Egypt.the bride.as was a comkohl to darken metics. looseandflowing Hermantle. Thebronze asit is decorated made fora bride. braided plumpSgure.) . perhaps articles. area lampstand. her hair is severely in other imagesof Aphrodite She resembles crimped.is not a sensual though is wrapped on thecasket.offerher the sameunguents the Although TritonsandNereidsbringto Aphrodite. 58. is quitedifferent. in. (215/8 in. nudefromthewaistup.London. On the backof the lid is a scenethathasbeeninterguestsor beingacwedding receiving pretedas Projecta the bath. TheNelsonGallery-Atkins ( 19 3/4 Fund. seum.fashionably her pleasantly woman robes.or candlestick.Among to a Roman by herservants companied by her enbrought weddingpresents.with Projecta's epitomize hair. bronze. moncustom Thestyleof this hertoiletarticles.1. however. graceandbeauty. Lamp stand: 66. Kansas Museum.Aphrodite.looksjustlike an aristocratic andjeweled of hertime. andsixthcenturies.8 City. with the samesubjectas Projecta's or cosperfume who formsthe stem.).

Baltimore.Height 19 cm. carries proudof her learning. Rome.).Urania.Another as a muse. on the woman.andCalliope.vases.museof lyricandlove poetry. Thesilvercaseabove.secondhalfof the fourthcentury. crownof the lid. left to right. aregrinning master21).The sidesarecovered thanusemoredecorative walls.with a scroll. (71/2in. museof with her globe. (113/4 in. mask. 12-29.Melpomene. mayrepresent withErato. museof astronomy. bottlesforperfume containing 47. The splendid in highrelief. shemaybe associated a scroll.was andunguents. 45 ) andmostlikelywas madefor casket(number foundwith Projecta's with alternating of eightmuses withtheSgures It is decorated herwedding. not dressed Although Projecta. The WaltersArt Gallery. by thevase'sthintranslucent no doubtunderthe headsof Pan (right). 66.the ninth.andflowers.seatedin a medallion epic poetry.).Seenin this illustration club and with a Heraklean museof tragedy. Projecta.set off with grapevines pieceof agate. casket. Museum. British fromone vase at the rightis carved late fourth-century 48.2 London. 42. who rejoices ful.Twohandles. wedding On her The Height30 cm. are-from vignettesof birds.562 52 . This flamboyant wine (see number of Dionysos's influence PeterPaul to the painter oncebelonged gemcarving pieceof LateAntique Rubens.

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The pendantabove. PreussischerKulturbesitz. Above: height of pendant 4. ). These two necklacesare very differentin typebut equaIly beautiful in theirmasterful techniques. Left:length 58 cm. is decorated with a gold Aphroditeset on a lapis-la2uli shell. 30219. three gold chainshangingfrom the shell originallyterminatedin pearls.. suspendedfrom a chain(only partially shown) of alternating lapis-lazuliand gold beads.Photograph:Ingrid Geske.andsemiprecious stones.5 cm. Berlin. Washington.emeralds. 50.Antikenabteilung.6 55 .505. Staatliche Museen.C. Although this Aphrodite is less graceful thanthe earlier one.At the left.arejoinedto St around the necklike a collar.the center of the Byzantine world and of its artisticproductionduring the early seventhcentury. 28.mountedwith pearls. they were probablymade in Constantinople. (227/8 in.are characteristic of seventh-century workfromConstantinople. particularly the juxtaposition of gold andlapis lazuli. The goddesstends her hair like Aphroditeon Projecta's casket (number45). Jewelry.f A A +4 ^ | ] a B Px tt i FXi ^ ^ w W '): ) X W eF %' }ve + 49. Dumbarton OaksCollection. ( 13/4 in.Althoughfound separately in Egypt. plaqueswith openworkdesignsof lotuses andpalmettes. testifiesto the extravagant taste and vastwealthof the late empire's aristocracy. D.more than any other medium.). the Egure'sconsciousclassicism andthe pendant's exquisitetechnique.


attheleftwasmade Preussischer necklace 51. Metropolitan from her left.The stantinople. which of imperial (a green plasmas andemerald sapphires of the frame Onthefront seventh centuries.30219. Kulturbesitz.3 Diameter pieces. apocryphal 8. pendant mount is setin the Marriageband.1671 Morgan. cm.AntikenabteilBerlin. Judging helpthewearer" insctiption ("Lord theGreek in the in Constantinople below. intheTemple acurtain tohang Museum.Theimpressive Ingrid Geske 505. number 49. of bow-shaped The by a series ofJetusalem.wasprobablyofgreat on the preceding necklaces Confrom pieces of jewelry contemporary hasa per.Photograph: since ung. were likethenecklace side. extends to the Protoevan. in Egypt.190.made gender. forChristian artist adapted openwork.a circle at Cana (John2:1-11). where evento theinside.craftsmanship woolwithwhich. Pierpont in. of thecentral Stst mitacle. a second-century (chapter gelium of James is formed of theband vineandthemiddle shewove work textof thelifeoftheVirgin. by its luxurious ) 52. fora woman. bracelet medallion usesthefeminine ontheupper forawoman wasintended seventh century.2cm.holdsthe rounded seated in a wicker nunciation. Museen. where Itwaspurchased wealth.likethe early at Antinoe It wasfound inEgypt. Staatliche Length 35.(31/4 Gabriel approaches archangel 17.( 137/8 . of thatcityon thereverse sonification in the prominent a delight Theyshare usea type of imperial found.TheVirgin of the Thehighquality by its petals. seventh century in theearly the decoration. but. and indelicate of gems acluster display supporting necklace.according withanopenis overlaid of themount theback 10). Thesapphire the backis ChristXs surof a flower liketheheart of pearls.). andearly widegold on the braceletXs of quartz) andon variety medallion is theAnnunciation. page.other themedallion made inConstantinople. atorque ceremonial withgoldbeads alternating of pearls thesixth Strings here date from coins. Giftof J. chait. in. of theAn.).

