Forschungsgemeinschaft
Plasticity of Metals:
Experiments, Models,
Computation
Plasticity of Metals: Experiments, Models, Computation. Collaborative Research Centres.
Edited by E. Steck, R. Ritter, U. Peil, A. Ziegenbein
Copyright © 2001 WileyVCH Verlag GmbH
ISBNs: 3527277285 (Softcover); 3527600116 (Electronic)
Deutsche
Forschungsgemeinschaft
Plasticity of Metals:
Experiments, Models,
Computation
Final Report of the
Collaborative Research Centre 319,
Stoffgesetze fÏr das inelastischeVerhaltenmetallischer
Werkstoffe – Entwicklungund technischeAnwendung
1985–1996
Editedby
Elmar Steck, Reinhold Ritter, Udo Pfeil and Alf Ziegenbein
Collaborative Research Centres
Plasticity of Metals: Experiments, Models, Computation. Collaborative Research Centres.
Edited by E. Steck, R. Ritter, U. Peil, A. Ziegenbein
Copyright © 2001 WileyVCH Verlag GmbH
ISBNs: 3527277285 (Softcover); 3527600116 (Electronic)
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Plasticity of Metals: Experiments, Models, Computation. Collaborative Research Centres.
Edited by E. Steck, R. Ritter, U. Peil, A. Ziegenbein
Copyright © 2001 WileyVCH Verlag GmbH
ISBNs: 3527277285 (Softcover); 3527600116 (Electronic)
Contents
Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XV
1 Correlation between Energy and Mechanical Quantities
of FaceCentred Cubic Metals, ColdWorked and Softened
to Different States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Lothar Kaps, Frank Haeßner
1.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.2 Experiments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.3 Simulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
1.4 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
2 Material State after Uni and Biaxial Cyclic Deformation . . . . . . . 17
Walter Gieseke, K. Roger Hillert, Gu¨nter Lange
2.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
2.2 Experiments and Measurement Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
2.3 Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
2.3.1 Cyclic stressstrain behaviour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
2.3.2 Dislocation structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
2.3.3 Yield surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
2.3.3.1 Yield surfaces on AlMg
3
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
2.3.3.2 Yield surfaces on copper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
2.3.3.3 Yield surfaces on steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
2.4 Sequence Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
2.5 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
V
Plasticity of Metals: Experiments, Models, Computation. Collaborative Research Centres.
Edited by E. Steck, R. Ritter, U. Peil, A. Ziegenbein
Copyright © 2001 WileyVCH Verlag GmbH
ISBNs: 3527277285 (Softcover); 3527600116 (Electronic)
3 Plasticity of Metals and Life Prediction in the Range
of LowCycle Fatigue: Description of Deformation
Behaviour and CreepFatigue Interaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
KyongTschong Rie, Henrik Wittke, Ju¨rgen Olfe
Abstract . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
3.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
3.2 Experimental Details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
3.2.1 Experimental details for roomtemperature tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
3.2.2 Experimental details for hightemperature tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
3.3 Tests at Room Temperature: Description
of the Deformation Behaviour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
3.3.1 Macroscopic test results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
3.3.2 Microstructural results and interpretation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
3.3.3 Phenomenological description of the deformation behaviour . . . . . . . 45
3.3.3.1 Description of cyclic hardening curve, cyclic stressstrain curve
and hysteresisloop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
3.3.3.2 Description of various hysteresisloops with few constants . . . . . . . . . 47
3.3.4 Physically based description of deformation behaviour . . . . . . . . . . . 47
3.3.4.1 Internal stress measurement and cyclic proportional limit . . . . . . . . . . 47
3.3.4.2 Description of cyclic plasticity with the models
of Steck and Hatanaka . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
3.3.5 Application in the field of fatiguefracture mechanics . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
3.4 CreepFatigue Interaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
3.4.1 A physically based model for predicting LCFlife
under creepfatigue interaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
3.4.1.1 The original model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
3.4.1.2 Modifications of the model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
3.4.1.3 Experimental verification of the physical assumptions . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
3.4.1.4 Life prediction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
3.4.2 Computer simulation and experimental verification
of cavity formation and growth during creepfatigue . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
3.4.2.1 Stereometric metallography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
3.4.2.2 Computer simulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
3.4.2.3 Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
3.4.3 Insitu measurement of local strain at the crack tip
during creepfatigue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
3.4.3.1 Influence of the crack length and the strain amplitude
on the local strain distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
3.4.3.2 Comparison of the strain field in tension and compression . . . . . . . . . 62
3.4.3.3 Influence of the hold time in tension on the strain field . . . . . . . . . . . 63
3.5 Summary and Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
Contents
VI
4 Development and Application of Constitutive Models
for the Plasticity of Metals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
Elmar Steck, Frank Thielecke, Malte Lewerenz
Abstract . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
4.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
4.2 Mechanisms on the Microscale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
4.3 Simulation of the Development of Dislocation Structures . . . . . . . . . . 71
4.4 Stochastic Constitutive Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
4.5 MaterialParameter Identification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
4.5.1 Characteristics of the inverse problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
4.5.2 Multipleshooting methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
4.5.3 Hybrid optimization of costfunction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
4.5.4 Statistical analysis of estimates and experimental design . . . . . . . . . . 79
4.5.5 Parallelization and coupling with FiniteElement analysis . . . . . . . . . . 79
4.5.6 Comparison of experiments and simulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
4.5.7 Consideration of experimental scattering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
4.6 FiniteElement Simulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
4.6.1 Implementation and numerical treatment of the model equations . . . . 83
4.6.1.1 Transformation of the tensorvalued equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
4.6.1.2 Numerical integration of the differential equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
4.6.1.3 Approximation of the tangent modulus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
4.6.2 Deformation behaviour of a notched specimen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
4.7 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
5 On the Physical Parameters Governing the Flow Stress
of Solid Solutions in a Wide Range of Temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . 90
Christoph Schwink, Ansgar Nortmann
Abstract . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
5.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
5.2 Solid Solution Strengthening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
5.2.1 The critical resolved shear stress, s
o
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
5.2.2 The hardening shear stress, s
d
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
5.3 Dynamic Strain Ageing (DSA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
5.3.1 Basic concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
5.3.2 Complete maps of stability boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
5.3.3 Analysis of the processes inducing DSA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
5.3.4 Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
5.4 Summary and Relevance for the Collaborative Research Centre . . . . . 102
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
Contents
VII
6 Inhomogeneity and Instability of Plastic Flow
in CuBased Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
Hartmut Neuha¨user
6.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
6.2 Some Experimental Details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
6.3 Deformation Processes around Room Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
6.3.1 Development of single slip bands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
6.3.2 Development of slip band bundles and Lu¨ders band propagation . . . . 112
6.3.3 Comparison of single crystals and polycrystals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
6.3.4 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
6.4 Deformation Processes at Intermediate Temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
6.4.1 Analysis of single stress serrations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
6.4.2 Analysis of stresstime series . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
6.4.3 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
6.5 Deformation Processes at Elevated Temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
6.5.1 Dynamical testing and stress relaxation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
6.5.2 Creep experiments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
6.5.3 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
7 The Influence of Large Torsional Prestrain on the Texture
Development and Yield Surfaces of Polycrystals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
Dieter Besdo, Norbert WellerdickWojtasik
7.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
7.2 The Model of Microscopic Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
7.2.1 The scale of observation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
7.2.2 Basic slip mechanism in single crystals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
7.2.3 Treatment of polycrystals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
7.2.4 The Taylor theory in an appropriate version . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
7.3 Initial Orientation Distributions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
7.3.1 Criteria of isotropy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
7.3.2 Strategies for isotropic distributions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
7.4 Numerical Calculation of Yield Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
7.5 Experimental Investigations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
7.5.1 Prestraining of the specimens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
7.5.2 Yieldsurface measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
7.5.3 Tensile test of a prestrained specimen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
7.5.4 Measured yield surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
7.5.5 Discussion of the results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
7.6 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
Contents
VIII
8 Parameter Identification of Inelastic Deformation Laws Analysing
Inhomogeneous StressStrain States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
Reiner Kreißig, Jochen Naumann, Ulrich Benedix, Petra Bormann,
Gerald Grewolls, Sven Kretzschmar
8.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
8.2 General Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
8.3 The Deformation Law of Inelastic Solids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
8.4 Bending of Rectangular Beams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
8.4.1 Principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
8.4.2 Experimental technique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
8.4.3 Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
8.4.3.1 Determination of the yield curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
8.4.3.2 Determination of the initial yieldlocus curve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
8.5 Bending of Notched Beams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
8.5.1 Principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
8.5.2 Experimental technique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
8.5.3 Approximation of displacement fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
8.6 Identification of Material Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
8.6.1 Integration of the deformation law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
8.6.2 Objective function, sensitivity analysis and optimization . . . . . . . . . . 167
8.6.3 Results of parameter identification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
8.7 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
9 Development and Improvement of Unified Models
and Applications to Structural Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
Hermann Ahrens, Heinz Duddeck, Ursula Kowalsky,
Harald Pensky, Thomas Streilein
9.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
9.2 On Unified Models for Metallic Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
9.2.1 The overstress model by Chaboche and Rousselier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
9.2.2 Other unified models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
9.3 TimeIntegration Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
9.4 Adaptation of Model Parameters to Experimental Results . . . . . . . . . 181
9.5 Systematic Approach to Improve Material Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
9.6 Models Employing Distorted Yield Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
9.7 Approach to Cover Stochastic Test Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
9.8 Structural Analyses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
9.8.1 Consistent formulation of the coupled boundary
and initial value problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
9.8.2 Analysis of stressstrain fields in welded joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
9.8.3 Thickwalled rotational vessel under inner pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205
Contents
IX
9.8.4 Application of distorted yield functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206
9.8.5 Application of the statistical approach of Section 9.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
9.8.6 Numerical analysis for a recipient of a profile extrusion press . . . . . . 212
Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
10 On the Behaviour of Mild Steel Fe 510
under Complex Cyclic Loading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218
Udo Peil, Joachim Scheer, HansJoachim Scheibe,
Matthias Reininghaus, Detlef Kuck, Sven Dannemeyer
10.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218
10.2 Material Behaviour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219
10.2.1 Material, experimental setups, and techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219
10.2.2 Material behaviour under uniaxial cyclic loading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219
10.2.2.1 Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219
10.2.2.2 Results of the uniaxial experiments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
10.2.3 Material behaviour under biaxial cyclic loading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225
10.2.3.1 Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225
10.2.3.2 Relations of tensile and torsional stresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
10.2.3.3 Yieldsurface investigations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229
10.3 Modelling of the Material Behaviour of Mild Steel Fe 510 . . . . . . . . 236
10.3.1 Extendedtwosurface model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236
10.3.1.1 General description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236
10.3.1.2 Loading and bounding surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
10.3.1.3 Strainmemory surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238
10.3.1.4 Internal variables for the description on nonproportional loading . . . . 241
10.3.1.5 Size of the yield surface under uniaxial cyclic plastic loading . . . . . . 242
10.3.1.6 Size of the bounding surface under uniaxial cyclic plastic loading . . . 242
10.3.1.7 Overshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242
10.3.1.8 Additional update of d
in
in the case of biaxial loading . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
10.3.1.9 Memory surface F' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
10.3.1.10 Additional isotropic deformation on the loading surface
due to nonproportional loading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244
10.3.1.11 Additional isotropic deformation of the bounding surface
due to nonproportional loading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244
10.3.2 Comparison between theory and experiments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248
10.4 Experiments on Structural Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248
10.4.1 Experimental setups and computational method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248
10.4.2 Correlation between experimental and theoretical results . . . . . . . . . . 248
10.5 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252
Contents
X
11 Theoretical and Computational Shakedown Analysis
of NonLinear Kinematic Hardening Material
and Transition to Ductile Fracture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253
Erwin Stein, Genbao Zhang, Yuejun Huang,
Rolf Mahnken, Karin Wiechmann
Abstract . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253
11.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253
11.1.1 General research topics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253
11.1.2 State of the art at the beginning of project B6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254
11.1.3 Aims and scope of project B6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254
11.2 Review of the 3D Overlay Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256
11.3 Numerical Approach to Shakedown Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259
11.3.1 General considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259
11.3.2 Perfectly plastic material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260
11.3.2.1 The special SQPalgorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260
11.3.2.2 A reduced basis technique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261
11.3.3 Unlimited kinematic hardening material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261
11.3.4 Limited kinematic hardening material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263
11.3.5 Numerical examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264
11.3.5.1 Thinwalled cylindrical shell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264
11.3.5.2 Steel girder with a cope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265
11.3.5.3 Incremental computations of shakedown limits
of cyclic kinematic hardening material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267
11.4 Transition to Ductile Fracture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269
11.5 Summary of the Main Results of Project B6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273
12 Parameter Identification for Inelastic Constitutive Equations Based
on Uniform and NonUniform Stress and Strain Distributions . . . 275
Rolf Mahnken, Erwin Stein
Abstract . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275
12.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275
12.1.1 State of the art at the beginning of project B8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275
12.1.2 Aims and scope of project B8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276
12.2 Basic Terminology for Identification Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277
12.2.1 The direct problem: the state equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277
12.2.2 The inverse problem: the leastsquares problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278
12.3 Parameter Identification for the Uniform Case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280
12.3.1 Mathematical modelling of uniaxial viscoplastic problems . . . . . . . . 280
12.3.2 Numerical solution of the direct problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282
12.3.3 Numerical solution of the inverse problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282
12.4 Parameter Identification for the NonUniform Case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283
12.4.1 Kinematics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284
Contents
XI
12.4.2 The direct problem: Galerkin weak form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285
12.4.3 The inverse problem: constrained leastsquares optimization problem . 286
12.5 Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287
12.5.1 Cyclic loading for AlMg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287
12.5.2 Axisymmetric necking problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290
12.6 Summary and Concluding Remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296
13 Experimental Determination of Deformation and Strain Fields
by Optical Measuring Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298
Reinhold Ritter, Harald Friebe
13.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298
13.2 Requirements of the Measuring Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298
13.3 Characteristics of the Optical FieldMeasuring Methods . . . . . . . . . . . 299
13.4 ObjectGrating Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300
13.4.1 Principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300
13.4.2 Marking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301
13.4.3 Deformation analysis at high temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302
13.4.4 Compensation of virtual deformation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303
13.4.5 3D deformation measuring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305
13.4.6 Specifications of the objectgrating method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305
13.5 Speckle Interferometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305
13.5.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305
13.5.2 Technology of the Speckle interferometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307
13.5.3 Specifications of the developed 3D Speckle interferometer . . . . . . . . 308
13.6 Application Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309
13.6.1 2D objectgrating method in the hightemperature area . . . . . . . . . . . 309
13.6.2 3D objectgrating method in fracture mechanics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309
13.6.3 Speckle interferometry in welding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310
13.7 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317
14 SurfaceDeformation Fields from Grating Pictures
Using Image Processing and Photogrammetry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318
Klaus Andresen
14.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318
14.2 Grating Coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319
14.2.1 Crosscorrelation method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319
14.2.2 Linefollowing filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321
14.3 3D Coordinates by Imaging Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324
14.4 3D Coordinates by CloseRange Photogrammetry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325
14.4.1 Experimental setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325
Contents
XII
14.4.2 Parameters of the camera orientation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326
14.4.3 3D object coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327
14.5 Displacement and Strain from an Object Grating: Plane Deformation . 328
14.6 Strain for Large Spatial Deformation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329
14.6.1 Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329
14.6.2 Correcting the influence of curvature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332
14.6.3 Simulation and numerical errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333
14.7 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335
15 Experimental and Numerical Analysis of the Inelastic
Postbuckling Behaviour of ShearLoaded Aluminium Panels . . . . . 337
Horst Kossira, Gunnar Arnst
15.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337
15.2 Numerical Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339
15.2.1 FiniteElement method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339
15.2.1.1 Ambient temperature – rateindependent problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340
15.2.1.2 Elevated temperature – viscoplastic problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341
15.2.2 Material models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341
15.2.2.1 Ambient temperature – rateindependent problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341
15.2.2.2 Elevated temperature – viscoplastic problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344
15.3 Experimental and Numerical Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349
15.3.1 Test procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349
15.3.2 Computational analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349
15.3.2.1 Monotonic loading – ambient temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350
15.3.2.2 Cyclic loading – ambient temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 351
15.3.2.3 Timedependent behaviour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 356
15.4 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358
List of Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360
16 Consideration of Inhomogeneities in the Application
of Deformation Models, Describing the Inelastic Behaviour
of Welded Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 361
Helmut Wohlfahrt, Dirk Brinkmann
16.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 361
16.2 Materials and Numerical Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 362
16.2.1 Materials and welded joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 362
16.2.2 Deformation models and numerical methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365
16.2.2.1 Deformation model of Gerdes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365
16.2.2.2 Fitting calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365
16.3 Investigations with Homogeneous Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365
Contents
XIII
16.3.1 Experimental and numerical investigations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366
16.3.1.1 Tensile tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366
16.3.1.2 Creep tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369
16.3.1.3 Cyclic tensioncompression tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 370
16.3.2 Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372
16.4 Investigations with Welded Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 374
16.4.1 Deformation behaviour of welded joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 375
16.4.1.1 Experimental investigations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 375
16.4.1.2 Numerical investigations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 375
16.4.1.3 FiniteElement models of welded joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 375
16.4.1.4 Calculation of the deformation behaviour of welded joints . . . . . . . . . 375
16.4.2 Strain distributions of welded joints with broad weld seams . . . . . . . . 376
16.4.3 Strain distributions of welded joints with small weld seams . . . . . . . . 380
16.4.4 Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380
16.5 Application Possibilities and Further Investigations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 382
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383
Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384
Contents
XIV
Preface
The Collaborative Research Centre (Sonderforschungsbereich, SFB 319), “Material
Models for the Inelastic Behaviour of Metallic Materials – Development and Technical
Application”, was supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) from July
1985 until the end of the year 1996. During this period of nearly 12 years, scientists
from the disciplines of metal physics, materials sciences, mechanics and applied engi
neering sciences cooperated with the aim to develop models for metallic materials on a
physically secured basis. The cooperation has resulted in a considerable improvement
of the understanding between the different disciplines, in many new theoretical and ex
perimental methods and results, and in technically applicable constitutive models as
well as new knowledge concerning their application to practical engineering problems.
The cooperation within the SFB was supported by many contacts to scientists and
engineers at other universities and research institutes in Germany as well as abroad.
The authors of this report about the results of the SFB 319 wish to express their thanks
to the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft for the financial support and the very con
structive cooperation, and to all the colleagues who have contributed by their interest
and their function as reviewers and advisors to the results of our research work.
Introduction
The development of mathematical models for the behaviour of technical materials is of
course directed towards their application in the practical engineering work. Besides the
projects, which have the technical application as their main goal, in all projects, which
were involved in experiments with homogeneous or inhomogeneous test specimens –
where partly also the numerical methods were further investigated and the implementa
tion of the material models in the programs was performed –, experiences concerning
the application of the models for practical problems could be gained. The wholefield
methods for measuring displacement and strain fields, which were developed in con
nection with these experiments, have given valuable support concerning the application
of the developed constitutive models to practical engineering.
The research concerning the identification of the parameters of the models has
proven to be very actual. The investigations for most efficient methods for the param
eter identification will in the future still find considerable attention, where the coopera
tion of scientists from engineering as well as applied mathematics, which was started in
the SFB, will continue. As is shown in a later chapter, it is of increasing importance to
XV
Plasticity of Metals: Experiments, Models, Computation. Collaborative Research Centres.
Edited by E. Steck, R. Ritter, U. Peil, A. Ziegenbein
Copyright © 2001 WileyVCH Verlag GmbH
ISBNs: 3527277285 (Softcover); 3527600116 (Electronic)
use not only homogeneously, uniaxially loaded test specimen, but also to analyze stress
and deformation fields in complexly loaded components. In connection with these in
vestigations, methods for the design of experiments should be developed, which can be
used for the assessment of the structure of the material models and the physical mean
ing of the model parameters. The results obtained up to now have shown, also by com
parisons in cooperation with institutions outside the SFB, that the predictive properties
of the developed material models are of equal quality as those of other models used in
the engineering practice. They have however the advantage that they are based on re
sults of material physics and therefore can use further developments of the knowledge
about the mechanisms of inelastic deformations on the microscale.
During the work in the different projects, a surprising number of similar problems
have been found. Due to the close contacts between the working groups, they could be
investigated with much higher quality than without this cooperation.
The exchange of thought between metal physics, materials sciences, mechanics
and applied engineering sciences was very stimulating and has resulted in the fact that
the groups oriented towards application could be supported by the projects working
theoretically, and on the other hand, the scientists working in theoretical fields could
observe the application of their results in practical engineering.
Research Program
The main results of the activities of the SFB have been models for the loaddeforma
tion behaviour as well as for damage development and the development of deformation
anisotropies. These models make it possible to use results from the investigations from
metal physics and materials sciences in the SFB in the continuum mechanics models.
The research work in metal physics and materials sciences has considerably contributed
to a qualitative understanding of the processes, which have to be described by constitu
tive models. The structure of the developed models and of the formulations found in
literature, which have been considered for comparisons and supplementation of our
own development, have strongly influenced the work concerning the implementation of
the material models in numerical computing methods and the treatment of technical
problems. The models could be developed to a status, where the results of experimental
investigations can be used to determine the model parameters quantitatively.
This has resulted in an increasing activity on the experimental side of the work
and also in an increase of the cooperation within the SFB and with institutions outside
of Braunschweig (BAM Berlin, TU HamburgHarburg, TH Darmstadt, RWTH Aachen,
KFA Ju¨lich, KFZ Karlsruhe, E
´
cole Polytechnique Lausanne). In the SFB, joint research
was undertaken in the fields of hightemperature experiments for the investigation of
creep, cyclic loading and nonhomogeneous stress and displacement fields for technical
important metallic materials, and their comparison with theoretical predictions. The de
veloped wholefield methods for measuring deformations have shown to be an impor
Preface
XVI
tant experimental method. The increasing necessity to obtain experimental results of
high quality for testing and extending the material models has resulted in the develop
ment of experimental equipment, which also allows to investigate the material behav
iour under multiaxial loadings in the high and lowtemperature range.
The determination of model parameters and process quantities from experiments
has put the question for reliable methods for the parameter identification in the fore
ground. The earlier used methods of leastsquares and probabilistic methods, such as
the evolution strategy, have given satisfying results. In the SFB, however, the know
ledge has developed that methods for the parameter identification, which consider the
structure of the material models and the design of optimal experiments and discriminat
ing experiments, deserve special consideration.
If numerical values for the model parameters are given, the possibility exists to
examine these values concerning their physical meaning, and in cooperation with the
scientists from metal physics and materials sciences to investigate the connection be
tween the knowledge about the processes on the microscale and the macroscopic con
stitutive equations.
The SFB was during its activities organized essentially in three project areas:
A: Materials behaviour
• Phenomena
• Material models
• Parameter identification
B: Development of computational methods
• General computational methods under consideration of the developed material models
• Special computational methods (e. g. shells structures, structural optimization, shake
down)
C: Experimental verification
• Wholefield methods
• Examination of the transfer of results
• Mockup experiments.
Project area A: materials behaviour
The research in the project area A was mainly concerned with theoretical and experi
mental investigations concerning the basis for the development of material models and
damage development from metal physics and materials sciences. In the following, a
short description of the activities within the research projects is given. Methods and re
sults are in detail given in later chapters.
Research Program
XVII
Correlation between energetic and mechanical quantities of facecentred cubic
metals, coldworked and softened to different states (Kaps, Haeßner)
One of these basic investigations is concerned with calorimetric measurements in con
nection with the description of recovery. After measurements based on the sheet rolling
process, final investigations were performed concerning higher deformation tempera
tures and more complex deformation processes. Here, torsion experiments were exam
ined due to the fact that this process allows the investigation of very high deformations
as well as a simple reversal of the deformation direction and cyclic experiments.
Recovery and recrystallization are in direct competition with strain hardening. If a
material is coldworked, its yield stress increases. This process, denoted strain harden
ing, leads to a gain in internal energy. Recovery and recrystallization act to oppose
strain hardening. Already upon deformation or during subsequent annealing, these
forces transform the material back into a state of lower energy. Although this reciproci
ty has been known for some time, the exact dependence of the process upon the type
and extent of deformation, upon the temperatures during deformation and softening an
neal as well as upon the chemical composition of the material is as yet only qualita
tively known. Consequently, the predictability of the processes is as poor as it has al
ways been so that, even today, one is still obliged to refer to experience and explicit
experiments for help.
Material state after uni and biaxial cyclic deformation (Gieseke, Hillert, Lange)
The investigations concerning the material behaviour at multiaxial plastic deformation
were performed using the material AlMg
3
, copper and the austenitic stainless steel AISI
316L. To find the connection between damage development and microstructure, the dis
locations structure at the tip of small cracks and at surface grains with differently pro
nounced slipband development was investigated. With the aim to check the main as
sumptions of the twosurface models explicitly, measurements of the development of
the yield surface of the material from the initial to the saturation state and within a sat
uration cycle were considerably extended. Consecutive yield surfaces along different
loading histories were measured. The twosurface models of Ellyin and McDowell
were implemented in the computations.
Technical components and structures today are increasingly being designed and
displayed by computeraided methods. High speed computers permit the use of mathe
matical models able to numerically reconstruct material behaviour, even in the course
of complex loading procedures.
In phenomenological continuum mechanics, the cyclic hardening and softening
behaviour as well as the Bauschinger effect are described by yieldsurface models. If a
physical formulation is chosen as a basis for these models, then it is vitally important
to have exact knowledge of the processes occurring in the metal lattice during deforma
tion. Twosurface models, going back to a development by Dafalias and Popov, de
scribe the displacement of the elastic deformation zone in a dual axis stress area. The
yield surfaces are assumed to be v. Mises shaped ellipses. However, from experiments
with uniaxial loading, it is known that the yield surfaces of small offset strains under
Preface
XVIII
load become characteristically deformed. In the present subproject, the effect of cyclic
deformation on the shape and position of the yield surfaces is studied, and their rela
tion to the dislocation structure is determined. To this end, the yield surfaces of three
materials with different slip behaviour were measured after prior uni or biaxial defor
mation. The influence of the dislocation structures produced and the effect of internal
stresses are discussed.
Plasticity of metals and life prediction in the range of lowcycle fatigue: description of
deformation behaviour and creepfatigue interaction (Rie, Wittke, Olfe)
In the field of investigations about the connection between creep and lowcycle fatigue,
the development of models for predicting the componente lifetime at creep fatigue was
the main aim of the work. Measuring the change of the physical magnitudes in the
model during an experiment results in an investigation and eventually a modification of
the model assumptions. The model was also examined for its usability for experiments
with holdingtimes at the maximum pressure loading during a loading cycle.
For hot working tools, chemical plants, power plants, pressure vessels and tur
bines, one has to consider local plastic deformation at critical locations of structural
components. Due to cyclic changes of temperature and load, the components are sub
jected to cyclic deformation, and the components are limited in their use by fatigue.
After a quite small number of cycles with cyclic hardening or softening, a state of cyc
lic saturation is reached, which can be characterized by a stressstrain hysteresisloop.
Cyclic deformation in the regime of lowcycle fatigue (LCF) leads to the formation of
cracks, which can subsequently grow until failure of a component part takes place.
In the field of fatigue fracture mechanics, crack growth is correlated with param
eters, which take into account information especially about the steadystate stressstrain
hysteresisloops. Therefore, it can be expected that a more exact life prediction is possi
ble by a detailed investigation of the cyclic deformation behaviour and by the descrip
tion of the cyclic plasticity, e. g. with constitutive equations.
At high temperatures, creep deformation and creep damage are often superim
posed on the fatigue process. Therefore, in many cases, not one type of damage pre
vails, but the interaction of both fatigue and creep occurs, leading to failure of compo
nents.
The typical damage in the lowcycle fatigue regime is the development and
growth of cracks. In the case of creep fatigue, grain boundary cavities may be formed,
which interact with the propagating cracks, this leading to creepfatigue interaction. A
reliable life prediction model must consider this interaction.
The knowledge and description of the cavity formation and growth by means of
constitutive equations are the basis for reliable life prediction. In the case of diffusioncon
trolled cavity growth, the distance between the voids has an important influence on their
growth. This occurs especially in the case of lowcycle fatigue, where the cavity formation
plays an important role. Thus, the stochastic process of void nucleation on grain bound
aries and the cyclic dependence of this process has to be taken into consideration as a
theoretical description. The experimental analysis has to detect the cavitysize distribu
tion, which is a consequence of the complex interaction between the cavities.
Research Program
XIX
Up to now, only macroscopic parameters such as the total stress and strain have
been used for the calculation of the creepfatigue damage. But crack growth is a local
phenomenon, and the local conditions near the crack tip have to be taken into consid
eration. Therefore, the determination of the strain fields in front of cracks is an impor
tant step for modelling.
Development and application of constitutive models for the plasticity of metals (Steck,
Thielecke, Lewerenz)
The inelastic material behaviour in the low and hightemperature ranges is caused by
slip processes in the crystal lattice, which are supported by the movement of lattice de
fects like dislocations and dislocation packages. The dislocation movements are op
posed by internal barriers, which have to be overcome by activation. This is performed
by stresses or thermal energy. During the inelastic deformation, the dislocations interact
and arrange in a hierarchy of structures such as walls, adders and cells. This forming of
internal material structures influences strongly the macroscopic responses on mechani
cal and thermal loading.
A combination of models on the basis of molecular dynamics and cellular auto
mata is used to study numerically the forming of dislocation patterns and the evolution
of internal stresses during the deformation processes. For a realistic simulation, several
glide planes are considered, and for the calculation of the forces acting on a disloca
tion, a special extended neighbourhood is necessary. The study of the selforganization
processes with the developed simulation tool can result in valuable information for the
choice of formulations for the modelling of processes on the microscale.
The investigations concerning the development of material models based on
mechanisms on the microscale have resulted in a unified stochastic model, which is
able to represent essential and typical features of the low and hightemperature plastic
ity. For the modelling of the dislocation movements in crystalline materials and their
temperature and stress activation, a discrete Markov chain is considered. In order to de
scribe cyclic material behaviour, the widely accepted concept is used that the disloca
tiongliding processes are driven by the effective stress as the difference between the
applied stress and the internal back stress. The influence of effective stress and tem
perature on the inelastic deformations is considered by a metalphysically motivated
evolution equation. A mean value formulation of this stochastic model leads to a
macroscopic model consisting of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The results
show that the stochastic theory is helpful to deduce the properties of the macroscopic
constitutive equations from findings on the microscale.
Since the general form of the stochastic model must be adapted to the special
material characteristics and the considered temperature regime, the identification of the
unknown material parameters plays an important role for the application on numerical
calculations. The determination of the unknown material parameters is based on a Max
imumLikelihood outputerror method comparing experimental data to the numerical si
mulations. For the minimization of the costfunction, a hybrid optimization concept par
allelized with PVM is considered. It couples stochastic search procedures and several
Newtontype methods. A relative new approach for material parameter identification is
Preface
XX
the multiple shooting approach, which allows to make efficient use of additional measure
ment and aprioriinformation about the states. This reduces the influence of bad initial
parameters. Since replicated experiments for the same laboratory conditions show a sig
nificant scattering, these uncertainties must be taken into account for the parameter iden
tification. The reliability of the results can be tested with a statistical analysis.
Several different materials, like aluminium, copper, stainless steel AISI 304 and
AISI 316, have been studied. For the analysis of structures, like a notched flat bar, the
FiniteElement program ABAQUS is used in combination with the user material sub
routine UMAT. The simulations are compared with experimental data from grating
methods.
On the physical parameters governing the flow stress of solid solutions in a wide range
of temperatures (Schwink, Nortmann)
In the area of the metalphysical foundations, investigations on poly and singlecrystal
line material have been performed. The superposition of solution hardening and ordi
nary hardening has found special consideration. Along the stressstrain curves, the lim
its between stable and unstable regions of deformation were investigated, and their de
pendencies on temperature, strain rate and solute concentration were determined. In re
gions of stable deformation, a quantitative analysis of the processes of dynamic strain
ageing (“Reckalterung”) was performed. The transition between regions of stable and
unstable deformation was investigated and characterized.
At sufficiently low temperatures, host and solute atoms remain on their lattice
sites. The critical flow stress is governed by thermally activated dislocations glide (Ar
rhenius equation), which depends on an average activation enthalpy DG
0
, and an effec
tive obstacle concentration c
b
. The total flow stress is composed of the critical flow
stress and a hardening stress, which increases with the dislocation density in the cell
walls.
