H eu whi

w T he w

antec which

Am A re l a ti veclauseis a subor dinate clause that i i d e n ti fi e ssom eoneor somethingor gives i information aboutthem.

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Did Youl(noa

A moleis an animalthatlives underground.
, : i i i

You scho

Refative clausesare sometinescalled adjectival clauses becsuse, like adjectives,they identifyor describe nouns.

jungletrackthat Wewere driving along a rough was nevermeantfor cars. Patrons who arrivelate mavnotbeadmitted to theconcert. A psychiatrist is a doctorwho treats disorders of the mind. Hewasa manwhosegreqtestpleasure was looking after his garden. wassomeone She onwhomyoucouldalwaysrely. rhatis an optionwhich I have alwaysrejected. rhis is a listof people who wereabdudedby the terrorists and about whose fate nothing is yet known. pronoun, phrase W Thenoun, or clause thatisidentified, described or commented on bytherelative is clause called the antecedent: Voters whose names beginwiththe letters M to Z goto Room should 2. Thatphotois a reminder of someonewho wasvery importantto me. Hands up everyonewho wouldlikea drink.

w There

can be relativ


that lsth lsth tow Who She r Tha

w Whenr


then is pn corT then ispn corr then the n

t havea friendwho once sailed across the paciflc in a small yacht. .the book that. The worOs thai. you'restartingdowna path which canonlylead to unhappiness. whichis a serious offence. I T h e w o r d th a t l i n ks th e re l a ti ve cfauseto its antecedent is a relative pronoun. you'd be surprised atthenumber of childrenin this schoolwhose parents aredivorced.which and that can be omitted unless they are the subjectof the relative clause: Have youstif l got the book I gaveyou?(= .) fsthatthe manyou werc speaking to?(=.) Whowasthat girl I saw you with last night? Shewas someoneyou couldalwaysrcly on.thoigh both are correct.oR is preferred asa subject pronoun.A moteis an animalthailivesunderground.Who. 1+9 m r j m r I ( m ' X Whenreferring to people. Thatis an option I havealwaysrejected. K The relative pronouns who/whom.That. the relative pronouns to usearewho.the man to whomyou were speaking. Hewas accused of being drunkin ctrarge of a vehicle.whomandwhosearerefative pronounii A moleis an animatthat lives underground. tnou[n both are correct.) theman whosesonis an Mp theman to whom t spoke . which.) fsthatthemanyou saw? (=.) theman whomI sawoR theman that l saw (.theman thatyou saw. is preferred asan object pronoun. gave you.whoseandthat: theman who spoke the man that spoke (.who.whom.

remember the reason I don't .comparable him. 150 Gtrgmmqr . times and causes referring to are nouns respectively: where I was born.. to he and whom an object pronoun.when and why can also O The conjunctions whoseantecedents clauses be usedto form relative places. couldhavebeenno beLIer where.they andthem.'.etc: wasthere'. Theyelected Smithchairman.) the man who wasthere(Compare'He saw him'.) the man whom t saw (compare't whom is generally in everydayEnglish.t h e p ro n o u n s o r t h in g s . I oftenwalk pastthe house that time when you fell into the Doyou remember pool? swimming why t wentthere. t o a n ima ls l: When re f e rrin g to usearewhich.that and whose: the catwhich was sittingon the nrot oR the cat thatwas sittingon the mat oR the bool<thstI the bookwhicht mentioned mentioned the bookwhosecoverwas torn a bookto which t oftenrefer W hen ref e rrin gt o t h in g s .y o u c a n u s e o f wh ic h instead of whose: of which wastorn a bookthecover :. Help a who is a subject pronoun and Strictlyspeaking. However.than whom there choice. followsa replacedby who unlessit immediately preposition: the manwho I saw to the man who you werespeaking the man to whom you weresPeaking.

N Notethat whilewho andwhich canbe usedin both restrictive and non-restrictive relative cla uses. clause does not identify theneighbours but makes a comment about them. which was lyingon the table.was something to do with uros. 't:]:x st ii :l m r : tr the story of theadventures of Bilbo Baggins.) I have a neighbour who comes frcm ttaly..-.. that can onlybe usedin restrictiverelative clauses: fsthisthe bookthatyoulentme? These are the plantsthat l wastalkingabout. a particular personor thing are calledrestrictiveor defining relative clauses: youstillgot thebook Have I gaveyou? (thisidentifres oneparticular book.) The Hobbit.-\ - W Relative pickout or describe clauses that identify.make pasta wonderful (rherelative dishes. who comefrcmttaly.which was wrifren by Tolkien. (This identifies particular one neighbour. Relative clauses that serve not to identify a particular person or thing but simplyto provide somefurther information aboutthem arecalled non-restrictive or non-definingrelative clauses: tvty neighbours.'. And it is only in restrictive relative clauses that the pronoun relative canbe omittedaltogether: (that)you lentme? lsthisthe book These aretheplants(that)t wastalkingabout.) Whois that man you weretalking toZ (rhis identifies a particular man. Thebook.) He's engaged to a girl who'sthe daughter of an earl.