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Jerusalem} Gift of Jakob Michael." Diameter 10 cm.anethrog.Jewish __ _w p} >J >: Realm The secondcommandment that God t ' I . Theirappearance on a utilitarian andctudely styledobject like thissuggestsa morewidespread useof OldTestament illustration in Jewish artthanhas been generally assumed.>-. Jewish artists alsocreated richcycles of figural scenes depicting episodes from theOldTestament.Abovethe seven wick-openings perhaps referring to a menorah. clustered branches of palm. Length 13cm. 1913. Mostaresymbols of theJewish faith andits history. >) z * _ r _ w1 w w w t . Fewexamples have survived. Theseapparently derived froman illustrated Old Testament.). andin thelowercorners aretwo oil jars. myrtle. asarethose ontheobjects shown here.or in the water (Exius 20:1-5) Nis prohibition appliedtO figural art thatcouldbe worshiped asidols.36. David(right ) slings stones at Goliath. Theterracotta lampabove is an example of suchJewish figural art. andat theleft a shofar} or ram's horn.a seven-branched menorah. Giftof Rebecca Darlington Stoddard.t the making andworship of anygraven images. New Haven.1. oncepart of a exhorts theowner to "drink mayyoulive [long].( 51/8 in. Several resemble Early Christian representations.in memory of hiswife.653 . on eachside. sincetheyinclude eventsfound onlyin thecommentaries accompanying the text.such asthegolden calfin Exodus. depicts a domed Torah shrine ( theArkof theLaw ). Elares. Themostoutstanding arethefrescoeson thewallsof thesmall third-century synagogue at Dura Europus (figure 3) on the Euphrates. on the earth.Erna Sondheimer-Michael. or thelikenesses of anything in heaven. -< t 5[ .). itsdoors opentoreveal sixTorah scrolls onshelves. (37/8 in. butnotto religious artifacts like thelavish goldfurnishings of Solomon's bOWiJ number of works ornamented withJewishreligious subjects havesurvived from theRoman period. Surrounding the menorahs areother liturgical objects: in thecenter is a lulab. its gold-leaf images highlighted by colored paint. 53. New York.. Made in Rome in thefourth century) theglassat theleft.andbelow. Photograph: David Harris 54. indicating thatJewish illustrated textswereanimportant source forChristian art. orcitron. 66. The Greek inscription written in Latin letters at thetopof thisgoldglass. YaleUniversity ArtGallery. T. holding twomore scrolls between their paws. its arms holding sevenburning lamps. TheIsrael Museum. and willow.14. twolionsrepresenting thekings of Judah. flanking it arat theright.

hereandon thefollowing ico.trated imperial by adapting support to official sponded (p." Judaism. church. dimension. ( numbers cults mystery from as well as ). 64). except Empire art.Jonah 68. andusually tion. venerated imsingle formdepicted by theyear400. 62) (numbers illustration for manuscript were veloped and faith whodiedfortheir bythemartyrs. intheRoman tialforrecognition religions allolder suppressed had state and of salvathemes on concentrated they representations. decorps Itsesprzt of itscongregations. Bythesixth religion.mythological. synods organized churches. religious pagan alsofrom jectcame 60 . ofthe richness and creativity the epitomize materials ous renas emperor position Constantine's for its images. baptismal and ) 56 number ( funerary in as tion. of anenriched thedemands tomeet produced of sources art a variety upon artdrew Christian Nascent luxuriof made reliquaries and lamps. Eastern -imperial. Christian of imagery is andthere unique. extent what to show They worship. bytheseamonster swallowed Jonah and quentially. mized aswell (numbers media to other in 313 butwassoonapplied Withthe Edictof Milan as heroes. paving essenelements onlythose thatincluded events church portant century. in thefirst inPalestine compositions Christian influenced subjects Mythological world theMediterranean throughout speed astonishing withits legends 58). He built theartistry patronage no doubtof his active Christhe of glorification the on concentrated now was on carried and of bishops.Chrixtian Realm (numShepherd fortheGood adapted shepherd sect bearing Jewish asa minuscule beginnings itsfledgling From 77). p.Christianity. 59 number see ( cycles tian twowas appeal Christianity's itsprogress. active more even an took successors His empire. liturgy. Inspiration (numbers saints below 63. with ber55 spread Christianity century.iconic usinunder. rolein the church's seTheyshow. standing withpicobjects Commemorative of the Greco. ethnic by unimpeded Judaism One forms.tially.it probably the Biblical following wasepito. andtheOldTestament persecu. cation 59. of Portraits waslittleor no ChrisThere spectacular. the is illusinches. heritage had to buildon the formal ) pro74-77 to theholysites(numbers reference imagery torial inexhaustible theseemingly and tradition Roman wasthe there Finally. vine liketheram. ( praying Jonah ). twointerrelated assumed by a tionsof theBible wasfostered growth Thechurch's isedsalvation. 201/2 13to about from in height re. Thesecond theway. iconic category. world of theartof theRoman TheChristianization a sepform saints and Virgin. 61. arate the since but in thefirsttwocenturies. 69).ranging artists Christian organization.became 58.(number and Intolerance religion. of Christianity hisadoption dered art andpagan onimperial lavished formerly after313. portrayals to their nography the under resting castup (at theright). the Christ. sequenarranged episodes with narration a pictorial was intercommuniconstant the and organization disciplined wasdetext.popular vided oftheBible. tianartcreated a deliberate through Egures holy the of otherworldliness accustomed converts pagan were of Christians majority (numform ofphysical dematerialization and century abstraction of theirgods. ( p.Pilgrimof Christian contributions artists mostsignificant a foundation Butwhat its development. patens. pages. Roman theofficial "abbreviated Called of thesubject. 62). of smallmarble group An extraordinary 55. 66. a new. andJewish. above 63. bers monufew Unfortunately being. theVirgin. cultic.a distinctively thisheterogeneous From of morality but profound the simple fold: it offered Illustralines. a universal to become intoChrisabsorbed completely was commentaries and unsuccesswere localized. Efth the in Developed 68-73).by thethird testimony to visual perand century. 60.fected toguide period thisearly from remain ments art. fulinslowing Chrisbase.intermittent ). of Christ. wassimilarly and sanctity the emphasized It art.Jonah in styleandsub.ageartwasanother. into came art Christian to be oneof the artproved in thesixth.Chalices. throughouttian withprelates correspondence a voluminous statues.gourd images. different several along developed art tian promit and boundaries.