Detailed investigations on single crystals yielded expressions for the critical
resolved shear stress, s
0
s
0
DG
0
; c
b
; T; _ e, and the hardening shear stress,
s
d
w
Gbq
1=2
w
. Here,
w
is a constant,
w
0:25 Æ0:03, G the shear modulus, and
q
w
the dislocation density inside the cell walls. The total shear stress results as
s s
0
s
d
.
At higher temperatures, the solutes become mobile in the lattice and cause an ad
ditional anchoring of the glide dislocations. This is described by an additional enthalpy
Dg
t
w
; E
am
in the Arrhenius equation. In the main, it depends on the activation energy
E
am
of the diffusing solutes and the waiting time t
w
of the glide dislocations arrested at
obstacles. Three different diffusion processes characterized by E
aI
; E
aII
; E
aIII
were found
for the two f.c.c.model systems investigated, CuMn and CuAl, respectively. In both,
Dg reaches values up to about 0.1 DG
0
. Under certain conditions, the solute diffusion
causes instabilities in the flow stress, the wellknown jerky flow phenomena (Portevin
Le Chaˆtelier effect). Finally, above around 800 K in copperbased alloys, the solutes be
come freely mobile, and the critical flow stress as well as the additional enthalpy van
ish. In any temperature region, only a small total number of physical parameters is suf
ficient for modelling plastic deformation processes.
Research Program
XXI
Inhomogeneity and instability of plastic flow in Cubased alloys (Neuha¨user)
In a second project, the main goal of the research is to clarify the physical mecha
nisms, which control the kinetics of the deformation, especially in such parameter re
gions, which are characterized by inhomogeneity and instability of the deformation pro
cess. It is looked for a realistic interpretation of the magnitudes, which will be used
with empirical material equations as it is necessary for a sensible application and extra
polation to extended parameter regions. Especially, reasons and effects of deformation
inhomogeneities and instabilities in the systems CuAl and CuMn, which show ten
dencies to shortrange order, were investigated. Determining dislocationgeneration
rates and dislocation velocities in the case of gradients of the effective stress were as
well aim of the investigations as the influence of diffusion processes on the generation
(blocking, breakaway) and motion (obstacle destruction and regeneration) of disloca
tions. Investigations were also performed concerning the use of the results for single
crystals for the description of the practically more important case of the behaviour of
polycrystals. In this case, especially the influence of the grainboundaries on generation
and movement of dislocations or dislocation groups has to be considered.
The special technique used in this project is a microcinematographic method,
which permits to measure the local strain and strain rate in slip bands, which are the
active regions of the crystal. Cubased alloys with several percent of Al and Mn solutes
are considered in order to separate the effects of stackingfault energy from those of so
lute hardening and shortrange ordering, which are comparable for both alloy systems,
while the stackingfault energy decreases rapidly with solute concentration for CuAl
contrary to CuMn alloys. Both systems show different degrees of inhomogeneous slip
in the length scales from nm to mm (slip bands, Lu¨ders bands), and, in a certain range
of deformation conditions, macroscopic deformation instabilities (PortevinLe Chaˆtelier
effect). These effects have been studied in particular.
The influence of large torsional prestrain on the texture development and yield surface
of polycrystals – experimental and theoretical investigations (Besdo, WellerdickWojta
sik)
This research project consists of a theoretical and an experimental part. The topic of
the theoretical part was the simulation of texture development and methods of calculat
ing yield surfaces. The calculations started from an initially isotropic grain distribution.
Therefore, it was necessary to set up such a distribution. Different possibilities were
compared with an isotropy test considering the elastic and plastic properties. With some
final distributions, numerical calculations were carried out. The Taylor theory in an ap
propriate version and a simple formulation based on the Sachs assumption were used.
Calculation of yield surfaces from texture data can be done in many different ways.
Some examples are the yield surfaces calculated with the Taylor theory, averaging meth
ods or formulations, which take the elastic behaviour into account. Several possibilities
are presented, and the numerical calculations are compared with the experimental results.
In order to measure yield surfaces after large torsional prestrain, thinwalled tubu
lar specimens of AlMg
3
were loaded up to a shear strain of c 1:5, while torsional
Preface
XXII
buckling was prevented by inserting a greased mandrel inside the specimens. Further
investigations of the prestrained specimens were done with the testing machine of the
project area B.
At least one yield surface, represented by 16 yield points, was measured with
each specimen. The yield point is defined by the offsetstrain definition, where gener
ally the von Mises equivalent offset strain is used. Three different loading paths were
realized with the extensioncontrolled testing machine. Thus, the results were yield sur
faces measured with different offsets and loading paths.
The offsetstrain definition is based on the elastic tensile and shear modulus.
These constants were calculated at the beginning of each loading path, and since they
strongly effect the yield surfaces, this must be done with the highest amount of care.
The isotropic specimens are insensitive to different loading paths, and the measured
yield surfaces seem to be of the von Mises type. By contrast, the prestrained specimens
are very sensitive to different loading paths. Especially the shape and the distorsion of
the measured surfaces changes as a result of the small plastic strain during the measure
ment. Therefore, it seems that the shape and the distortion of the yield surface were not
strongly effected by the texture of the material.
Parameter identification of inelastic deformation laws analysing inhomogeneous stress
strain states (Kreißig, Naumann, Benedix, Borman, Grewolls, Kretzschmar)
In the last years, the necessity of solutions of nonlinear solid mechanics problems has
permanently increased. Although powerful hard and software exist for such problems,
often more or less large differences between numerical and experimental results are ob
served. The dominant reason for these defects must be seen in the materialdependent
part of the used computer programs. Either suitable deformation laws are not imple
mented or the required parameters are missing.
Experiments on the material behaviour are commonly realized for homogeneous
stressstrain states, as for example the uniaxial tensile and compression test or the thin
walled tube under combined torsion, tensile and internal pressure loading. In addition
to these wellknown methods, experimental studies of inhomogeneous strain and stress
fields are an interesting alternative to identify material parameters.
Two types of specimens have been investigated. Unnotched bending specimens
have been used to determine the elastic constants, the initial yield locus curve and the
uniaxial tension and compression yield curves. Notched bending specimens allow ex
periments on the hardening behaviour due to inhomogeneous stressstrain states.
The numerical analysis has been carried out by the integration of the deformation
law at a certain number of comparative points of the ligament with strain increments,
determined from Moire´ fringe patterns, as loads. The identification of material param
eters has been performed by the minimization of a leastsquares functional using deter
ministic gradienttype methods. As comparative quantities have been taken into account
the bending moment, the normal force and the stresses at the notch grooves.
Research Program
XXIII
Project area B: development of computational methods
The essential goals of the project area B were the transfer of experimental results in
material models, which describe the essential characteristics of the complex nonlinear
behaviour of metallic materials in a technically satisfactory manner. For this reason,
known formulations of material models, developments of the SFB and new formula
tions had to be examined with respect to their validity and the limits of their efficiency.
To be able to describe processes on the microscale of the materials, the material models
contain internal variables, which can either be purely phenomenological or be based on
microstructural considerations. In the frame of the SFB, the goal was the microstructur
al substantiation of these internal variables.
For the adjustment of the model parameters on the experimental results, optimiza
tion strategies are necessary, which allow judging the power of the models. The ob
tained results showed that this question is of high importance, also for further research.
Extensions for multiaxial loading cases have been developed and validated. For the in
vestigated loadings of metals at high temperatures and alternating and cyclic loading
histories as well as for significantly timedependent material behaviour, the literature
shows only a first beginning in the research concerning such extensions.
The material models had firstly to be examined concerning the materials. For the
practical application, however, their suitability for their implementation in numerical al
gorithms (e. g. FiniteElement methods) and the influence on the efficiency of numeri
cal computations had to be examined.
Especially for the computation of timedependent processes, numerically stable
and – because of the expensive numerical calculations – efficient computational algo
rithms had to be developed (e. g. fast converging timeintegration methods for strongly
nonlinear problems).
The developed (or chosen) material models and algorithms had to be applied for
larger structures, not only to test the computational models, but simultaneously also –
by reflection to the assumptions in the material models – to find out which parameters
are of essential meaning for the practical application, and which are rather unimportant
and can be neglected. This results in the necessity to perform on all levels sensitivity
investigations for the relevancy of the variants of the assumptions and their parameters.
At loading histories, which describe alternating or cyclic processes due to the al
ternating plastification, the question of saturation of the stressstrain histories and
shakedown are of special importance. The projects in the project area B were investi
gating these problems in a complementary manner. They were important, central ques
tions conceived so that related problems were investigated to accelerate the progress of
the work and to allow mutual support and critical exchange of thought.
Development and improvement of unified models and applications to structural analysis
(Ahrens, Duddeck, Kowalsky, Pensky, Streilein)
Especially for structures of large damage potentials, the design has to simulate failure
conditions as realistic as possible. Therefore, inelastic and timedependent behaviour
such as temperatureinduced creep have to be considered. Besides adequate numerical
Preface
XXIV
methods of analyses (as nonlinear FiniteElement methods), mathematically correct
models are needed for the thermalmechanical material behaviour under complex load
ings. Unified models for metallic materials cover timeindependent as well as timede
pendent reactions by a unified concept of elastoviscoplasticity.
Research results are presented, which demonstrate further developments for uni
fied models in three different aspects. The methodical approach is shown firstly on the
level of the material model. Then, verifications of their applicability are given by utiliz
ing them in the analyses of structures. The three aspects are the following problems:
1. Discrepancies between results of experimental and numerical material behaviour
may be caused by
• insufficient or inaccurate parameters of the material model,
• inadequate material functions of the unified models,
• insufficient basic formulations for the physical properties covered by the model.
It is shown that more consistent formulations can be achieved for all these three
sources of deficits by systematic numerical investigations.
2. Most of the models for metallic materials assume yield functions of the v. Mises
type. For hardening, isotropic and/or kinematic evolutions are developed, that corre
spond to affine expansions or simple shifting of the original yield surface, whereas
experimental results show a distinctive change of the shape of the yield surfaces
(rotated or dented) depending on the load path. To cover this material behaviour of
distorted yield surfaces, a hierarchical expansion of the hardening rule is proposed.
The evolutionary equations of the hardening (expressed in tensors) are extended by
including higher order terms of the tensorial expressions.
3. Even very accurately repeated tests of the same charge of a metallic material show a
certain scattering distribution of the experimental results. The investigation of test
series (provided by other projects of the SFB) proved that a normal Gaussian distri
bution can be assumed. A systematic approach is proposed to deal with such experi
mental deviations in evaluating the parameters of the material model.
The concepts in all of the three items are valid in general although the overstress
model by Chaboche and Rousselier is chosen here for convenience.
In verifying the conceptual improvements, it is necessary to provide accurate and
efficient procedures for timeintegration processes and for the evaluation of the model
parameters via optimization. In both cases, different procedures are elaborately com
pared with each other.
Results of the numerical analyses of different structures are given. They demon
strate the efficiency of the proposed further developments by applying FiniteElement
methods for nonlinear stressdisplacement problems. This includes:
• investigations of welded joints with modifications of the layers of different micro
structures,
• thickwalled vessels in order to demonstrate the effects of different formulations of
the material model on the stressdeformation fields of larger structures,
Research Program
XXV
• distorted yield functions to a plate with an opening,
• effects of stochastic distribution of material behaviour to a plate with openings,
• the application of material models based on microphysical mechanisms to a larger
vessel, the recipient of hot aluminium blocks for a profile extrusion press.
On the behaviour of mild steel Fe 510 under complex cyclic loading (Peil, Scheer,
Scheibe, Reininghaus, Kuck, Dannemeyer)
The employment of the plastic bearing capacity of structures has been recently allowed
in both national and international steel constructions standards. The ductile material be
haviour of mild steel allows a loadincrease well over the elastic limit. To make use of
this effect, efficient algorithms, taking account of the plastic behaviour under cyclic or
random loads in particular, are an important prerequisite for a precise calculation of the
structure.
The basic elements of a timeindependent material model, which allows to take
into account the biaxial or random load history for a mild steel under room tempera
ture, are presented. In a first step, the material response under cyclic or random loads
has to be determined. The fundamentals of an extendedtwosurface model based on
the twosurface model of Dafalias and Popov are presented. The adaptations have been
made in accordance with the results of experiments under multiaxial cyclic loadings.
Finally, tests on structural components are performed to verify the results obtained
from the calculations with the described model.
Theoretical and computational shakedown analysis of nonlinear kinematic hardening
material and transition to ductile fracture (Stein, Zhang, Huang, Mahnken, Wiechmann)
The response of an elasticplastic system subjected to variable loadings can be very
complicated. If the applied loads are small enough, the system will remain elastic for
all possible loads. Whereas if the ultimate load of the system is attained, a collapse
mechanism will develop and the system will fail due to infinitely growing displace
ments. Besides this, there are three different steady states, that can be reached while the
loading proceeds:
1. Incremental failure occurs if at some points or parts of the system, the remaining
displacements and strains accumulate during a change of loading. The system will
fail due to the fact that the initial geometry is lost.
2. Alternating plasticity occurs, this means that the sign of the increment of the plastic
deformation during one load cycle is changing alternately. Though the remaining
displacements are bounded, plastification will not cease, and the system fails locally.
3. Elastic shakedown occurs if after initial yielding plastification subsides, and the sys
tem behaves elastically due to the fact that a stationary residual stress field is
formed, and the total dissipated energy becomes stationary. Elastic shakedown (or
Preface
XXVI
simply shakedown) of a system is regarded as a safe state. It is important to know
whether a system under given variable loadings shakes down or not.
The research work is based on Melan’s static shakedown theorems for perfectly plastic
and linear kinematic hardening materials, and is extended to generally nonlinear limited
hardening by a socalled overlay model, being the 3D generalization of Neal’s 1D mod
el, for which a theorem and a corollary are derived. FiniteElement method and adequate
optimization algorithms are used for numerical approach of 2D problems. A new lemma
allows for the distinction between local and global failure. Some numerical examples il
lustrate the theoretical results. The shakedown behaviour of a cracked ductile body is in
vestigated, where a crack is treated as a sharp notch. Thresholds for no crack propagation
are formulated based on shakedown theory.
Parameter identification for inelastic constitutive equations based on uniform and non
uniform stress and strain distributions (Mahnken, Stein)
In this project, various aspects for identification of parameters are discussed. Firstly, as
in classical strategies, a leastsquares functional is minimized using data of specimen
with stresses and strains assumed to be uniform within the whole volume of the sam
ple. Furthermore, in order to account for possible nonuniformness of stress and strain
distributions, identification is performed with the FiniteElement method, where also
the geometrically nonlinear case is taken into account. In both approaches, gradient
based optimization strategies are applied, where the associated sensitivity analysis is
performed in a systematic manner. Numerical examples for the uniform case are pre
sented with a material model due to Chaboche with cyclic loading. For the nonuni
form case, material parameters are obtained for a multiplicative plasticity model, where
experimental data are determined with a grating method for an axisymmetric necking
problem. In both examples, the results are discussed when different starting values are
used and stochastic perturbations of the experimental data are applied.
Project area C: experimental verification
Material parameters, which describe the inelastic behaviour of metallic materials, can
be determined experimentally from the deformation of a test specimen by suitable cho
sen basic experiments. Onedimensional loaddisplacement measurements, however, are
not providing sufficient informations to identify parameters of threedimensional
material laws. For this purpose, the complete wholefield deformation respectively
strain state of the considered object surface is needed. It can be measured by optical
methods. They yield the displacement distribution in three dimensions and the strain
components in two dimensions. So, these methods make possible an extensive compari
son of the results of a related FiniteElement computation.
Research Program
XXVII
Experimental determination of deformation and strain fields by optical measuring
methods (Ritter, Friebe)
Mainly, two methods were developed and adapted for solving the mentioned problems:
the objectgrating method and the electronic Speckle interferometry.
As known, the objectgrating method leads to the local vector of each point of the
considered object surface marked by an attached grating, consisting of a deterministic
or stochastic grey value distribution, and recorded by the photogrammetric principle.
Then, the strain follows from the difference of the displacement vectors of two neigh
bouring points related to two different deformation states of the object and related to
their initial distance.
The electronic Speckle interferometry is based on the Speckle effect. It comes
into existence if an optical rough object surface is illuminated by coherent light, and
the scattered waves interfere. By superposing of the interference effects of an object
and reference wave related to two different object states, the difference of the arising
Speckle patterns leads to correlation fringes, which describe the displacement field of
the considered object.
Regarding the objectgrating method, grating structures and their attachment have
been developed, which can be analysed automatically and which are practicable also at
high temperatures up to 10008C, as often inelastic processes take place under this con
dition. Furthermore, the optical setup, based on the photogrammetric principle, was
adapted to the shortrange field with testing fields of only a few square millimeters.
The objectgrating method is applicable if the strain values are greater than 0.1%.
For measurement of smaller strain values down to 10
–5
, the Speckle interfero
metric principle was applied. A 3D electronic Speckle interferometer has been devel
oped, which is so small that it can be adapted directly at a testing machine. It is based
on the wellknown path of rays of the Speckle interferometry including modern opto
electronic components as laser diodes, piezo crystals and CCDcameras.
Furthermore, both methods are suitable for high resolution of a large change of
material behaviour. Finally, the measurement can be conducted at the original and takes
place without contact and interaction.
Surface deformation fields from grating pictures using image processing and photo
grammetry (Andresen)
The beforementioned grating techniques are optical wholefield methods applied to de
rive the shape or the displacement and strain on the surface of an object. A regular
grating fixed or projected on the surface is moved or deformed together with the ob
ject. In different states, pictures are taken by film cameras or by electronic cameras.
For plane surfaces parallel to the image plane, one camera supplies the necessary infor
mation for displacement and strain. To get the spatial coordinates of curved surfaces,
two or more stereocameras must be used. In early times, the grating patterns were eval
uated manually by projecting the images to large screens or by use of microscope tech
niques. Today, the pictures are usually digitized, yielding resolutions from 200×200 to
2000×2000 picture elements (pixels or pels) with generally 256 grey levels (8 bit). By
Preface
XXVIII
suitable imageprocessing methods, the grating coordinates in the images are deter
mined to a large extent automatically. The corresponding coordinates on plane objects
are derived from the image coordinates by a perspective transformation. Considering
spatial surfaces, first, the orientation of the cameras in space must be determined by a
calibration procedure. Then, the spatial coordinates are given by intersection of the rays
of adjoined grating points in the images.
The sequence of the grating coordinates in different states describes displacement
and strain of the considered object surface. Applying suitable interpolation gives contin
uous fields for the geometrical and physical quantities on the surface. These experimen
tally determined fields are used for
• getting insight into twodimensional deformation processes and effects,
• supplying experimental data to the theoretically working scientist,
• providing experimental data to be compared with FiniteElement methods,
• deriving parameters in standard constitutive laws,
• developing constitutive laws with new dependencies and parameters.
Experimental and numerical analysis of the inelastic postbuckling behaviour of shear
loaded aluminium panels (Kossira, Arnst)
As a practical problem of aircraft engineering, the case of shearloaded thin panels out
of the material AlCuMg
2
under cyclic, quasistatic loading was investigated by experi
mental and numerical methods. Beyond the uptonow used classical theory of plastici
ty, the theoretical research was based on the “unified” models, which were developed
and adjusted to numerical computational methods in other areas of the research project.
Shearloaded panels are in general substructures of aerospace constructions since
there are always load cases during a flight mission, in which shear loads are predomi
nant in the thinwalled structures of subsonic as well as in supersonic and hypersonic
aircrafts. The goodnatured postcritical loadcarrying behaviour of shearloaded panels
at moderate plastic deformations can be exploited in emergency (fail safe) cases since
they exhibit no dramatic loss of stiffness even in the high plastic postbuckling regime.
The temperature at the surface of hypersonic vehicles may reach very high values, but
with a thermal protection shield, the temperatures of the loadcarrying structure can be
reduced to moderate values, which allow the application of aluminium alloys. There
fore, the properties of the mostly used aluminium alloy 2024T3 are taken as a basis
for the experimental and theoretical studies of the behaviour of shearloaded panels at
room temperature and at 2008C.
The primary aim of these studies is the understanding of the occurring phenom
ena, respectively the examination of the loadcarrying behaviour of the considered
structures under different loadtime histories, and to provide suitable data for the de
sign. Besides experimental investigations, which are achieved by a specially designed
test setup, the development of numerical methods, which describe the phenomena, was
necessary to accomplish this intention. The used numerical model is based on a Finite
Element method, which is capable of calculating the geometric and physical nonlinear
– in case of viscoplastic material behaviour timedependent – postbuckling behaviour.
Research Program
XXIX
A substantial problem within the numerical method was the simulation of the nonlin
ear material properties. Using a rateindependent twosurface material model and a
modified viscoplastic material model of the Chaboche type, the nonlinear properties
of the aluminium alloy 2024T3 are approximated with sufficient accuracy at both con
sidered temperatures.
Some results of the theoretical and experimental studies on the monotonic and
cyclic postbuckling behaviour of thinwalled aluminium panels under shear load at am
bient and elevated temperatures are presented. The applied loads exceed the theoretical
buckling loads by factors up to 40, accompanied by the occurrence of moderate inelas
tic deformations. Apart from the numerical model, the monotonic loading, subsequent
creep rates, the snapthrough behaviour at cyclic loading, the inelastic processes during
loading, and the influence of the aspect ratio are major topics in the presented discus
sion of the results for shearloaded panels at room temperature and at 2008C.
Consideration of inhomogeneities in the application of deformation models, describing
the inelastic behaviour of welded joints (Wohlfahrt, Brinkmann)
A second practical problem was the investigation of the influence of welded joints on
the mechanical behaviour of components, which is due to the high degree of “Werk
stoffnutzung” in modern welded structures of high importance. Special consideration
was given here to the important question of the material behaviour at cyclic loading as
well from the point of view of numerical computation of these processes and the con
nected effects as from the point of view of the problems connected with aspects of
materials sciences.
The local loads and deformations in welded joints have rarely been investigated
under the aspect that the mechanical behaviour is influenced by different kinds of mi
crostructure. These different kinds of microstructure lead to multiaxial states of stresses
and strains, and some investigations have shown that for the determination of the total
state of deformation of a welded joint, the locally different deformation behaviour has
to be taken into account. It is also published that different mechanical properties in the
heataffected zone as well as a weld metal with a lower strength than the base metal
can be the reason or the starting point of a fracture in welded joints. A new investiga
tion demonstrates that in TIGwelded joints of the high strength steel StE690, a fine
grained area in the heataffected zone with a lower strength than that of the base metal
is exclusively the starting zone of fracture under cyclic loading in the fully compressive
range. These investigations support the approach described here that the mechanical be
haviour of the different kinds of microstructure in the heataffected zone of welded
joints has to be taken into account in the deformation analysis. The influences of these
inhomogeneities on the local deformation behaviour of welded joints were determined
by experiments and numerical calculations over a wide range of temperature and load
ing. The numerical deformation analysis was performed with ttformat
he method of FiniteElements, in which recently developed deformation models
simulate the mechanical behaviour of materials over the tested range of temperature
and loading conditions.
Preface
XXX
1 Correlation between Energetic
and Mechanical Quantities of FaceCentred Cubic
Metals, ColdWorked and Softened to Different States
Lothar Kaps and Frank Haeßner *
1.1 Introduction
Coldworked metals soften at higher temperatures. The details of this process depend
on the material as well as on the type and degree of deformation. The kinetic parame
ters can in principle be determined by calorimetric methods. By combining calorimetri
cally determined values with characteristics measured mechanically and with micro
structural data, information can be gained about the strainhardened state and the mech
anism of the softening process.
This materials information can support critical assessment of the structure of
material models and hence be utilized for the appropriate adjustment of constitutive
models to material properties.
1.2 Experiments
One objective of the work in this particular area of research was to investigate the de
pendence of the softening kinetics of facecentred cubic metals on the deformation. The
chosen types of deformation were torsion, tension and rolling. In the cases of torsion
and tension, additional cyclic experiments with plastic amplitudes of 0.01 to 0.1 were
carried out. The materials studied were aluminium, lead, nickel, copper and silver.
Thus, in this order, metals of very high to very low stacking fault energy were investi
gated. In the following presentation of the results, the emphasis will be on copper.
To determine the mechanical data, the first step was to characterize the deforma
tion with the aid of the crystallographic slip a, the shear stress s
N
normalized to the
1
* Technische Universita¨t Braunschweig, Institut fu¨r Werkstoffe, Langer Kamp 8,
D38106 Braunschweig, Germany
Plasticity of Metals: Experiments, Models, Computation. Collaborative Research Centres.
Edited by E. Steck, R. Ritter, U. Peil, A. Ziegenbein
Copyright © 2001 WileyVCH Verlag GmbH
ISBNs: 3527277285 (Softcover); 3527600116 (Electronic)
shearing modulus G: s
N
s
c
=G, and the strainhardening rate H ds
N
=da. The con
version to crystallographic quantities was effected using calculated Taylor factors [1, 2].
This procedure permits direct comparison between different types of deformation.
Figure 1.1 shows the family of curves that are obtained when copper is subjected
to torsion at various temperatures. The characterization is clear because for increasing
deformation temperature, a decreasing yield stress results.
Figure 1.2 shows the strainhardening rate versus the normalized shear stress of
copper to extreme deformation. The strainhardening rate can be subdivided into three
regions, which, following the literature, may be denoted strainhardening regions III to
V [3]. Regions III and V show a linearly decreasing strainhardening rate with shear
stress. Region IV, as region II, is characterized by constant strain hardening.
The occurrence of these different regions depends strongly on the type of deforma
tion. Thus, for tensile deformation, in consequence of instability, only deformation to re
gion III can be realized. Rolling permits greater deformation, but brings with it the problem
of defining a specific measurement to categorize the strainhardening regions. The tempera
ture effect of the deformation fits well into the scheme proposed by Gil Sevillano [4].
According to this scheme, all flow curves in region III may be described by a fixed initial
strainhardening rate H
III
0
and a variable limiting stress s
III
S
. This latter is affected by dy
namic recovery and is therefore dependent on deformation temperature and velocity. It
decreases for increasing deformation temperature and increases for higher deformation
velocities.
This statement is also true for the other characteristic stresses s
IV
; s
V
; s
V
S
: The loga
rithm of the characteristic stress decreases linearly with the normalized deformation
temperature, T
N
kT=Gb
3
: The normalization was proposed by Mecking et al. [5]. It
1 Correlation between Energetic and Mechanical Quantities
2
Figure 1.1: Flow curves of copper at temperatures of –208C to 1208C.
has been successfully applied to our own measurements. However, it may be seen that
the dependence on temperature is different for the individual stresses (Figure 1.3).
Careful evaluation of the experiments taking account of the effects of texture and
sample shows similarities as well as differences between the two deformation types ten
sion and torsion. Up to a slip value of a=0.4, the flow curve shows little difference be
tween tension and torsion. Above that value, the hardening is greater for the tension ex
periment (Figure 1.4).
The differences are more pronounced when the hardening rate is studied rather
than the flow curve. From the start, the former lies higher for tension than for torsion.
The different procedures may be followed microstructurally using a transmission elec
1.2 Experiments
3
Figure 1.2: Strainhardening rate of copper under torsion at room temperature versus normalized
shear stress.
Figure 1.3: Characteristic stresses for the strain hardening of copper versus the normalized tem
perature.
tron microscope. Other authors have described this influence of the load path on the
microstructure [6–9]. The reason for this may be that different average numbers of slip
systems are necessary for deformation [10]. This also affects the development of activa
tion energies DG
0
and activation volumes V. To determine these quantities, velocities
are varied in tension and torsion experiments, i.e. during a unidirectional experiment,
the extension rate is momentarily increased. In those sections with an increased exten
sion rate, the material shows a higher flow stress. For the evaluation, the following an
satz was chosen for the relationship between the extension rate _ e and the flow stress r:
_ e _ e
0
exp
À
DG
0
ÀVr
kT
& '
:
1
The activation volume and energy are the important quantities for the constitutive equa
tions developed in the subproject A6 [11, 12]. The comparison of the deformation
types tension and torsion shows a definite difference in the development of activation
volumes with s
N
. This is manifest by the tension (strain) deformation, which exhibits a
constant velocity sensitivity even for significantly smaller degrees of deformation (Fig
ure 1.5). The activation volumes are a particularly indicative measurement for the
velocity sensitivity. In region III for torsion, they show a continuous decrease, which
becomes less only upon reaching region IV. For tension, on the other hand, there are
also two sections with decreasing or nearly constant activation volumes. However, the
transition in the curve of the activation volume versus the stress already lies in the
strainhardening region III.
The activation energies DG
0
for torsion were determined from the characteristic
stresses for different temperatures (cf. Figure 1.3). The resultant values for the stresses
s
III
S
; s
IV
and s
V
S
are 3.15, 2.79 and 2.79 eV/atom, respectively.
To obtain the energy data, the stored energy E
S
of the plastic deformation was de
termined using a calorimeter. As expected, the stored energy shows a monotonic in
1 Correlation between Energetic and Mechanical Quantities
4
Figure 1.4: Comparison of flow curves from tension and torsion experiments.
crease with deformation. Moreover, dynamic recovery counteracts energy storage as it
does hardening. Hence, there is an unequivocal correlation between the deformation
temperature and stored energy such that an increasing deformation temperature leads to
less stored energy (Figure 1.6).
Figure 1.6 demonstrates the great influence of the stacking fault energy. The value
of the reduced stacking fault energy for silver lies at 2.4·10
–3
compared with the value
of 4.7·10
–3
for copper. Lower stacking fault energies lead to a greater separation of par
1.2 Experiments
5
Figure 1.5: Activation volume of copper deformed in tension and torsion at room temperature.
Figure 1.6: Stored energy versus shear strain for distorted copper and silver deformed at different
temperatures.
tial dislocations. This hinders dynamic recovery because the mechanism of cross slip is
impaired.
The connection between stored energy and shearing stress was studied for defor
mation by torsion, tension and pushpull. There is a clear tendency to store more en
ergy with increasing deformation temperature at constant shearing stress. It would ap
pear that energy storage by more fully condensed states is more effective. The mea
sured values for tension and pushpull in this sequence lie above those for the greatest
torsional deformation. For the same shearing stress, silver also clearly stores more en
ergy than copper.
This relationship is represented in the Figures 1.7 and 1.8. Figure 1.7 comprises
torsion experiments up to extreme deformation. Figure 1.8 shows a comparison of vari
ous types of deformation. For better resolution, the abscissa here is confined to small
and intermediate values of stress. The variable behaviour of the materials and the effect
of the types of deformation may also be demonstrated in measurements of the soften
ing kinetics to be discussed. In analogy to the strainhardening rate, an energy storage
rate H
E
dE
S
=ds
N
has been defined. This quantity represents independent information.
The development of the energy storage rate is clearly correlated with the strain
hardening stages (Figure 1.9). The combination of energetic and mechanical measure
ments permits a statement on the change in dislocation density q, to a first approxima
tion proportional to the stored energy, with increasing flow stress. A linearly increasing
energy storage rate with stress leads to a law of the type:
qE
S
qs
N
as
N
A
s
c
G
k
1
E
S
p
:
2
This kind of behaviour is found only up to the middle of region III. After that, the en
ergy storage rate increases overproportionally until region IV is reached. In region IV, it
decreases slightly and then increases linearly again in region V. This time, however,
1 Correlation between Energetic and Mechanical Quantities
6
Figure 1.7: Stored energy versus normalized shear stress for copper and silver deformed at differ
ent temperatures.
with a different proportionality factor a of value rather below the one pertaining to re
gion III. The factor a may only be analytically assessed for deformation in the region
of the strainhardening stage II. For greater plastic deformation, which would then be
deformation in region III of the strainhardening stage, this factor is of a qualitative na
ture. The evolution of a for various materials, deformation temperatures and types of
deformation is collated in Table 1.1. The stress in the second column indicates the end
of the linear storage rate in the strainhardening region III.
1.2 Experiments
7
Figure 1.8: Stored energy versus normalized shear stress for copper deformed in torsion, tension
and pushpull.
Figure 1.9: Stored energy (upper curve) and rate of energy storage of distorted copper versus nor
malized shear stress.
~ Cu 235 K s Cu 293 K * Cu 373 K + Cu 293 K Tension × Cu 293 K PushPull
If X denotes the softened fraction of the material, one may attempt to describe the
softening kinetics
_
X by a product of functions, which combines the thermal activation
and the nature of the reaction in one appropriate multiplier:
_
X f
Xg
T f
X exp À
Q
RT
:
3
Equation (3) is easily handled numerically. The activation energy of the softening Q
and the form function f may be determined separately. Equation (3) offers the added ad
vantage that, as a rate equation, it may be directly incorporated into a constitutive equa
tion if the quantities Q and f
X are known. The simpler analysis considers the product
and in its place the reaction temperature. This temperature is a direct measure of the
stability of the deformed state.
