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COMPUTERS AND STRUCTURES, INC.

, AUGUST 2013

TECHNICAL NOTE
FRAME STRESS CALCULATION
Introduction
This document introduces the stress point locations of frame sections, and how the software calculates axial stress,
shear-stress, principal stress, and Von Mises stress at each stress point. The frame sections addressed in this
document include I section, Built-Up I section, Hybrid I section, T section, Channel section, Pipe section, Box
section, Circular section and Rectangular section. For the section designer section, the users are allowed to define
their own stress points simply following the procedure as shown in the figure below. For the frame sections that are
not addressed here, only the axial stress will be available at the centroid location and the four corners of the
bounding box of the section.

Figure 1 User Defined Stress Point in Section Designer


Frame Stress Calculation

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Technical Note

Frame Stress Calculation

Stress Formulas

Axial Stress S11


The axial stress S11 is parallel to the section local axis 1 on the plane 1 (the plane with normal direction
parallel to the section local axis 1):

In which

and

are the point coordinate in section local coordinate system


and the r is the material E ratio

Shear Stresses S12 and S13:


The shear stress S12 is parallel to the section local axis 2 on the plane 1 and S13 is parallel to the section
local axis 3 on the plane 1. The shear stress is contributed from shear forces , and torsion .
Shear stress due to shear force:
Saint Venant Torsional stress:
For a point i on the section, the shear stresses S12 and S13 can be represented as:

In which

and

will be introduced later.

Important Note: These shear stresses are calculated for the Built-Up I and Hybrid I sections assuming that
the E ratio r = 1. Although the axial stress S11 accounts for different values of E, the shear stresses do not.

Principal Stresses Smax and Smin:


The principal stresses are calculated from Mohrs circle as:

In which
(

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Technical Note

Frame Stress Calculation

von Mises stress SVM


The general von Mises stress equation can be expressed as:

)]

Considering only stresses S11, S12 and S13, the above equation can be simplified as:

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Technical Note

Frame Stress Calculation

Stress Point Locations and Factors for Frame Sections

I Section / Hybrid I Section


x2
7 tf

5
t2
h1
tw
t3

x3

0
h2
4
3

tfb

2
t2b

Figure 2 - I Section/Hybrid I Section Points, i


Point i
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

Stress (j)
S12 (1)
S13 (2)
S12 (1)
S13 (2)
S12 (1)
S13 (2)
S12 (1)
S13 (2)
S12 (1)
S13 (2)
S12 (1)
S13 (2)
S12 (1)
S13 (2)
S12 (1)
S13 (2)
S12 (1)
S13 (2)

f1jV2(i)
[

f1jV3(i)
]

f1jT(i)

0
(

0
)

0
0

Table 1 I Section, Hybrid I Section, Built-up I Section Stress Variables, by Point i

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Technical Note

Frame Stress Calculation

Built-up I Section Cover plates


x2
14 (11)

tfcp

13 (10)

12 (9)

t2cp
h1

x3
h2

tfbcp

11

10

t2bcp

Figure 3 - Built-up I Section with Cover Plates, Points, i

Point i

Stress (j)
f1jV2(i)
f1jV3(i)
0
0
S12 (1)
9
0
0
S13 (2)
0
0
S12 (1)
10
(
) (
)
S13 (2)
0
0
S12 (1)
11
0
0
S13 (2)
0
0
S12 (1)
12 (9)*
0
0
S13 (2)
0
0
S12 (1)
13 (10)*
(
) (
)
S13 (2)
0
0
S12 (1)
14 (11)*
0
0
S13 (2)
* Note: In the case of no bottom cover plate, points 12-14 become points 9-11.

f1jT(i)
0
0
0
0
0
0

Table 1 (continued) Built-up I Section (only) Stress Variables, by Point i

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Technical Note

Frame Stress Calculation

T Section
x2
5

tf

4
2

x3

h1

t3

tw

h2

t3

1
t2

Figure 4 - T Section Points, i

Point i
0
1
2
3
4
5

Stress (j)
S12 (1)
S13 (2)
S12 (1)
S13 (2)
S12 (1)
S13 (2)
S12 (1)
S13 (2)
S12 (1)
S13 (2)
S12 (1)
S13 (2)

f1jV2(i)
[

f1jV3(i)
]