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Similar combinations of subjects occurelsewhere in Early Christian art. andis a symbol of salvationin Christ. descent intohell. 241 62 . adding a rural touch. 240. probably in AsiaMinor.servesto strengthen thisstatue and thatofJonahpraying.leaning on a roughcrook. Few other EarlyChristian representations of thispopular episode areso striking. part animal. Its coiled body upright. below right).the monsterswallows and regurgitates Jonahwith an explosiveenergy. astheywere foundburied in a largestorage jar. and the sculptures. 237. 63.a sheep overhisshoulders. John L. Jonah upright andpraying is momentatily freeof worldlycares and in communion with his god. and resurrection.andin baptistries.238. Theirexactarrangement cannot be determined. wherethetheme of salvation was particularly appropriate. They were found with three pairs of smallsculpted busts. Severance Fund.A treetrunk.part fish.TheCleveland Museum of Art. the inspitationfor this composition. were madein the thirdquarter of the thirdcentury. Twomore lie at his feet. 239. All of the statuesarecarved in the tound. The "big fish. Jonahunderthe vine stretches languidly like Endymion of Greekmythasleep under a tree. except thatof Jonah underthe vine.65. In contrast. TheGoodShepherd is similarly relaxed.eachportraying the sameman and womanof atistocratic rank. It probably was intended to be seenonlyfromthe front. Jonahbeing swallowedby the Esh and cast up after three days was interpreted as a preEguration of Christ's death.in funerary contexts likethecatacombs in Rome." is shownasa seamonster. with the others displayed around it.left). andChrist astheGoodShepherd (p." popularly known as the "whale.The style of the portraitssuggeststhat they. The livelystatuettes areexpressive depictions of the Old Testamentstory(Jonah1-4) .the Good Shepherd.

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R : :t n i fJ 1 .theMultiplication head man's thedead touching ). f / 0 rt i 2 2 :X S ar f f-1 i i f 4 t ffi > a 95.' i. T+\X + >' /@t X :f-jt k . fourth of theearly ture They thanthe sarcophagus.. prayers Sabino's changmiraculous Christ's iS depicted right mediate atCana. number ivory that baptize Christian bare in 80 produced plaques essentials.. symbolwere were by Arch the The carved (John :of insertion same :.9 8 g W t t. t2? }?5W=S. intowineat theMarriage ingof thewater (Mark Man theBlind Healing atherleftareChrist andFishes of Loaves 8: 22-26). .< . \ f i t 4 +?%S $ g¢-.XV jl # W : i :. 4*? 1* 1 n A t X > X ) k \W Sy. his pagan ). a A (\A * gG 3 .* X < < '"' fJ' X .Theseeventsarecombined pristaken being theapostle thelifeof Peter: from of miracle hisapocryphal and soldiers byNero's oner wallsso that hisprison to flowfrom water causing inChrist."t A d ..according Sabino named 26) beonthesixthday(April thetop.'$' f j s <?uX - t>: .} in -S< fi 5Qi 6X .: X _ F .7_mir-Xt it ti X #4) j > a2 X \ XRW X tt At E F . sarcophagi guards. Thecrowding Thedeeply in thebackground.ConF4\9 . withChrist 11: 1-44 with two witha rod. and Roman the on theis These these reliefs Raising funerary intensified from episodes pages on of Rome the Lazarus art.. > > )>. -r .#k. Iater Romea century }. 4 A44 . ^ S jW W t :. of withthemes dealing thewell made century fourth in theearly stantine belowfor a man sarcophagus marble preserved at to theinscription who.f J *: . : : S $ t t } . is apraying In thecenter imAt thewoman's forsalvation.56. traditional atelier he to ( The see could their 57. @ ib scenes of OldandNewTestament witha variety also were which salvation. . \ . X. izesalvation arereduced which of the scenes. .%f+9++ S>l >. =.. < ¢> 3Z |. \Fidab 4 ' s % l . X g F > X )> XtX 007 A . heads of onlookers' anddrilled chiseled withsharply figures undercut sculpof Roman aretypical anddraperies features century.wasburied of May fore thecalends whosymbolizes woman.

OA7876. unlike the sarcophagus.left: height20 cm. Staatliche Museen. Lat. Plaque. Plaque.eSE - v - 4 = i = a illustrate episodes fromthelife of Christ: at theleft fromtop to bottom-the Massacre of the Innocents. Theirupraised armsandanguished facesareadapted fromclassical depictions of griefstricken Trojan women.). Berlin.Fruhchrist:W lich-Byzantinische Sammlung.andthe Marriage at Cana.Sarcophagus: width200 cm.l. standing behind theherdof swineintowhichChrist hascaused thedemons to enter.In the Massacre of the Innocents. 2719. 4 Monumenti Musei e GalleriePontificie.5 cm. who carries his bed. (77/8 in. and the man possessedof demons(Luke 8: 26-33).Preussischer Kulturbesitz. 410-420.the Baptism of Christ.At the right Christmiraculously cures the woman withtheissueof blood( Mark 5:25-34). Although lesselegant in stylethanthecontemporary ivoryPassion plaques (number 61 ). . 410-420. Someepisodes aremoreelaborately anddramaticallypresented thanothers.right: if height 19. Musee du t&) Louvre.Vatican City. the paralytic (Mark2: 1-12). theseshow h the samecompactly proportioned figuresand the A lucidcompositions of thoseandotherRoman work S of the firstdecades of thefifthcentury. in whichthe riverextendsto the top of the frame. for example. Patis.( 783/4in. (73/4 in.) .MuseoPio Ctistiano. 161. babiesare hurledto the ground beforeHerod'seyes while the mothers cry out in despair.Theplaques.7877. presenteach event in its own frame.whichis decorated with classical moldings. 315-325.7878 tD' .).

personified by the rivergodbetweenthe two Sgures.394 .andlessformal episodes in landscape settings. to hand-to-hand combatto determine the outcome of the war.thatare depicted as imperial courtfunctions. findsa remarkable parallel in Heraclius's warto freethe HolyLandfromthe Sasanians.396.who.Heraclius won and latercaptured Jerusalem andrestored it to Christian rule. Thesetof platesmaywellcommemorate hiscampaign. whilePhilistines (right) prepare to flee. Eachplateis formedof a solidpieceof silver. (51/2in. since they beat imperial controlstamps ( equivalent to modern hallmarks ) withhis portrait asit appeared on coinsfrom613 to about630. the artisthas endowedthe imageswith an extraordinary sense of movement andvolume anda wealthof decorative detail.muscles taut.Theplateat theright.At the top Goliath cursesDavidin the Valleyof Elah.intricately chasedby hand. these two silver platesarepartof a set of ninewith scenes fromthe Old Testament life of KingDavid.Gift of J.whereDavidtook the stonesfor his slingfroma brook. Theplatesweremadein Constantinople during Heraclius'sreign.the largest andmostimportant of thenine. 17. the enemygeneral.combines several episodes related to David's slaying of the Philistine warriorGoliath(1 Samuel17:40-54). Below:diameter 14 cm. Right:diameter 49.4 cm. illustrate ceremonial events. Foundin Cyprus.suchas Saularming David for his battle.prepares to castthe shotthatwill stunhis adversary Istaelitesoldiers ( left) observe thecombat. A contemporary source recordsthat in 627 the emperorchallenged Razatis. like the onebelowof Davidslaying thelionthatsetuponhis flock( 1 Samuel 17:34-39) . Metropolitan Museum.58. The plates'ambitious subject. Davidattacks the lionfrom behind a composition adaptedfrom classicalrepresentations of Herakles slaying theNemean lion.) .190.foureachin two smaller sizes.Despitethe difficulty of this task.At the bottom Davidbeheads thefallenGoliath.).centering on David's victory. Theeightotherplates. Pierpont Morgan.( 191/2 in. In thecenter Goliath lungesat David. Amongthe most splendid worksfromthe reignof the emperorHeraclius(610-641).