The thermal results show that for increasing stored energy, the softening process
takes place at lower temperatures. An influence of the deformation temperature be
comes apparent. Higher deformation temperatures promote easier reaction for the same
stored energy. Exact analysis of these facts shows that the form function makes only a
negligible contribution here. The effect is induced by a reduced activation energy.
Different types of deformation show a stronger influence on the reaction tempera
ture than the deformation temperature. At lower energies, distorted samples soften fast
er than extended or rolled ones. At higher energies, the reverse is true: Rolled samples
react faster. It is noticeable that cyclically deformed samples, for torsion as well as for
pushpull, do not diverge from the unidirectionally deformed samples of the same de
formation mode. This is remarkable because, particularly for tension and pushpull de
formation, there are substantial differences in the activation energy.
The activation energy describes the purely temperature dependence of the reac
tion. For small deformation and stored energies of distorted copper at a value of
170 kJ/mol, it lies below the activation energy of volume self diffusion (200 kJ/mol).
Unidirectionally extended samples show a higher activation energy (190 kJ/mol); push
pull deformed samples, on the other hand, show significantly lower activation energies
(130 kJ/mol). With increasing energy, the activation energies of all deformation types
fall. Figure 1.10 demonstrates these relationships.
With the aid of torsional deformation, it is unequivocally proved that only upon
reaching the strainhardening stage V, one may presume constant activation energy. At
1 Correlation between Energetic and Mechanical Quantities
8
Table 1.1: The constant k
1
according to Equation (2) for various temperatures. The constant k
2
applies to extreme deformation in the region V.
k
1
s
c
/G k
2
Cu 253 K 6.4·10
–4
1.5·10
–3
4.8·10
–4
Cu 293 K 5.7·10
–4
1.25·10
–3
4.5·10
–4
Cu 373 K 5.5·10
–4
1.12·10
–3
4.5·10
–4
Cu 293 K tension 5.0·10
–4
1.5·10
–3
–
Ag 253 K 6.0·10
–4
1.5·10
–3
4.5·10
–4
Ag 293 K 5.5·10
–4
1.25·10
–3
4.4·10
–4
values of 80 to 90 kJ/mol, here for all deformation temperatures, the activation energy
lies in the region of grain boundary self diffusion or diffusion in dislocation cores. Ten
sion and pushpull samples do not achieve these high stored energies; for these defor
mation modes, there is therefore no region of constant activation energy. Elevated de
formation temperatures result in a lower softening activation energy. One may interpret
this as strain hardening at higher temperature producing a microstructure that softens
faster. This effect should be accounted for when setting up constitutive equations.
There is a theory for the softening of deformed metals through the mechanism of
primary recrystallization by Johnson and Mehl [13], Avrami [14–16] and Kolmogorov
[17]. In the following, this will be denoted the JMAK theory. Comparison of the mea
sured activation energies with those predicted by the JMAK theory allow conclusions
to be drawn regarding the basic mechanisms of primary recrystallization.
Accordingly, for high deformation continuous nucleation must be assumed,
whereas for low deformation site, saturated nucleation is more probable. Table 1.2
shows the comparison in detail. For high deformation, this interpretation complies with
studies according to the microstructuralpath method [18]. The grain spectra of weakly
deformed and recrystallized material show agreement with calculated spectra after site
saturated cluster nucleation.
1.2 Experiments
9
Figure 1.10: Activation energy of differently deformed copper versus the stored energy.
Table 1.2: Effective activation energies from the JMAK theory compared with measured values
for low/high deformation.
Sitesaturated Continuous Measured values [kJ/mol]
nucleation nucleation
[kJ/mol] [kJ/mol] low deformation high deformation
Copper 166–120 125–86 170±8 85±5
Silver 143–115 107–86 120±8 85±5
The second component of the kinetics, the pure reaction form, is described by the
function f
X. For all nucleationnucleation growth reactions, this function, by way of
the transformed fraction, is parabolic with zero points at the beginning and end of the
reaction. A more significant picture results when this function is compared with the
JMAK theory. For ideal nucleationnucleation growth reactions, the theory demands for
f
X=
1 ÀX a higher order function of ln
1 ÀX with an exponent
n À1=n inde
pendent of X. The Avrami exponent n takes the value 4 or 3, respectively.
In reality, however, independent of the measurement method, one finds Avrami
exponents that decrease with X. The thermal data show this particularly clearly. As an
example, Figure 1.11 shows the curve of the Avrami exponent as a function of the
transformed fraction for distorted copper. The horizontal reference line outlines the
curve for low degrees of deformation
c 0:8 or 1:4, the central reference line applies
to intermediate degrees of deformation
c 2:4 or 3:0:
Rolling and cyclic torsion act in the same way as unidirectional torsion if the
stored energy is taken as the comparative measure instead of the strainhardening re
gions. Complementary studies using the transmission electron microscope show that the
microstructural details are similar for these deformations (cf. Nix et al. [9]). The defor
mation types unidirectional tension and pushpull are very different from torsion. The
Avrami exponents are very large for unidirectional tension.
In summary, the combination of stored energy, softening temperature and activa
tion energy as well as the softening form function is unequivocal for the material states
studied here. The degree and type of deformation of a sample may thus be identified
with no knowledge of its prior mechanical history.
1 Correlation between Energetic and Mechanical Quantities
10
Figure 1.11: Avrami exponent versus the transformed fraction for distorted copper with shear
strains 3.4≤c≤7.0.
1.3 Simulation
Primary recrystallization as one of the main processes of thermal softening was simulated
by a cellular automaton (CA). These latter are networks of computational units, which
develop their properties through the interaction of numerous similar particles [19, 20].
They are comprehensively described by the four properties geometry, environment, states
and rules of evolution. Cellular automatons were first applied to primary recrystallization
for the twodimensional case by Hesselbarth et al. [21, 22]. For the extension to three
dimensions, a cubic lattice of identical cubes is defined. Each of these small cubes repre
sents a real sample volume of about 0.6 lm
3
. This value is obtained by comparison with
real grain sizes. The whole field is then equivalent to a mass of 0.007 mg. Compared with
the mass of thermal samples at 150 mg, this is very little. The geometrically closest cells
are counted as the nearest neighbours. It turns out that an alternating sequence of 7 and 19
nearest neighbours yields the best results. Stochastically changing environments influence
the kinetics in consequence of the resultant rough surface of the growing grains.
Figure 1.12 shows the 7 nearest neighbours on the left and the 19 on the right,
starting with a nucleus in the second timestep. The change of environment with each
timestep causes all grains in odd timesteps to be identical. The resultant grain shape
looks like a flattened octahedron.
1.3 Simulation
11
Figure 1.12: Sequence of the recrystallization in the threedimensional space.
The possible states of the cells are recrystallized and nonrecrystallized. For the
extension to different grain boundary velocities, the nonrecrystallized state was subdi
vided further. The fourth descriptive characteristic after the geometry, environment and
possible states are the rules of evolution. These stipulate, which states the cells will
adopt in the next timestep. If a cell already has a recrystallized environment, the rules
predict that in the next timestep, this cell will also adopt the recrystallized state. Using
this simple cellular automaton, it is possible to solve the differential equation of the
JMAK theory. The quality of the solution improves with the field size.
Alternatively, several calculations may be combined. The deviation of simulated from
theoretical kinetics is of the order of 1%. A great advantage of cellular automatons is that
boundary conditions are automatically taken into account. They do not have to be stated
explicitly. This advantage should not be underestimated because the problemof collision of
growing grains for arbitrary sitedependent nucleation is nontrivial. In this way, it is pos
sible to calculate even complicated geometries not amenable to analytical solution.
The objective of simulations is to support the discussion on the various possible
causes for the deviation of real recrystallization kinetics from the theoretically predicted
processes. In so doing, one differentiates between topological and energetic causes.
Namely, the classical JMAK theory leans on two hypotheses, which strongly limit its uni
versal applicability. The first in the assumption that all processes are statistically distrib
uted in space; this applies to nucleation in the first instance and thus subsequent grain
growth. Any kind of nucleation concentration on chosen structural inhomogeneities alters
the collision course of growing nuclei and hence the correction factors of the extended
volume model. The second restrictive assumption concerns the process rates. Nucleation
and nuclear growth are assumed to be siteindependent and constant in time. However,
comparison of various strongly deformed samples shows at once that for different stored
energies, even if they are mean values, recrystallization occurs at different rates. If, there
fore, we have structural components with different energies side by side in the same sam
ple, one must be aware that a uniform process rate does not exist.
Nonstatistical nucleation was intensively studied for point clustering. The model
postulates stochastically placed centres, which show an increased nucleation rate. The
nucleation density follows a Normal distribution around the chosen centres. On a line
between two concentration centres, one obtains the distribution for the nucleation rates
shown in Figure 1.13.
This yields two boundary cases, which are also being discussed in the literature
[23–25]. First, we have very broad scatter of nuclei and, secondly, a high concentration
on the chosen sites. In a narrow parameter range between these boundary cases, the ki
netics are very sensitive to change (Figure 1.14).
It is possible to simulate the continuously decreasing Avrami exponents of the
strongly deformed samples as well as the low Avrami exponents at the beginning of
the transformation found for weakly deformed samples.
Another structural characteristic, the contiguity, describes the cohesion of recrys
tallized areas. This quantity may also be calculated using the cellular automaton for
various site functions of nucleation. Comparison with experimentally determined conti
guity curves indicates that nucleation clustering can also be found in real materials.
The evaluation of grainsize distributions also points to clustering.
1 Correlation between Energetic and Mechanical Quantities
12
Introduction of sitedependent process rates is effected through an extension of pos
sible nonrecrystallized states. One differentiates between mobility and driving force. With
reference to the literature [26, 27], a value around the factor 3 is taken. The result is 9
different velocities. Two degrees of recrystallization are defined, one of which refers to
the energy, the other to the volume. If the kinetics of the JMAK theory are appropriately
evaluated, there is hardly any difference between these two definitions.
The introduction of different velocities causes the reaction rate to decline towards
the end of the transformation. If the proportionality of the areas of equal velocity and
the resulting grain size is changed, the kinetics may be influenced to a degree. The ki
netics of strongly deformed samples may be simulated if the areas of equal velocity are
larger than the resultant grain size. Smaller initial areas do not give the desired effect;
the decline of the effective rates is too late and too weak. The kinetics of weakly de
1.3 Simulation
13
Figure 1.13: Model of point clustering (left); plot of the nucleation rate between two concentra
tion centres (right).
Figure 1.14: Avrami exponent due to the restriction of nucleation to point clustering.
formed samples with low Avrami exponents cannot be calculated using this ansatz. An
experimental indication of rate retardation is obtained from studies on strongly rolled
copper by the microstructuralpath method [18].
Finally, it may be said that there are indicators for each ansatz in real recrystalli
zation processes. Considering the experimental results, a weighted mixture of both
would appear to be a realistic course, which can doubtless be applied in the model.
Coupling to a constitutive equation is directly possible, for example by introducing the
stored energy as a function of deformation. The cellular automaton, on the other hand,
is able to calculate partially softened material structures. The strength of the composite
may then be determined from this using a parallel or series network. In future, this type
of model coupling will become more important in those areas, where modelling with
constitutive equations on the basis of discontinuous phenomena only such as dynamic
recrystallization do not produce the desired results.
1.4 Summary
Shortly summarizing this report, we can make the following basic statements:
• The diverse strainhardening stages of facecentred cubic metals, identifiable from
mechanical data, which correspond to different structures of the strainhardened
material, may also be determined from the thermally measured stored energy and
from the rate of energy storage. One finds that the energy storage of more fully
condensed states is particularly effective.
• The softening kinetics investigated via the stored energy are strongly influenced by
the details of the type of deformation (for example, unidirectional deformationalter
nate deformation). In the case of the primary recrystallization as the cause of the
softening, the process may be described well by quoting the activation energy and
the Avrami exponent. Knowledge of these two parameters for a strainhardened
state allows the degree of softening to be numerically calculated for a freely chosen
temperaturetime programme. Qualitatively, the activation energy and the Avrami
exponent are a measure of the thermal stability, that is, for the ease of reaction of
the deformed material.
• Utilizing a suitably fitted cellular automaton, it is possible to simulate the microstruc
tural processes underlying the softening and hence to control the topological as well as
the energetic model hypotheses. An important result of this simulation is the proof that
the Avrami theory, which is based on stereological elements, may be applied to calor
imetrically determined softening data. The kinetics in both cases are very similar.
The results presented here are the compilation of numerous data; a comprehensive pub
lication is given in [28].
1 Correlation between Energetic and Mechanical Quantities
14
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tall. Trans. 24A (1993) 361.
[9] W. D. Nix, J. C. Gibeling, D. A. Hughes: Time dependent deformation of metals. Metall.
Trans. 16A (1985) 2215.
[10] T. Unga´r, L. S. To´th, J. Illy, I. Kova´cs: Dislocation structure and work hardening in poly
crystalline of hc copper rods deformed by torsion and tension. Acta metall. 34 (1986)
1257.
[11] R. Gerdes: Ein stochastisches Werkstoffmodell fu¨r das inelastische Materialverhalten metal
lischer Werkstoffe im Hoch und Tieftemperaturbereich. MechanikZentrum der TU Braun
schweig (Dissertation), Braunschweig, 1995.
[12] H. Schlums, E. A. Steck: Description of cyclic deformation processes with a stochastic
model for inelastic creep. Int. J. Plast. 8 (1992) 147.
[13] W. A. Johnson, R. F. Mehl: Reaction kinetics in process of nucleation and growth. Trans.
Am. Inst. Min. Engrs. 135 (1939) 416.
[14] M. Avrami: Kinetics in phase change: I. General theory. J. Chem. Phys. 7 (1939) 1103.
[15] M. Avrami: Kinetics in phase change: II. Transformationtime relations for random distri
bution of nuclei. J. Chem. Phys. 8 (1940) 212.
[16] M. Avrami: Kinetics in phase change: III. Granulation, phase change and microstructure.
J. Chem. Phys. 9 (1941) 177.
[17] A. E. Kolmogorov: Zur Statistik der Kristallvorga¨nge in Metallen (russ. mit deutscher Zu
sammenfassung). Akad. Nauk. SSSR Ser. Mat. 1 (1937) 335.
[18] R. A. Vandermeer, D. Juul Jensen: Quantifying recrystallization nucleation and growth ki
netics of coldworked copper by microstructural analysis. Metall. Mater. Trans. 26A (1995)
2227.
[19] S. Wolfram: Statistical mechanics of cellular automata. Reviews of modern physics 55
(1983) 601.
[20] S. Wolfram: Cellular automata as models of complexity. Nature 311 (1984) 419.
[21] H. W. Hesselbarth, I. R. Go¨bel: Simulation of recrystallization by cellular automata. Acta
metall. mater. 39 (1991) 2135.
[22] H. W. Hesselbarth, L. Kaps, F. Haeßner: Two dimensional simulation of the recrystallization
kinetics in the case of inhomogeneously stored energy. Materials Science Forum 113–115
(1993) 317.
[23] J. W. Cahn: The kinetics of grain boundary nucleated reactions. Acta metall. 27 (1979) 449.
[24] J. W. Cahn, W. Hagel: Decomposition of austenite by diffusional processes. In: Z. D. Zack
ay, H. I. Aarosons (Eds.), Interscience Publ., New York, 1960.
[25] R. A. Vandermeer, R. A. Masumura: The microstructural path of grainboundarynucleated
phase transformations. Acta metall. mater. 40 (1992) 877.
References
15
[26] J. S. Kallend, Y. C. Huang: Orientation dependence of stored energy of cold work in 50%
cold rolled copper. Metal Science 18 (1984) 381.
[27] F. Haeßner, G. Hoschek, G. To¨lg: Stored energy and recrystallization temperature of rolled
copper and silver single crystals with defined solute contents. Acta metall. 27 (1979) 1539.
[28] L. Kaps: Einfluss der mechanischen Vorgeschichte auf die prima¨re Rekristallisation. Shaker
Verlag, Aachen, 1997.
1 Correlation between Energetic and Mechanical Quantities
16
2 Material State after Uni and Biaxial Cyclic
Deformation
Walter Gieseke, K. Roger Hillert and Gu¨nter Lange*
2.1 Introduction
Technical components and structures today are increasingly being designed and dis
played by computeraided methods. High speed computers permit the use of mathemati
cal models able to numerically reconstruct material behaviour even in the course of
complex loading procedures.
In phenomenological continuum mechanics, the cyclic hardening and softening
behaviour as well as the Bauschinger effect are described by yield surface models. If a
physical microstructural formulation is chosen as a basis for these models, then it is vi
tally important to have exact knowledge of the processes occurring in the metal lattice
during deformation. Two surface models, going back to a development by Dafalias and
Popov [1–4], describe the displacement of the elastic deformation zone in a dual axis
stress area. The yield surfaces are assumed to be v. Mises shaped ellipses. However,
from experiments with uniaxial loading [5, 6], it is known that the yield surfaces of
small offset strains under load become characteristically deformed. In the present sub
project, the effect of cyclic deformation on the shape and position of the yield surfaces
is studied, and their relation to the dislocation structure. To this end, the yield surfaces
of three materials with different slip behaviour were measured after prior uni or biaxial
deformation. The influence of the dislocation structures produced and the effect of in
ner stresses are discussed.
17
* Technische Universita¨t Braunschweig, Institut fu¨r Werkstoffe, Langer Kamp 8,
D38106 Braunschweig, Germany
Plasticity of Metals: Experiments, Models, Computation. Collaborative Research Centres.
Edited by E. Steck, R. Ritter, U. Peil, A. Ziegenbein
Copyright © 2001 WileyVCH Verlag GmbH
ISBNs: 3527277285 (Softcover); 3527600116 (Electronic)
2.2 Experiments and Measurement Methods
Copper of 99.99% purity was chosen as a material exhibiting typical wavy slip behav
iour. Most of the experiments were performed using the technically important material
AlMg
3
of 99.88% purity. Its behaviour may be described as being somewhere inter
mediate between planar and wavy slip
1
. Commercial austenitic steel 1.4404 (AISI
316L) was used as a material with typical planar slip behaviour. The total strain ampli
tude was varied from ±0.25% to ±0.75% for AlMg
3
and steel, and between ±0.05%
and ±0.5% for copper. All materials were previously solution annealed or recrystal
lized. AlMg
3
and the austenitic steel were quenched in water, the copper samples
cooled in the oven. After the thermal treatment, a ¸100) slightly fibrous texture was
identified, which did not change during the subsequent cyclic deformation. The copper
showed almost no texture. The yield surfaces of the initial materials were isotropic, in
dependent of the offset used [7, 8].
Tubular samples were used in the experiments. Their outer diameter and wall
thickness were 28 mm and 2 mm for AlMg
3
and copper, 29 mm and 1.5 mm for steel,
respectively. The measuring distance was 54 mm long for all samples. The following
cyclic experiments were carried out using a servohydraulic Schenck testing machine,
which had been augmented by a laboratorymade torsional drive [9]: uniaxial tension/
compression, alternating torsion; biaxial equal phase superposition of tension/compres
sion and alternate torsion; a 908 antiphase combination of tension/compression and al
ternate torsion. The dislocation structures were subsequently investigated using a Phi
lips 120 kV transmission electron microscope. For the straincontrolled experiments, a
triangular nominal value signal with constant strain rate of 2· 10
–3
s
–1
was chosen. The
equivalent strains were calculated after v. Mises according to:
e
eq
= e
2
÷
1
3
c
2
1=2
with e =
1
3
_ c : (1)
Two methods were applied to determine the yield surfaces. Using the definition via an
offset strain of 2· 10
–4
%, the load was increased in steps of 6 N/mm
2
in the rdirection
or of 2.5 N/mm
2
in the sdirection until the given yield limit was reached. There was a
10 s intermission at each level. Before the next point on the curve was measured, sev
eral load cycles were run through again to set the material to the same initial state.
The second measurement method was the recording of directionally dependent
stressstrain diagrams. Here, a new sample was used for each point measured. It was
stressed under predetermined load paths immediately following the cyclic treatment far
into the plastic region. In this way, static strain ageing effects were avoided. Further, it
was possible to determine yield surfaces of higher offset strain and areas of equal tan
gent modules. For the evaluation of the yield surfaces and the tangent module areas,
besides the yield conditions after v. Mises and Tresca, a formulation developed within
the scope of this project was used:
2 Material State after Uni and Biaxial Cyclic Deformation
18
1
The results for copper and AlMg
3
presented in this report and their interpretation are taken
from the thesis by Walter Gieseke [9].
r
/
eq
= (r ÷r
A
)
2
÷
E
G
(s ÷s
A
)
2
1=2
; (2)
e
/
eq
= (e ÷e
A
)
2
÷
G
E
(c ÷c
A
)
2
1=2
: (3)
The advantage of these equations lies in the fact that all equivalent stressstrain dia
grams show a Young’s modulus appropriate increase in the elastic region. In the case
of AlMg
3
, the s, chysteresis can be converted into the equivalent r
eq
, e
eq
hysteresis,
which are in almost complete agreement with the measured r, ehysteresis values. Fig
ure 2.1a shows the strain paths for the measurement of a family of yield surfaces of
varying offset strain and tangent modules after prior tension/compression loading.
The starting point for the measurement was set here in the centre of the elastic re
gion after load reversal in the load maximum. Figure 2.1b shows the appropriate load
paths, Figure 2.1c the relevant equivalent stressstrain diagrams. The yield points of
various offset strains were determined by parallel shift of the elastic straight line. For
areas with the same tangent modules, the equivalent stressstrain curves were differen
tiated; for a given tangential gradient, one obtains the pertinent r, spoints.
The yield surfaces in Figure 2.2 show that the yield conditions according to Equa
tions (2) and (3) produce the same results as the evaluation after v. Mises or Tresca
(AlMg
3
, tension/compression loading, starting from the stress zero crossover, offset
strain ±0.2% or ±0.01%, respectively).
2.3 Results
2.3.1 Cyclic stressstrain behaviour
Figure 2.3a shows a plot for AlMg
3
of the stress amplitudes as a function of number
of cycles for the appropriate given equivalent total strain amplitude of De
eq
= ±0.5%.
The three proportional loads are compared and that for the 908 antiphase combination
of tension/compression and alternating torsion.
For all four load types, the saturation state is reached after about 500 cycles. The
curves for proportional loading almost coincide. Larger torsional fractions cause a
slight increase in the stress amplitudes. The curve for disproportional loading systemati
cally assumes higher values. This additional hardening effect is much more pronounced
at the beginning of the fatigue at about 25% than in the saturation stage, where it is
only about 5%.
Figure 2.3b shows the appropriate curves for the lower total strain amplitude of
De
eq
= ±0.3%.
2.3 Results
19
2 Material State after Uni and Biaxial Cyclic Deformation
20
F
i
g
u
r
e
2
.
1
:
a
)
S
t
r
a
i
n
p
a
t
h
s
f
o
r
m
e
a
s
u
r
e
m
e
n
t
o
f
y
i
e
l
d
s
u
r
f
a
c
e
s
a
n
d
a
r
e
a
s
o
f
e
q
u
a
l
t
a
n
g
e
n
t
m
o
d
u
l
e
s
;
b
)
l
o
a
d
p
a
t
h
s
f
o
r
F
i
g
u
r
e
2
.
1
a
;
c
)
e
q
u
i
v
a
l
e
n
t
s
t
r
e
s
s

s
t
r
a
i
n
d
i
a
g
r
a
m
s
f
o
r
t
h
e
s
t
r
e
s
s
a
n
d
s
t
r
a
i
n
v
a
l
u
e
s
o
f
F
i
g
u
r
e
s
2
.
1
a
a
n
d
b
.
C
a
l
c
u
l
a
t
e
d
a
c
c
o
r
d
i
n
g
t
o
E
q
u
a
t
i
o
n
s
(
2
)
a
n
d
(
3
)
.
The saturation state is reached after about 900 cycles. Here too, the curves of pro
portional loading approximately coincide. For disproportional loading, a weak addi
tional hardening effect appears at the beginning of the fatique stage, yet this reverses in
saturation.
The additional hardening effect may usually be explained by the fact that for an
appropriately large plastic strain amplitude, the antiphase loading leads to an addi
tional hardening because more slip systems are activated than for proportional loading.
This is particularly the case for the high strain amplitude of De
eq
= ±0.5% at the be
ginning of the fatigue. For strain amplitudes of De
eq
= ±0.3%, the plastic fraction of
2.3 Results
21
Figure 2.2: 0.2% and 0.01% offset saturation yield surfaces measured in the stress zero crossover.
Evaluation using the v. Mises and Tresca conditions and Equations (2) and (3).
Figure 2.3a: Cyclic strain hardening behaviour for De
eq
= ±0.5%, material: AlMg
3
.
saturation is so small that the additional hardening in consequence of antiphase load
ing is not enough to compensate the overall smaller stress values of the sum of the in
dividual components. At strain amplitudes of De
eq
_ ±0.4%, AlMg
3
shows Masing be
haviour for all proportional loads. Deviations occur at smaller amplitudes: The length
of the elastic regions increases with decreasing strain amplitude. Similar behaviour is
found for planar flowing abrass [10].
For copper, a total strain amplitude of De
eq
= ±0.5% under phaseshifted loading
produces a pronounced additional hardening effect throughout the whole fatigue region
(Figure 2.4a).
As for AlMg
3
, the curves for proportional loading approximately coincide, though
the pure torsional load yields the lowest values. The stress values of the phaseshifted
2 Material State after Uni and Biaxial Cyclic Deformation
22
Figure 2.3b: Cyclic strain hardening behaviour for De
eq
= ± 0.3%, material: AlMg
3
.
Figure 2.4a: Cyclic strain hardening behaviour at De
eq
= ±0.5%, material: copper.
loading reach saturation after about 30 cycles. Under proportional loading, on the other
hand, constant stress values are only measured after about 50 cycles. For an amplitude
of De
eq
= ±0.1%, the effect occurs only at the onset of fatigue (Figure 2.4b).
For a further reduction to De
eq
= ±0.05%, the stress values for phaseshifted
loading in the saturation region lie below those for synchronous loading (Figure 2.4c).
The considerations regarding the additional hardening effect in AlMg
3
are equally
applicable here.
The austenitic steel 1.4404 for proportional loading at De
eq
= ±0.75% shows a re
latively short strain hardening region already reaching saturation after about 20 cycles. But
the 908 phaseshifted loading produces a strong additional hardening effect. The appropri
2.3 Results
23
Figure 2.4b: Cyclic strain hardening behaviour at De
eq
= ±0.1%, material: copper.
Figure 2.4c: Cyclic strain hardening behaviour at De
eq
= ±0.05%, material: copper.
ate stress values compared with proportional loading are increased by more than 60%. The
saturation plateau is only reached after about 30 cycles (Figure 2.5a).
For a strain amplitude of De
eq
= ±0.5% too, the material reaches saturation for
proportional loading after about 20 cycles. The increase of the stress amplitudes is less
here, however. Phaseshifted loading (Figure 2.5b) also yields a distinct additional
hardening effect. The appropriate stress amplitudes as for De
eq
= ±0.75% are greatly
increased. The additional hardening effect may be regarded here as a consequence of
the planar flow behaviour.
2.3.2 Dislocation structures
The dislocation structure of AlMg
3
is characterized by walls of prismatic edge dipoles.
Mobile screw dislocations lie between them. For all strain amplitudes and loading types
studied, the dipolar walls lie in (111) planes at the onset of fatigue. The value and type
2 Material State after Uni and Biaxial Cyclic Deformation
24
Figure 2.5a: Cyclic strain hardening behaviour at De
eq
= ±0.75%, material: steel 1.4404.
Figure 2.5b: Cyclic strain hardening behaviour at De
eq
= ±0.5%, material: steel 1.4404.
of loading determine the resultant saturation structure. Using a model by Dickson et al.
[11, 12], all wall orientations that differ from (111) planes can be indexed.
For low strain amplitudes (De
eq
_ ±0.3%) after proportional and disproportional
loading, the (110) walls and the initial (111) walls dominate. In almost all cases, forma
tion of the (110) walls was the work of a single slip system. Hereby, the walls were com
pressed perpendicular to the Burgers vector. Similar structures are also found in brass with
15 at% zinc [13]. At high amplitudes (De
eq
> ±0.3%) after proportional loading, the
(100) besides the (311), (210), (211) and (110) walls are predominant. By contrast, for
phaseshifted loading, the initial orientation of the (111) walls is conserved.
During proportional loading, a maximum of three slip systems are set in motion.
Phaseshifted loading on the other hand, because of the rotating stress vector, usually
activates more than four slip systems. Figure 2.6a shows the typical example of a dis
location structure after proportional loading. The arrangement can be designated aniso
tropic since the dipolar walls in almost all grains are oriented in only one or two crys
tallographic directions. The anisotropy essentially results from the small number of ac
tive slip systems in the proportional loading case, expressing a certain planarity in the
slip behaviour.
Disproportional loading at high total strain amplitudes, however, results in generally
more isotropic structures (Figure 2.6b). Here, the dipolar wall structure is quite often de
stroyed along favourably oriented (111) planes (Figure 2.6c). Parallel arrays of elongated
screw dislocations are often observed in these bands, which infers high local slip activity.
Depending upon loading amplitude, for copper, characteristic dislocation struc
tures evolve, which differ much more strongly from each other than for AlMg
3
. In satu
ration, copper does not show Masing behaviour. The saturation state, depending on am
plitude, is reached following various amounts of accumulated plastic strain. On the ba
sis of the experimental results, it appears meaningful to classify into small
(De
eq
_ ±0.2%), medium (±0.2%_ De
eq
_ ±1%) and high (De
eq
_ ±1%) ampli
tudes. After Hancock and Grosskreutz [14], in the medium amplitude region
(De
eq
= ±0.375%) at the onset of fatigue, bundles of multipoles initially appear sepa
rated by dislocation poor regions. The majority of dislocations in the bundles are pri
mary edge dislocations in parallel slip planes, which mutually interact in some sections
to form dipoles and multipoles. Further, as for AlMg
3
, prismatic loops are formed
through jogdragging processes. Screw dislocations on the other hand are hardly found
in this fatigue stage; it is assumed that they are largely annihilated through crossslip.
In the continued course of fatigue, the density of primary and particularly secondary
dislocations increases in the bundles. The dipoles are divided into small pieces through
cutting processes with dislocations of other slip systems. This causes additional harden
ing: The dipole ends now present in higher concentrations are less mobile. A similar
process is also presumed for AlMg
3
. The bundles gradually combine to celllike struc
tures. Finally, elongated dislocation cells are produced, the walls of which are sharply
outlined against the dislocation poor interstices. The walls comprise short dipoles of
high density. In the dislocation poor regions, screw dislocations stretch from one wall
to the next (Figure 2.7a, proportional loading with De
eq
= ±0.5%). According to Laird
et al. [15], one may expect the spatial arrangement of the structure in Figure 2.7a to
yield approximately cylindrical dislocation cells, the crosssectional areas of which are
shown here.
2.3 Results
25
After 908 phaseshifted overlap of tension/compression and alternate torsion, in cop
per with an equivalent strain amplitude of De
eq
= ±0.5%, isotropic cells dominate. Their
walls are composed of elongated, regularly ordered single dislocations (Figure 2.7b) as
found by Feltner and Laird for the high plastic strain amplitude De
pl
= ±0.5% [16].
2 Material State after Uni and Biaxial Cyclic Deformation
26
a) b)
c)
Figure 2.6: a) Equal phase overlap of tension/compression and alternate torsion, De
eq
= ±0.5%,
saturation, Z=[100], multibeam case; b) 908 phaseshifted overlap of tension/compression and al
ternate torsion, De
eq
= ±0.5%, saturation, Z=[011], g=[111]; c) deformation band parallel to
the (111) plane, tension/compression, De
eq
= ±0.5%, saturation, Z=[001], g=[200].
The lack of dipolar structures is explained by Feltner and Laird as being due to
unhindered crossslip. The rotating stress vector activates the slip systems required to
create isotropic cell structures at even smaller stress amplitudes than in the proportional
case. Annihilation of screw dislocations is facilitated, thus producing the dislocation
poor inner cell regions. In addition, the enhanced cross slip ability of the screw disloca
tions suppresses the creation of prismatic loops.
Thus copper, for proportional and disproportional loading at De
eq
= ±0.5%, al
ways exhibits different slip mechanisms. For proportional loading, the screw disloca
tions glide to and fro parallel to the walls in the dislocation poor areas. At the same
time, new screw dislocations are continually being pressed out of the walls until they
reach the opposite wall. In between the walls too, new screw dislocations are formed.
The walls themselves take part in the slip by flipflop movement.
