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Am A re l a ti veclauseis a subor dinate clause that i i d e n ti fi e ssom eoneor somethingor gives i information aboutthem.
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A moleis an animalthatlives underground.
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Refative clausesare sometinescalled adjectival clauses becsuse, like adjectives,they identifyor describe nouns.

jungletrackthat Wewere driving along a rough was nevermeantfor cars. Patrons who arrivelate mavnotbeadmitted to theconcert. A psychiatrist is a doctorwho treats disorders of the mind. Hewasa manwhosegreqtestpleasure was looking after his garden. wassomeone She onwhomyoucouldalwaysrely. rhatis an optionwhich I have alwaysrejected. rhis is a listof people who wereabdudedby the terrorists and about whose fate nothing is yet known. pronoun, phrase W Thenoun, or clause thatisidentified, described or commented on bytherelative is clause called the antecedent: Voters whose names beginwiththe letters M to Z goto Room should 2. Thatphotois a reminder of someonewho wasvery importantto me. Hands up everyonewho wouldlikea drink.

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K The relative pronouns who/whom. which. .That. The worOs thai.oR is preferred asa subject pronoun. gave you. Thatis an option I havealwaysrejected.Who.which and that can be omitted unless they are the subjectof the relative clause: Have youstif l got the book I gaveyou?(= . t havea friendwho once sailed across the paciflc in a small yacht. 1+9 m r j m r I ( m ' X Whenreferring to people.A moteis an animalthailivesunderground.the book that.) fsthatthe manyou werc speaking to?(=.) fsthatthemanyou saw? (=.thoigh both are correct.the man to whomyou were speaking. whichis a serious offence. Hewas accused of being drunkin ctrarge of a vehicle.) Whowasthat girl I saw you with last night? Shewas someoneyou couldalwaysrcly on. tnou[n both are correct. you'restartingdowna path which canonlylead to unhappiness.who. I T h e w o r d th a t l i n ks th e re l a ti ve cfauseto its antecedent is a relative pronoun.theman thatyou saw.whomandwhosearerefative pronounii A moleis an animatthat lives underground.whom. you'd be surprised atthenumber of childrenin this schoolwhose parents aredivorced. is preferred asan object pronoun. the relative pronouns to usearewho.) theman whosesonis an Mp theman to whom t spoke .) theman whomI sawoR theman that l saw (.whoseandthat: theman who spoke the man that spoke (.

times and causes referring to are nouns respectively: where I was born.'.t h e p ro n o u n s o r t h in g s . t o a n ima ls l: When re f e rrin g to usearewhich. Help a who is a subject pronoun and Strictlyspeaking. I oftenwalk pastthe house that time when you fell into the Doyou remember pool? swimming why t wentthere.they andthem. Theyelected Smithchairman.. couldhavebeenno beLIer where. followsa replacedby who unlessit immediately preposition: the manwho I saw to the man who you werespeaking the man to whom you weresPeaking.that and whose: the catwhich was sittingon the nrot oR the cat thatwas sittingon the mat oR the bool<thstI the bookwhicht mentioned mentioned the bookwhosecoverwas torn a bookto which t oftenrefer W hen ref e rrin gt o t h in g s . to he and whom an object pronoun. 150 Gtrgmmqr .y o u c a n u s e o f wh ic h instead of whose: of which wastorn a bookthecover :.) the man whom t saw (compare't whom is generally in everydayEnglish.) the man who wasthere(Compare'He saw him'.when and why can also O The conjunctions whoseantecedents clauses be usedto form relative places.than whom there choice. remember the reason I don't . However.comparable him.etc: wasthere'.

-. who comefrcmttaly.) I have a neighbour who comes frcm ttaly. (This identifies particular one neighbour.r-. a particular personor thing are calledrestrictiveor defining relative clauses: youstillgot thebook Have I gaveyou? (thisidentifres oneparticular book.-\ - W Relative pickout or describe clauses that identify. N Notethat whilewho andwhich canbe usedin both restrictive and non-restrictive relative cla uses.) He's engaged to a girl who'sthe daughter of an earl. which was lyingon the table. 't:]:x st ii :l m r : tr .is the story of theadventures of Bilbo Baggins.) The Hobbit..make pasta wonderful (rherelative dishes. clause does not identify theneighbours but makes a comment about them.which was wrifren by Tolkien.'.) Whois that man you weretalking toZ (rhis identifies a particular man.was something to do with uros. that can onlybe usedin restrictiverelative clauses: fsthisthe bookthatyoulentme? These are the plantsthat l wastalkingabout. Thebook.. And it is only in restrictive relative clauses that the pronoun relative canbe omittedaltogether: (that)you lentme? lsthisthe book These aretheplants(that)t wastalkingabout. Relative clauses that serve not to identify a particular person or thing but simplyto provide somefurther information aboutthem arecalled non-restrictive or non-definingrelative clauses: tvty neighbours.