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59.25 60. acq. Thelively andrichly colored scenes include. Parallels fortheturreted andcolumned buildings in North African mosaics andfor the expressive figures and strong butdark palette inlater Spanish manuscripts suggest thatthePentateuch wasmade inoneof those areas.5cm.Herehis brothers are brought before himafterthe cuphadbeenfound hidden in Benjamin's sackof grain.Isaacfeeling Jacob's handandneck. Thenarrative is arranged in three irregular registers witha wealth of architectural andgenre detail.The sixth-century ivory pyxis below bears three scenes from thepartly apocryphal Jewish story of Joseph andhis divining cup(Genesis 43-44). Joseph's feast forhisbrothers andtheir attack upon Benjamin when thecup wasdiscovered arealsoillustrated.likeotherChristian pyxides. Theadventure-filled life of Joseph waspopular in Early Christian art.} d:S:.whicharewrapped in goatskin to deceive him. which comprise thePentateuch. Theseventh-century manuscript at the left.at the bottomright. TheState Hermitage Museum. contains four of thefirst fivebooks of theOldTestament.Jacob's dream of the ladder..). it may. It is written in Latin andillustrated with full-page miniatures that group together events inthelives ofOldTestament figures. Bibliotheque Nationale. Perhaps Constantinople. lat.and. Thevigorous. at the right.( 151/2 in.2334. calledthe Ashburnham Pentateuch after oneof itsowners. R_L ' 'CZ . Although theuseof thispyxisis unknown. w8 * b_ a f *-t } m. s: w e>.). a distinctive feature of themanuscript. havecontained the Eucharistic bread. nouv. fol. incense. or relics. Paris.Rebecca overhearing Isaac send Esau to thellield to huntforgame. (3 1/16 in. Height 7. at thetopleft. Height 39.7 cm. expressive styleis similar to that of the^ Joseph cycle on theivory bishop's throne in Ravenna. Leningrad. here Jacob and Esau (Genesis 27-28 ).

pictorial morecomplete Threescenesare crowded right atthenear intotheplaque ): Pilate washinghis (above handsto absolvehimselfof carrying Christ death. fromwhatmust havebeena cycle. left of thecross sidewith Christ's whopierced at the right. Christ's the crosson the roadto Calthe vary. plaques. andJohnat the Mary grieving andLonginus. Theevents as together sionweregrouped art in Christian series a special Theyrepresented andthought.with a wreath Christ here Even thecross. saron theearlier -composition mirChrist's depicting cophagus 56). representations Christis shown the cruciSed fortheSrst form inhuman here the Crucifixtime. forbetraying inghimself with the andthe Ctucifixion. of disciple a a cockcrows. surviving from ascanbejudged of the scene. of the promise fulfillment the and gave of his incarnation to the hope for redemption faithful. onlysymbolion wasdepicted hanging ically.with Peterseeming to progress Christ's interrupt of the is reminiscent Calvary.It was not until four 70 . head. (number acles complaque TheCrucifixion hangJudas binestwo events: Christ.Pasof (Xhrist's 61.the thanhanging rather cross. These four ivory oncepartof a casket. triumphant on. Lord.Previously.and Peter denying is he that accusation woman's his Above Christ.The overlapping to sodes. Passion theearliest areamong scenes some depict They series. on a pillar.As far his spear. from as the Gospels doesnot suffer asthe butis portrayed describe hiseyesopen. his body superimposed from. threedeof Peter's a symbol of epinials.

Thetwo other plaques each showa singleeventfollowing theResurrection: thetwowomen at the tombof the risen Christ.4 hundred years laterthatChristianartists dared to showhim suffering asa man. It is anelaborate domed structure with an entrance framed by columns andclosed with doorssculpted with the Raising ofLazarus and amourningwoman. TheBritish Museum. Above. reachesout to touch Christ's side.(37H8in. Width 9. The resurrected Christappears to hisapostles in theSnal plaque. The first scene is arranged schematically. Theivories are amongthe most accomplishedRoman worksof the Theodosian period (about 380450). who. London. Three of theother tenapostles present in theGospel storygazewonderingly at Christ. withsleeping guards flanking theopendoors of the tomb. The plaques arebeautifully andelegantly worked in high relief. and.doubting him.6-23.below.. Thetomb doesnot represent theactual burial cave butthe rotunda builtoverthe sitein Jerusalem in thefourth century. who are"stacked" on eitherside withoutregard to perspective. All attention is concentrated on the empty tomb.. Thereflective mood is reinforcedby the ambiguous spatial relationship of thefour Egures.. standing on a daisand showinghis woundsto the apostle Thomas.the figures arerealistically conceived. the women contemplateChrist'sdisappearance.8cm.).Christ appearing to his apostles. with graceful draperies. 4-7 71 . Although the headsare unnaturally large. 56.

72 . during 29 1286.Bothillustrations (Matthew Jericho menfrom twoblind who David. atHerod's to Salome platter are 20: 30-34). Bibliotheque Height: thesixthcentury. tionale. illustration.Isaiah(at the rightof the eventsportrayed tellingthe Christian the eyesof the blindshallbe said. intothefigural by aredescribed of theEgures Thedraperies andjewelry.luxurious manusctipt's in Syria Antioch city like in a major commission asanimperial production Na29.(115/8 in. shades in various brushstrokes rapid The shading.thefaces pointto its illumination andskillful format. grec.andyellow.red. cod."Then scene).Thelavish (Isaiah opened" thedecoration and robes.10r.5cm. Thisfragmentary TheGreek Matthew. prophets bytheOldTestament flanked asforewereinterpreted which prophecies. areillustrated twopages of which manuscript.). in thedetail shown of thepage at thebottom has ( theroofof which bodyin prison bend overhisdecapitated theright ona head John's hands a servant ). style. while viewing forbetter removed been the Christ heals attheright Onthepage feast. brown and beige. areenlivened bywhite.suppl. Moses. stained ) arepainted 14:3-12 (Matthew John theBaptist of Saint thedeath from at Thetwodisciples above. and King Isaiah.Scenes bylawforimperial reserved color anexpensive purple. of Saint theGospel from leaves forty-three contains thathasbeen of goldinkon vellum in letters written textis beautifully use. 62. fols.here. Paris.for example. bypink. healing over useof goldforthetextis carried 35:5). tunic of David's highlighted of blue. Christ's inthehaloes. withtheir written holdscrolls here.