For disproportional loading, only slip dislocations participate in the deformation;
these are pressed out of the walls and after crossing the cell interior are reincorporated
into the opposite cell wall. It follows that copper shows an additional hardening effect,
which is retained in saturation (cf. Figure 2.4a). For austenitic steel 1.4404, the addi
tional hardening effect predominates at 908 phaseshifted loading with equivalent total
strain amplitude of De
eq
= ±0.75% and ±0.5%. Study using the transmission electron
microscope shows for disproportional loading that although a large number of stacking
faults are produced, there is no deformationinduced martensite. For steel 1.4306, this
transformation already occurs at strain amplitudes of De
pl
= ±0.3% under uniaxial
loading [17]. Figure 2.8a shows a typical dislocation structure after proportional load
ing with De
eq
= ±0.75%. The walls of the elongated cells comprise dislocation bun
2.3 Results
27
Figure 2.7: a) Elongated cells with dipolar walls for copper, tension/compression, De
eq
= ±0.5%,
saturation, Z=[011], g=[111]; b) isotropic, nondipolar cell structure after phaseshifted loading
for copper, De
eq
= ±0.5%, saturation, Z=[011], multibeam case.
a) b)
dles with a preferential orientation parallel to the {111} planes. On the other hand, the
stronger tendency to multiple slip produces a labyrinthine structure after phaseshifted
loading (Figure 2.8b). The walls are sharply defined against the cell interior.
2.3.3 Yield surfaces
The discussion of yield surface measurements may be exemplified by experiments with
equivalent strain amplitude of De
eq
= ±0.5%. The materials were in the cyclic satura
tion state.
2.3.3.1 Yield surfaces on AlMg
3
Figure 2.9 collates the dynamically measured 0.01% offset yield surfaces for AlMg
3
for
the four chosen loading types. The starting point each time was the reversal point of
the stress hysteresis.
The yield surfaces for proportional loading (in the following denoted proportional
yield surfaces) are flattened in each relief direction compared with an elliptical shape.
The 0.01% surfaces are in general agreement with those presented in [9]: the 2· 10
–4
%
offset yield surfaces determined by method 1.
The yield surfaces determined after disproportional loading (hereafter denoted dis
proportional yield surfaces) come closest to an isotropic shape (v. Mises ellipse). The
2 Material State after Uni and Biaxial Cyclic Deformation
28
a) b)
Figure 2.8: a) Dislocation structure after proportional loading, De
eq
= ±0.75%, saturation; b) dis
location structure after 908 phaseshifted loading, De
eq
= ±0.75%, saturation.
proportional yield surfaces, by contrast, show definitely anisotropic shapes. Compared
with the axial ratio of the v. Mises ellipse, the values measured perpendicular to the
loading direction (transverse yield surface values) are clearly larger than the cross sec
tions found in the loading direction (longitudinal yield surface values). As the compari
son of yield surfaces measured at the upper reversal point (Figure 2.9) and at the stress
zero crossover (cf. Figure 2.2) shows, both the transverse values and the contracted
longitudinal values within a cycle remain constant. The shape of the yield surface,
however, changes from the flattened form at the load reversal point to an essentially
symmetrical ellipse in the stress zero crossover. During the further course of the nega
tive halfcycle, this then changes into a flattened shape once more (flattening again on
the origin side). This deformation may also be observed on yield surfaces with the
small offset strain of 2· 10
–4
% and on tangent module areas with high tangential gradi
ents.
Figure 2.10 shows the proportional and disproportional yield surfaces measured at
the load reversal points for the relatively large offset strain of 0.2%.
In consequence of the high plastic fraction, during deformation, all four yield sur
faces practically coincide and are almost elliptical in shape. Referring to the v. Mises
condition or Equation (2), the longitudinal values are slightly less than the transverse
ones. The surfaces thus show, in weaker form, the same anisotropy as those measured
with small offsets. The torsional yield surface is slightly flattened in the relief direction.
2.3 Results
29
Figure 2.9: 0.01% offset yield surfaces measured in the load reversal points, saturation, AlMg
3
,
De
eq
= ±0.5%.
2.3.3.2 Yield surfaces on copper
Copper behaves in many aspects like AlMg
3
. In Figure 2.11, the three proportional
yield surfaces measured at the load reversal points are shown in contrast with the dis
portional surface.
The proportional surfaces are again flattened in the relief direction. The shortened
axis too remains the same throughout the whole hysteresis cycle. The disproportional
yield surface approaches the elliptical shape, which is significantly larger. The distinct
additional hardening effect of copper thus causes an additional isotropic hardening.
2.3.3.3 Yield surfaces on steel
Figure 2.12 shows 0.02% offset yield surfaces measured after equal phase superposi
tion at the upper and lower reversal points of the saturation hysteresis. As for AlMg
3
and copper, the displacement of the yield surface in the loading direction and the flat
tening on the origin side are clearly seen.
Figure 2.13 represents the 0.02% offset yield surfaces measured after disproportional
loading at the reversal points of tension and compression (c=0). For this load path, the
yield surface follows the rotating stress vector. Both yield surfaces are symmetrical to
the tensile stress axis and again show the typical flattening on the origin side.
2 Material State after Uni and Biaxial Cyclic Deformation
30
Figure 2.10: 0.2% offset yield surfaces measured at the load reversal points, saturation, AlMg
3
,
De
eq
= ±0.5%.
2.4 Sequence Effects
On AlMg
3
and copper in the saturation state, the variation of the loading direction
from tension/compression to alternating torsion, and the reverse, was investigated. The
experiments were meant to show how inner stresses affect the shape of the yield sur
faces. For the offset strain of 0.01%, the points of yield onset were taken from the as
2.4 Sequence Effects
31
Figure 2.11: 0.01% offset yield surfaces measured at the load reversal points, saturation, copper,
De
eq
= ±0.5%.
Figure 2.12: 0.02% offset yield surfaces measured at the load reversal points, proportional loading
(tension/compression and alternate torsion), saturation, steel 1.4404, De
eq
= ±0.5%.
cending and descending branches of the hysteresis curves and from these, the yield sur
faces’ diameters (cross sections) determined. In similar fashion, the diameters of the
surfaces with equal tangent modules were also determined [9, 18]. In addition, the tran
sition of the maximum stress amplitude to the new saturation state was observed. Fig
ure 2.14 shows the change of the 0.01% yield surface diameter of AlMg
3
and copper
(equivalent total strain amplitude De
eq
= ±0.5%) for the transition from pure tension/
compression to pure alternating torsion.
The broken lines show the transverse values of the tension/compression saturation
yield surface, respectively (state before the change). The continuous lines represent the
longitudinal values of the saturation yield surfaces, which would have appeared follow
ing pure torsion. The yield surfaces’ diameters of torsion hysteresis in the case of
AlMg
3
already decrease drastically in the first cycle and quickly reach a new saturation
state yet without recurring to the saturation longitudinal value following pure torsion.
The new loading state must therefore differ from the initial state with regard to the in
ner stress, or else, in consequence of isotropic hardening, the saturation yield surfaces
are larger after prior tension/compression than after pure alternating torsion.
The second option is confirmed by the dislocation structure. As already demon
strated, for AlMg
3
, an anisotropic dislocation structure evolves after proportional load
ing. In extensive grain areas, only few slip systems are activated; the dipolar walls gen
erally take up only one or two crystallographic directions. Since different slip systems
are involved in tension/compression loading than in alternating torsion, the dipolar
walls orient themselves in different crystallographic directions. The screw dislocations
move in dislocation poor channels parallel to the dipolar walls, adjacent to the respec
tive slip systems. If a tension/compression experiment is immediately followed by one
with alternating torsion, the dislocation structure is initially unfavourable for torsion.
With changing loading direction, the sources of torsional slip dislocations are activated
first and then later on, the dipolar walls change their orientation to one more favour
able for torsional loading. As is seen from Figure 2.14, the greater fraction of the tor
sional slip dislocations is already activated in the first three cycles after the change of
2 Material State after Uni and Biaxial Cyclic Deformation
32
Figure 2.13: 0.02% offset yield surfaces measured at the load reversal points of the tension/com
pression hysteresis, disproportional loading, saturation, steel 1.4404, De
eq
= ±0.5%.
the loading direction. The result is an immediate drastic reduction of the yield surface
diameter. However, further restructuring of the dislocation arrangement appears to be
impeded; the diameter remains constant during subsequent cycles. The dislocation
structure anticipated for pure torsional loading is clearly unable to evolve following
previous tension/compression loading. The large number of activated slip systems after
the change in loading direction may offer some explanation.
For copper, the yield surface diameter from torsional hysteresis also seriously de
creases in the first torsional halfcycle after changing the loading type. Moreover, in
contrast to AlMg
3
, it falls continuously until the saturation longitudinal value for pure
torsion is reached. The longitudinal values for saturation yield surfaces thus come
about independent of previous history. The same is true for the diameters of the tangent
module areas. The dislocations in copper arrange themselves in a similarly isotropic
way as in AlMg
3
(elongated cells, dipolar walls: see Figure 2.7a). Yet after the change
in loading direction, they reorientate themselves completely. This property characterizes
materials with wavy slip behaviour [15].
In a further experiment to assess the effect of inner stress, samples of AlMg
3
and
copper were relieved from various points in the torsional hysteresis branch. The yield
surface diameters were taken from these partial cycles and plotted in Figure 2.15 as a
function of the offset strain and of the strain values (initial stress relieving points).
2.4 Sequence Effects
33
Figure 2.14: AlMg
3
and copper, 0.01% yield surface diameter after changing the loading direction
from tension/compression to alternating torsion.
For a given offset strain, both materials showed the same yield surface longitudi
nal values at every point in the hysteresis. The influence of inner stress, assumed load
dependent, upon the shape of the yield surfaces would therefore not appear to be signif
icant. It seems that the dislocation structure exerts the critical influence.
2.5 Summary
We have presented yield surfaces on AlMg
3
, copper and austenitic steel 1.4404 (AISI
316L) after tension/compression and alternating torsional loading as well as propor
tional and phaseshifted superposition of both loads. The materials were first cycled to
saturation with maximum deformation amplitudes of ±0.75%, whereby substantial ad
ditional hardening effects occurred. The development of the appropriate dislocation
structures was studied using a transmission electron microscope.
2 Material State after Uni and Biaxial Cyclic Deformation
34
Figure 2.15: Yield surface longitudinal values for various offsets determined after stress relief
from various points on the torsional hysteresis.
Yield surfaces measured in all three materials at the reversal points of the stress
deformation hysteresis, for small offset strains (0.01% or 2· 10
–4
%), after proportional
alternate loading, show a flattened shape in the offload direction compared with the
v. Mises ellipse. At the stress zero crossover points of the hysteresis, the yield surfaces
assume a symmetrical shape. Transverse and longitudinal values of the yield surfaces
remain constant independent of the starting point in the hysteresis. This behaviour and
the sequence effects confirm that the anisotropy of the yield surfaces is caused by the
appropriately anisotropic dislocation structure of the materials. Inner stresses obviously
play a minor role.
After disproportional loading, generally isotropic yield surfaces result. This may
be explained quite simply by the relevant isotropic dislocation structures. Yield surfaces
of higher offset strains and areas of equal tangent modules for small tangential gradi
ents also evolve essentially isotropically since sufficient slip systems are activated dur
ing the measurement procedure and the dislocation walls participate in the slip process.
Acknowledgements
The authors thank Mr. Horst Gasse for his decisive contribution to the development of the
experimental apparatus, the measuring technique and the performance of the experiments.
References
[1] Y. F. Dafalias, E. P. Popov: Plastic Internal Variables Formalism of Cyclic Plasticity. Journal
of Applied Mechanics 63 (1976) 645–651.
[2] Y. F. Dafalias: Bounding Surface Plasticity, I Mathematical Foundation and Hypoplasticity.
Journal of Engineering Mechanics 12 (9) (1986).
[3] D. L. McDowell: A Two Surface Model for Transient Nonproportional Cyclic Plasticity,
Part 1: Development of Appropriate Equations, Part 2: Comparison of Theory with Experi
ments. Journal of Applied Mechanics 85 (1986) 298–308.
[4] F. Ellyin: An isotropic hardening rule for elastoplastic solids based on experimental obser
vations. Journal of Applied Mechanics 56 (1969) 499.
[5] N. K. Gupta, H. A. Lauert: A study of yield surface upon reversal of loading under biaxial
stress. Zeitschrift fu¨r angewandte Mathematik und Mechanik 63(10) (1983) 497–504.
[6] J. F. Williams, N. L. Svensson: Effect of torsional prestrain on the yield locus of 1100F alu
minium. Journal of Strain Analysis 6(4) (1971) 263.
[7] R. Hillert: Austenitische Sta¨hle bei ein und bei zweiachsiger, plastischer Wechselbeanspru
chung. Dissertation TU Braunschweig, 2000.
[8] W. Gieseke, G. Lange: Vera¨nderung des Werkstoffzustandes bei mehrachsiger plastischer
Wechselbeanspruchung. In SFB Nr. 319 Arbeitsbericht 1991–1993, TU Braunschweig.
References
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[9] W. Gieseke: Fließfla¨chen und Versetzungsstrukturen metallischer Werkstoffe nach plas
tischer Wechselbeanspruchung. Dissertation TU Braunschweig, 1995.
[10] H. J. Christ: Wechselverformung der Metalle. In: B. Ilschner (Ed.): WFT WerkstoffFor
schung und Technik 9, Springer Verlag Berlin, 1991.
[11] J. I. Dickson, J. Boutin, G. L. ’Espe´rance: An explanation of labyrinth walls in fatigued
f.c.c. metals. Acta Metallurgica 34(8) (1986) 1505–1514.
[12] J. L. Dickson, L. Handfield, G. L. ’Espe´rance: Geometrical factors influencing the orienta
tions of dipolar dislocation structures produced by cyclic deformation of FCC metals.
Materials Science and Engineering 81 (1986) 477–492.
[13] P. Luka´s, M. Klesnil: Physics Status solidi 37 (1970) 833.
[14] J. R. Hancock, J. C. Grosskreutz: Mechanisms of fatigue hardening in copper single crys
tals. Acta Metallurgica 17 (1969) 77–97.
[15] C. Laird, P. Charlsey, H. Mughrabi: Low energy dislocation structures produced by cyclic
deformation. Materials Science and Engineering 81 (1986) 433–450.
[16] C. E. Feltner, C. Laird: Cyclic stressstrain response of FCC metals and alloys II. Disloca
tion structures and mechanism. Acta Metallurgica 15 (1967) 1633–1653.
[17] M. Bayerlein, H.J. Christ, H. Mughrabi: Plasticityinduced martensitic transformation dur
ing cyclic deformation of AISI 304L stainless steel. Materials Science and Engineering A
114 (1989) L11–L16.
[18] W. Gieseke, G. Lange: Yield surfaces and dislocation structures of Al3Mg and copper
after biaxial cyclic loadings. In: A. Pineau, G. Cailletaud, T. C. Lindley (Eds.): Multiaxial
fatigue and design, ESIS 21, Mechanical Engineering Publications, London, 1996, pp. 61–
74.
2 Material State after Uni and Biaxial Cyclic Deformation
36
3 Plasticity of Metals and Life Prediction in the Range
of LowCycle Fatigue: Description of Deformation
Behaviour and CreepFatigue Interaction
KyongTschong Rie, Henrik Wittke and Ju¨rgen Olfe*
Abstract
Results of lowcycle fatigue tests are presented and discussed, which were performed at
the Institut fu¨r Oberfla¨chentechnik und plasmatechnische Werkstoffentwicklung of the
Technische Universita¨t Braunschweig, Germany. The cyclic deformation behaviour was
investigated at room temperature and high temperatures. The investigated materials are
copper, 2.25Cr1Mo steel, 304L and 12%CrMoV steel. (Report of the projects A5
and B4 within the Collaborative Research Centre (SFB 319) of the Deutsche For
schungsgemeinschaft.)
3.1 Introduction
Lowcycle fatigue (LCF) and elastoplastic cyclic behaviour of metals represent a con
siderable interest in the field of engineering since repeated cyclic loading with high am
plitude limit the useful life of many components such as hot working tools, chemical
plants, power plants and turbines. During loading in many cases after a quite small
number of cycles with cyclic hardening or softening, a state of cyclic saturation is
reached. This saturation state can be characterized by a closed stressstrain hysteresis
loop. Cyclic deformation in the regime of lowcycle fatigue (LCF) leads to the forma
tion of cracks, which can subsequently grow until failure of a component part takes
place.
The crack growth is correlated with parameters of fracture mechanics, which take
into account informations especially about teh steadystate stressstrain hysteresisloops.
37
* Technische Universita¨t Braunschweig, Institut fu¨r Oberfla¨chentechnik und plasmatische Werk
stoffentwicklung, Bienroder Weg 53, D38106 Braunschweig, Germany
Plasticity of Metals: Experiments, Models, Computation. Collaborative Research Centres.
Edited by E. Steck, R. Ritter, U. Peil, A. Ziegenbein
Copyright © 2001 WileyVCH Verlag GmbH
ISBNs: 3527277285 (Softcover); 3527600116 (Electronic)
Therefore, a more exact life prediction is possible by investigating the cyclic deforma
tion behaviour in detail and describing the cyclic plasticity, e.g. with constitutive equa
tions. In this paper (see Section 3.3), the investigated cyclic deformation behaviour was
described by analytical relations and, moreover, by relations, which take into account
physical processes as the development of dislocation structures.
When components are loaded at high temperature, additional processes are super
imposed on the fatigue. Besides corrosion, which is not discussed here, creep deforma
tion and creep damage are the most important. Therefore in many cases, not one type
of damage prevails, but the interaction of both fatigue and creep occurs leading to fail
ure of components.
A reliable life prediction model for creepfatigue must consider this interaction as
proposed by the authors (see Section 3.4.1). In this model, the propagating crack,
which is the typical damage in the lowcycle fatigue regime, interacts with grain
boundary cavities. Cavities are for many steels and some other metals the typical creep
damage and also play an important role in the case of creepfatigue. The possibility of
unstable crack advance, which is the criterium for failure, is given if a critical config
uration of the nucleated and grown cavities is reached.
Therefore, the basis for reliable life prediction is the knowledge and description
of the cavity formation and growth by means of constitutive equations. In the case of
diffusioncontrolled cavity growth, the distance between the voids has an important in
fluence on their growth. This occurs especially in the case of lowcycle fatigue, where
the cavity formation plays an important role. Thus, the stochastic process of pore nu
cleation on grain boundaries and the cyclic dependence of this process have to be taken
into consideration as a theoretical description. The experimental analysis has to detect
the cavity size distribution, which is a consequence of the complex interactions be
tween the cavities (see Section 3.4.2).
Formerly, the total stress and strain have been used for the calculation of the
creepfatigue damage. However, these are macroscopic parameters, whereas the crack
growth is a local phenomenon. Therefore, the local conditions near the crack tip have
to be taken into consideration. The determination of the strain fields in front of cracks
is an important first step for modelling (see Section 3.4.3).
3.2 Experimental Details
3.2.1 Experimental details for roomtemperature tests
The materials used for the uniaxial fatigue tests at room temperature were polycrystal
line copper and the steel 2.25Cr1Mo (10 CrMo910). Specimens of 2.25Cr1Mo were
investigated in asreceived conditions, in the case of copper, the material was annealed
at 6508C for 1/2 h.
3 Plasticity of Metals and Life Prediction in the Range of LowCycle Fatigue
38
The tests were controlled by total strain and carried out at room temperature in
air. The strain rates were _ e =10
–3
s
–1
(or, for a small number of tests, _ e =2· 10
–3
s
–1
) for
steel, and _ e =10
–4
s
–1
and _ e =10
–3
s
–1
for copper. Most of the tests were singlestep tests
(SSTs) with a constant strain amplitude De/2, some tests were performed as twostep
tests (2STs) and other as incrementalstep test (ISTs). In the case of the twostep test,
the specimens had been cycled to a steadystate regime before the strain amplitude was
changed in the next step. The strain amplitudes were in general in the lowcycle fatigue
range and a few amplitudes in the range of highcycle fatigue (HCF) and in the transi
tion regime between lowcycle fatigue and extremely lowcycle fatigue (ELCF): The
tests with copper were performed with strain amplitudes between 0.1 and 1.7%, the
tests with steel with amplitudes between 0.185 and 1.2%.
The incrementalstep tests were carried out with constant strain rate and with giv
en values for the lowest and the highest strain amplitude, (De/2)
min
and (De/2)
max
. The
factor of subsequent amplitudes q
a
in the ascending part of the ISTblock or, alterna
tively, the difference of amplitudes d
a
is constant.
For most of the tests, smooth cylindrical specimens were used. Usually, the diam
eter and the length of the gauge were 14 mm and 20 mm, for the tests with very high
strain amplitudes (near the ELCFregime), the diameter was 14.7 mm and the length
10 mm. For some tests, flat specimens were used with the values 8.7×5 mm
2
for the
rectangular crosssection.
The steadystate microstructure of tested specimens was investigated with trans
mission electron microscope at the Institut fu¨r Schweißtechnik (Prof. Wohlfahrt [1]),
the Institut fu¨r Metallphysik und Nukleare Festko¨rperphysik (Prof. Neuha¨user [2]) and
the Institut fu¨r Werkstoffe (Prof. Lange [3]). They are all at the Technische Universita¨t
Braunschweig and involved in the Collaborative Research Centre (SFB 319).
3.2.2 Experimental details for hightemperature tests
The creepfatigue tests were carried out on 304L austenitic stainless steel and on 12%
CrMoV ferritic steel. The tests were total straincontrolled lowcycle fatigue tests with
a tension hold time up to 1 h at 6008 and 6508C for the 304L, and 5508C for the ferri
tic steel. For the tests for the lifetime determination and the tests for analysing the cavi
ty configuration, we used round and polished specimen. After lowcycle fatigue testing,
the specimens were metallographically prepared for stereological analysis of the density
and cavity size distribution (see Section 3.4.2.1).
A furnace with a window and special optics allow high magnification observation
of the specimen surface continuously during the test with a video system and a subse
quent measurement of the crack growth, the crack tip opening and the crack contour on
flat and polished specimens in an inert atmosphere. Insitu measurement of the strain
field in front of the crack was performed by means of the grating method [4–9].
The surface of the specimen was prepared with a grating of TiO
2
with a line
distance of 200 lm, which was photographed at the beginning of the test and at given
loads after cycling. By means of digital image analysis, the local strain at every cross
of the grating was calculated by the group of Prof. Ritter [10] and Dr. Andresen [11]
3.2 Experimental Details
39
(TU Braunschweig, Collaborative Research Centre (SFB319)). The following picture
(Figure 3.1) shows a photograph of the grid and the digitized picture with the regions,
where the local strain is higher than 4% and 5%. The position of the crack is illustrated
by means of a straight line, and the line, which surrounds the 5% deformed zone at the
crack tip, is shown in the figure. From the figure, the size of the 5% deformed zone in
direction of its maximum expansion was taken. In the following, this distance was
designed as R
0.05
in analogy to Iino [12]. It has been used to describe the development
of the highly deformed zone in dependence on the crack length and the tension hold
time.
3.3 Tests at Room Temperature:
Description of the Deformation Behaviour
3.3.1 Macroscopic test results
In singlestep tests, annealed copper shows cyclic hardening in nearly the whole range
of lifetime. After a quite small number of cycles, the end of a rapid hardening regime
is reached. Due to the effect of secondary hardening, in some ranges of amplitudes, no
saturation was observed, but, as first approximation, the effect of secondary hardening
can be neglected [13]. Examples for cyclic hardening curves up to saturation are shown
in Figure 3.2a.
In the case of singlestep tests with 2.25Cr1Mo, there is cyclic softening in
nearly the whole range of strain amplitudes. In the first cycles, rapid hardening can be
found before cyclic softening takes place. After this, a steadystate regime can be
3 Plasticity of Metals and Life Prediction in the Range of LowCycle Fatigue
40
Figure 3.1: Deformed grid and corresponding strain in the direction of the load (insitu, 5508C).
found, which continues until a failure takes place. While in the case of copper, there is
a very clear effect of rapid hardening, in the case of 2.25Cr1Mo, the effects of cyclic
hardening and softening are less pronounced.
For both materials, after a certain number of cycles, a state of saturation is
achieved. The stressstrain behaviour is represented by a hysteresisloop. (To avoid con
fusion, it may be useful to mark characteristic values of the steadystate hysteresisloop
with an index. For example, the amplitude of stress Dr/2 can be written in the case of
saturation as (Dr/2)
s
. Nevertheless, no index is used in this paper because it is usually
clear from the context whether the instantaneous or the steadystate values are re
ferred.)
In Figure 3.2b, an example for cyclic stressstrain curves, Dr/2 or Dr
i
/2 vs. De
p
/2,
are shown, which are constructed with the aid of steadystate hysteresisloops. The values
of the plastic strain e
p
are given in dependence on total strain e and stress r by:
e
p
= e ÷ r=E ; (1)
where E is the Young’s modulus. This equation is used to describe also the relation be
tween the amplitudes of plastic strain De
p
/2, total strain De/2 and stress Dr/2. The am
plitudes of the internal stress, Dr
i
/2, are found with the aid of stress relaxation tests
(see [14]). Most of the experimental points shown in Figure 3.2b were found from 24
tests with amplitudes in the range of LCF (singlestep tests and twostep tests with
lowhigh amplitudesequences; 0:16% _ De=2 _ 1:0%). Additionally, one test in the
highcycle fatigue (HCF) regime and three tests in the transition regime between LCF
and extremely lowcycle fatigue (ELCF: compare Komotori and Shimizu [15]) are
taken into consideration. In the case of copper, the 24 tests are used to study various
3.3 Tests at Room Temperature: Description of the Deformation Behaviour
41
Figure 3.2: Copper; a) cyclic hardening curves, _ e =10
–4
s
–1
; b) cyclic stressstrain curves: amplitudes
of applied and internal stress vs. amplitude of plastic strain. &: data of SSTs with _ e =10
–3
s
–1
; *:
data of SSTs and 2STs with _ e =10
–4
s
–1
;
n
, ~: data of stress relaxation tests after SSTs with
_ e =10
–3
s
–1
or _ e =10
–4
s
–1
, respectively.
parameters of the material, in the case of 2.25Cr1Mo, data are used from 13 single
step tests (12 LCFtests, one HCFtest).
Examples for steadystate hysteresisloops are shown in the Figure 3.3a and b. In
Figure 3.3a, stressstrain hysteresisloops of 2.25Cr1Mo are shown, in Figure 3.3b, hys
teresisloops in relative coordinates, r
r
and e
r
, are shown in the case of copper. The relative
coordinate system is defined by an origin, which is set at the point of minimum stress and
strain of the hysteresisloop. The material exhibits Masing behaviour when the upper
branches of different hysteresisloops follow a common curve in the relative coordinate
system. In contrast, copper exhibits nonMasing behaviour in singlestep tests as can be
seen in Figure 3.3b. Also for 2.25Cr1Mo, nonMasing behaviour was found. Only in a
small range of the tested amplitudes, in the range of 0.185%<De/2<0.4%, the steel ex
hibits approximately Masing behaviour.
For many materials with nonMasing behaviour, it is possible to get a “master
curve”, which is obtained from matching the upper branches of the hysteresisloops
through translating each loop along its linear response portion (see Jhansale and Topper
[16], Lefebvre and Ellyin [17]). The construction of the master curve is possible for the
tested materials in good approximation (Schubert [18], Rie et al. [19]). This behaviour
is shown in Figure 3.4 for copper with the relative plastic strain e
pr
as the xaxis.
In twostep tests with lowhigh amplitudesequence, a saturation amplitude can be
found, which is equal to that of an equivalent singlestep test. In the range of the tested
amplitudes, this behaviour can also be found in good approximation in tests with high
low amplitudesequences. The materials are nearly historyindependent (compare Felt
ner and Laird [20] and Hoffmann et al. [21]).
Also in incrementalstep tests, a state of cyclic saturation can be found. In con
trast to the stressstrain behaviour in singlestep tests and twostep tests, the steady
state stressstrain behaviour in incrementalstep tests can be approximately expressed
by Masing behaviour (see [8, 13]).
3 Plasticity of Metals and Life Prediction in the Range of LowCycle Fatigue
42
Figure 3.3: Steadystate stressstrain hysteresisloops; a) 2.25Cr1Mo, _ e =10
–3
s
–1
; b) copper, hys
teresisloops in relative coordinates.
3.3.2 Microstructural results and interpretation
For both materials, dislocation cell structures were found. For 2.25Cr1Mo, cell structure
was found in singlestep tests in the range of amplitudes, in which the materials exhibit
nonMasing behaviour. In the case of singlestep tests with copper, the cell structure is
well developed for high amplitudes, for low amplitudes, other dislocation structures are
dominating as e.g. vein structure. Often, the shape of the cells is not cuboidal but elon
gated. With increasing strain amplitude, the cell size is decreasing (compare Feltner and
Laird [22]). Schubert [18] proposed a microstructuredependent cyclic proportional limit
r
prop
= r
L
÷ 2 M
S
Gb=d
m
; (2)
where r
L
is the lattice friction stress, M
S
is the Sachs factor, G is the shear modulus
and b is the absolute value of the Burgers vector. The decrease of the mean cell size
d
m
and the increase of r
prop
with increasing strain amplitude is in agreement with the
nonMasing behaviour of the materials [13, 14]. For 2.25Cr1Mo, the value of d
m
in
Equation (2) corresponds to the mean distance of precipitates for low amplitudes and to
the mean cell size for high amplitudes (De/2 > 0.4%). Therefore, in the case of low am
plitudes, Masing behaviour was found [18].
A typical steadystate dislocation structure of the second step of a twostep test
with an amplitudesequence highlow is shown in Figure 3.5. A dislocation cell struc
ture can be seen although the dominating structure of the low amplitude in the case of
a singlestep test is vein structure (see [18]). While in twostep tests with amplitudese
quences lowhigh the microstructure is historyindependent, it is obviously not indepen
dent in the case of a test with an amplitudesequence highlow (compare [21]). Never
theless, the dependence of the macroscopic behaviour on this historydependent micro
structural behaviour is almost negligible.
In incrementalstep tests with sufficiently high values of (De/2)
max
, dislocation
cell structure can be found in cyclic saturation. The dislocation structure is assumed as
3.3 Tests at Room Temperature: Description of the Deformation Behaviour
43
Figure 3.4: Copper (_ e =10
–4
s
–1
) shifted; hysteresisloops and master curve.
quasistable: In cyclic saturation, the dislocation structure does not change within one
ISTblock. The quasistable dislocation structure correlates well with the Masing behav
iour of the incrementalstep test (for details: see Schubert [18]).
Experimental values of the dislocation cell size or cell wall distance, respectively,
are:
d
m
= 0:85 l for De=2 = 0:2% ;
d
m
= 0:76 l for De=2 = 0:4% ;
d
m
= 0:58 l for De=2 = 0:7% ;
in the case of copper and SSTs for _ e = 10
÷4
s
÷1
. In the case of 2.25Cr1Mo, SSTs,
_ e = 10
÷3
s
÷1
, the experimental values are:
d
m
= 0:85 l for De=2 = 0:6% ; and
d
m
= 0:65 l for De=2 = 1:2% [13[ :
These values were used to calculate the cyclic proportional limit r
prop
, and a good
agreement with the macroscopic cyclic proportional limit defined by an offset of 0.01%
was found [18]. Moreover, the values of [18] are used for further evaluation (Sections
3.3.4.1 and 3.3.4.2).
3 Plasticity of Metals and Life Prediction in the Range of LowCycle Fatigue
44
Figure 3.5: Copper, dislocation cell structure of a twostep test; _ e =10
–4
s
–1
, strain amplitude se
quence 0.4–0.2%: steadystate dislocation structure of the second step.
3.3.3 Phenomenological description of the deformation behaviour
3.3.3.1 Description of cyclic hardening curve, cyclic stressstrain curve
and hysteresisloop
It is shown by Wittke [13] that the first part of a cyclic hardening curve of a singlestep
test, the rapid hardening regime, can be described excellently with a stretched exponential
function for stress amplitude Dr/2 vs. cycle number N (or more exact: N – 0.25):
Dr=2 = A
0
÷ (A
s
÷ A
0
) 1 ÷ exp ÷ (N ÷ 0:25)=N
0
[ [
k
H
_ _ _ _
: (3)
The constants A
0
and A
s
are closely related to the monotonous and cyclic stressstrain
curve, respectively, the constants N
0
and k
H
are found by trial and error. A simple de
pendence of the parameters on the steadystate value of the plastic portion of the total
strain amplitude can be found [8]. Moreover, the stretched exponential function, Dr/2
vs. N, is applicable also for twostep tests in the case of hardening and softening in
good approximation. The comparison between experimental and calculated cyclic hard
ening curves is given in Figure 3.2a.