) Shehad lost the ring. A restrictive relative clause is not separated from the restof the sentence by commas.(the 'which words wqson thetable'simply add information aboutthe book .this is a restrictive relative clause. rtenguins are birdsthat swin4. (the 'which words wason thetable' identify whichbook is meant.There a relative are.l S i mi l a rly: She had lostthe ring that I had givenher for (rherelative Christmas.) t don't believe that she is tellingthetruth. clause simplymakes a comment aboutthering. Thebook. . shedoesn'tlike me. a re la t iv ep ro n o u n .) . which . whereas a nonrestrictive relative clause is: the bookwhichwas onthetablewasmine.there will beno antecedent: I knowthat.) a Thatcanbe botha subordinating conjunction and pronoun. however.thisisa nonr estri ctiv e relative clause. whichwcs on the table.ffhereis no antecedentfor thatto referto. will h a v e a n antecedent: She hadlostthe ring that t had given herfor Christmas..t had given her for (the relative Christmqs. lf thatisaconjunction.K N o te th e differ encein punctuationbetween restrictive and non-restrictive relative clauses. lf that is . clause identifies which ring. several ways of distinguishing thesetwo uses of the word.

(conjunction) NOT me.) . job'all andlanet's looking fora new make complete statements. I knowthat shedoesn'tlike me. it cannotbe replaced by which: shehadlostthe ring that t hadgiven herfor (pronoun) Christmas. if it is a conjunction. it can be replaced by which.lf that is a relativepronoun. had lostthe ring whichI had givenher She for christmas. " I knowwhichshedoesn'tlike lf that is a conjunction. then whatfollowsit in thl subordinate clause canmake a complete statement on itsown: I don'tthinkthatshe iscoming with us Wefoundoutthat nicardo hadwontheprize job Barttoldmethatlanet'slooking for a new 'She iscomingwith us'. saying. on thetableZ 'She hadbeengivenfor Christmas'and'l lefton the table'are not complete statements.possibility.'Ricardo hadwon the prize'.They don'tsay what shehad beengivenfor Christmas or what I lefton the table. lf on theotherhand.then thatisarelative whatfollows it in the clause willnot be a complete statement: given had lostthe ring that shehad been She for Christmas. isflot' iswhatthe belief is. 153 iI : --F in { i* F n a Similar to relative clauses areappositiveclauses. thought.etc: Thebelief that the world is flat waswidespread in ('Th6ttheworld theaiddleAges. feeling. Where's the booktholt I lefr. in whichinformation isprovided abouta preceding noun such as belief. pronoun.

(the words'whichwason the table'simplyadd .) is meant.) 's he ano >td- lf. ta a and conjunction That can be both a subordinating I ways are.whereasa nonis: restrictive relative clause Thebookwhich was on the table wasmine. (Therelative clausesimply makesa comment aboutthe ring. left asi in no .this is a restrictive the book. of distinguishing lf that is a relative pronoun.There thesetwo usesof the word.o' wha sta:{ Grammar . severa a relativepronoun. (the relative ring.l S imilarly: 15> |l tf whi by su on had lostthe ring that I had given her for She which clauseidentifles christmos.(rhe words'whichwas on the table' identifywhich book relative clause. restrictive a n d n o n -re s t ric t iv e from the restrictive relative clauseis not separated rest of the sentenceby commas.thisis a noninformation aboutthebook restri ctiv e relative clause.there me.) antecedentfor I don't believe that sheis tellinathe truth. Penguins are birds that swim. which I had given her for Christmas.) she had lost the ring. will be no antecedent: lf thotis a conjunction. (rhereis no I knowthst shedoesn'tlike thotto referto.' HeIp 'sl^. it will have an antecedent: Shehad lostthe ringthat I had givenher for ChristmTs.f N Note the d if f e re n c e in p u n c t u a t io n b e t we e n re la t iv ec la u s e sA . wasmine.which was on the table. however.

by which: herfor hadlostthe nng that I hadgiven She (pronoun) Christmas.) belief 153 :.on theotherhand. which.= s = : II a: E 5t . clauses to relative Similar aboutapreceding isprovided in whichinformation noun such as belief. s the bookthat I lefton thetablez where' lefton the for Christmas'and'l 'She hadbeengiven don'tsay statements. theMiddle is. had lostthe ring whichI had givenher She for Christmas.They not complete table'are or what I what shehad beengivenfor Christmas lefton the table. I areappositiveclauses.(coniundion) I knowthat shedoesn'tlike . pronoun.possibility. feeling. me. it can be replaced ) lf that is a relativepronoun. doesn'tlike NoT I knowwhichshe thenwhatfollowsit in the t lf that is a conjunction. me.etc: rea d in Th ef that the worfd is fl at waswidesp e b eli ('Thattheworld isflat'iswhatthe ages. willnot be a complete it in the clause whatfollows statement: given hadbeen hadlostthe ringthat she She for Christm6s.then thatisarelative ff. it cannotbe replaced if it is a conjunction. saying. statement make a complete can clause subordinate on itsown: withus iscoming I don'tthinkthat she hadwontheprize we foundoutthat Ricqrdo job looking methat Janet's Barttold for a new hadwon the prizei 'She with usl'Ricardo iscoming complete fora newjob'allmake looking and'Janet's statements.

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