M#wFl^H r l 73 .

The leaf is similarin its composlan( hleratlc eve-partc1vls1on 6. . wreathed bodiesand tubular Theunarticulated.upperandlower: Manchester.Below.).Annais intertupted her barrenby her maidas she laments ness. Bottom: width 30. theVirgin whenshedoubts arerelatedscenes: plaques surrounding at the lowerright. mausoleum velusctipt. ( 83/8in. left. 63.Ms. TheBritish Add.8 ) . 11 London. the test of her vitof Mary ginityby water.andthejourney At the top. at the upperright. 21. defaces.). (51/8 in. To simplifythe task of cross-refof Christin the four accounts erencing Gospels..).writtenon a gold-stained madein Constantilum.the Annunciation to Mary(left).in contrast. Center:height ische Sammlung. ) .3 cm. ance called the CanonTables. Staatliche Fruhchristlich-ByzantinBerlin. Paintedwith brightlycoloredfothe richlyorresemble liage.in Eastern in Majesty. and Josephto Bethlehem.8 cm. offergifts with the assistance costumes. University 6. flankangelsbearinga two archangels cross. Right. . KulturPreussischer Museen. fol. Victoria Library.Height Library. of an angel.) . besitz. . 2978. height 10. a fourth-century drewup a concordbishopof Caesarea.. The State HermitageMuseum.the arches bordersof earlychurchmonamented of an 4 ). .5 cm. was probably nople in the seventhcentury.at the bottom.3 cm.w 300. an angel anconception nouncesAnna'smiraculous of Mary.andthe draperies inexpressive scribed by shallow parallellines rePalesto eighth-century sembleseventhtinianicons. The JohnRylands University. (91/8in. Eusebius. The portrait saics (see Egure it is quiterealistic. named of a woman the figure withers whosehand frontof themanger. Protoevangelium typhal in Salome. These at the beginning were usuallyincluded of the Gospels and arrangedunder at the as on the pagefragment arches. Lent anonymously 74 . ( 121/8 in. may be inspiredby the sculptedmehad madefor his dallionsConstantine Themanin Constantinople. On the central andChild leafat therightaretheVirgin The threeMagi.Leningrad. 23.the Nativityscene fromthe apocby additions is enlivened suchas ofJames. panelof the diptych 64. ( 12 in. apostle. .4 cm. 5111. In the Birth. ivories(numbers tion to imperial Top: width 30. 301.

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of a lost sheep.bearded of Christ as theGoodShepherd as a philosopher 65. Musei e Gallerie the salvationof the deceased(see number56).2 t X. especially in intellectual andwife engaged Popular in the LateAntique husband thropy. theshepherd crouching in Rome. derivesfroma classical whoappears repentant withhim.n . _ }t t A t i A /\? r K A S r. funerary modelsthatit is intofunerary adoptpagan of theWest. v /'b t W9.4' N/X/S *9) A.).to identify foundin theViaSalaria endsmakes thisoneof the ramsat therounded stands in the center. Theportrayal manseatedat the left.* - F w- whore. AF ' ' r> . z-o . Monumenti termsas praying Vatican City.Thedepiction whocommissioned on a deceased disperiod. womanwith outstretched Marble..mayrepresent to be in a discussion Philan.and the womanat the right. pute was an Easterniconographic assimilated theyservedas images tradition monuments. of salvation. arms. as pagan to survivefromthe Romansarcophagi betweentwo treesandothersheepin his flock.who can also be inter.i Wt XJ N S.t.siverestoration. The Museo Lat.) t kX - . L 9XoJ > @" >' 4. did Christians imagery So faithfully sarcophagus Themonumental andof thevigorous as on this late third-century scale of thefigures often difficult. pretedin bothpaganandChristian Pontificie.thecouple personifying shepherds of sheep-bearing of tradition thework. length238 cm. ' § a 'i: a.symbolic joicedover the recovery sinner(Luke15:3-7). (933/4 in.next to a second extenIt hasundergone halfof the thirdcentury. 4 k w S. most impressive Theshepherd or Christian.S= . dressed of a andreading froma scroll. d's ''e/D tt 'S 77 . 250for 275.181 PioCristiano.

in (num. andPhtygian caplikeOrpheus of thesun. saints whoareidentiSed hisleft. scher 9. Alirgin and Child ontheleftwing bowl(below. Christ. Staatliche diameter nople. RomischBowl:diameter Museen. tomark thegravesites. W 'Y'0. depicted. Oxford . thatincludes ivory in theCleveland Museum theJonah group enthroned as thealat theright. philosophers seated furniture is diminof the architecture and The solidity and fortheproduction of goldglass. Good Shepherd There is. Thesureidentification imagery to porartists adapted imperial such as traits largely onaChristian context. 18 cm. 0.).). who was sometimes andhieratic setting.39447.and dressed in a cape of heaven. Peter athisright and probably structs theapostle on Christ andtheVirgin donotsitcomfortably bytheinsctip. Peterand is flanked by hispalace ruler.and four spiritual theyinhabit a two-dimensional depictions of theirthrones. Thecanopies. of PuseyHouse. left) from The century redware here seated byangeis. (7 in. numerous pieces walls tles andangels. ber 31). is broidered catacombs. Thisbowlshows composition shepherds representing (number 8 ). diptychs. at theright. wasa major center andtheaposof decoration.theVirgin. Preussicentury. Thisfourth. everything is subordinate where Rome world inthemidst of their students.cations moon.Christ thefourth-century arestrangely insublarge in scale. Berlin.although Paul at ivory. of Christ. Themain Egures sitbeneath alsocombines a Good with richlyemof Jonah ted canopies on lion-legged thrones as he appears in a number in contemplation. Fruhchristlich-Byzantinische Kulturbesitz. howmodeled faces anddraperies. height 29 cm. The Governors 564/565 Sammlung.mighty thesplendid statue guard.as the Good 68. ornate furnishings. Ivory. is based onRoman tions. 78 .stantial. right). such as imitate those onconsular Philanthropy. diptych illustrated on page 63. Thecomposition totheir authority. On the superb Shepherd depends theVirgin. byanoverabundance It is ished have been found in itscatacombs. Christian of (3hrist 66. elaborately sculpShepherd withJonah. in Early withfirmly wasanother populat theme Christ teaching thefourth-century difference between sources. of pagan architectural carrying aram inthemanner North African art. as the thatof Clementinus depictions of Christ thatsomeNorthAfrican mode.. appear atfirst to bein theclassical Thefigures arederived from Orphic imagery. ButthisGoodShepherd cycles in Roman withsmall personificushions.3 cm. (35/8in. ConstantiGerman.attheleft. who. 67. Glass: isches Zentralmuseum.).a dramatic on pagan Christian artthatwasmodeled on the of Christ on thispage andtheEgures in. On ever.theirlegs and feet lost behindthe were embedded inthecatacomb believed thatthey to Christ and existsolely in their relationship thrones. The mayrefer to thedome especially in theirspandrels. are protected North Africa Paul.portrayals goldglass(below. andsaints.( 113/8 in.mid-sixth Mainz.