It is usual to describe the cyclic stressstrain curve (csscurve) by a power law.
As can be seen in Figure 3.2b, in the case of copper, the description of the cyclic
stressstrain curves by the solid line and the dotted line is quite good. The doubleloga
rithmic cyclic stressstrain curves, Dr/2 vs. De
p
/2, for different strain rates are nearly
parallel. Also in the case of 2.25Cr1Mo, the description of the cyclic stressstrain
curve by a power law is good. In the case of 2.25Cr1Mo, we get with
Dr=2 = k
/
(De
p
=2)
n
/
(4)
and by using the constants k
/
= 803 MPa and n
/
= 0:138 good agreement between ex
perimental and calculated values (_ e = 10
÷3
s
÷1
; E = 208 GPa).
For copper, the values of the constants for the different csscurves in Figure 3.2b are:
k
/
= 554:6 MPa ; n
/
= 0:228 for _ e = 10
÷3
s
÷1
;
k
/
= 565:9 MPa ; n
/
= 0:238 for _ e = 10
÷4
s
÷1
; and
k
/
= 441:3 MPa ; n
/
= 0:220 for internal stress measurements tests :
With regard to fatigue fracture mechanics and lifetime estimation, the description of the
steadystate hysteresisloop is the most important point in this Section 3.3. In first ap
proximation, also in the case of the hysteresisloop, a power law between relative stress
and relative plastic strain, r
r
and e
pr
, can be assumed (see Morrow [23]):
r
r
= k
H
e
b
pr
: (5)
It should be mentioned that the parameters k
H
and b are dependent on the plastic strain
amplitude.
3.3 Tests at Room Temperature: Description of the Deformation Behaviour
45
Although the description of the hysteresisloop with a power law is quite rough, it
may be useful to apply such a law for fracture mechanical estimation (see Rie and
Wittke [24]). To get a better description of the hysteresisloop shape, other relations are
necessary. The hysteresisloop can be described, e. g. by a twotangents method (com
pare [19]), as follows:
e
pr
= (r
r
=k
0
)
1=b
0
÷ (r
r
=k
E
)
1=b
E
: (6)
For each hysteresisloop, four constants, k
0
, b
0
, k
E
and b
E
, have to be determined. An
example for the applicability of this relation in the case of the mild steel Fe510 (St52),
which was tested at the Institut fu¨r Stahlbau of the TU Braunschweig (Prof. Peil [25]),
is shown in Figure 3.6.
We have developed other very exact relations with only three constants. They are
expressed by:
r
r
= A
G
[1 ÷ exp (÷(e
pr
=d
G
)
G
)[ ; (7)
or alternatively by:
r
r
= C
q
exp (÷j
q
[ln (e
pr
=d
E
)[
2
) : (8)
The three constants of the stretched exponential function (Equation (7)) are A
G
, d
G
and
G
, the constants of the exponential parabola function (Equation (8)) are C
q
, j
q
and d
E
.
Examples for the excellent applicability of both equations are shown by Rie and Wittke
[14] and Wittke [13]. In contrast to other relations, in the case of Equations (7) and (8),
a good agreement between experiment and calculation can be found even for the sec
ond derivative of the hysteresisloop branch, d
2
r
r
/de
2
r
vs. e
r
(see Section 3.3.4.1).
3 Plasticity of Metals and Life Prediction in the Range of LowCycle Fatigue
46
Figure 3.6: Mild steel Fe510; hysteresisloop in relative coordinates; De/2=0.5%, _ e =10
–4
s
–1
;
comparison between experiment and calculation; calculation according to Equation (6), k
0
=45418
MPa, b
0
=0.553, k
E
=1238 MPa, b
E
=0.095; E=210 GPa.
3.3.3.2 Description of various hysteresisloops with few constants
A very exact description of the shape of various hysteresisloops with few constants
can be obtained when the parameters of the power law (Equation (5)), k
H
and b, are
given as simple functions of the plastic strain range De
p
. Such functional relations are
developed in [13, 26]. Furthermore, a method to calculate the parameters of the expo
nential parabola function (Equation (8)), C
q
, j
q
, and d
E
, in dependence on the plastic
strain amplitude is described in [13].
As shown above, in the case of nonMasing behaviour, it is possible to get a mas
ter curve. This master curve together with the cyclic stressstrain curve can be used to
construct each hysteresisloop (see [17]). In contrast to the powerlaw mastercurve pro
posed by Lefebvre and Ellyin [17], better results were achieved, e.g. by a stretched ex
ponential function or an exponential parabola function (see [13]). In the latter case, the
master curve can be described by:
r
+
= C
q
+
exp (÷j
q
+
[ln (e
pr
=d
E
+
)[
2
) ; (9)
where C
q
+
, j
q
+
and d
E
+
are constants. For copper, almost independent on strain rate, the
values of the parameters of the master curve (compare Figure 3.4) are:
C
q
+
= 246:1 MPa ; j
q
+
= 0:03576 ; d
E
+
= 2:3194% :
All these methods, which were used to describe various steadystate hysteresisloops of
copper with few constants, are also applicable in the case of 2.25Cr1Mo.
3.3.4 Physically based description of deformation behaviour
3.3.4.1 Internal stress measurement and cyclic proportional limit
For a physically based description of the cyclic deformation behaviour, it is necessary
to take into consideration that the applied stress r can be separated into the internal
and the effective stress, r
i
and r
eff
. The effective stress is that fraction of the total
stress causing dislocations to move at a specific velocity, the internal stress can be de
fined as the stress needed to balance the dislocation configuration at a net zero value of
the plastic strain rate (see Tsou and Quesnel [27]).
At room temperature, internal stress can be easily obtained experimentally by
stress relaxation tests. For this purpose, test specimens were cycled to approximated
saturation in uniaxial pushpull tests in the range of LCF prior to the relaxation tests.
Figure 3.7a shows hysteresisloops for copper with both the total stress r and the inter
nal stress r
i
plotted vs. the plastic strain e
p
. In agreement with the method of Tsou and
Quesnel [27], the stress value after 30 min of relaxation is adopted as the internal
stress value. Figure 3.7b shows for a stress relaxation test performed after a monotonic
straincontrolled tension test (_ e ~ 10
÷4
s
÷1
) that this is a good approximation: After
3.3 Tests at Room Temperature: Description of the Deformation Behaviour
47
less than 30 min=1800 s, the stress value is almost constant. (In Figure 3.7b, t =0 is
defined by the start of the stress relaxation procedure.)
The twelve experimental points of Figure 3.7a are expressed by the dottedline fit
curve. The fit curve can be described by a relation, which is analogous to Equations
(7) or (8), respectively. By considering different r
i
e
p
hysteresisloops, the cyclic stress
strain curve Dr
i
/2 vs. De
p
/2 can be determined. This cyclic stressstrain curve has been
shown already in Figure 3.2b. With the same amplitude of the plastic strain, the shape
of the r
i
e
p
hysteresisloop is assumed to be independent of the strain rate of the prior
cyclic test (compare Tsou and Quesnel [27], Hatanaka and Ishimoto [28]).
The proposed Equations (7) and (8) are well appropriate to fit the experimental
points. Therefore, one of them (here Equation (8)) is used in the following for checking
whether the r
i
e
p
hysteresisloops exhibit Masing or nonMasing behaviour. To investi
gate the Masing or nonMasing behaviour of the r
i
e
p
hysteresisloops, several hyster
esisloops are presented in Figure 3.8a in relative coordinates. In this figure, r
ir
e
pr
hys
teresisloops for a small, a medium and a quite large strain amplitude of the LCF range
are shown. NonMasing behaviour can be seen clearly.
In the following, the dependence of the nonMasing behaviour on microstructure
will be quantified with the model of Schubert [18]. As usual, a macroscopic cyclic pro
portional limit can be defined by a strain offset, e. g. 0.01%. Nevertheless, the value of
the strain offset is arbitrary and has no physical meaning. Therefore, in the case of the
r
ir
e
pr
hysteresisloops, a better way is chosen: At first, a hypothetic hysteresisloop r
ir
vs. e
r
is constructed with the given values of r
ir
, e
pr
and the analogous relation to Equa
tion (1):
e
r
= e
pr
÷ r
ir
=E : (10)
3 Plasticity of Metals and Life Prediction in the Range of LowCycle Fatigue
48
Figure 3.7: Copper; a) hysteresisloops: total and internal stress vs. plastic strain; De/2=0.4%,
_ e =10
–3
s
–1
; *: experimental data of stress relaxation tests,      : calculation analogous to
Equation (7), A
G
=260 MPa, d
G
=0.039%,
G
=0.412; b) data of straincontrolled tension test (in
terrupted at e =9.3%) and relaxation test.
In the next step, the second derivative of a half branch of this hysteresisloop, d
2
r
ir
/de
2
r
vs. e
r
, is constructed. The e
r
value of the extreme point (minimum) of this second deri
vative is called here e
r, ex
. Now, we define a macroscopic cyclic yield stress:
r
yc
= e
r; ex
E=2 (11)
in agreement with a statistical approach based on the distribution of elementary vol
umes with different yield stresses (compare Pola´k et al. [29]): r
yc
is interpreted as the
yield stress with the highest probability density within the material. By this definition,
an uniquely applicable and physically better justified macroscopic cyclic proportional
limit is found. With the values of d
m
and r
prop
(see Equation (2)) for copper given by
Schubert [18] or Rie et al. [19], respectively, the good agreement between the two cyc
lic proportional limits, r
prop
and r
yc
, can be seen in Figure 3.8b.
The effective stresses contribute also to the nonMasing behaviour of materials, but
in agreement with the above mentioned model, the main reason of the nonMasing behav
iour is thought to be governed by the nonMasing behaviour of the r
i
e
p
hysteresisloops.
In the case of 2.25Cr1Mo, the described model is also applicable. Evaluation of
a stress relaxation test for another charge of the material give a value of Dr
i
/Dr=0.907
for De/2=0.6%. This value is quite similar to the tests with copper.
3.3 Tests at Room Temperature: Description of the Deformation Behaviour
49
Figure 3.8: Copper; a) hysteresisloops of relative internal stress vs. relative plastic strain (without
experimental values; dotted line hysteresisloops: calculation by Equation (8)); parameters of the
former performed singlestep tests: strain rate _ e =10
–4
s
–1
; strain amplitudes De/2: 0.16%, 0.4%
and 0.7%; b) cyclic proportional limits, r
prop
and r
yc
, in dependence on plastic strain range. The
values of r
prop
are calculated in dependence on experimental values of d
m
; the values of r
yc
are
determined with the aid of the r
i
e
p
hysteresisloops and described by the dottedline fit function.
3.3.4.2 Description of cyclic plasticity with the models of Steck and Hatanaka
By Schlums and Steck [30], a model was proposed, which allows to describe hightem
perature cyclic deformation behaviour in terms of metal physics and thermodynamics.
A modification was given by Gerdes [31] to use the model for low temperatures (e. g.
room temperature). The model was applied in the case of copper. According to this
model, the plastic strain rate can be calculated as follows:
_ e
p
= C
G
exp ÷
Q
G
RT
_ _
sinh
DV
G
(r ÷ r
i
)
RT
_ _
: (12)
The evolution equations of the internal parameters, r
i
and DV
G
(internal stress and acti
vation volume), are:
_ r
i
= H
G
E exp ÷
b
G
DV
G
r
i
sign (r ÷ r
i
)
RT
_ _
_ e
p
(13)
and
D
_
V
G
= ÷K
1
DV
2
G
[_ e
p
[ ÷ K
2
DV
G
[_ e
p
[ ; (14)
where R=8.3147· 10
–3
kJ mol
–1
K
–1
, T=293 K, Q
G
=49.0 kJ mol
–1
. The Young’s mod
ulus is dependent on temperature (room temperature: E=116 GPa), the other constants,
C
G
, Q
G
, H
G
, b
G
, K
1
, K
2
, and the initial value of the activation volume DV
G0
, have to
be determined, e. g. by a parameter identification procedure. The original model is
threedimensional, but here it is used only in the uniaxial case.
In cooperation with the Institut fu¨r Allgemeine Mechanik und Festigkeitslehre
(Prof. Steck) at the Technische Universita¨t Braunschweig, a set of parameters was
found. This set of parameters takes the results of internal stress measurements and the
dependence of the deformation behaviour on strain rate into account and is given by:
C
G
= 0:3670 10
÷5
s
÷1
; H
G
= 1:784 ; b
G
= 0:3676 ;
K
1
= 47:20 MPa mol kJ
÷1
; K
2
= 10:328 ; and
DV
G0
= 1:182 kJ mol
÷1
MPa
÷1
:
With these parameters, a good description of rapid hardening and cyclic saturation is pos
sible [13]. Results in the case of saturated hysteresisloops are shown in Figure 3.9a.
It can be shown that the model describes the nonMasing behaviour of the
material in singlestep tests. Furthermore, a relatively exact description of the hyster
esisloop shape is possible. Some modifications seem to be necessary because the pa
rameters are valid only in a limited range of amplitudes and strain rates. More modifi
cations are needed to describe the stressstrain behaviour also in the case of incremen
talstep tests and twostep tests with sufficient accuracy (for details: see Wittke [13]).
3 Plasticity of Metals and Life Prediction in the Range of LowCycle Fatigue
50
By Hatanaka and Ishimoto [28], another physically based model was proposed to
describe cyclic plasticity. In this model, assumptions are made concerning the evolution
of dislocation density and concerning the mean dislocation velocity. We have modified
the original model by taking into account also the evolution of dislocation structure
(for details: see [13]). It is shown that the modified model can be applied for copper
and also for steadystate hysteresisloops for 2.25Cr1Mo [13]. An example for the lat
ter case is shown in Figure 3.9b.
3.3.5 Application in the field of fatiguefracture mechanics
Usually, crack growth data are correlated with a fracture mechanical parameter such as
e. g. DJ or DJ
eff
. According to the proposals of Dowling [32] and with the results of
Shih and Hutchinson [33], it is possible to estimate DJ in the case of various specimen
and crack geometries. Schubert [18] measured the growth of cracks, which were ap
proximated as half circular surface cracks in circular specimens. Crack growth of
2.25Cr1Mo was measured with the ACPD method. In crack closure measurements, a
crack closure parameter U was found, which is nearly constant: U=0.9 (compare Rie
and Schubert [34] and Schubert [18]). Crack growth was successfully correlated with
DJ [18] and DJ
eff
[34], respectively.
The value U=0.9 was used also in the case of crack growth measurements of
edge cracks in flat specimens [13].
For the calculation of DJ, characteristic values of the deformation behaviour are
needed. According to Dowling [32], the cyclic integral DJ is calculated, e. g. in depen
dence on the cyclic hardening exponent n'. As proposed by Rie and Wittke [24], n' is
3.3 Tests at Room Temperature: Description of the Deformation Behaviour
51
Figure 3.9: Application of physical based models: comparison of experiment and calculation; a)
copper, _ e =10
–4
s
–1
, calculation with the Steck model [30]; b) 2.25Cr1Mo, _ e =10
–3
s
–1
, calculation
with the modified model of Hatanaka [28] (calculation: solid line; experiment: dotted line).
replaced by the exponent b of Equation (5). By this replacement, nonMasing behav
iour is taken into consideration. The values of b are calculated according to the method
proposed in [26] (for details: see Wittke [13]). With this method, the effective part of
DJ for edge cracks is estimated as:
DJ
eff
= 7:88 U
2
Dr
2
2E
÷
4:84
b
_
DrDe
p
1 ÷ b
_ _
a ; (15)
where a is the crack depth.
The growth of edge cracks in flat specimens for the steel 2.25Cr1Mo was mea
sured with optical method. Tests with three different strain amplitudes (strain rate:
_ e = 2 10
÷3
s
÷1
) were performed. The relation between crack growth per cycle da/dN
and DJ
eff
is described by:
da=dN = C
J
(DJ
eff
)
J
; (16)
where C
J
and
J
are constants. With an assumed initial crack depth and with a crack
depth, which defines failure, lifetime can easily predicted by integrating Equation (16)
(compare Schubert [18]). With values for the characteristic parameters of hysteresis
loops, Dr, De
p
and b, the constants
C
J
= 3:89 10
÷5
;
J
= 1:16
were found (with da/dN in mm and DJ
eff
in Nmm/mm
2
). The correlation between da/
dN and DJ
eff
is quite satisfactory as can be seen in Figure 3.10.
3 Plasticity of Metals and Life Prediction in the Range of LowCycle Fatigue
52
Figure 3.10: 2.25Cr1Mo, _ e =2· 10
–3
s
–1
, correlation between crack growth per cycle da/dN and
DJ
eff
.
3.4 CreepFatigue Interaction
3.4.1 A physically based model for predicting LCFlife
under creepfatigue interaction
In this section, the original model of the author proposed in 1985 [35] was described to
illustrate in the following the modifications and the experimental verifications made
successively in the last years.
3.4.1.1 The original model
Unstable crack advance occurs if the crack progress per cycle, da/dN, becomes approxi
mately equal to the spacing of the nucleated intergranular cavities [35, 36]. The crack
tip opening displacement d/2 may be seen as the upper bound to crack growth [36] and
the relation can be written as:
da
dN
_
d
2
= (k ÷ 2r) ; (17)
where k is the cavity spacing, r is the radius of the rtype cavity and is a constant.
The crack tip opening displacement may be represented in analogy to the total
strain by an elastic term De
el
plus a contribution due to plastic deformation De
p
and by
thermally activated, timedependent processes e
c
[37]:
d = a(K
1
De
el
÷ K
2
De
p
÷ K
3
e
c
) = aC
cal
; (18)
where K
1
, K
2
, K
3
are constants [35], and a is the crack length.
Under repeated loading, there will be a dependence of the number of created cav
ities on the number of cycles. In analogy to the MansonCoffin relationship, we postu
late a constitutive equation for the cycledependent cavity nucleation under cyclic creep
and lowcycle fatigue condition with superimposed hold time. Assuming that only the
plastic strain imposed is responsible for cavity nucleation and disregarding stress de
pendence, the maximum number of cavities n
max
is given by:
n
max
= p N
j
De
p
; (19)
where De
p
is the plastic strain range, N is the number of cycles, p is the cavity nuclea
tion factor, and j is the cyclic cavity nucleation exponent. It was proposed that p was
identical with the density of grain boundary precipitates. Since it was found that not
every precipitation necessarily produces a cavity, experimental constant has been
used to adapt the observation in our first model. was used as a fit factor to have best
results in life prediction.
3.4 CreepFatigue Interaction
53
Cavity nucleation under creepfatigue condition is favoured on grain boundaries
perpendicular to the load axis and the cavity spacing k can be written as:
k =
1
n
_ : (20)
Nucleation of cavities is governed by a deformation of the matrix, and the cavity
growth is controlled by diffusion. In the first model, the cavity growth model of Hull
and Rimmer [38] was taken for describing the cavity growth rate during creepfatigue.
This was done because the HullRimmer model could be integrated analytically for
every cycle, and the result could be expressed in one compact equation for the life pre
diction. In this case, the lifetime is reached if:
a
2
(K
1
De
el
÷ K
2
De
p
÷ K
3
e
c
)
=
1
pN
j
De
p
_ ÷ 2
4Xd
gb
D
gb
pDe
p
_
(j ÷ 2)kT
_
t
0
r(t) dt N
j
2
÷1
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
¸
_
: (21)
By integrating, it was assumed that the kinetics of the cavity growth in tension are the
same as the kinetics of cavity shrinking in compression.
3.4.1.2 Modifications of the model
The empirical constant could reduce the versatile character of the basic concept on
unzipping of cavitated material as the failure criterion. Therefore, in a first step of mod
ification, we use:
d
2
= k ÷ 2r : (22)
p was taken from direct experimental observation of cavities as will be shown in the
following. Therefore, it is not necessary to consider the influence of precipitation on
the nucleation of cavities, and n
max
in Equation (19) could be replaced by the real den
sity of cavities on grain boundaries n.
The cavities nucleated by tensile stresses can be healed during periods of com
pressive stress if the compressive stress is applied for a long enough time. It has been
observed that the time required to heal the cavity by compressive stress is up to six
times longer than the time to nucleate the cavity by tensile stress [39]. In a second
step, the incomplete healing response has been modelled in dividing the rate of the ra
dius changes dr/dt in the growth models by a factor of 6 if the stress is negative.
In a third step, a numerical procedure for integrating the cavity growth models was
introduced. With this, it is possible to use any model depending on the physical parameters,
which may prevail. The models of HullRimmer [38], SpeightHarris [40] and Riedel [41]
3 Plasticity of Metals and Life Prediction in the Range of LowCycle Fatigue
54
were compared, and it could be shown that in case of the calculated lifetimes, the influence
of the model on the result is negligible [42]. The model of Riedel [41] is used in the fol
lowing because it is successfully checked directly by experiments (see Section 3.4.2.3).
3.4.1.3 Experimental verification of the physical assumptions
Both the cavity nucleation factor p and the cavity growth were determined experimen
tally by means of stereometric metallography as will be shown in Section 3.4.2. These
values have been used for the life prediction.
A furnace with window and special optics allows high magnification observation
of the specimen surface continuously during the test with a video system and a subse
quent measurement of the crack growth and the crack tip opening. The value for crack
tip opening was determined in a distance of 250 lm [43].
With this method, the fundamental assumption of the life prediction model about
the dependence of the crack tip opening displacement on the crack length and the
strain range expressed in Equation (18) could be experimentally checked. An example
of the crack tip opening displacement in dependence on the crack length is shown in
Figure 3.11. The slope of the straight line C
exp
for the experiments ranges between
0.043 and 0.058. The calculated slope determined with Equation (18) for the same ex
periment is C
cal
=0.044. From that, it can be concluded that the calculation of the crack
tip opening displacement in the original life prediction model leads to values, which
are in the right order of magnitude.
3.4.1.4 Life prediction
The fatigue life of hightemperature lowcyclic fatigue under arbitrary cyclic loading
situations including wave shapes and hold time can be estimated using the unstable
crack advance criterion of the critical cavity configuration expressed in Equation (22).
3.4 CreepFatigue Interaction
55
Figure 3.11: Crack tip opening d
250 lm
vs. crack length.
The effective cavity spacing k can be estimated from Equations (19) and (20), the
crack tip opening displacement d from Equation (18). And the cavity radius r can be
obtained by integrating the historydependent cavity growth equation expressed in
Equations (24) to (27).
Because the cavity spacing k influences the cavity growth rate (Equations (24) to
(27)), the number of created cavities and their growth have to be calculated for every
cycle separately (Figure 3.12). From the radius of every nucleated and subsequently
grown cavity, we calculate the mean value r
m
and compare k–2r
m
with d/2 (Equation
(22)) to get the critical life. Figure 3.13 shows the good agreement between experimen
tal data and predicted life using the pore growth model of Riedel [41].
3 Plasticity of Metals and Life Prediction in the Range of LowCycle Fatigue
56
Figure 3.12: Variation of cavity growth with time, respectively number of cycles (De
p
/2=1%).
Figure 3.13: Comparison of experimental life and predicted life.
3.4.2 Computer simulation and experimental verification of cavity formation
and growth during creepfatigue
The fundamental physically based assumptions in the life prediction model about the
development of the cavity density (Equation (19)) and the cavity growth have been ex
perimentally verified. The results of this gave rise to the development of a new 2di
mensional cavity growth model, which describes the complex interaction between the
cavities, and thus leading to constitutive equations of the damage development, which
could be directly measured.
3.4.2.1 Stereometric metallography
After lowcycle fatigue testing, the specimens were metallographically prepared for
stereometric analysing for the density and cavity size distribution. For this purpose, the
cavities were photographed by a Scanning Electron Microscope, and the cavity density
and the distribution of the radii on the polished surface were detected. For every test,
nearly 100 cavities were measured. The measured values of size and density on the me
tallographic section are much different from the real cavity configuration in the volume.
For calculating the real cavity size distribution and density on the grain bound
aries, the following assumptions are made: All cavities are on boundaries oriented per
pendicular to the load axis with a maximum deviation of 308. All grains are of identi
cal size, which is the mean value (in this case 62 lm), and all cavities are spherically
shaped.
The principal procedure is divided into two steps: First, the cavity size distribu
tion and the cavity density in the volume of the specimen were calculated. This was
done from the corresponding values in the metallographic section by means of a nu
merical procedure. Spheres were placed in a given volume by means of the Monte Car
lo method. The spheres are randomly distributed. The size distribution of the spheres
was set as a logarithmic Gaussian distribution. The resulting size distribution was cal
culated in a section of the volume, which is designed as the imaginary metallographic
surface. The determined values of this section were compared with the experiment, and
this procedure was repeated by varying the density and the parameters of the Gaussian
distribution. This was done until the resulting density and the size distribution were
identical to the values of the metallographic section.
Second, the real density on the grain boundaries n
gb
from the density in the vol
ume n
v
was calculated by means of a formula, which was provided by Needham and
Gladman [44]:
n
gb
= n
v
i
2q
: (23)
i is the size of the grains determined by means of the interceptedsegment method, and
the constant q (q=0.134) depends on the angle between the cavitated grain boundaries
and the load axis.
3.4 CreepFatigue Interaction
57
3.4.2.2 Computer simulation
For the simulation, the cavities were placed one after another on a given area of the
grain boundary by the Monte Carlo method. After the nucleation of one additional cav
ity, the growth of all cavities on the grain boundary was calculated until the next was
formed. The growth of every cavity in our calculations depends on the spacing to the 6
neighbouring pores in plane and is described by so extended diffusioncontrolled cavity
growth model. The extension is illustrated in Figure 3.14.
The advantage of the proposed model in comparison to the existing cavity growth
models is the inhomogeneous distribution in plane. To calculate the cavity growth, it
can be assumed that the total vacancy flow to the cavity considered is the sum of the
flows from all 6 segments as illustrated in Figure 3.14. We propose that the flow from
every segment depends on the distance only to the nearest cavity within the segment
considered. This is analogous to existing 1dimensional cavity growth models [45–48],
but overestimates the vacancy flow because the contribution of the far distant cavities
within this segment is supposed to be the same as the nearest. The same considerations
will be applied for other segments. A fit factor is introduced, which takes this into con
sideration. This factor is set to the value of 0.2 to have the best fit of the experiments.
To calculate the growth rate _ r from the cavity distance k under the actual stress r
b
, the
cavity growth model proposed by Riedel [41] was chosen:
_ r =
2XdD
b
[r
b
÷ r
0
(1 ÷ x)[
k T h(w)q(x)r
2
; (24)
r
0
=
2c
s
r
sin w ; (25)
x =
2r
k
_ _
2
; (26)
q(x) = ÷2 ln x ÷ (3 ÷ x)(1 ÷ x) : (27)
3 Plasticity of Metals and Life Prediction in the Range of LowCycle Fatigue
58
Figure 3.14: Statistically distributed cavities in plane.
The meaning and the values of the constants for 304L are: h(W) =0.61 the relation be
tween the cavity volume and the volume of a sphere with radius r, X=1.21· 10
–29
m
3
the atomic volume, dD
b
=2· 10
–13
exp (–Q/RT) m
3
/s with Q=167 kJ/mol the grain bound
ary diffusion coefficient times the grain boundary width, 2W=708 the void tip angle,
c
s
=2 kJ/m
2
the specific surface energy, k Boltzmann constant and T the temperature.
This differential equation (Equation (24)) was solved numerically. A possible coa
lescence has been taken into account. In this case, the two cavities were replaced by a
new cavity, with the volume of both at the centre of the connecting line. As is shown
below, this coalescence of cavities plays an important role in the case of fatigue be
cause the accumulated strain, which controls the cavity formation, is relatively high
compared to unidirectional tests. The cavity development during creep has also been
successfully simulated, but will not be the subject of this paper.
In the case of lowcycle fatigue, the cavity density n
Gb
depends on the number of
cycles N and is calculated by a power law function between n
Gb
and N (Equation
(19)). This is one of the basic assumptions of our life prediction model and is verified
by the experiments as will be shown below.
Note that during the creepfatigue, the stress is not constant, whereas it is con
stant in the case of pure creep. Therefore, in the calculation, the changing stress was
taken into consideration.
The cavities are formed continuously during the tension period of the cycle until
the strain maximum is reached. During the hold period, stress relaxation occurs and no
cavities are formed. The actual stress for calculating the cavity growth after the forma
tion of every single pore was taken directly from the experiment. During the compres
sion period, no further cavity formation occurs. Due to the negative stress, the cavities
are shrinking. However, the influence of shrinkage is negligible for this kind of test
without compressive hold time and therefore will not be further discussed in this paper.
3.4.2.3 Results
In Figure 3.15, the experimentally detected cavity density on the grain boundary is
plotted versus the number of cycles. The cavity density during creepfatigue depends
on the number of cycles N by a power law as suggested before. With p=12· 10
–2
1/
lm
2
and j=0.4 in Equation (19), a good fit of the experimental data is possible (not
plotted in the figure), and the fundamental idea about the cavity formation in the life
prediction model is verified.
With this basic assumption about the cavity density in dependence on the number
of cycles, the simulation of the cavity growth proceeds as follows. After a few cycles,
the distribution is cut off at the righthand side of the curve as proposed by Riedel
[41]. When cycling continues, more and more cavities coalesce, and therefore, large
cavities are formed. At the end of the simulation, the distribution is nearly Gaussian.
In Figure 3.16, the cumulative frequency of the cavity radii for the experiment
and the simulation, which is the solid line, is given for different numbers of cycles. In
the case of the experiment, the size distribution in the metallographic section is plotted.
The size distribution for the simulation is transformed to the resulting distribution in
the imaginary section by means of the method described in Section 3.4.2.1.
3.4 CreepFatigue Interaction
59
3 Plasticity of Metals and Life Prediction in the Range of LowCycle Fatigue
60
Figure 3.15: Experimentally detected cavity density and cavity density of the simulation vs. num
ber of cycles.
Figure 3.16: Comparison of computer simulation with experimentally detected cavity size distri
bution for creepfatigue tests (304L, e
a
=1%, T=6508C, 1 h tension hold).
The proposed model and the constitutive equations for simulating the pore config
uration in the case of creepfatigue leads to a good agreement between calculation and
experimentally detected cavity size distribution, and also the cavity density as shown in
Figure 3.15. From Figure 3.15, one can draw the conclusion that the cavity coalescence
plays an important role in the case of creepfatigue. The values of the given density,
that is the density, which would exist without coalescence, is much higher than the re
sulting density on the grain boundaries by coalescence.
3.4.3 Insitu measurement of local strain at the crack tip during creepfatigue
In the previous sections, the total strain and stress were used for calculating the dam
age development and predicting the fatigue life. But in the LCFregime, failure is a lo
cal phenomenon, which takes place in front of the crack. Therefore, the strain has been
measured in front of the crack for giving the basis of a local application of material
laws and a local damage model. The method provided by the group of Prof. Ritter [10]
is usable for long time creepfatigue tests at high temperature. The stability of the grat
ing is sufficient for high accuracy measurement in argon for more than two weeks [49].
3.4.3.1 Influence of the crack length and the strain amplitude
on the local strain distribution
The size of the highly deformed zone in front of the crack depends on the crack
length. This effect can be measured with this method. For both steels, the size of the
highly deformed zone increases with the crack length, which is shown in Figure 3.17
by plotting R
0.05
vs. crack length. The size of the highly deformed zone also depends
on the amplitude e
a
of the total strain. This is also demonstrated in Figure 3.17.
The increase of the plastic zone size with both the crack length and the total
strain amplitude will be explained by means of the theory of Shih and Hutchinson [33]
and by observations of Iino [12]. FiniteElement calculations by Shih and Hutchinson
[33] showed that both the crack length a and the strain amplitude e
a
are directly propor
tional to the crack tip opening displacement d, Iino [12] observed the linear depen
dence of the highly deformed zone size R
0.05
on the crack tip opening in the case of
lowcycle fatigue:
a ~ d ; e
a
~ d Shih and Hutchinson
R
0:05
~ d Iino : (28)
From both theory and experiment, the measured relationships between R
0.05
and e
a
as
well as between R
0.05
and a will be expected as shown in Figure 3.17. In the case of
highcycle fatigue, these effects are well known and can be explained in terms of lin
earelastic fracture mechanics [50].
3.4 CreepFatigue Interaction
61
3.4.3.2 Comparison of the strain field in tension and compression
The strain in front of the crack tip measured at the maximum stress in tension and com
pression of the same cycle is shown in Figure 3.18. It can be seen that also in compression,
the local strain just in front of the crack tip is positive. This has been found in all tests and
for all crack lengths in both steels. Three different explanations are possible:
• A small amount of oxygen remains in the inert gas atmosphere, which leads to oxi
dation of the crack surfaces. As a consequence, the crack surfaces can not return to
their original position of the previous cycle [51]. Therefore, the high deformation
developed at the tensile strain maximum cannot be completely reversed.