) a Thatcanbe botha subordinating conjunction and pronoun. rtenguins are birdsthat swin4. clause identifies which ring. lf thatisaconjunction.t had given her for (the relative Christmqs. Thebook.ffhereis no antecedentfor thatto referto.this is a restrictive relative clause. A restrictive relative clause is not separated from the restof the sentence by commas. a re la t iv ep ro n o u n .) t don't believe that she is tellingthetruth.there will beno antecedent: I knowthat. whereas a nonrestrictive relative clause is: the bookwhichwas onthetablewasmine.l S i mi l a rly: She had lostthe ring that I had givenher for (rherelative Christmas.(the 'which words wqson thetable'simply add information aboutthe book . whichwcs on the table. clause simplymakes a comment aboutthering. . which .There a relative are.thisisa nonr estri ctiv e relative clause. shedoesn'tlike me.) . lf that is . however.. several ways of distinguishing thesetwo uses of the word. wasmine.it will h a v e a n antecedent: She hadlostthe ring that t had given herfor Christmas.) Shehad lost the ring.K N o te th e differ encein punctuationbetween restrictive and non-restrictive relative clauses. (the 'which words wason thetable' identify whichbook is meant.

isflot' iswhatthe belief is.then thatisarelative whatfollows it in the clause willnot be a complete statement: given had lostthe ring that shehad been She for Christmas. then whatfollowsit in thl subordinate clause canmake a complete statement on itsown: I don'tthinkthatshe iscoming with us Wefoundoutthat nicardo hadwontheprize job Barttoldmethatlanet'slooking for a new 'She iscomingwith us'. it can be replaced by which. it cannotbe replaced by which: shehadlostthe ring that t hadgiven herfor (pronoun) Christmas. on thetableZ 'She hadbeengivenfor Christmas'and'l lefton the table'are not complete statements. thought.'Ricardo hadwon the prize'. if it is a conjunction.(conjunction) NOT me. 153 iI : --F in { i* F n a Similar to relative clauses areappositiveclauses. feeling.etc: Thebelief that the world is flat waswidespread in ('Th6ttheworld theaiddleAges. in whichinformation isprovided abouta preceding noun such as belief.lf that is a relativepronoun.) .They don'tsay what shehad beengivenfor Christmas or what I lefton the table. saying. lf on theotherhand. Where's the booktholt I lefr. I knowthat shedoesn'tlike me. " I knowwhichshedoesn'tlike lf that is a conjunction.possibility. had lostthe ring whichI had givenher She for christmas. job'all andlanet's looking fora new make complete statements. pronoun.

of distinguishing lf that is a relative pronoun.) 's he ano >td- lf. restrictive a n d n o n -re s t ric t iv e from the restrictive relative clauseis not separated rest of the sentenceby commas.(rhe words'whichwas on the table' identifywhich book relative clause.(the words'whichwason the table'simplyadd . which I had given her for Christmas. (the relative ring.whereasa nonis: restrictive relative clause Thebookwhich was on the table wasmine. severa a relativepronoun.thisis a noninformation aboutthebook restri ctiv e relative clause. however. wasmine.l S imilarly: 15> |l tf whi by su on had lostthe ring that I had given her for She which clauseidentifles christmos. (Therelative clausesimply makesa comment aboutthe ring.) is meant.) antecedentfor I don't believe that sheis tellinathe truth. Penguins are birds that swim.There thesetwo usesof the word. it will have an antecedent: Shehad lostthe ringthat I had givenher for ChristmTs. left asi in no .there me.) she had lost the ring.this is a restrictive the book.f N Note the d if f e re n c e in p u n c t u a t io n b e t we e n re la t iv ec la u s e sA .' HeIp 'sl^.which was on the table. will be no antecedent: lf thotis a conjunction.o' wha sta:{ Grammar . ta a and conjunction That can be both a subordinating I ways are. (rhereis no I knowthst shedoesn'tlike thotto referto.

feeling. statement make a complete can clause subordinate on itsown: withus iscoming I don'tthinkthat she hadwontheprize we foundoutthat Ricqrdo job looking methat Janet's Barttold for a new hadwon the prizei 'She with usl'Ricardo iscoming complete fora newjob'allmake looking and'Janet's statements.by it can be replaced ) lf that is a relativepronoun. I areappositiveclauses. saying. clauses to relative Similar aboutapreceding isprovided in whichinformation noun such as belief. thought.possibility.(coniundion) I knowthat shedoesn'tlike . pronoun.etc: rea d in Th ef that the worfd is fl at waswidesp e b eli ('Thattheworld isflat'iswhatthe ages. theMiddle is. it cannotbe replaced if it is a conjunction.They not complete table'are or what I what shehad beengivenfor Christmas lefton the table. willnot be a complete it in the clause whatfollows statement: given hadbeen hadlostthe ringthat she She for Christm6s.on theotherhand.) belief 153 :.= s = : II a: E 5t . which. had lostthe ring whichI had givenher She for Christmas. doesn'tlike NoT I knowwhichshe thenwhatfollowsit in the t lf that is a conjunction.then thatisarelative ff. me. me. by which: herfor hadlostthe nng that I hadgiven She (pronoun) Christmas. s the bookthat I lefton thetablez where' lefton the for Christmas'and'l 'She hadbeengiven don'tsay statements.