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. his tunicandpallium. Bequest. this tapestry is a rareexample of the magnificent textiles usedin churches to coverdoorways. Height42.Purchase.8 cm. Angelsas portrayed in Early Christian artwere derived fromthe wingedVictories who oftenaccompanied emperors in LateAntique art.which.144 70. Probably madein Egyptin the sixthcentury. The archangel on this ivorydiptych leaf hasbeen identiISed as Michael. The tapestryis richly colored and handsomely woven. thisimage maybe basedon thearchangel whoreplaced the traditional Victoryon the coinsof JustinI (518527). The imageof the Virginwas probably inspired by suchcontemporary painted icons asthatof theVirgin andangels atMount Sinai. Leonard C. the Motherof God.as thisoneprobably was.). or mantle. shownas theprotector of anemperorwho musthaveappeared on the lost companion wing.Theyouthful beauty of the full-cheeked archangel. ( 703/8 in. Likethe Egures on the Berlindiptych(number 68 ).It demonstrates to a greater degreethanthe ivorydiptych in Berlin(number 68 ) an increasingly iconicart. judging by the inscription "Receive thesegifts . ashe is shownin someapsefrescoes at Bawitin Upper Egypt.Above. but the dematerialization of the figures alsoreflects a more ferventattemptto revealthe heavenlyrealm. Wooltapestry." he offersto the emperor. or. The ivoryis carved with a mastery andreSnement unsurpassed inEarly Christian art. ( 16 7/8 in. He holdsa staffand an orb surmounted by a jeweledcross. to decorate the walls..but compared to the earlier diptych fromConstantinople.The subject is the gloriScation of the XTirgin as the Theotokos. to hangfromthe ciborium around thealtar. Jr. Mary gazesintoanabstract heavenlyspace. To someextent. the figuresare coarser and classical perspective is evenmoreneglected. i . Enthroned with the ChristChildand flanked by the guardian archangels Michael andGabriel. London.) .an attribute of imperial office. he clearly belongs to the spiritual world. . Hanna. . EC295 I s : rL :? . andthe elegance of the settingandbeautifully letteredGreek inscription epitomize the splendor of the artistic production of Constantinople in the ISrst halfof the sixth century.cult medium andto a less skilledartist. TheClevelandMuseum of Art. Portraits of the apostlesare set in a stylizedwreath border(see Sgure4).69.clingingto his bodyin supplefolds. TheBritish Museum. height178 cm.sincehis relationship to the architecturehe standsat the top of the stairsbut in frontof the arcade is physically impossible. 67.Christappears in the starry heavens in a mandorla of lightcarried byangels. ason the left wingof theBerlin diptych.thisis dueto the diS.

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argue against their production Bishop forfear.Onthese ivories thebearded men holding books aremost orator's fourEvangelists. graceful patterns. Fitzwilliam Museum.Such opposition widegrew more fervent astheuseand sometimes abuse oficons became spread in thesucceeding centuries. andthecomplete lack of architectural details of scape to define earthly space exemplify theultimate spiritualization iconic art. heis dressed here in a bishop's closed by tunic andstole. sixth century. Paris. According totradition. Theystand in front of a colonnade. Egypt or Constantinople. Evidence of their exists in texts.3cm. Cambridge. as falling loosely inmannered. theVirgin. M10. straps. thearchitecture actsas a theatrical backdrop withfolds large Egures.perhaps a city's fortiScations. (131/8 in. Bibliotheque 1129a Nationale. Height 33. above depicted Christ's conversation withtheSamatitan woman at thewell carrying (John 4: 6-28 ) and theHealing of theParalytic. forexample.likely the 71. Theevangelists areclothed in tunics andpallia heads.andholds a bookwithpearl-studded covers pose. Incontrast. Theuseof these a is stilla puzzle. areemphasized byprecise definition ivories features andespecially of thehairandbeards. height 32. many of which. a background from Beroccurs onsome earlier Christian work. and saints painted of survive. because of theirfragility andthe devastating destruction use images during theIconoclastic period (726-843 ). works like cluding some splendid icons atMount Sinai and more modest theicon ofSaint Mark theEvangelist attheright.Fewearly portraits ofChrist.Encaustic onwood.( 123/4 in. whois shown take place hisbedandmattress whilea disciple looks on.11-1904 onpanels 72. Mark's stern frontal orlandwidestaring eyes.). they may have decorated a bishop's throne orpossibly Gospel bookcover.). Collection Froehner. inThere remain a fewpaintings from thesixth to seventh centuries. thattheyencouraged idolatry. Three of them raise their hands in a Roman which are speaking gesture. Eusebius. theit of the thecenters of their intellect. sister. ironically.These scenes that before a masonry wall.notalways unjustiSed.5cm. Mark wastheErst bishop of Alexandria. Constantine's thepainting of Christ thatshehadrequested of him. Cabinet desMedailles. 83 . Asontheivory diptych forthe lin (number 68). refused to send Constantia. Although a simple provincial work.