3 Plasticity of Metals and Life Prediction in the Range of LowCycle Fatigue
62
Figure 3.17: Increase of the highly deformed zone size in dependence on the total strain range.
Figure 3.18: Local strain in direction of the load for the tension and compression maximum of
the same cycle vs. distance from crack tip in direction of the maximum expansion of the 5% de
formed zone.
• A small shifting of the crack surfaces during opening of the crack may lead to an
incomplete crack closure, and therefore to positive strain at the crack tip in com
pression.
• Due to the notch effect, stress and strain concentration occur at the crack tip during
crack opening. However, when the crack closes, no stress concentration appears
and, as a consequence, the maximum stress at the crack tip in compression is equal
to the total stress. Therefore, the stress at the crack tip in tension is higher than the
stress in compression. The mean value of the stress in front of the crack is positive,
and the consequence is the measured positive strain.
The fact that a positive strain appears in compression supports the high importance of
the local strain measurement for crack growth calculation and life prediction. For the
demonstrated test, the crack advance is 4 lm per cycle. The size of the zone of positive
mean strain in front of the crack is estimated at 1 mm. This means that the propagating
crack advances for more than 250 cycles through a material, which has been cycled un
der positive mean stress.
3.4.3.3 Influence of the hold time in tension on the strain field
The values of the strain in front of the crack are lower in the case of tests with tension
hold times compared to tests without hold. Figure 3.19 shows the development of R
0.05
(size of the 5%deformed zone from crack tip) as a function of crack length for 304L
and different hold times. The same results are given for the ferritic steel in a paper of
the authors [49].
The strain field depends on the hold time of the test, but remains the same during
the hold period of each cycle within the accuracy of the measurement. Insitu monitor
ing of the crack advance and crack path indicates that the increase of crack growth rate
3.4 CreepFatigue Interaction
63
Figure 3.19: Plastically deformed zone size (size of the 5%deformed zone from crack tip R
0.05
)
vs. crack length a in 304L.
with tension hold time is related to a transition from a trans to an intercrystalline crack
path. Metallographic observation of the microstructure shows that during tension, hold
grain boundary cavitation and microcrack formation occur.
We conclude that the microscopic changes of the material during the creepfatigue
such as the grain boundary damage lead to the change of the stressstrain behaviour in
front of the crack. This phenomenon has to be emphasized particularly because the macro
scopic stressstrain behaviour is not influenced by the grain boundary damage [37].
To explain the strain behaviour in front of the crack, we propose a model, which is
based on the reduction of strain to rupture in front of the crack if cavities are formed [49].
Comparable results for creepfatigue cannot be found in literature, but Hasegawa
and Ilschner [52] have detected a reduction of the strains in front of cracks in the case
of high temperature tension tests if cavities are formed.
3.5 Summary and Conclusions
The cyclic deformation behaviour at room temperature was investigated for copper and
steel 2.25Cr1Mo. It can be concluded that for both materials, nonMasing behaviour
has to be taken into consideration. The investigation of the microstructure shows that
for both copper and 2.25Cr1Mo, dislocation cell structures were found for sufficient
high strain amplitudes.
The deformation behaviour can be described by analytical relations. Especially for
the steadystate stressstrain hysteresisloops, very exact relations are proposed.
With the aid of stress relaxation experiments, a cyclic yield stress r
yc
can be de
fined and correlated with a microstructuredependent proportional limit r
prop
. Calcula
tions with the physically based models of Steck and Hatanaka, respectively, show good
agreement with experimental results. The model of Hatanaka was modified by taking
results concerning the dislocation structure into account.
An application of test results in the field of fatigue fracture mechanics is shown
by correlating da/dN and DJ
eff
.
The generalized life prediction model of the authors has the capability to predict
lifetime of high temperature lowcycle fatigue under various wave shapes and hold
times. Physically based constitutive equations for cavity nucleation and subsequent
growth under variable loading histories are considered, and the unzipping of the cavi
tated grain boundary is taken as criterion for catastrophic failure. The crack tip opening
displacement is seen as the upper bound to crack growth. These physically based as
sumptions in the model are verified by corresponding experiments.
The development of intergranular cavitation in austenitic steels can be simulated by
the proposed 2dimensional cavity growth model with good agreement to the experiment.
It is important that not only the cavity size distribution but also the resulting cavity density
on grain boundaries are in accordance with the experiment. From this, it can be concluded
that the coalescence of neighbouring voids is very important for the cavity growth during
lowcycle fatigue and is the main reason for the existence of relatively large cavities.
3 Plasticity of Metals and Life Prediction in the Range of LowCycle Fatigue
64
The grating method is a very useful tool for determining the local strain in front
of cracks during creepfatigue. The high accuracy of this method for measuring the
plastic deformation remains even for long time tests. It can be shown that the magni
tude of the local strain at the crack tip during high temperature, lowcycle fatigue test
ing depends on the crack length and on the total strain range. During cycling, the local
strain in front of the crack tip is positive even in compression maximum. By means of
the grating method, it can be shown that the high crack growth rate of creepfatigue is
associated with a relatively small size of the plastically deformed zone.
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67
4 Development and Application of Constitutive Models
for the Plasticity of Metals
Elmar Steck, Frank Thielecke and Malte Lewerenz*
Abstract
The macroscopic behaviour of crystalline materials under mechanical or thermal load
ings is determined by processes in the microregion of the material. By a combination
of models on the basis of molecular dynamics and cellular automata, it seems possible
to simulate numerically the formation of internal structures during the deformation pro
cesses. The stochastical character of these mechanisms can be considered by modelling
them as stochastic processes, which result in Markov chains. By a mean value formula
tion, this leads to a macroscopic model consisting of nonlinear ordinary differential
equations. The determination of the unknown material parameters is based on a Maxi
mumLikelihood outputerror method comparing experimental data to the numerical si
mulations. With FiniteElement methods, it is possible to use the material models for
the design of components and structures in all fields of technical application and for
the numerical simulation of their behaviour under complex loading situations.
4.1 Introduction
Metallic materials show, like other crystalline substances, typical macroscopic re
sponses on mechanical loading, which are caused by processes on the microscale. Fig
ure 4.1 shows a typical cyclic stressstrain diagram with constant strain amplitude.
Cyclic hardening can be observed as well as the Bauschinger effect, which can be
recognized by the fact that plastic flow occurs after load reversal at significantly lower
stresses than those, from which the load reversal was done. For the technical use of
metallic materials, the description of this kind of processes in material models is of
high importance.
68
* Technische Universita¨t Braunschweig, Institut fu¨r Allgemeine Mechanik und Festigkeitslehre,
Gaußstraße 14, D38106 Braunschweig, Germany
Plasticity of Metals: Experiments, Models, Computation. Collaborative Research Centres.
Edited by E. Steck, R. Ritter, U. Peil, A. Ziegenbein
Copyright © 2001 WileyVCH Verlag GmbH
ISBNs: 3527277285 (Softcover); 3527600116 (Electronic)
The moving of dislocations is the main microscopic mechanism responsible for
the plastic deformations in metallic materials. In the following, a stochastic model is
presented, which is able to consider hardening and recovery processes by means of
Markov chains.
During the deformation process, the dislocations arrange in a hierarchy of struc
tures such as walls, adders or cells. This forming of structures influences the macro
scopic behaviour of the materials considerably. The principle of cellular automata in
combination with the method of molecular dynamics is used for the numerical simula
tion of these processes.
For the material parameter identification, the minimization of the MaximumLike
lihood costfunction by hybrid optimization methods parallelized with PVM is consid
ered. With a multiple shooting method, additional information about the states can be
taken into account, and thus the influence of bad initial parameters will be reduced. For
the analysis of structures like a notched flat bar, the FiniteElement Program ABAQUS
is used in combination with the user material subroutine UMAT. The results are com
pared with experimental data from grating methods.
4.2 Mechanisms on the Microscale
The movement of dislocations and the connected plastic deformations caused by exter
nal loading is determined by two important activation mechanisms. The stress activa
tion is caused by the external loads. The thermal activation supports at elevated tem
peratures the dislocation movements and therefore the plastic deformations.
4.2 Mechanisms on the Microscale
69
Figure 4.1: Cyclic stressstrain diagram for 304 stainless steel.
Figure 4.2 shows schematically the obstacles, which resist the dislocation move
ments on the microscale in the form of barrier potentials U*, the possible position – de
termined by temperature – of the dislocations relative to these barrier potentials, and
the effect of an external load and a temperature increase on the energetic situation of
the dislocations. It is visible that the potential U
r
of the external forces by superposi
tion changes the potentials of the actual obstacles so that the dislocation movement in
the direction of the applied stress is more probable than in the opposite direction, and
that the thermal activation supports this process [1–4].
The barriers, which oppose the dislocation movements, are on the one side given
by the crystalline structure of the material itself, on the other hand, foreign atoms and
grain boundaries can form obstacles. One of the most important reasons for the hinder
ing of the dislocations, however, are the dislocations themselves. During plastic defor
mation, continuously new dislocations are produced. In the beginning, the ability of the
material for deforming plastically is increased. With increasing dislocation density, a
mutual influence of the lattice disturbances occurs, which results in isotropic hardening.
Due to the lattice distortions connected with the plastic deformation, elastic en
ergy is stored in the material, which also hinders the movements of the dislocations,
which are generating it. This process is called kinematic hardening. The internal stres
ses, however, support the dislocation movements in the opposite direction and result in
e.g. the Bauschinger effect. At elevated temperatures – above half of the melting tem
perature of the material –, thermally activated reorganization processes in the crystals
occur, which reduce the mutual hindering of the dislocations and result macroscopically
in recovery.
Significant magnitudes for these processes are given in Figure 4.3, which shows a
dislocation, which is influenced by other dislocations. The shaded area is a measure for
the activation volume DV = bA, which decreases in size with increasing isotropic hard
ening. The Burgers vector b determines with his orientation relative to the dislocation
line the character of the dislocation. q
w
is the density of the socalled forest disloca
tions, i.e. the dislocations, which hinder the movement of the others [4].
Table 4.1 shows the connection between the activation volume and the most impor
tant dislocation mechanisms for different regions of the homologous temperature T=T
m
.
4 Development and Application of Constitutive Models for the Plasticity of Metals
70
Figure 4.2: Stress and thermal activation of dislocation motion.
4.3 Simulation of the Development of Dislocation Structures
For unidirectional as well as for cyclic plastic deformation, it is observed that disloca
tion structures are developed in the shape of e.g. adders or dislocation cells, which in a
typical manner depend on the loading history and the loading magnitude (Figure 4.4).
Due to the fact that this forming of dislocation patterns influences the macro
scopic behaviour of the materials considerably, the simulation of these selforganization
processes can result in valuable information for the choice of formulations for the mod
elling of processes on the microscale.
The interaction of a large number of identical particles is the basic idea for the
definition of cellular automata. It is an idealization of real physical systems, where
space as well as time are discrete. A cellular automaton is completely characterized by
the following four properties [5]: geometry of the cell arrangement, definition of a
neighbourhood, definition of the possible states of a cell, and evolution rules. Each cell
can during the evolution in time only assume values (states) out of a finite set. For all
4.3 Simulation of the Development of Dislocation Structures
71
Figure 4.3: Activation volume and forest dislocations.
Table 4.1: Activation volume depending on deformation mechanism and temperature.
Mechanism Temperature Activation volume
Climbing >0.5 b
3
remains constant during deformation
Movement of
dislocation jumps
>0.5 10–1000 b
3
, the value of the activation volume decreases
during deformation
Cross slip 0.2–0.4 10–100 b
3
, the value remains approximately constant
during deformation
Cutting of
dislocations
>0.3 1000 b
3
, the activation volume decreases due to increase
of the density of forest dislocations with increasing
deformation
cells, the same evolution rules are valid. The change in state of a cell depends on its
own state and those of the neighbouring cells.
Opposite to the usual assumptions for cellular automata, where the state of a cell
only depends on the states of the next neighbours, for the simulation of dislocation
movements, it has to be taken into account that the dislocations possess longrange act
ing stress fields. With this model, it is possible to compute the dynamics of some thou
sand edge or screwdislocations on parallel slip planes in areas of arbitrary magnitude.
A basic model, for which only one slip system in horizontal direction was cho
sen, assumes a grid of rectangular cells, which can be occupied by edge or screwdis
locations with positive or negative sign [5]. The transition rules are: A positive or nega
tive occupied cell becomes an empty cell if the dislocation in the cell will move due to
the acting forces to a neighbouring cell or if an annihilation with a dislocation in a
neighbouring cell occurs. The step width of a dislocation is always one cell size per
time step. Reachable cells are the cells left, right, up and down from the actual cell.
This characterizes a so called v. Neumann neighbourhood. For the calculation of the
forces acting on a dislocation, a larger neighbourhood is necessary due to the long
range acting stress of the dislocations. The balance of forces decides, if and in which
direction a dislocation will move. It is computed for each time step and each disloca
tion for both degrees of freedom.
A much more realistic simulation for the development of dislocation structures is
obtained from models, which consider several glide planes [6]. Figure 4.5 shows a two
dimensional projection for the glide system for a cubic facecentred lattice, and model
ling of the glide processes on this system with three glide directions under angles of re
spectively 608.
The simulation results in wall and labyrinthstructures of the dislocations (Fig
ure 4.6). An extension of the model with consideration of vacancies and a suitable velo
city law is under progress.
4 Development and Application of Constitutive Models for the Plasticity of Metals
72
Figure 4.4: Characteristic dislocation structures.
4.4 Stochastic Constitutive Model
The description of the processes responsible for plastic deformations shows that they
are strongly stochastic. Figure 4.7 shows for a simplified case for processes at high
temperatures, under consideration of kinematic hardening only, the used stochastic
model [1, 2].
Over the state axis, which represents the value of the kinematic hardening r
kin
,
and therefore the strength of the obstacles resisting the dislocation movements, the dis
tribution of the “flow units” (dislocations, dislocation packages or grain boundaries) is
given. The effect of the external stress is reduced by the hardening stress, therefore
only the effective stress r
eff
= r ÷ r
kin
is responsible for the dislocation movements.
Depending on r
eff
, a hardening probability
4.4 Stochastic Constitutive Model
73
Figure 4.5: Cell arrangement and neighbourhood of simulation model.
Figure 4.6: Simulation of dislocation structures.
V = c
1
exp ÷
dDVr
kin
RT
sign r
eff
_ _
_ e
ie
(1)
is formulated. This transition probability is based on the condition that thermal activa
tion of the dislocations can be taken as an empirical Arrhenius function. R is the gas
constant and c
1
; d; DV are constants, which have to be determined by experiment. It
can be seen that the transition probability from a certain hardening state to the next
higher decreases with increasing hardening.
Hardening is opposed by a recovering process according to:
E = c
2
exp ÷
F
0
RT
_ _
[r
kin
[
r
0
_ _
m
sinh
DVr
kin
RT
_ _
; (2)
which is thermally activated and not dependent on the external stress. The constants c
2
and m have also to be determined by experiment. The strength of the lattice distortions
increases with increasing hardening. It supports the recovery process. Therefore, the
transition probabilities for recovery increase with increasing hardening.
The model simulates hardening and recovery by transitions of dislocations at a
barrier strength r
kin;i
to higher barriers r
kin;i÷1
and lower barriers r
kin;i÷1
: The probabil
ity that a flow unit remains in the actual position is given by:
B = 1 ÷ V ÷ E : (3)
The transition probabilities of the model can be arranged in a stochastic matrix:
4 Development and Application of Constitutive Models for the Plasticity of Metals
74
Figure 4.7: Stochastic model for high temperatures.
S =
1 ÷ V
1
E
2
V
1
B
2
.
.
.
0
V
2
.
.
.
E
i
.
.
.
B
i
.
.
.
V
i
.
.
.
E
k÷1
0
.
.
.
B
k÷1
E
k
V
k÷1
1 ÷ E
k
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
: (4)
The change of the structure, which is described by the state vector z, during one
time step Dt is given by the Markov chain:
z(t ÷Dt) = Sz(t) : (5)
For constant stress and temperature (homogeneous process), the state vector after
n time steps is given by z(t
0
÷ nDt) = S
n
z(t
0
): The stochastic matrix given by Equation
(4) can be transformed to principal axes and yields then:
S
= M
÷1
SM =
1 0 0 0
0 k
2
0 0
0 0
.
.
.
0
0 0 0 k
n
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
; (6)
where M is the modal matrix, i.e. the matrix of the columnwise arranged eigenvectors
of the matrix S. Due to the fact that the maximal principal value of stochastic matrices
is 1 and all other eigenvalues have magnitudes <1, it is visible that their magnitudes
decrease with increasing time, and the eigenvalue connected with the maximal eigenva
lue 1 represents a stationary state. The other principal values are responsible for transi
ent processes [1–3].
An extension of the stochastic model, which allows for the simultaneous consid
eration of the development of activation volume DV and kinematic stress r
kin
is given
in Figure 4.8. Thus, isotropic and kinematic hardening spread a state plane, which al
lows that with the distribution of the flow units, the state determined by both hardening
types can be considered. The transition probabilities for the description of the develop
ment of the isotropic and kinematic hardening consider mutually the influences given
by the other hardening process [3, 4].
By a mean value formulation, the stochastic model is transformed in a macro
socpic continuum mechanical material model, which takes a form similar to other mod
els given in literature. This approach leads to a nonlinear system of ordinary differen
tial equations for the inelastic strain e, the kinematic back stress r
kin
and the activation
volume DV:
4.4 Stochastic Constitutive Model
75
_ e
ie
= Cexp ÷
F
0
RT
_ _
[r
eff
[
r
0
_ _
n
sinh
DVr
eff
RT
_ _
; (7)
_ r
kin
= H d exp ÷
dDVr
kin
RT
signr
eff
_ _
_ e
ie
÷R
+
exp ÷
F
0
RT
_ _
[r
kin
[
r
0
_ _
m
sinh
DVr
kin
RT
_ _
;
(8)
D
_
V = ÷K
1
DV
2
[_ e
ie
[ ÷ K
2
DV[_ e
ie
[ : (9)
The material behaviour is described by a relation for the inelastic strain rate, where the
actual values for isotropic and kinematic hardening occur as internal variables. This
general form of the constitutive equations is also the basis for the development of a
hierarchical model classification [7]. A concrete model must be chosen with respect to
the intended application purpose. The values C; n; H; d; R
+
; m; K
1
; K
2
and DV
0
are
material parameters, which have to be determined by comparison with experimental re
sults. The parameter identification, which consists in integrating the nonlinear, ordi
nary differential equations for varying parameter sets and by appropriate optimization
methods to search for the optimal parameter sets, deserves special recognition in aspect
of the used mathematical methods [7, 8]. An additional scaling of the functions like
exp ÷
F
0
R
1
T
÷
1
T
0
_ _ _ _
is necessary to improve the parameter identifiability and the
macroscopical interpretations.
4 Development and Application of Constitutive Models for the Plasticity of Metals
76
Figure 4.8: Distribution function for r
kin
and DV=bA.
4.5 MaterialParameter Identification
4.5.1 Characteristics of the inverse problem
Under the assumption of normal distributed measurement errors with zero mean and
known measurementcovariance matrix C(t
i
); the costfunction is:
L
2
(x; p) =
1
2
[[r[[
2
=
1
2
n
i=1
[z(t
i
) ÷ x(t
i
)[
T
C
÷1
[z(t
i
) ÷ x(t
i
)[?min : (10)
The minimization of this weighted least squares function yields a MaximumLikelihood
estimate of the parameters, which reproduces the observed behaviour z of the real pro
cess with maximum probability [9].
Typical features of the identification are that the constitutive model is not only
highly nonlinear in states x, but also in parameters p. Due to incomplete measurement
information, the problem is illconditioned, parameters are highly correlated. Because
of unbalanced parameters, the model may change its characteristics and becomes stiff
or even pathological. Since replicated tests for the same laboratory conditions show a sig
nificant scattering and thus incompatibility of the data, this uncertainty must be taken into
account for the development and identification of the constitutive models [7, 10].
4.5.2 Multipleshooting methods
The measurements of the kinematic back stress, e.g. by relaxation test, yield very im
portant informations about the deformation process and thus can be used to get more
reliable parameters. In general, there are no (complete) measurements for the internal
states. However, engineers have a lot of additional aprioriinformation, which should be
used to improve the model prediction capacity. Although it is possible to formulate ad
ditional weighted leastsquares terms for the MaximumLikelihood function, a much
more efficient method is to use multiple shooting (Figure 4.9) [11, 12].
The basic idea is to subdivide the integration interval by a suitable chosen grid
and to treat the discretized model equations as nonlinear constraints of the optimiza
tion problem. The initial state estimates at the nodes of the grid allow to make efficient
use of measurement and aprioriinformation about the solution [13, 14].
4.5.3 Hybrid optimization of costfunction
For the identification of the material parameters, a hybrid optimization concept is used.
Starting with evolution strategies as a preoptimization to get reliable initial parameters,
the mainoptimization is done with a damped GaußNewton method [15].
4.5 MaterialParameter Identification
77
Adaptive Evolution Strategies attempt to imitate the organic evolution process,
e.g. a collective learning of a population with the principles mutation, recombination
and selection [16]. The selflearning process of strategy parameters adapts this optimi
zation procedure to the local topological requirements. Since it is possible to overcome
local minima with a special destabilization method, evolution strategies even work with
bad initial model parameters [8].
Damped GaußNewton methods are most widely used for the minimization of
nonlinear leastsquares functions [7, 11]. Starting from initial parameters p
0
, improved
parameters are iteratively obtained by the solution of a linear leastsquares problem lin
earized about p
k
. The steplength parameter k
k
is chosen to enforce the convergence
properties:
1
2
[[ r(p
k
) ÷ J
k
Dp
k
[[
2
÷ min with p
k÷1
= p
k
÷ k
k
Dp
k
; (11)
solution with pseudo inverse: Dp
k
= ÷J
÷
(p
k
)r(p
k
) :
A study of different search and gradientbased methods like the algorithms of Powell,
special subspace simplex methods or sequential quadratic programming are given in [7].
The numerical sensitivity analysis is a very important and most time consuming
part of the identification. Since the calculation is very closely related to the numerical
integration of the differential equations and the available accuracy, the sensitivity analy
sis may be a critical point. Three different concepts are used to generate the sensitivity
matrix. The commonly used finite difference approximation:
qx
i
qp
j
~
x
i
(p
j
÷ dp
j
) ÷ x
i
(p
j
)
dp
j
(12)
is easy to implement, but the efficiency and reliability are low. Better concepts are
based on the integration of the sensitivity equations:
qx
qp
_ _
v
=
qf
qx
_ _
qx
qp
_ _
÷
qf
qp
_ _
: (13)
It is obvious that the solution of the model and the sensitivity equations should be
coupled. A very powerful coupling is available by Internal Numerical Differentiation
4 Development and Application of Constitutive Models for the Plasticity of Metals
78
Figure 4.9: Principle of multiple shooting.
(IND) [11]. This means that the internally generated discretization scheme of the inte
grator is differentiated with respect to the parameters.
4.5.4 Statistical analysis of estimates and experimental design
The parameter estimates are only useful if also a statistical analysis of their reliability
is computed. Using the pseudo inverse J
+
at the solution of the GaußNewton method,
the calculation of standard deviations and correlations for the parameters is quite easy.
Very important for further work is to improve the calculation by better experimen
tal designs. Based on design criteria like the minimization of det (J
T
J)
÷1
; different
methods have been considered and tested for typical growth function and a fundamen
tal constitutive model. These studies also show that the bad identifiability of the in
verse problems can be overcome with a special scaling of the states [7].
4.5.5 Parallelization and coupling with FiniteElement analysis
The separable multiexperiment structure leads to a coarsegrained parallelism of the pa
rameter identification problem. In addition, evolution strategies and multiple shooting
provide inherent parallelism on a high level. Thus, efficient parallel computation of
model functions and derivatives can be easily performed on a workstationcluster with
PVM (Figure 4.10).
4.5 MaterialParameter Identification
79
Figure 4.10: Parallel simulation concept.
Since the development and identification of anisotropic damage models became
more and more important, a threedimensional FiniteElement program was coupled
with the estimation software by a special interface. The flexibility and modular struc
ture of this approach may be very useful for a lot of other applications, e.g. structure
optimization.
For the application of the damped GaußNewton method, the Internal Numerical
Differentiation was adapted to the FiniteElement analysis. Thus, not only the simula
tion results but also the sensitivities have to be transferred. The results of the simula
tions are compared with experimental strain fields obtained by grating methods [17].
4 Development and Application of Constitutive Models for the Plasticity of Metals
80
Figure 4.11: Creep tests for aluminium.
4.5.6 Comparison of experiments and simulations
A lot of different materials like pure aluminium, pure copper or the austenitic steels
AISI 304 and AISI 316 have been extensively studied.
Figure 4.11 shows some results of parameter identifications for aluminium
Al 99.999. The temperature regime was between 5008C and 7008C. Since only mono
tonic tests were evaluated, a constitutive model with only one structure variable for the
internal stress is used. The parameters were identified for the given stresses simulta
neously so that the calculated curves were obtained by a single parameter set [7, 8, 15].
Figure 4.12 gives two examples on copper. The experimental database consists of
seven straincontrolled cyclic tests at room temperature [18]. Two strain rates _ e =10
–4
,
10
–3
, and a multitude of strain amplitudes De=2=0.2–0.7% are examined.
For this application of the stochastic constitutive model, the special characteristics
of the material and the measurements have to be considered. In the lowtemperature re
gime, hardening is the most important phenomenon, while the recovery influence is
negligible. In contrast to high temperatures, metal physical results also indicate that the
4.5 MaterialParameter Identification
81
Figure 4.12: Cyclic tests for copper.
influence of the effective stress can be modelled only by a sinushyperbolicus function.
Thus, the lowtemperature model has only five parameters.
4.5.7 Consideration of experimental scattering
The experimental data to determine the parameters of constitutive equations usually
consist of only one observed trajectory for each temperature and loading condition.
Nevertheless, replicated tests for the same laboratory conditions show a significant scat
tering and thus incompatibility of the measurements (Figure 4.13). Based on a statisti
cal analysis, this uncertainty can be taken into account for more reliable modelling and
parameter identification.
The modelling of the experimental uncertainties is based on the scattering of the
parameters or the initial values (Figure 4.14) [10].
Based on these concepts, realistic simulations of the uncertainties in experimental
data due to measurement errors and scattering are possible [7].
4 Development and Application of Constitutive Models for the Plasticity of Metals
82
Figure 4.13: Scattering of creep and tensionrelaxation tests for AISI 316.
4.6 FiniteElement Simulation
The aim of using constitutive models is to predict the behaviour of metallic structures
under mechanical and thermal loading. This requires the solution of a coupled initial
boundary value problem, given by the momentum equilibrium and the constitutive
equations. Since the boundary value problem is usually solved by the FiniteElement
Method (FEM), the constitutive model has to be implemented in an appropriate way.
Since the code ABAQUS/STANDARD is used, the theoretical aspects of the model im
plementation are discussed for application of the user subroutine UMAT.
The developed method of implementation is described in Section 4.6.1. The main
characteristics of this method are its applicability to any unified constitutive model of
the class described above and to small as well as to large deformations theory. In Sec
tion 4.6.2, some numerical and experimental results are given, which show that the
model presented here works well.
4.6.1 Implementation and numerical treatment of the model equations
The considered constitutive model can be mathematically classified as a coupled sys
tem of nonlinear ordinary differential equations (CSNODE), which builds an initial
value problem. Its solution to a time increment can be embedded in an incremental Fi
niteElement formulation with displacement approach, leading to the well known impli
4.6 FiniteElement Simulation
83
Figure 4.14: Probability density function and correlation of scattered parameters.
cit FEMproblem for nonlinear material equations, which has to be solved iteratively
(see e.g. [19]).
Since this iteration requires a repeated solution of the initial value problem, the
computational cost of the FEMsimulation can be minimized by optimizing the numeri
cal solution of the CSNODE. This can be reached by:
• simplifying the model equations with some appropriate transformation,
• the use of an efficient numerical integration scheme, and
• an efficient algorithm to approximate the socalled tangent modulus.
The proposals worked out to this, three aspects are summarized in the following sub
sections (for further details see [7, 20]).
4.6.1.1 Transformation of the tensorvalued equations
Using the v. Mises hypothesis, the multiaxial formulation of the model equations takes
the form:
_ r
ij
= f
ij
(_ e
kl
; r
kl
; r
kin
kl
; DV) ; (14)
_ r
kin
ij
= f
ij
(r
kl
; r
kin
kl
; DV) ; (15)
_
DV = f (r
kl
; r
kin
kl
; DV) ; (16)
where r
ij
is the Cauchy stress tensor, r
kin
ij
is the back stress tensor and _ e
ij
is the defor
mation rate tensor. Each of these symmetric tensors is defined by six independent com
ponents, so that the whole CSNODE contains thirteen scalar equations.
Since the v. Mises equivalent stress
r
v
=
3
2
r
/
ij
r
/
ij
_
(17)
just depends on the deviatoric stresses, the inelastic part of the tensor equations are
also purely deviatoric. Therefore, the deviatoric rates _ r
ij
and _ r
kin
ij
can be described in
some interval [t
0
; t
0
÷Dt[ as a linear combination of the three deviatoric tensors
r
ij
(t
0
); r
kin
ij
(t
0
) and _ e
ij
(t
0
), as long as _ e
ij
is constant in Dt. Using a suitable transforma
tion, the deviatoric rates can be expressed in a subspace by only three independent
components. After this transformation, the initial value problem (Equations (14) to
(16)) can be written as:
_ y
i
= f
i
(y
j
) ; y
i
(t
0
) = y
i;0
; i; j = 1 . . . n ; (18)
4 Development and Application of Constitutive Models for the Plasticity of Metals
84
and contains only seven scalar equations. Hornberger [21] shows that the subspace di
mension can be reduced to two if a special integration scheme is used. Nevertheless,
this idea is neglected here in order to obtain a free integrator choice.
This transformation concept can be applied to plane strain, plane stress and uniax
ial states as well. Although the number of scalar equations cannot be reduced in these
cases, the main advantage is that the transformed model equations in the subspace are
of identical form for each of these cases. Based on this fact, the model implementation
for one, two and threedimensional states can be performed very easily.
Using special large deformation formulations (see e.g. ABAQUS Theory Manual
[22]), this form of implementation can be used with small or large deformation theory
as well.
4.6.1.2 Numerical integration of the differential equations
Due to its complexity and nonlinearities, the CSNODE (see Section 4.6.2) has to be
integrated numerically. In oder to choose an appropriate integration algorithm, the inte
gration task is classified as follows:
• medium required integration tolerances (corresponding to usual FEMtolerances),
• a small integration interval (given by the incremental FEMsolution),
• an associated efficient method for error estimation, and
• a stable solution (to guarantee a stable FEMsolution).
Numerical integration methods on the other hand can be classified by their integration
order p, which describes the discretization error R in dependency of the step size h by
R ~ h
p
(for an overview see [23, 24]). There are:
• methods with fixed integration order like multistep methods, RungeKutta meth
ods, and Taylor series methods, and
• methods with variable integration order like extrapolation methods.
Extrapolation methods are efficient only for high integration tolerances, while multistep
methods loose efficiency for small integration intervals. The use of Taylor series methods
is not practicable since it requires higher derivatives of the CSNODE, which are usually
not given directly. So, explicit and implicit, RungeKutta methods are widely used for the
integration of constitutive equations in FEManalysis (see e.g. [19, 21, 25]).
Butcher [26] pointed out that the mentioned methods with fixed integration order
can be combined to get new classes of integration methods. For example, socalled Ro
senbrock methods result from the combination of RungeKutta methods and Taylor se
ries methods based on the first derivative of the CSNODE (also called the Jacobean of
the system). The main advantage of these methods is their unconditional stability – as
in implicit RungeKutta methods – that is reached with an explicit algorithm without
any iteration process. Rosenbrock methods as well as RungeKutta methods can be de
signed as embedded integration formulae, which lead directly to a method of internal
error estimation without additional numerical cost.
4.6 FiniteElement Simulation
85
Verner [27] proposed families of embedded explicit RungeKutta processes, which
allow to rise integration order p without dismissing the results of an integration with a
lower starting order p
0
. If this concept is used with Rosenbrock methods, the resulting
integration process is kind of an optimal numerical integration method for constitutive
rate equations in FEManalysis because
• it is an efficient algorithm especially for medium error tolerances,
• it is unconditionally stable,
• it is designed for computing the solution for the whole (but small) integration inter
val in one step, and
• an internal error estimation nearly without additional cost is possible.