0
)

f1jT(i)
0
0

0
(

Table 2 T Section Stress Variables, by Point i

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Technical Note

Frame Stress Calculation

Channel Section - 1
11

10

8
7

x3

t3

w1

w2

tw
tf
5

Figure 5 - Channel Section 1, Points, i

t2

Point i
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

Stress (j)
S12 (1)
S13 (2)
S12 (1)
S13 (2)
S12 (1)
S13 (2)
S12 (1)
S13 (2)
S12 (1)
S13 (2)
S12 (1)

f1jV3(i)

f1jT(i)

0
(

)
)

0
(

) ]

0
)

0
)

0
(

S13 (2)
S12 (1)
S13 (2)
S12 (1)
S13 (2)
S12 (1)
S13 (2)
S12 (1)
S13 (2)
S12 (1)
S13 (2)

f1jV2(i)

0
0

]
[

Table 3 Channel Section - 1 Stress Variables, by Point i

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Technical Note

Frame Stress Calculation

Channel Section - 2
10

11

8
7

x3
w2

t3

w1
tw

tf
5
4
3

Figure 6 - Channel Section 2, Points, i

t2

Point i
1

2
3
4
5
6
7
8

Stress (j)
S12 (1)

f1jV2(i)
[

S13 (2)

S12 (1)
S13 (2)
S12 (1)
S13 (2)
S12 (1)
S13 (2)
S12 (1)
S13 (2)
S12 (1)

9
S13 (2)
10

S12 (1)
S13 (2)

11

S12 (1)
S13 (2)

[
[

0
)

0
0

)
)

) ]

0
)

0
)

0
(

[
[

(
]

]
[

f1jT(i)
]

S13 (2)
S12 (1)
S13 (2)
S12 (1)
S13 (2)
S12 (1)

f1jV3(i)

0
)

[
]
[
]

Table 4 Channel Section - 2 Stress Variables, by Point i


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Technical Note

Frame Stress Calculation

Pipe Section

x2
8
7

6
tw

x3
4

5
r

R
2

3
1

Figure 7 - Pipe Section Points, i

Point i
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

Stress (j)
S12 (1)
S13 (2)
S12 (1)
S13 (2)
S12 (1)
S13 (2)
S12 (1)
S13 (2)
S12 (1)
S13 (2)
S12 (1)
S13 (2)
S12 (1)
S13 (2)
S12 (1)
S13 (2)

f1jV2(i)

f1jV3(i)

0
0

0
0

f1jT(i)

Table 5 Pipe Section Stress Variables, by Point i

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Technical Note

Frame Stress Calculation

Circular Section
x2
8
7

x3

0
4

5
R
2

3
1

Figure 8 - Circular Section Points, i

Point i
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

Stress (j)
S12 (1)
S13 (2)
S12 (1)
S13 (2)
S12 (1)
S13 (2)
S12 (1)
S13 (2)
S12 (1)
S13 (2)
S12 (1)
S13 (2)
S12 (1)
S13 (2)
S12 (1)
S13 (2)
S12 (1)
S13 (2)

f1jV2(i)

f1jV3(i)

f1jT(i)

Table 6 Circular Section Stress Variables, by Point i

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Technical Note

Frame Stress Calculation

Rectangular Section
For Saint Venant Torsional stress:

x2
7

x3
0

2b= t3

2a = t2

Figure 9 - Rectangular Section Points, i


Point i
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

Stress (j)
S12 (1)
S13 (2)
S12 (1)
S13 (2)
S12 (1)
S13 (2)
S12 (1)
S13 (2)
S12 (1)
S13 (2)
S12 (1)
S13 (2)
S12 (1)
S13 (2)
S12 (1)
S13 (2)
S12 (1)
S13 (2)

f1jV2(i)

f1jV3(i)

f1jT(i)

0
[

Table 7 Rectangular Section Stress Variables, by Point i


Page 11 of 15

Technical Note

Frame Stress Calculation

Values of

1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
2
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
3
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8
3.9
4

0.675314
0.719777
0.758764
0.792722
0.822151
0.847562
0.869444
0.888248
0.904383
0.918214
0.930060
0.940200
0.948876
0.956297
0.962644
0.968070
0.972709
0.976674
0.980064
0.982961
0.985438
0.987554
0.989363
0.990910
0.992231
0.993360
0.994325
0.995150
0.995855
0.996458
0.996973