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Thisleadampulla.longmustache.Themost common souvenir was a flask. insctibed "Oilof thewoodof life from theholysitesof Christ. whoonce heldthestaff attheleftinhis right hand. 48. At theholysitesin Bethlehem and Jetusalem.). asoldier and martyt.112. Like Saint George. height 48 cm ( 187/8 in. The figures flank a grilled enclosure through which onecansee analtatandlamp. andfromthesixthcentury wasusually depicted withdistinctively dark curly hait. thecitiesof Christ's bitth.. thatmay have flanked a central image of Christ ortheVirgin. Thesaint is oneof several figures. Fogg ArtMuseum. Jr. thehand shown here next tohim is that of another saint. With hisstarkly modeled face and unwavering gaze. richly colored hanging wasfound atAkhmim inUpper Egypt.death." depicts theangel andtwowomen atthetomb. asheappears on thetextile at the left (alsoin color on thefrontispiece )." came from theChurch of theHolySepulcher in Jetusalem. after hisresurrection. Ononeside is theCtucifixion. early captured theimaginations ofChristians. Theodore. and pointed beard. he is truly theguardian soldier of theChristian faith. some columns andtheupper stories areshown here. Rockefeller. Thisfragment of a large. Sixth century. Theodore.18 85 . Diameter 4. Since theit trip wasoften arduous and expensive. D.pethaps pilgrims.1939. Harvard University. originally fulllength. Giftof Mrs. Constantine and hissons builtmagnificent churches in which pilgrims could worship. insctibed "Christ is risen. which is adored by twomen. Thetwo thieves arectucified on either side.thatthey were used in illustrations of these events thatwere made fatfrom Jetusalem. andresurrection.( 1 13/16 in. Wooltapestry. Sopotent werethese images because of theitconnection with theholysite. stamped witha picture of theeventcommemorated at the church and filled withoilfrom thelamps in thesanctuary.Theodore isoneof themost populat saints of theChristian church. John D. much asa pilgrim might have seenthem in thelatesixth century whentheampulla wasmade.6 cm.2 74.. symbolized by thebustof Christ above thecross. Dumbarton Oaks Collection.73. Thescene is setin thefourth-century totunda builtoverthetomb. Washington.C.Thereverse.Pilgrimages were asmuch a part of thelifeof a devout Christian in theearly church as theywerein Chaucer's England.). withanother insctibed withTheodore's name. isdressed inabeige tunic and cloak withblue and redtrim and stands before a redbackground. or ampulla. thetravelers wanted to take home mementosof theblessing they hadreceived atthesite.

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Plaque: Sammlung. (31/4 l Pyxis:height 79. Musee ( 113/4 MuseumX TheBritish or Constantinople.who is approached Two camels his sanctuary.3 cm. 13 if : l i t 87 .). ln. p P. du Louvre. flankthe saint.SaintSimeon. 1. (3 11/16 in. Syrian seventh-century andearly latesixthother of Saint fromthemartyrdom scenes ivorypyxisbelowbears Thesixth-century southwest to AbuMena. pilgrims somany drew Menas popular.. Maurice Bj 2180. andthick-set haitandbeard by the shortcurly identtEable rightis readily letterrho of theGreek andtopin the shape whosearms a cross Thesaintcarries witness principal roleasChrist's toPeter's refers Thecross monogram. appears belown thescene art including mostof hiscommemorative thatmaysymbolize enclosure in anarched arms withoutstretched in prayer stands by fourpilgrims.>> [this]in gratitude "I haveoffered reads: folds. wasenchurch thathismemorial buried7 he wassupposedly where of Alexandria. littlerelation having in patterns falling silver. Menas inSyriaand theElder Simeon of Peterat the statuette thebronze in Rome. 9. Christ?s form The gesture.builtat the to prayin the churches longdistances alsotraveled 75-77. Enormously Menas. 12-20.). of late makethis a fineexample drapery andsoftlymodeled posture expressive fi art. 22). He is shown onearth. snake} is coiledanenormous whtch on hiscolumnaround stands Simeon plaque. which nowlost? reliefn wasa famous initscrypt Nexttohistomb times. commissioned probably donor on thosedepicted resemble to theanatomy. in. Onthisbeautiful wasbuiltaround a church in 459J hisdeath After Sim'an.BerlinFruhchristlich-Byzantinische Chuzeville. besitz. Thesubject (number of thecultof Asklepios theinfluence showing perhaps cured thatSimeon witha legend beconnected it may differently. in a speaking raised hand hisright asa teacher.Photograph: Paris.ss * ^s . Peter to honor weremade objects These andsaints. Roman Efth-century early fourthand } hardship to livein great at theleft sought theEldershown Simeon Themonk Qa'lat s at modern atopa column -Hespenthis lastyears of Syria. Egypt 8 cm.). three larged Menas to copy. foundin a catacomb Reportedly Egure. Staatliche height Statue: height30 cm. areas in remote silver it.1 '* London.Pilgrims in Rome. KulturPreussischer Museen. it wasfoundThefulldrapery where it tnSyria.Theplaque's hadsought mate whose of a snake theinfertility The to Godandto you. identified hasbeen inscription htshelp. of apostles gravesites inEgypt.

24. aretwoEgures hindanaltar theSacra. administering from flies deacon and tokeep of apriest practice Eastern 30.36.anox. of Christ.andaneagle flanked of danger. lavish artists.be. Such bytheimperial Dated The century.Above: unclassical 35 cm. in and bishop} stamped in with buried were creature pieces heavenly of these Many a winged andfurniture.. ( 1:4-28 a symbolic served II (565-578 metal ofJustin stamps of precious fans eontrol ).). purpose a practical witha dedication is inscribed thepaten itsmore recall be.C. by thevision inspired andliturgical paten animage wheels. of thesixth Megalos than intheliturgy of thedonors. their Emperor.The in.engraved of the Apostles: onthisone however. in Syria. times of Ezekiel fan.WiththeEdict humility. Collection. Aleppo. Thestyleis typical 78. the functional reflecting equipped which. draperOaks apostles' of theact. (12 1W8 emphasizes ionthat knees. near found onehoard a lion. Opposite: diameter ina deliberately aredepicted Thefigures ment. D. feathers theCommunion peacock It dep£cts andNonnos. implements Onthefanis a tetramorphl about fourfaces thatof a man. perhaps ancestors.awkwardly 88 . counterparts.(133/4 in.9 height fash. Dumbarton thesanctity cm.23 their around and arms their over bundled ies.).79.5. were withrealfeathers. thissilver-gilt by flaming 1910included rather ).used theSacrament.exaggerate vessels liturgical Christian of sixth-century of Milan. with Syrian by churches capital endowed the in alike or citizen wealthy Constantinople. of silver pagan there their made as been have may cameas sumptuous thepaten workin Syria. Washington.

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andFishes(Matthew of Loaves Multiplication fortheconsecrated its useas a container thatsuggests subject Christ illustration. Christ ina church thatmayimitate background an arcaded against andangulat proportions withtheitstocky Thefigures.). 17. 9 cm. made thatwereprobably ivories sixth--century the static.34 Morgan. sitsona throne. bread himby twoof his andtwofishoffered thefiveloaves blesses others andattheright.which to distribute setforth teach. of J. illustration while. in a deserted shown of being Instead symbolically. placed are and thedisciples likeabishop. Here.(31/2 in.Pierpont 90 . inthelower disciples suicedto feedthemore thefood.in theupper of theEuchatist. is depicted the mitacle in the New Testament.190. to heatChrist whocame people fivethousand than asdesctibed landscape. The in Egypt.of the miracle withChrist's pyxisis decorated 80.formal between andthe contrast format circulat to thecomenergy givea special disciples andthelively Christ Gift Museum. Metropolitan Height: position. of contemporary to thoseon a number aresimilat gestures. Thisivory a 14:13-21). terior.