For details and comparison to classical methods see [7, 20].
4.6.1.3 Approximation of the tangent modulus
In nonlinear implicit FEManalysis, the tangent modulus
qDr
ij
qDe
kl
is used to compute the
element stiffness matrix, which is the tangent operator for the applied Newton iteration
method. Due to the necessity of numerical integration, the stress increment Dr
ij
is a
discrete value and so, the partial derivative cannot be built analytically. Therefore, it
has to be approximated numerically too. This can be done by an Internal Numerical
Differentiation (IND), which was proposed by Bock [11]. Illustratively, IND means to
compute the derivative of the numerical integration algorithm, which leads to the dis
crete stress increment. The IND computes an approximation of the partial derivative
that is of similar relative exactness as the solution of the integration itself.
4.6.2 Deformation behaviour of a notched specimen
Some results of the simulated relaxation behaviour of a notched flat bar are shown in
Figure 4.15. Since the main advantage of the proposed method of model implementa
tion is its easy applicability to threedimensional as well as to plane state or even one
dimensional (uniaxial) FEMproblems, the numerical results of two simulations using
threedimensional and plane stress theory are compared. Additionally, experimental re
sults of Ritter and Friebe [17] show that the model is able to predict the material re
sponse correctly.
4 Development and Application of Constitutive Models for the Plasticity of Metals
86
4.6 FiniteElement Simulation
87
Figure 4.15: Normal strain in load direction after two hours relaxation time. Comparison between
experimental and numerical results. Material: SS 304 L, temperature: 923 K. ESZ means plane stress.
4.7 Conclusions
The mechanisms on the microscale of crystalline materials can be examined on differ
ent scales of magnitude. Starting from a scale, where the processes are described by
help of activation energies and activation volumes as mechanically and thermally acti
vated, it is possible to consider their stochastical nature by stochastic processes, from
which by mean value considerations, a transition to macroscopic material equations is
possible.
To support the formulation of these models, simulations can be useful, which con
sider the multiparticle properties of the processes, and use the methods of cellular
automata or molecular dynamics.
For the numerical simulation and the parameter identification, a variety of sophis
ticated methods have been considered. The results show that it is possible to use the
material models for the analysis of structures even under complex loading situations.
References
[1] E. Steck: A Stochastic Model for the HighTemperature Plasticity of Metals. Int. J. Plast.
(1985) 243–258.
[2] E. Steck: The Description of the HighTemperature Plasticity of Metals by Stochastic Pro
cesses. Res. Mechanica 25 (1990) 1–19.
[3] H. Schlums: Ein stochastisches Werkstoffmodell zur Beschreibung von Kriechen und zyk
lischem Verhalten metallischer Werkstoffe. Dissertation TU Braunschweig, Braunschweiger
Schriften zur Mechanik 5 (1992).
[4] R. Gerdes: Ein stochastisches Werkstoffmodell fu¨r das inelastische Materialverhalten metal
lischer Werkstoffe im Hoch und Tieftemperaturbereich. Dissertation TU Braunschweig,
Braunschweiger Schriften zur Mechanik 20 (1995).
[5] H. Hesselbarth: Simulation von Versetzungsstrukturbildung, Rekristallisation und Kriechscha¨
digung mit dem Prinzip der zellula¨ren Automaten. Dissertation TU Braunschweig, Braun
schweiger Schriften zur Mechanik 4 (1992).
[6] D. Sangi: Versetzungssimulation in Metallen. Dissertation TU Braunschweig, 1996.
[7] F. Thielecke: Parameteridentifizierung von Simulationsmodellen fu¨r das viskoplastische Ver
halten von Metallen – Theorie, Numerik, Anwendung. Dissertation TU Braunschweig, 1997.
[8] F. Thielecke: Gradientenverfahren contra stochastische Suchstrategien bei der Identifizierung
von Werkstoffparametern. ZAMM Z. angew. Math. Mech. 75 (1995).
[9] E. Steck, M. Lewerenz, M. Erbe, F. Thielecke: Berechnungsverfahren fu¨r metallische Bau
teile bei Beanspruchungen im Hochtemperaturbereich, Arbeits und Ergebnisbericht 1991–
1993. Subproject B1, Collaborative Research Centre (SFB 319), 1993.
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[11] H. G. Bock: Randwertproblemmethoden zur Parameteridentifizierung in Systemen nichtli
nearer Differentialgleichungen. Bonner Mathematische Schriften, Bonn, Vol. 183 (1985).
[12] J. Schlo¨der: Numerische Methoden zur Behandlung hochdimensionaler Aufgaben der Para
meteridentifizierung. Dissertation Universita¨t Bonn, 1987.
4 Development and Application of Constitutive Models for the Plasticity of Metals
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[19] E. Hinton, D. R. J. Owen: Finite Elements in Plasticity: Theory and Practice. Pineridge
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[21] K. Hornberger: Anwendung viskoplastischer Stoffgesetze in FiniteElementProgrammen.
Dissertation Universita¨t Karlsruhe, 1988.
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857–875.
References
89
5 On the Physical Parameters Governing
the Flow Stress of Solid Solutions
in a Wide Range of Temperatures
Christoph Schwink and Ansgar Nortmann*
Abstract
At sufficiently low temperatures, host and solute atoms remain on their lattice sites. The
critical flow stress r
0
is governed by a thermally activated dislocation glide (Arrhenius
equation), which depends on an average activation enthalpy, DG
0
, and an effective obsta
cle concentration, c
b
. The total flow stress r is composed of r
0
and a hardening stress r
d
,
which increases with the dislocation density q
w
in the cell walls according to r
d
· (q
w
)
1=2
.
At higher temperatures, the solutes become mobile in the lattice and cause an additional
anchoring of the glide dislocations. This is described by an additional enthalpy Dg in the
Arrhenius equation. In the main, Dg depends on the activation energy E
a
of the diffusing
solutes and the waiting time t
w
of the glide dislocations arrested at obstacles. Three dif
ferent diffusion processes were found for the two f.c.c.model systems investigated,
CuMn and CuAl, respectively. Under certain conditions, the solute diffusion causes in
stabilities in the flow stress, the wellknown jerky flow phenomena (PortevinLe Chaˆtelier
effect). Finally, above around 800 K in copper based alloys, the solutes become freely
mobile and r
0
as well as Dg vanish. In any temperature region, only a small total number
of physical parameters is sufficient for modelling plastic deformation processes.
5.1 Introduction
The intention of the present project was to find out the physically relevant parameters,
which determine the stable flow stress r in metallic systems of model character over a
given wide range of temperatures and strain rates.
90
* Technische Universita¨t Braunschweig, Institut fu¨r Metallphysik und Nukleare Festko¨rperphysik,
Mendelssohnstraße 3, D38106 Braunschweig, Germany
Plasticity of Metals: Experiments, Models, Computation. Collaborative Research Centres.
Edited by E. Steck, R. Ritter, U. Peil, A. Ziegenbein
Copyright © 2001 WileyVCH Verlag GmbH
ISBNs: 3527277285 (Softcover); 3527600116 (Electronic)
Any theory describing plastic deformation modes of such systems will have to
make use of these – and only these – parameters. As model systems we choose single
phase binary f.c.c. solid solutions. They are on the one hand simple, macroscopically
homogeneous materials, on the other hand exhibit all basic processes, which occur also
in more complex alloys of technical interest. To cover a wide range of different charac
teristics existing in various binary alloys, we studied the two systems CuMn and CuAl,
which differ appreciably in some salient properties (Table 5.1).
We point to the misfit parameter, the variation of the stacking fault energy with
solute concentration and the tendency for short range ordering. The systems have in
common a metallurgical simplicity and a large range of solubility. The samples used
were rods of polycrystals, for CuMn also of single crystals oriented either for single or
for multiple ([100], [111]) glide.
For low enough temperatures, i.e. roughly below room temperature, host and solute
atoms remain on their lattice sites in our systems. Then, the flow stress is recognized to
consist of two additive parts, which are in single crystals the critical resolved shear stress
s
0
, and the shear stress s
d
produced by strain hardening. s
0
is best examined on crystals
oriented for single glide, while results on s
d
originated from studies on [100] and [111]
crystals. The parameters governing s
0
and s
d
are discussed in Section 5.2.
At higher temperatures, the solute atoms become increasingly mobile and start to
diffuse to sinks, e.g. dislocations. As a consequence, an additional anchoring of glide
dislocations occurs, known as dynamic strain ageing (DSA), which results in an addi
tional contribution to flow stress, Dr
DSA
, and in a decrease of the strain rate sensitivity
(SRS) with increasing deformation. If the SRS reaches a critical negative value, jerky
flow sets in, the socalled PortevinLe Chaˆtelier (PLC) effect. The mechanisms induc
ing DSA and the relevant parameters represent the main part of project A8 and are re
ported in Section 5.3.
We restrict the report on the own main results. For details and further literature,
the reader is referred to the publications cited.
5.1 Introduction
91
Table 5.1: Metallurgical and physical properties of CuAl and CuMn.
CuAl CuMn
Misfit d
d = (Da)=(aDc)
d =0.067
(weak hardening)
d =0.11
(strong hardening)
Bulk diffusion Q
D
= 1:86 . . . 2:01 eV
D
0
= (0:8 . . . 5:6) 10
÷5
m
2
s
÷1
Q
D
= 2:03 . . . 2:12 eV
D
0
= (7:4 . . . 14:2) 10
÷5
m
2
s
÷1
Stacking fault energy strongly decreasing with
increasing c
Al
independent of c
Mn
Slip character 5 . . . 10 at% Al planar 0.5 . . . 5:5 at% Mn homogeneous
Short range order marked and increasing with c
Al
negligible up to ~ 5 at%
5.2 Solid Solution Strengthening
In the frame of the project, invited overviews on “Hardening mechanisms in metals with
foreign atoms” [1], “Solid solution strengthening” [2] (in collaboration with project A9),
and “Flow stress dependence on cell geometry in single crystals” [3] have been published.
5.2.1 The critical resolved shear stress, s
0
A detailed investigation on CuMn [4] showed that the thermally activated process gov
erning s
0
is phenomenologically completely characterized by two parameters, the aver
age activation enthalpy, DG
0
, of the effective glide barriers, and the concentration of
the latter, c
b
. This concentration resulted about 20 times smaller than the solute concen
tration, c
Mn
. For DG
0
, values around 1.3 eV were found.
The magnitude of c
b
and DG
0
suggest the effective glide barriers to consist of
complexes of at least two solute atoms. A dislocation segment after having surpassed
an effective barrier sweeps in the subsequent elementary glide step an area containing
c
Mn
=c
b
solute atoms on the average.
Altogether, we arrive at s
0
= s
0
(DG
0
; c
b
; T; _ e).
5.2.2 The hardening shear stress, s
d
Detailed mechanical and TEMstudies have been performed on CuMncrystals oriented
along [100] and [111] [5]. The hardening shear stress resulted as equal to the reduced
stress, s
d
= (s ÷s
0
), and obeying the known relation [6]:
s
d
=
t
Gb q
1=2
t
: (1)
Here, q
t
is the average total dislocation density, G the shear modulus. A surprising re
sult was that
t
depends on the solute concentration, it decreases with increasing c
Mn
.
This means that for a given value of the reduced stress, the dislocation density q
t
is
higher in an alloy than in the pure host. A further analysis showed that q
t
is stored
nearly completely in the cell walls, which are fully developed already at small stresses
and strains. The next result of relevance was the increase of the wall area fraction f
w
with solute concentration. Defining a mean dislocation density inside the cell walls, q
w
,
by q
w
= q
t
=f
w
, we can rewrite Equation (1) as:
s
d
=
t
f
1=2
w
Gb q
1=2
w
=
w
Gb q
1=2
w
: (2)
The prefactor
w
now turns out as independent of c
Mn
and practically constant for a
fully developed cell structure.
w
= 0:25 ±0:03 from the experiments favourably com
5 On the Physical Parameters Governing the Flow Stress of Solid Solutions
92
pares with the lowest values for calculated by theory [7] (cf. also [8]). This suggests
the view that the most favourably oriented dislocation segments will cross the obstacle
field and will be followed via the unzipping effect by all others at nearly the same
stress, which is the lowest possible one.
A TEMinvestigation on Cu1.3 at% Mn crystals oriented for single glide [9], the
first systematic TEMstudy on a solid solution, yielded for the extended stage I a pre
vailing primary dislocation density, q
prim
, and a continuous decrease of the strain hard
ening rate with increasing strain. In stage II and above, the reduced flow stress was
found as completely governed by the density of all secondary dislocations taken to
gether, q
sec
. It is:
(s ÷s
0
) = Gb q
1=2
sec
; with = 0:32 ±0:04 : (3)
The total shear stress, s, results as a linear superposition of a “solid solution stress”, s
0
,
and a strain hardening stress, s
d
, as found also for the multiple glide crystals. It is com
pletely described by four parameters, apart from the obvious ones, T and _ e:
s = s
0
(DG
0
; c
b
; T; _ e) ÷s
d
(q
t
; f
w
; T; _ e) : (4)
The generalization for polycrystals adds the problem of compatibility of neighbouring
grains. It is of importance mainly for small stresses and strains and introduces essentially
the average grain diameter as an additional parameter in the case of a random assembly of
grains (cf. [3]). At higher stresses, the relevant parameters are the same as in Equation (4).
5.3 Dynamic Strain Ageing (DSA)
5.3.1 Basic concepts
In the commonly applied models [10–12], the contribution of DSA to flow stress, Dr
DSA
,
increases proportional to the increase in the line concentration C of glide obstacles on
arrested, “waiting” dislocations by DC during the waiting times, t
w
[11–13]. It is gener
ally assumed that DC is a function of (D(T)t
w
), where D(T) is the diffusion coefficient
of the underlying process with the activation energy E
a
. The waiting time t
w
is connected
with the strain rate _ e via t
w
= X=_ e, where X represents the “elementary strain” [14].
Phenomenologically, DSA can be described by an additional free activation en
thalpy Dg = Dg(E
a
; t
w
) entering besides DG
0
the wellknown Arrhenius equation [15].
Ample DSA leads to flow stress instabilities (PLCeffect). Details of the processes
inducing jerky flow can be studied in the region of stable flow preceding a PLCregion
by measuring with high accuracy i) stressstrain curves, r(e) (Figure 5.1), ii) strain rate
sensitivities (SRS) of flow stress, (Dr=Dln _ e), along whole stressstrain curves and over
a wide range of temperature. The results are presented in the following.
5.3 Dynamic Strain Ageing (DSA)
93
5.3.2 Complete maps of stability boundaries
We succeeded in establishing the first complete maps of boundaries of stable flow.
From copperbased solid solutions, polycrystalline samples of six different Mn and
three Alconcentrations have been studied, furthermore CuMncrystals oriented for sin
gle and multiple ([100]) glide [15–20].
Figure 5.2 shows a survey of occurrence and types of instabilities in
Cu 2.1 at% Mn. The critical reduced stresses (r
i
÷r
0
) (gained from about 40 r(e)
curves (see Figure 5.1) running parallel to the (r
i
÷r
0
) axis) are plotted as function of
temperature T. There are three transitional temperature intervals, labelled a, b and c,
where several regions of stable and unstable deformation alternate along r(e)curves.
Outside these intervals, the stressstrain curves are either stable or jerky throughout. In
the small interval c, 2908C9T93058C, an irregular sequence of bursts of type C
5 On the Physical Parameters Governing the Flow Stress of Solid Solutions
94
Figure 5.1: Schematic stressstrain curve showing the definition of the critical stresses (r
i
) and
strains (e
i
). r
0
is the critical flow stress (see [16]).
Figure 5.2: Mode of deformation map: dependence of reduced critical stresses (r
i
÷r
0
) on tem
perature T for Cu 2.1 at% Mn. Basic strain rate _ e
1
= 2:45 10
÷6
s
÷1
. The hatched areas represent
domains of unstable deformation with the predominant types of instabilities indicated (see [18]).
prevents the existence of a unique dependence of r
i
on T (or _ e) as could be established
for intervals a and b. For further details see [16, 18].
The strain hardening coefficient, which roughly remains constant for temperatures
up to about 300 K, decreases strongly with further increasing temperature owing to re
covery processes. At about T = 6008C, it becomes nearly zero [18], the critical flow
stress simultaneously vanishes as well as the additional enthalpy Dg and a steady state
of deformation exists across the whole deformation curve. The solutes are now moving
freely through the lattice [21].
Figure 5.3a gives stability maps for several Mnconcentrations over the intervals
a and b for polycrystals, Figure 5.3b the same for [100]crystals of 2 at% Mn [19].
The similarity of both is closest if the boundaries for the [100]crystal are compared
with those for a polycrystal of about 1.2 at% Mn. Contrarily, the boundary map for a
single glide ([sg]) crystal of 2 at% Mn (Figure 5.4) looks quite different [19]. Only a
single boundary occurs over the whole range of temperatures. However, the curve can
be divided into two parts, which for good reasons are noted as intervals a and b, too
(see Section 5.3.3).
Finally, boundary maps for CuMnpolycrystals have been compared with those
measured for CuAl [20]. Figure 5.5 presents characteristic examples. The complete cor
respondence of Cu 0.63 at% Mn with Cu 5 at% Al is obvious and indicates the exis
tence of two different PLCdomains. They are labelled as domains I and III. With in
5.3 Dynamic Strain Ageing (DSA)
95
Figure 5.3: Reduced critical flow stresses for the beginning and end of jerky flow as functions of
T. (a) polycrystals; (b) [100]crystals, Cu 2 at% Mn (see [19]).
5 On the Physical Parameters Governing the Flow Stress of Solid Solutions
96
Figure 5.4: Reduced critical flow stresses s
a;b
x
for Cu 2 at% Mn single glide crystals as functions
of T. In contrast with multiple glide crystals (poly, [100], see Figure 5.3) at any temperature,
only one boundary of stability occurs (see [19]).
Figure 5.5: Deformationmechanism maps of CuAl (a–c) (see [20]) and CuMn (d–f) as obtained
at different temperatures but constant basic strain rate _ e
1
= 2:5 10
÷6
s
÷1
. The reduced critical
stresses (r
i
÷r
0
) indicate the transition between stable and unstable deformation (stressstrain
curves running parallel to the ordinate). The hatched areas indicate the PLCregions. a)
Cu 5 at% Al, b) Cu 7.5 at% Al, c) Cu 10 at% Al (values for CuAl from [20]), d) Cu 0.63 at% Mn
(*) and Cu 0.95 at% Mn (n), e) Cu 1.1 at% Mn, f) Cu 2.1 at% Mn (values for CuMn from [18]).
creasing concentration, a “bulge” develops on the boundary r
2
(T; _ e). It is clearly visi
ble already for 0.95 at% Mn (Figure 5.5d), and is extended to a peak for 1.1 at% Mn
(Figure 5.5e) [18]. As a consequence, an additional PLCdomain II develops bounded
by the anomalous boundary r
2
+
at the lower temperature side (Figure 5.5b and e). The
island of stability, which appears in Cu 1.1 at% Mn and Cu 2.1 at% Mn above about
400 K is covered in CuAl by the domain II (Figure 5.5b, c, e and f) [20].
5.3.3 Analysis of the processes inducing DSA
Precise measurements of the critical stresses r
i
for the onset of jerky flow [16] on the
one hand, and of changes in the flow stress, Dr, after variations in strain rate [17, 18]
on the other, are the basis of an analysis of DSA. Figure 5.6 shows as an example vari
ations in shear stress measured in stages I and II of a crystal oriented for single glide
[22]. Generally, one has to distinguish between the instantaneous variations, Ds
i
, occur
ring immediately after a change in _ e, and the stationary ones, Ds
s
. (Remark: For single
crystals, the flow stress r is always replaced by the resolved shear stress, s.)
It is the difference, (Ds
s
÷Ds
i
) = D(Ds
DSA
); which reflects the effect of DSA
and causes a decrease of the SRS= (Ds=Dln _ e)
T
[19]. Analogously, for polycrystals is
SRS= (Dr=Dln _ e)
T
[18].
The boundaries r
2
, r
3
of the “island of stability” in temperature interval b (see
Figure 5.3) are governed by a thermally activated process as demonstrated in Figure
5.7: A decrease in T is qualitatively equivalent to an increase in _ e. We can take r
i
as
indicating the onset of the thermally activated process and derive from
(r
i
÷r
0
) = A ÷
B
T
÷Cln _ e ÷ ln _ e = A
0
÷
B=C
T
(5)
values for the activation energies Q
m
= B=C(m = 2; 3) [18].
5.3 Dynamic Strain Ageing (DSA)
97
Figure 5.6: Change in resolved shear stress, Ds, after a change in external strain rate of
_ e
2
=_ e
1
= 2 : 1, against incremental true strain, Dc, taken in stage II at s = 32:4 MPa and
c = 52:6%. The plot is corrected for the average strain hardening rate (see [22]).
Another way of determining these energies starts from a consideration of the nor
malized instantaneous and stationary SRS, denoted by S
i
and S
s
, respectively [18, 19].
Figure 5.8 gives their course with increasing stress along the stressstrain curve of a
[sg]crystal [22], Figure 5.9 shows S
s
(r) alone for a polycrystal at various tempera
tures.
Following the above mentioned models [11, 12], the marked dependence of
S
DSA
= (S
s
÷S
i
) on T (and also _ e) is for short enough t
w
described by the relation [18]:
÷S
DSA
· c
D(T)
_ e
n
· c_ e
÷n
exp
÷nE
a
kT
: (6)
Here, E
a
is the activation energy of pipe diffusion entering D(T) = D
0
exp(÷E
a
=kT).
Strain rate exponent n and E
a
are best obtained from Equation (6) in regions, where
S
DSA
varies linearly with stress yielding constant slopes M = ÷(qS
DSA
=qr)
T; _ e
. One eas
ily finds [18]:
n = ÷
q ln M
q ln _ e
T
; and nE
a
= ÷
q ln M
q(1=kT)
_ e
: (7)
The activation energies Q
m
and E
a;m
found for the diffusion processes generating the
PLCdomains I, II and III are compiled in Table 5.2 [20]. Where Q
m
and E
a;m
can both
5 On the Physical Parameters Governing the Flow Stress of Solid Solutions
98
Figure 5.7: Dependence of the reduced critical stresses on (a) 1=T at _ e
1
= 2:45 10
÷6
s
÷1
, and on
(b) ln _ e
1
at T = 460 K; both plots for Cu 2.1 at% Mn in interval b (see [18]).
be measured for the same process, they are found equal, Q
m
= E
a;m
, within scatter.
Average values for the three DSAprocesses are denoted by E
I
, E
II
, E
III
.
An important further quantitative result is that the strain rate exponent resulted as
n = 1=3 (within scatter) in all cases.
5.3.4 Discussion
The strain rate exponent n has for a long time been commonly assumed to equal 2/3
according to Cottrell and Bilby’s theory of lattice diffusion [23, 24]. Already the first
experimental determination of n yielded, however, n = 1=3 and has been explained by
a pipediffusion mechanism governing the DSAprocess concerned [25].
5.3 Dynamic Strain Ageing (DSA)
99
Figure 5.8: Dimensionless instantaneous (S
i
) and stationary (S
s
) SRS against reduced stress
(s ÷s
0
); s
0
= critical resolved shear stress; T = 263 K (see [22]).
Figure 5.9: The dependence of the stationary, normalized SRS on reduced stress for
Cu 3.5 at% Mn at temperatures of interval a. All data points refer to states of stable deformation.
The critical stresses are indicated for 73.48C. The M
m
denote the linear slopes of the S(r ÷r
0
)
curves (see [18]).
Shortly after, Schlipf [26] pointed out that a more general relation than Equation
(6) for S
DSA
is conceivable, viz. ÷S
DSA
· DC
q
, which by use of DC · (D(T)=_ e)
r
yields ÷S
DSA
· c
q
_ e
÷qr
(see also [27]). Now q = 1=2 and r = 2=3 would give an ex
ponent n = qr = 1=3 also in the case of lattice diffusion. On the other side, it became
more and more clear that n = 1=3 holds quite generally for any DSAprocess [20, 28,
29].
To clarify the puzzling situation, a more extensive experimental analysis of S
DSA
has been undertaken by studying and simultaneously evaluating the dependence of
S
DSA
on flow stress as well as on solute concentration. We found [30] that
• the MulfordKocks model of DSA [12] describes the experiments clearly better than
the van den Beukel model [11], and
• the data – taking the most reliable ones – are in favour of a simple proportionality
to solute concentration, i.e. q = 1.
This would exclude a lattice diffusion and is suggesting an own pipe diffusion mecha
nism for each DSAprocess. Recent theoretical work [31] points to an even probable
existence of several modes of pipe diffusion [20] along dissociated dislocations.
A recently found method to measure immediately the average waiting time t
w
of
dislocations [32] showed that the elementary strain X continuously increases with the
flow stress, the total increase never exceeding a factor of only 10. In principle, X is de
ducible from a knowledge of the dislocation arrangement (q
t
; q
f
; f
w
) and of the density
of glide barriers (c
b
) [19]. However, a general theory is still missing. Therefore, X(r)
and with it t
w
, which governs stress transients, are still to be considered as parameters.
5 On the Physical Parameters Governing the Flow Stress of Solid Solutions
100
Table 5.2: Activation energies of DSAprocesses in CuAl and CuMn.
Average CuxAl CuxMn
1
value
5 10 0.63 1.3 2.1 3.5
E
a1
[eV] 0.74±0.15 0.79±0.12 – – 0.88±0.05 0.86±0.10
2
Q
1
[eV] × 0.75±0.10 × × × ×
Q
2
[eV] × 0.76±0.10 – 0.88±0.10 0.91±0.10 0.87±0.10
E
I
[eV] 0.74 0.77 – 0.88 0.89 0.86
E
(a)
a3
[eV] × × × 0.81±0.10 0.86±0.10 0.87±0.10
Q
2
+
[eV] × 1.1±0.30 × × × ×
E
II
[eV] × 1.1 × 0.81 0.86 0.87
E
(b)
a3
[eV] 1.42±0.25 × 1.9 1.53±0.10 1.27±0.10 1.15±0.10
Q
(b)
3
[eV] 1.46±0.30 × – 1.59±0.08 1.25±0.05 1.16±0.10
E
III
[eV] 1.44 × 1.9 1.56 1.26 1.15
1
Values for CuMn from [18];
2
Cu 4.1 at% Mn; –: not measured; ×: not defined or not measur
able.
5
.
3
D
y
n
a
m
i
c
S
t
r
a
i
n
A
g
e
i
n
g
(
D
S
A
)
1
0
1
Table 5.3: Overview of the parameters investigated quantitatively in project A8. They characterize the flow stress and its strain rate sensitivity
in single phase random f.c.c. solid solutions along stressstrain curves taken over a wide range of temperatures. The DSA parameters come into
play only at higher temperatures (about room temperature!). In the future, some of the parameters will prove derivable from more complete
theories.
Elementary process Characteristic magnitude Parameter (quanitatively measured) Literature
Solid solution hardening critical flow stress, r
0
(single crystal: crss, s
0
)
i) average activation enthalpy,
DG
0
(eV)
ii) effective barrier concentr.
c
b
= f (c)
Wille, Gieseke and Schwink [4];
Neuha¨user and Schwink [2]
Dislocation hardening reduced flow stress, r
d
(r
d
= r ÷r
0
; s
d
= s ÷s
0
)
i) total dislocation density, q
t
(r)
[m
–2
]
ii) volume fraction of disloc.
walls, f
w
(r)
Neuhaus and Schwink [6];
Neuhaus, Buchhagen and Schwink
[33];
Heinrich, Neuhaus and Schwink [9]
Dynamic strain ageing (DSA) flow stress contribution, Dr
DSA
,
or additional enthalpy,
Dg = VDr
DSA
,
Dg = Dg(E
a
; (t
w
)
n
)
i) activation energy E
a;m
(eV),
m = I, II, III, of the diffusion
inducing DSA
ii) t
w
(s) = X=_ e = waiting time
of arrested dislocations
iii) strain rate exponent, n
Springer and Schwink [25];
Kalk, Schwink and Springer [17];
Kalk and Schwink [18];
Nortmann and Schwink [20]
Exhaustion of DSA limiting Dgvalue, Dg
max
~ 0:1DG
0
relaxation constant, B Springer, Nortmann and Schwink
[30]
Transitions of DSA owing to
variations in _ e
transition from instantaneous
to stationary flow stress,
Dr
i
÷Dr
s
relaxation time H ~ waiting time
t
w
Schwarz [13]; McCormick [34];
Springer and Schwink [32]
Variations in mobile dislocation
density, owing to variations in _ e
active slip volume, V
a
b
a
= 1 ÷d ln V
a
=d ln _ c Schwink and Neuha¨user [35];
Neuha¨user [36];
Traub, Neuha¨user and Schwink
[37];
Nortmann and Schwink [22]
The detailed analysis of the SRS also allows to evaluate quantitatively the varia
tions of the additional enthalpy by varying the strain rate, D(Dg), along the whole
stressstrain curves, and to determine the value of the quantity Dg(_ e) itself [30]. It
amounts up to about 10% of DG
0
= 1:3 eV (see Section 5.3.1) [15, 30].
At higher flow stresses (0100 MPa), Dg is observed to approach a limit with de
creasing strain rate. The course of Dg(_ e) can be best discussed for data on CuAl. At
the time, the approach of the limit is described by a kind of relaxation parameter B. It
is concluded that an exhaustion of solute atoms available for the diffusion process in
question limits the increase of Dr
DSA
, and not a saturation of glide dislocations by the
diffusioninduced glide obstacles [30].
Finally, the question has been addressed, whether the SRS might be influenced
besides of DSAprocesses also by variations of the mobile dislocation density q
m
when
varying the strain rate [22]. In fact, a superposition of both effects could be demon
strated. There exists a very small interval around a transition temperature, above which
DSAeffects are dominating the SRS, while q
m
effects dominate below.
5.4 Summary and Relevance
for the Collaborative Research Centre
Shortly summarizing this report, we can say that any mechanism contributing to flow
stress can be accounted for by a few measurable parameters in a model description.
Whether a mechanism and parameter is relevant or negligible depends on the experi
mental conditions, e.g. on temperature. In any case, the total number of relevant param
eters is defined and quite limited. Table 5.3 is to give a concise overview of all results
obtained as far as they concern the parameters investigated.
The methods developed in this project to determine these parameters (cf. Table
5.3) can be applied to any material. The parameters will enter any final constitutive
material equations developed, e.g. those of project A6 of the Collaborative Research
Centre (SFB). Results and experiences of our project have been also exchanged with
project A1. Throughout the work, there was an intimate contact to project A9.
References
[1] Ch. Schwink: Rev. Phys. Appl. 23 (1988) 395.
[2] H. Neuha¨user, Ch. Schwink: In: H. Mughrabi (Ed.): Materials Science and Technology,
Vol. 6. VCH Weinheim, 1993, p. 191.
[3] Ch. Schwink: Scripta metall. mater. 27 (1992) 963 (Viewpoint Set No 20).
[4] Th. Wille, W. Gieseke, Ch. Schwink: Acta metall. 35 (1987) 2679.
5 On the Physical Parameters Governing the Flow Stress of Solid Solutions
102
[5] R. Neuhaus, Ch. Schwink: Phil. Mag. A 65 (1992) 1463.
[6] For a review referring mainly to pure copper, see: S. J. Basinski, Z. S. Basinski: In: F. R. N.
Nabarro (Ed.): Dislocations in Solids, Vol. 4. NorthHolland, Amsterdam, 1979, p. 261.
[7] W. Pu¨schl, R. Frydman, G. Scho¨ck: phys. stat. sol. (a) 74 (1982) 211.
[8] G. Saada: In: G. Thomas, J. Washburn (Eds.): Electron Microscopy and Strength of Crys
tals. Interscience, New York, 1963, p. 651.
[9] H. Heinrich, R. Neuhaus, Ch. Schwink: phys. stat. sol. (a) 131 (1992) 299.
[10] For reviews see:
a) Y. Estrin, L. P. Kubin: Acta metall. 34 (1986) 2455.
b) Y. Estrin, L. P. Kubin: Mat. Sci. Eng. A 137 (1991) 125.
c) P. G. McCormick: Trans. Indian Inst. Metals 39 (1986) 98.
d) L. P. Kubin, Y. Estrin: Rev. Phys. Appl. 23 (1988) 573.
e) H. Neuha¨user: In: D. Walgraef, E. M. Ghoniem (Eds.): Patterns, Defects and Materials
Instabilities, Kluwer Ac. Publ., Dordrecht, 1990, p. 241.
[11] A. van den Beukel: phys. stat. sol. (a) 30 (1975) 197.