4
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8
4.9
5
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
5.7
5.8
5.9
6
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6
6.7
6.8
6.9
7

, in which

0.996973
0.997413
0.997789
0.998110
0.998385
0.998620
0.998820
0.998992
0.999138
0.999264
0.999371
0.999462
0.999540
0.999607
0.999664
0.999713
0.999755
0.999790
0.999821
0.999847
0.999869
0.999888
0.999904
0.999918
0.999930
0.999940
0.999949
0.999956
0.999963
0.999968
0.999973

7
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.7
7.8
7.9
8
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
8.5
8.6
8.7
8.8
8.9
9
9.1
9.2
9.3
9.4
9.5
9.6
9.7
9.8
9.9
10

0.999973
0.999977
0.999980
0.999983
0.999985
0.999988
0.999989
0.999991
0.999992
0.999993
0.999994
0.999995
0.999996
0.999996
0.999997
0.999997
0.999998
0.999998
0.999998
0.999999
0.999999
0.999999
0.999999
0.999999
0.999999
0.999999
1.000000
1.000000
1.000000
1.000000
1.000000

Table 8 Rectangular Section F12 Values

Page 12 of 15

Technical Note

Frame Stress Calculation

Values of

1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
2
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
3
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8
3.9
4

0.675318
0.692860
0.705928
0.715613
0.722762
0.728024
0.731890
0.734725
0.736803
0.738323
0.739436
0.740249
0.740844
0.741279
0.741596
0.741829
0.741998
0.742122
0.742212
0.742279
0.742327
0.742362
0.742388
0.742407
0.742420
0.742430
0.742438
0.742443
0.742447
0.742450
0.742452

4
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8
4.9
5
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
5.7
5.8
5.9
6
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6
6.7
6.8
6.9
7

, in which

0.742452
0.742454
0.742455
0.742455
0.742456
0.742456
0.742457
0.742457
0.742457
0.742457
0.742457
0.742457
0.742458
0.742458
0.742458
0.742458
0.742458
0.742458
0.742458
0.742458
0.742458
0.742458
0.742458
0.742458
0.742458
0.742458
0.742458
0.742458
0.742458
0.742458
0.742458

7
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.7
7.8
7.9
8
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
8.5
8.6
8.7
8.8
8.9
9
9.1
9.2
9.3
9.4
9.5
9.6
9.7
9.8
9.9
10

0.742458
0.742458
0.742458
0.742458
0.742458
0.742458
0.742458
0.742458
0.742458
0.742458
0.742458
0.742458
0.742458
0.742458
0.742458
0.742458
0.742458
0.742458
0.742458
0.742458
0.742458
0.742458
0.742458
0.742458
0.742458
0.742458
0.742458
0.742458
0.742458
0.742458
0.742458

Table 9 Rectangular Section F13 Values

Page 13 of 15

Technical Note

Frame Stress Calculation

Box Section

x2
15

16
13

For Saint Venant Torsional stress:

14
12

10

11

Where

tw
9

t3

x3
tf

4
2

t2

Figure 10 - Box Section Points, i

Point i
1

Stress (j)
S12 (1)

f1jV2(i)
[

S13 (2)

4
5
6
7
8

S12 (1)
S13 (2)
S12 (1)
S13 (2)
S12 (1)
S13 (2)
S12 (1)
S13 (2)
S12 (1)
S13 (2)

0
[

)
(

0
)

0
(

0
(

]
[

0
(

) ]

0
(

]
[

0
(

S13 (2)

f1jT(i)

S12 (1)
S13 (2)
S12 (1)

f1jV3(i)

) ]

0
0

Page 14 of 15

Technical Note

9
10
11
12
13

S12 (1)
S13 (2)
S12 (1)
S13 (2)
S12 (1)
S13 (2)
S12 (1)
S13 (2)
S12 (1)
S13 (2)
S12 (1)

14
S13 (2)
15

Frame Stress Calculation

16
S13 (2)

) ]

0
)

0
(

(
]

0
(

[
]
[
]

0
[

0
)

0
(

S12 (1)
S13 (2)
S12 (1)

]
]

0
(

[
[

) ]
]
]

[
]
[
]

Table 10 Box Section Stress Variables, by Point i

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