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on theother. butterflies.TheAntioch of a it as theproperty marks richdecoration Its remarkably church. it wasreportedly where near by surrounded of Christ two figures it displays cup. characteristic eries.the from objects liturgical famous is oneof themost Chalice 81. probably parish. ters 93 ."I amthetruevine"[John (Jesus Day. of composition sense matic of workof theSrsthalfof the sixthcentury. in. to its sculpted wear considerable hassuffered thechalice Although wellshows forthedracover ontheback it is stillimpressiveasthedetail drapand of thefaces style incisive and thestrong. theeagle onwhich of grapes basket of thechalice. by birds. other outwithwings aneagle above Christ is enthroned him. instructs Christ Ononeside.4 Collection. silver overa plain fitted and snails. salute to at hisrightrefers whilethelamb of theResurrection. inhabited scroll vine in a lush seated apostles who hisdisciples. Metropolitan Syria. second Christ's 15:1]).qualities TheCloisMuseum.(71/2 Height: 50.Thevinescroll ment beloaves might ofwhat basket and stands.theyouthful animals. said. early in Syria.). a symbol spread. function to theEucharistic ) refer (notshown ofbread surface. andthriving wealthy casing silver-gilt of anopenwork Made found. at Antioch-on-the-Orontes. atJudgLord theresurrected may represent Thescene coming. Probably 19cm.

sinceit wasfoundat ancient Emesa( modern Homs) .likemost jects discovered withit.right ). wasprobably made in Constantinople. reflecting theincreasingly Originally susportrayal of holy Egures in theseventh century. withburning inpended by silver chains. thecenser wasISlled It wasfound in cense and swung byadeacon during theliturgy.the Virgin. is shaped like Theunusual lamp. theVirgin. Among the mostbeautiful silvervesselsof Early tian craftsmanship is the handsome vase below. dated by its imperial stamps years602-610. a clerestory.Here Christis shown withabook. and among Constantine's in Rome. of theobCyprus in thelatenineteenth century but. andapostles gazeoutof theirmedallions iconic more remote and hieratic way.hisrighthand raised inblessing. withanarcaded nave. in a Christ.archangels. were to theLateran Basilica. Ten apsewiththebishop's throne in place behind meant to branches in theform of dolphins terminate in rings of Early holdglasscups.Chris82-84. Thevasewasprobably usedto holdthe sacramental winein anearly Syrian church. and thealtar. is PaulandathisleftPeter.Lesselegant thantheEgures on theHomsvase.Subtly modeled andelegantly thesefigures exemplify the revival of classical formandtastein the Justinianic period. At hisright posed. and apostles. simpleand bustsof chastein its contours andwith exquisitely embossed Christ. a semicircular abasilica. found in a tomb inAlgeria. Similarly arresting arethe bustportraits on the silverhexato the gonalcenser(below. theStstchurch hebuilt as "dolsilver chandeliers whose lamp-holders weredesctibed 94 . Dolphins werea distinctive feature gifts Christian lamps and chandeliers.

( 133/8 length bronze.3... in.. in... (161/2 Vase:height width10..Lamp: London.(43/8 HerTheState century. temporary Silentiary the Paul ). w71 Leningrad.)." 9:5).). 2 figure ( in Constantinople Sophia Hagia hangs "There lamps: of themany effect thedazzling desctibed gazwere you say might You lights. Maurice Bj 1895. TheBritish cm. t t o ing on the effulgent stars ofthe heavenly Corona .). Fifth 34cm...... bright of choir circling the Patis. (John of theWorld astheLight himself desctibed Christ by their is attested decoration tolein church important Their in congivento them andtheprominence designs imaginative of church new on Justinian's In hispoem writings...9 Censer: Chuzeville. Musee 44 cm.Photograph: 99. " ^ t j ^ L tt t J o t e ej because forChristians signiI5cance hada special Lamps phins. mitage b' '_ 95 .4-25. in.. Museum.. Museum. du Louvre.................

Metropolitan 17. over Christis aliveon the cross.glowing 85.715 Morgan. seum.Giftof J. theFifthCruduring in theHolyLand sadors it backto himin Italy.2 cm. the most lena. This small silver-giltreliquary madein was perhaps enamels with jewel-like to hold in the earlyeighthcentury Jerusalem of the True Cross.In curious is the of the enameling able workmanship primitivestyle of the figuresand the incorinscriptions. Mournedby the Virgin and John. emphasize to theremarkcontrast fixionscene. theAraboccupation The intensecolorsof the enamels. death. andEustrathios Mercurios thesoldiers Panteleimon ) andthedoctor rightandmiddle popular (above. Theseinclude andsaints. depictsthe CruciThe lid of the reliquary fixion.he mayhave been the patriarch of the sacred who was custodian Anastasius andthenpatriarch relicsat theHolySepulcher in 458. sademayhavebrought MuLength10. whoprovides (notillustrated was made.triumphant the long tunic colobium.then.havebeen madein The reliquary after the veryheartof the HolyLanddecades about637. Christ's found the cross. apostles twenty-eight (above." and"Behold mother" ) is saidto Pope InnocentIV ( 1243-1252 One of his ambashaveownedthisreliquary.190. and a bishopnamedAnastasius animporhere). who were particularly in the East. (4 in. lettersof theGreek formed rectly andquotethewords thefigures whichidentify thy spokefromthecross:"Behold thatChrist thy son. Pierpont 96 . but reflects the tenthcentury may.left).to opaque of the crucithe spirituality low.during of all Christian sacred ageto Jerusalem.He wearsthectucifixion in Palestinian thatis characteristic thescene. He andalltheothersaints of Jerusalem calin a liturgical areincluded on thereliquary of Saint monastery at thefamous written endar datesfrom thecalendar nearJerusalem.the cross of a fragment Hemother.which green emerald translucent range froma radiant diSand rich reddishpurple an extremely whiteandyelcultcolorto make.anddecorating Surrounding images. Constantine's crucifixion. Sabas oldercustoms. are portraitsof the sides of the reliquary. reportedly a pilgrimrelics. tant clue to where the reliquary as a the bishophas beenidentiSed Although of Antioch.).

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