[12] R. A. Mulford, U. F. Kocks: Acta metall. 27 (1979) 1125.
[13] R. B. Schwarz: Scripta metall. 16 (1982) 385.
[14] L. P. Kubin, Y. Estrin: Acta metall. mater. 38 (1990) 697.
[15] Th. Wutzke, Ch. Schwink: phys. stat. sol. (a) 137 (1993) 337.
[16] A. Klak, Ch. Schwink: phys. stat. sol (b) 172 (1992) 133.
[17] A. Kalk, Ch. Schwink, F. Springer: Mater. Sci. Eng. A 164 (1993) 230.
[18] A. Kalk, Ch. Schwink: Phil. Mag. A 72 (1995) 315.
[19] A. Kalk, A. Nortmann, Ch. Schwink: Phil. Mag. A 72 (1995) 1229.
[20] A. Nortmann, Ch. Schwink: Acta metall. mater. 45 (1997) 20432050, 2051–2058.
[21] H. Neuha¨user: This book (Chapter 6).
[22] A. Nortmann, Ch. Schwink: Scripta metall. mater. 33 (1995) 369.
[23] A. H. Cottrell, B. A. Bilby: Proc. Phys. Soc. Lond. A 62 (1949) 49.
[24] J. Friedel: In: Dislocations, 368 Pergamon, Oxford, 1964, p. 405.
[25] F. Springer, Ch. Schwink: Scripta metall. mater. 25 (1991) 2739.
[26] J. Schlipf: Scripta metall. mater. 29 (1993) 287; Scripta metall. mater. 31 (1994) 909.
[27] H. Flor, H. Neuha¨user: Acta metall. 28 (1980) 939.
[28] C. P. Ling, P. G. McCormick: Acta metall. mater. 41 (1993) 3127.
[29] S.Y. Lee: Thesis, Aachen, 1993.
[30] F. Springer, A. Nortmann, Ch. Schwink: phys. stat. sol. (a) 170 (1998) 63–81.
[31] J. Huang, M. Meyer, V. Pontikis: Phil. Mag. A 63 (1991) 1149; J. Phys. III 1 (1991) 867.
[32] F. Springer, Ch. Schwink: Scripta metall. mater. 32 (1995) 1771.
[33] R. Neuhaus, P. Buchhagen, Ch. Schwink: Scripta metall. 23 (1989) 779.
[34] P. G. McCormick: Acta metall. 36 (1988) 3061.
[35] Ch. Schwink, H. Neuha¨user: phys. stat. sol. 6 (1964) 679.
[36] H. Neuha¨user: In: F. R. N. Nabarro (Ed.): Dislocations in Solids, Vol. 6, NorthHolland, Am
sterdam, 1983, p. 319.
[37] H. Traub, H. Neuha¨user, Ch. Schwink: Acta metall. 25 (1977) 437.
The publications [1–5, 9, 15–20, 22, 25, 30, 32, 33] resulted from work performed in the present
project of the Collaborative Research Centre (SFB).
References
103
6 Inhomogeneity and Instability of Plastic Flow
in CuBased Alloys
Hartmut Neuha¨user *
6.1 Introduction
Slip deformation in crystal is inhomogeneous by nature as it is accomplished by the
production and movement of dislocations on single crystallographic planes. Usually,
only few dislocation sources are activated and produce slip on few planes, where, in
particular in fcc and hcp crystals and even more pronounced in alloys with low stack
ingfault energy, many dislocations move on the same plane. This is provoked in partic
ular if the dislocations on their path through the crystal change the obstacle structure in
the slip plane, e.g. in shortrange ordered or in shortrange segregated alloys (i.e. in
nearly all alloys) so that the first dislocation feels a stronger “friction” than the suc
ceeding ones. As the macroscopic elongation of the sample is distributed in general het
erogeneously among the crystallographic planes, the quantities of resolved strain a and
strain rate _ a, defined as:
a l=l
0
l
0
and _ a
_
l=l
0
l
0
1
(with
_
l =macroscopic deformation rate, l
0
=specimen length, l
0
=Schmid orientation fac
tor), and commonly used in the formulation of constitutive equations, cannot be direct
ly connected with realistic dislocation behaviour.
Therefore, in this work, the local strain and strain rate in slip bands, which are
the active regions of the crystal [1], have been measured by a microcinematographic
method [2]. Cubased alloys turned out to be a convenient model system for experi
mental reasons: Single crystals can be grown easily in reasonable perfection and the
stackingfault energy c can be varied by changing the alloy composition. In Cu
2. . . 16 at% Al, c varies from 35 to 5 mJ/m
2
with increasing Al content, while it re
mains (nearly) constant (c & 40 mJ/m
2
) for Cu2. . . 17 at% Mn. Thus, the effects of
stackingfault energy can be separated from those of solute hardening and shortrange
ordering, which are comparable for both alloy systems.
104
* Technische Universita¨t Braunschweig, Institut fu¨r Metallphysik und Nukleare Festko¨rperphysik,
Mendelssohnstraße 3, D38106 Braunschweig, Germany
Plasticity of Metals: Experiments, Models, Computation. Collaborative Research Centres.
Edited by E. Steck, R. Ritter, U. Peil, A. Ziegenbein
Copyright © 2001 WileyVCH Verlag GmbH
ISBNs: 3527277285 (Softcover); 3527600116 (Electronic)
While solid solution hardening has been extensively studied and is well docu
mented and appears well understood in the temperature range below room temperature
[3–5], several open questions remain, which are particularly connected with inhomo
geneity of slip above ambient temperature. In a certain range of deformation condi
tions, even macroscopic deformation instabilities occur like the PortevinLe Chaˆtelier
(PLC) effect. This effect appears to be a consequence of the mobility of solute atoms
in the strain field of dislocations (“strain ageing”) and are extensively studied in [6].
In the following, we briefly review our local slip line observations performed dur
ing deformation and accompanied by EM and AFM (atomic force microscope) investi
gations of the slip line fine structure and of dislocation structure by TEM. The conclu
sions reached so far as well as the still open questions are summarized. According to
the changes of principal mechanisms, the chapter will be divided into the ranges
around room temperature, at intermediate temperatures, and at elevated temperatures.
6.2 Some Experimental Details
Observations with video records of slip line development during deformation are per
formed in two special setups with tensile deformation machines equipped with light mi
croscopes. The slip steps are visualized in dark field illumination as bright lines, where the
scattered light intensity is a measure of slip step height. The minimum step height resolved
is around S
min
5 to 10 nm (depending on the quality of the electropolished crystal sur
face), changes of larger step heights down to dS % 5 nm can be resolved.
One apparatus is designed for very high resolution in time (down to 3 ls) [7, 8],
using photo diodes and a storage oscilloscope with pretrigger parallel to video record
ing. From the rate of intensity increase and by comparison with interference micro
scopy of the same slip band after full development, the local rate of step height in
crease and thus the local shear rate can be determined. The time shift of curves of de
velopment recorded by two neighbouring photo diodes immediately yields the velocity
of growth in length, corresponding to the velocity of screw dislocations if the observa
tions are performed on the “front” surface, where the plane with Burgers vector and
crystal axis cuts the crystal surface (cf. [9]). By using a second microscope and video
system observing the opposite front surface of the plateshaped crystal, the time, which
slip needs to traverse the crystal thickness, can be determined.
The second apparatus is designed for observations at various temperatures (up to
5008C) [10] and with a wide field of view between 0.3 and 4.2 mm in order to check
spatial correlations between activated slip bands. The video system usually records with
a frame rate of 50 s
–1
and can be increased up to 500 s
–1
.
For investigation of the fine structure of slip lines, which is not resolved by light
microscopy, after deformation EM replica and AFM observations are performed. In ad
dition, in some cases, the dislocation structure developed during deformation steps has
been studied by TEM.
6.2 Some Experimental Details
105
For creep tests at elevated temperatures, a special creep setup was designed,
using the controlling system of the drive of the Instron tensile machine to keep arbi
trary constant stress values and recording strain and strain rate versus time. In particu
lar, the system permits rapid changes between deformation conditions, e.g. between
testing at constant deformation rate and at constant stress. The specimen is inside a vac
uum tube (p<10
–4
mbar) surrounded by a furnace reaching temperatures up to about
10008C (±2 K). Load cell and extensometers (connected by rods to the grips) are situ
ated in the cool part inside the vacuum vessel to avoid any friction effects.
6.3 Deformation Processes around Room Temperature
The macroscopic stress during deformation with various constant strain rates and dur
ing stress relaxation experiments has been measured for different alloy compositions
for many single crystals oriented for single glide and for polycrystals. Crystals oriented
for multiple glide have been extensively studied by Schwink and Nortmann (cf. [6]).
As an example, Figure 6.1 gives the critical resolved shear stress (crss) s
0
and the ef
fective activation volumes V kT=S (or strain rate sensitivities S ds=d ln _ a) deter
mined for CuAl single glide crystals, showing in Figure 6.1a the typical low tempera
ture rise indicating thermal activation as rate controlling process, the plateau region at
intermediate temperatures (now interpreted as a superposition of thermal activated glide
and solute mobility, cf. Section 6.4) with a range of unstable deformation ending in a
maximum of the crss, and the rapidly decreasing high temperature part (cf. Section
6.5). These regions are also reflected in the strain rate sensitivity (Figure 6.1b), which
will be discussed in more detail below.
6.3.1 Development of single slip bands
The slip line observations show that for alloy concentrations c≥4 at% Al and c≥7 at%
Mn in stage I (yield region), the deformation is constricted into small crystal volumes,
which can be classified in a fractal hierarchy from slip lines on the nmscale (e.g. for
Cu10 at% Al most frequent distances d
sl
=85 nm, step heights S
sl
=25 nm), slip bands
on the lmscale (e.g. about d
sb
=5 lm in slip band bundles, 80 lm at the Lu¨ders band
front, S
sb
=120 nm), slip band bundles on the 100 lmscale (e.g. average d
bb
=300 lm,
integrated step height S
bb
up to 15 lm) and up to the Lu¨ders band (e.g. width
B
LB
=3.8 mm, total shear S
LB
=36 lm) [11].
Direct measurements of the dislocation velocity from slip band growth in length
(_ x
L
) [12] result in
v
s
_ x
L
% 25 m=s
2
6 Inhomogeneity and Instability of Plastic Flow in CuBased Alloys
106
for the velocity of screw dislocation groups at the edge of an expanding new slip band
on the front surface. For this example of Cu15 at% Al, the velocity of edge disloca
tions can be estimated from the measured growth rate in height S
b
if a reasonable dis
tance d
e
of the (edge) dislocations moving in groups is assumed. As we consider here
the very first dislocation group produced by the source, we use an average distance be
tween edge dislocations in the group as determined on TEM micrographs for single,
slightly piledup groups, i.e. d
e
=0.2 lm [13, 14]. Then
v
e
S
sb
d
e
=b % 3 m=s
3
6.3 Deformation Processes around Room Temperature
107
Figure 6.1: a) Temperature dependence of the critical resolved shear stress (crss s
0
) of Cu2. . . 15 at%
Al single crystals oriented for single slip at a deformation rate of
_
l =2 · 10
–3
mm/s ( _ a=3.6 · 10
–5
s
–1
).
In the range of macroscopic slip instabilities (“PLC effect”, dotted line), the stress intervals of serra
tions are plotted. b) Temperature dependence of the (normalized) strain rate sensitivity S ds=d ln _ a
(determined from stationary back extrapolated stress jumps during strain rate changes) for one se
lected Al concentration (c=15 at%). Interval with arrows indicates PLC effect (jerky flow). The
plots a) and b) contain data from literature (` cf. refs. in [5]) in addition to our own measurements
(
*
, • and I, indicating the interval between stress maxima and minima in serrated flow).
a)
b)
results, where S
sb
is the slope of the step height versus time curve in the very first few
ms. The ratio v
s
/v
e
&8 (at least 3) appears reasonable in view of the interaction
strength of solute obstacles with different dislocation characters and with estimates of
friction stresses on dislocations from the shape of dislocations on TEM micrographs
[13].
Figure 6.2a shows the typical slip band development recorded by video and the
photo diode; in Figure 6.2b, the local shear rate during the development is shown in a
double log plot. After the very first rapid growth of step height, the rate slows down
gradually when more and more slip lines are added to the slip band. While the very
first dislocation group appears to move under overstress, resulting in a local slip insta
bility with the shear rate exceeding that imposed by the deformation machine (cf.
dotted line in Figure 6.2b), the successive groups feel opposing internal stresses. This
behaviour can be modelled by a (local) work hardening [11, 15]. It shows that the lo
cal strain rate
_ a
loc
R
m
bv
4
6 Inhomogeneity and Instability of Plastic Flow in CuBased Alloys
108
Figure 6.2: a) Records of slip step growth (step height S
sb
versus time t) of a single slip band,
evaluated from photodiode and digital storage oscilloscope (note ms time scale and high level of
noise). b) Variation of the growth rate in step height S
sb
(=local slopes of a)) for several slip
bands in Cu15 at% Al (compared with earlier results in Cu30 at% Zn), plotted in double log
scales versus time t. The dotted line indicates the growth rate, which would be necessary to ac
commodate the imposed deformation rate by one single slip band.
a)
b)
(R
m
=mobile dislocation density) varies with time in the activated slip zones by many
orders of magnitudes and that the assumption of an average strain rate according to
Orowan’s equation (Equation (4)), which is frequently used in constitutive modelling,
is not realistic and somewhat arbitrary. The local strain rate _ a
loc
can be connected with
the external deformation rate only by using the “active crystal length” l
a
instead of the
total crystal length l
0
in Equation (1):
_ a
loc
_
l=l
0
l
a
;
5
where
l
a
n
ab
B
sb
6
(n
ab
=number of simultaneously active slip bands, B
sb
=active width of a slip band mea
sured along the crystal axis [2]) is a function of deformation rate, stress, strain, tem
perature, and time in general. Instead, the nucleation rate formulation of Orowan can
be used to express the average strain rate
_ a
_
NbF ;
7
where the rate
_
N of successive source activations is required (i.e. in our case, the rate
of slip band activations), and the details of slip band development do not matter be
cause only the total area F swept by all active dislocations during the event enters.
The slip instability at the onset of each slip band evolution can be detected as a
slight stress drop in special experiments (using very thin, short specimens with the load
cell directly connected to one crystal grip [16]) and in acoustic emission records (e.g.
[17]); they are too small to be resolved in case of common specimens (y 4 mm, length
120 mm) in usual tensile machines with their large inertia.
The firstly activated dislocation source of a new slip band is always on that crys
tal surface, which due to the bending and lattice rotation by local shear feels a slight
overstress (surface “high”, see below). The average times t
HL
for the edge dislocation
group to traverse the crystal from this front surface to the opposite one are found, for
plateshaped Cu15 at% Al crystals of D=170 and 220 lm thickness, to be 11.1 and
0.7 s, respectively, corresponding to average velocities of the edge dislocations of 22
and 440 lm/s (slip plane inclined by 458 to the crystal axis). The large difference to
Equation (3) is due to the opposing stress gradient along this dislocation path and re
flects the high strain rate sensitivity around room temperature (cf. Figure 6.1b).
An important process in the formation of dislocation groups from each activated
source is the partial destruction of obstacles by the dislocations cutting across obstacles
in the slip plane. In case of the present alloys CuAl and CuMn, their wellknown ten
dency to shortrange ordering suggests that the effective obstacles in the yield region
are groups of solute atoms in an at least partially ordered configuration. This will be
destroyed by a cutting dislocation so that the next dislocation will be able to move at a
lower stress. Although some energetically favourable solute configurations will be “re
paired” by the following dislocations, the net effect is a destruction of “friction” to a
lower value in the activated slip plane. This process was modelled [14] using realistic
6.3 Deformation Processes around Room Temperature
109
nextneighbour pair potentials determined from diffuse Xray scattering measurements
on Cu15 at% Al crystals [18] in Monte Carlo simulations of a model crystal with the
measured shortrange order, and the resulting dislocation configurations of the group
compared with those observed in TEM [14] (Figure 6.3). This indicates quite high in
trinsic “friction” stresses of the original alloy. The dislocation group is able to move at
a distinctly lower stress because the first dislocation feels, in addition to the external
stress, the internal stress from the following piledup dislocations.
The resulting fluctuations in local stress are especially pronounced in the case of
CuAl alloys, where the dislocation groups on single slip planes are much more ex
tended than in CuMn alloys as a consequence of the low stackingfault energy in the
former case, which prevents dislocations from easy crossslip. This tendency is clearly
observed in TEM micrographs of the dislocation structure after deformation in stage I
(Figure 6.4a, b [14]) and in the slip band fine structure imaged by EM replica in Fig
ure 6.4c, d, and by AFM in Figure 6.4e, f [19]. In particular, the high resolution of the
6 Inhomogeneity and Instability of Plastic Flow in CuBased Alloys
110
Figure 6.3: a) Variation of the diffuse antiphase boundary energy in the slip plane by passage of a
number n of dislocations crossing the slip plane and changing near neighbour shortrangeordered
configurations. b) Interaction stresses between dislocations in single dislocation groups (s
ww
dotted lines) observed by TEM for annealed and quenched Cu10.7 at% Al crystals. Full lines
s
SRO
give the difference between these curves (*) and the simulation result (^) from a), assum
ing s
SRO
c
SRO
=b [14, 23].
a)
b)
last method permits to decide that in CuAl, the activated slip line is indeed on a single
crystallographic plane according to the measured step angle (cf. for Cu30 at% Zn [20],
for Cu7.5 at% Al [21]). In CuMn alloys, on the other hand, the high probability for
crossslip (c % c
Cu
) appears to be the reason for the Culike slip line arrangement with
clusters of activated slip planes during the workhardening stages II and III, while in
CuAl alloys with its low c value, very strong local variations of slip behaviour occur
[22]. This again indicates that the average stress and strain usually given in stressstrain
6.3 Deformation Processes around Room Temperature
111
a) b)
Figure 6.4: Comparison of dislocation structures: TEM micrographs after deformation in stage I
at room temperature: a) Cu14.4 at% Al; b) Cu12 at% Mn), and slip line structures, EM replica:
c) Cu10.7 at% Al; d) Cu8 at% Mn; AFM micrographs: e) Cu15 at% Al; f) Cu17 at% Mn.
c) d)
e)
f)
0.5 lm
diagrams may differ considerably from the local values relevant at the active disloca
tion sources and for the moving dislocations.
6.3.2 Development of slip band bundles and Lu¨ders band propagation
The process of successive activation of slip lines in the slip band and of slip bands in the
slip band bundle or at the front of a propagating Lu¨ders band has been investigated in
detail by observations on thin flat crystals [16] and by FEM calculations of the stress
around slip steps as well as calculations of the stress field resulting from excess disloca
tion groups below the surface necessary to shield the notch stress of the slip step (Figure
6.5). These calculations show that in the surface region, maxima of shear stress occur in
characteristic distances ahead of a previously activated slip plane (irrespective of the de
tails of dislocation arrangement in the group), i.e. in a distance of 200 nm and in a distance
of 30 lm. The former corresponds to the observed distances of slip lines d
se
, the latter to
those of slip bands d
sb
; the numbers depend on the positions of the front and last disloca
tion of the excess group. Thus, the activation of a new source occurs under a certain over
stress, which explains the abovementioned slip instability in the first stage of slip band
growth. It also indicates that the externally measured crss or yield stress in stage I has
to be considered with some caution, although, owing to the high strain rate sensitivity
(Figure 6.1b), the local stress will exceed the average value by only a few percent.
6 Inhomogeneity and Instability of Plastic Flow in CuBased Alloys
112
Figure 6.5: Resolved shear stresses in the slip planes near the upper surface of the crystal (cf. sketch
below) around a slip step and from the stresses of dislocations (B) below the surface, which are ne
cessary to shield the notch stress of about 50 MPa (A). Note the maxima of the resulting stress
around distances of 200 nm and 30 lm, which are prefered locations for next source activation. Cal
culation for S=100 nm, a=200 nm, n=50 dislocations, distance to the front dislocation=33.5 lm.
The abovementioned differences between CuAl and CuMn disappear in the meso
and macroscopic level: The appearance of slip bands, slip band bundles and the Lu¨ders
band is quite similar (Figure 6.6a–d). In observations specially designed for examining
the longrange correlations of slip by applying low magnification in the light micro
scope, it was found [23, 24] that the neat and simple Lu¨ders band configuration (Fig
ure 6.6c, d) usually observed in thin flat crystals [16] can be produced also in thick cylin
drical crystals (4 mm y) if the external load (i.e. applied deformation rate) is selected low
enough. Such a deformation front, which is shown schematically in cross section in Fig
ure 6.7 (left side), propagates with a certain velocity v
LB
from one crystal grip to the other
during tensile deformation in stage I (yield region) in a nearly stable configuration (solitary
wave [25]). The first source of a new slip band ahead of the front is activated at (or near)
surface “high” (Figure 6.7), and slip gradually crosses the crystal towards the opposite
surface “low” against a gradient of bending stress (Figure 6.5). The average plastic front
is normal to the crystal axis and the propagation velocity along the crystal, as determined
from the measured distances and times of front slip bands (Figure 6.8), is found to be
proportional to the external deformation rate
_
l if this remains below the critical value.
Above that, the deformation mode changes to the formation of slip band bundles (Fig
ure 6.6a, b) whose trace across the crystal follows the crystallographic slip planes (Figure
6.7, right side). Now, the stress due to the increased deformation rate appears to be high
enough to activate sources more or less at random along the crystal length. They grow to
slip band bundles by adding neighbouring slip bands according to the mechanismshown in
Figure 6.5 (cf. [26, 27]). From such a slip band bundle, the Lu¨ders band starts when the
bundle has reached a certain sufficiently high integrated shear, implying enough stress
concentration due to the bending moment, the thickness reduction and the lattice rota
6.3 Deformation Processes around Room Temperature
113
Figure 6.6: Light micrographs of slip band structure on the crystal front surface for the two defor
mation modes in stage I of CuAl and CuMn: Formation and growth of slip band bundles: a) Cu
10.7 at% Al; b) Cu17 at% Mn, and formation and propagation of a Lu¨ders band front: c) Cu
15 at% Al; d) Cu17 at% Mn.
a) b)
c) d)
6 Inhomogeneity and Instability of Plastic Flow in CuBased Alloys
114
Figure 6.7: Schematic representation (crystal cross section along its axis) indicating the shear dis
tribution in the Lu¨ders band front which propagates with velocity v
LB
, and in slip band bundles
(cf. Figure 6.6a, b). The slip bands are initiated in the Lu¨ders band at surface “high”, at the edge
of the slip band bundle at its right on surface “high”, at its left on surface “low”, according to the
bending stresses and the stress patterns of Figure 6.5.
Figure 6.8: Determination of Lu¨ders band propagation rates v
LB
from plots of cumulated dis
tances x
F
and times t
F
of the front slip bands of Lu¨ders bands at various external deformation
rates of
_
l =2, 4, and 10 lm/s (selected below the critical value) for Cu10.7 at% Al (a) and Cu
12 at% Al (b).
a)
b)
tion, which accompany the local shear of the single crystal (with slip planes inclined by 458
to the crystal axis). This stress concentration then helps to propagate the Lu¨ders band con
striction along the crystal. The FiniteElement Method (FEM) analysis of stresses (Figure
6.9) shows a stress maximum at the tail and a minimum at the front of the Lu¨ders band; the
latter explains the large gaps between the front slip bands and indicate the necessity of local
stress concentrations fromneighbouring slip bands (Figure 6.5) to initiate the next new one
ahead of the Lu¨ders band front. In a recent approximate treatment, Brechet et al. [28] have
described such transitions between homogeneous slip, bundled slip and propagating defor
mation fronts in quite general terms reflecting many of the above observations.
Macroscopically, the existence of stress concentrations is realized in the yield
points observed during first loading of the specimen. In fact, calculating the propaga
tion stress from the external load by using the specimen cross section at the most ac
tive part in the Lu¨ders band region, we arrive at the same stress as that is observed at
the yield point calculated from load and original cross section (cf. [23, 24]). This indi
cates that for these alloys the initial yield point is of purely geometrical origin (cf. [29];
the yield points due to strain ageing are smaller and will be discussed below).
6.3 Deformation Processes around Room Temperature
115
Figure 6.9: a) FEM analysis of the stress pattern around the Lu¨ders band front; b) Plot of the re
solved shear stress near the surface across the Lu¨ders band front from the sheared (left) to the vir
gin part (right), for different radii of curvature (R) in the Lu¨ders band region (cf. [23]). The in
creased stress at the left, mainly due to the reduced cross section, is compensated by work hard
ening (kinematic stress).
a)
b)
6.3.3 Comparison of single crystals and polycrystals
An important further stage of the investigations concerns the possibility to transfer the
single crystal results to the case of polycrystals. As a first step in thin flat specimens of
Cu5, 10 and 15 at% Al with grain sizes around 200 lm, the slip bands have been ob
served during several steps of tensile deformation [30] recorded by video and examined
in detail after the deformation steps in the light and electron microscope. In exceed
ingly large grains, often fronts of slip bands propagate similar to slip band bundles or
Lu¨ders bands in single crystals. In exceedingly small grains, slip activity is often re
tarded due to stresses from neighbouring grains. In the average sized grains, several
(mostly 2 to 3) slip planes are activated, often one after the other and different ones in
different parts of the grain (Figure 6.10). This reflects the local influence of compatibil
ity stresses exerted by the neighbouring grain. It also explains why not all, but most
slip systems are activated according to the magnitude of the Schmid factor. In the Cu
Al alloys, the plastic relaxation near grain boundaries occurs frequently, in spite of the
low stackingfault energy, by crossslipping of primary dislocations [12, 30]. This ap
pears to be easier than to activate new sources on secondary systems. It is important in
particular that the kinetics of single slip bands in polycrystals appear to be quite similar
6 Inhomogeneity and Instability of Plastic Flow in CuBased Alloys
116
Figure 6.10: Video records of slip line formation in single grains of a polycrystalline thin flat Cu
10 at% Al specimen shown at three stages of deformation (e =0.5, 1.5 and 8%) at room tempera
ture. The numbers in the scheme indicate the succession of activated slip planes.
to that in single crystals as shown in Table 6.1 for the average total times of activity of
single slip bands. Contrary to single crystals, in the investigated polycrystals, no Lu¨
ders bands were observed to propagate; according to experience in the literature [31],
the grain sizes for that have to be chosen much smaller.
A pilot experiment was performed in cooperation with Harder [32, 33] and Berg
mann [34] on a thin flat specimen of Cu5 at% Al containing 3 grains of different known
orientations. The observations of slip band activity correspond well with the measure
ments of local strains by the multigrid method and with the FEM calculations [35].
6.3.4 Conclusion
In single and polycrystals of the considered CuAl and CuMn alloys, deformation pro
ceeds by production and movement of groups of strongly correlated dislocations across
slip zones. This strong correlation and the destruction of shortrange order lead to local
ized deformation and microinstabilities of slip. Owing to the variation of the slip ki
netics during the activity of each slip band, a description of the overall kinetics by the
nucleation rates of slip bands (Equation (7)) including local work hardening (i.e. kine
matic stress) appears appropriate. Thus, the flow units used in [36] consist of such spa
tially and temporarily correlated dislocations in groups. Their local stress concentra
tions are important in the propagation of slip along the crystal. Details of the mecha
nisms and kinetics of dislocation multiplication inside the slip bands still remain to be
explored. The first steps done to study the influence of surrounding grains on the activ
ity of a considered grain in a polycrystal should be extended, in particular by combin
ing them with FEM analyses of the local stresses.
6.3 Deformation Processes around Room Temperature
117
Table 6.1: Comparison of average times of formation of slip bands on single crystals (plate
shaped, thickness 0.18 mm) and in grains of polycrystals (plate shaped, thickness 0.4 mm, grain
size 0.2 mm) for the CuAl alloys with 5, 10 and 15 at% Al. For the single crystals, the range of
observed values is given in parenthesis.
t
B
(s) Single Crystals
(thickness 0.18 mm)
Polycrystals
(grain size 0.2 mm)
Cu5 at% Al 7.8
(3. . . 15)
12.7
Cu10 at% Al 0.15
(0.1. . . 0.2)
0.73
Cu15 at% Al 0.04
(0.02. . . 0.06)
0.05
6.4 Deformation Processes at Intermediate Temperatures
The range of “intermediate” temperatures is characterized by an increasing mobility of the
solute atoms in the alloy, in particular in the neighbourhood of dislocations. Although first
atomic site changes seem to occur in the dislocation core region already at temperatures
well below room temperature, as evidenced by strain ageing effects during and after stress
relaxation experiments [37], well pronounced influences of solute mobility are observed at
temperatures exceeding room temperature (the lower, the higher the solute concentration,
cf. [6]). In a certain range of temperature and external strain rate, dynamic strain ageing
leads to repeated rapid local slip events even observable as serrations in the loadtime
curve in ordinary deformation experiments, the welldocumented PortevinLe Chaˆtelier
(PLC) effect (e.g. [31]). Supplementing the research in [6], where most investigations
are performed in the range preceding this instability region, the present study concen
trates on the evolution of such plastic instabilities. Their temperature region for CuAl
single crystals oriented for single glide and deformed in stage I is indicated in Fig
ure 6.1a by the dotted lines. Figure 6.1b shows that it nearly coincides with the range
of negative strain rate sensitivity if this is determined from the backextrapolated stress
course during strain rate changes [38, 39]. For the more general behaviour and ranges
of existence of the PLC effect during work hardening for various crystal orientations
and polycrystals, cf. [6, 40].
6.4.1 Analysis of single stress serrations
Applying an especially rapid data acquisition system to record the load (or stress) si
multaneously with slip line recording by video, the course of PLC load drops has been
directly correlated to the formation of new slip bands at the crystal surface [38, 41].
Figure 6.11a shows a series of several selected frames taken during the stress serration
given in Figure 6.11b. Thus, in this range of temperature, one macroscopic instability
event involves the rapid formation of a whole cluster of new slip bands. Obviously,
after breakaway of a first source dislocation from its solute cloud, rapid dislocation
multiplication occurs, where dislocations move fast enough to develop only minor so
lute clouds implying high dislocation mobility. The slip transfer mechanism of Sec
tion 6.3.2 (Figure 6.5) with local stresses in the surface region rapidly produces a series
of neighbouring slip bands (i.e. a slip band bundle) at a rate higher than that necessary
to comply with the deformation rate imposed by the tensile machine. Therefore, the
load decreases and thus the production rate and dislocation velocity, too. This in turn
permits the solute cloud to grow further and to slow down the dislocation until it stops
suddenly and the specimen is again elasticly reloaded up to the next breakaway event.
The quantitative formulation of this behaviour [38] permits to estimate the change in
the effective enthalpy dDG due to ageing:
DG DG
0
dDG DG
0
Kf
t
w
8
6 Inhomogeneity and Instability of Plastic Flow in CuBased Alloys
118
6.4 Deformation Processes at Intermediate Temperatures
119
Figure 6.11: Sequence of frames: a) with slip bands originating during a stress drop (b)), in the PLC
regime (T=500 K) of a Cu10 at% Al crystal deformed in stage I with a rate of
_
l 2 Á 10
À3
mm/s.
a)
b)
in the waiting times for thermal activations
t
w
t
w0
exp
DG=kT ;
9
where K and t
w0
are constants and the function f describes the ageing kinetics. We find
dDG % 0.16 eV during the stress drop and &0.14 eV during reloading, i.e. &0.3 eV
in total for Cu10 at% Al at 580 K [39], which compares quite well with the values de
termined from different experiments and different arguments [42, 43]. This change
amounts to roughly 10% of the total effective activation enthalpy DG
0
in this tempera
ture range of stress serrations.
The breakaway stress rises with temperature due to an increasing solute cloud, up to
a stress maximum s
0
T
M
s
0M
, which occurs at lower T
M
for higher solute concentra
tions c (Figure 6.1a, in more detail Figure 6.12a). Beyond the crss maximum, no serra
tions occur and slip bands can no longer be detected: Slip becomes virtually homoge
neous for T > T
M
(cf. Section 6.5). The correlation of s
0M
with solute concentration (Fig
ure 6.12b) agrees quite well with the classical formula proposed by Friedel [44]:
s
0M
A
W
2
m
c=kT
M
b
3
10
for the boundary between dislocation breakaway from the (unsaturated!) solute cloud
(T <T
M
) and continuous dislocation movement with a solute cloud (T >T
M
, which by
rapid diffusion reforms fast enough to be “dragged along” with the moving dislocation.
This relation permits to estimate the mean binding enthalpy W
m
of solute atoms to the
dislocation, i.e. for c=2. . . 15 at% Al: W
m
% 0.12 eV taking the structure factor A=0.1
as determined for CuMn alloys by Endo et al. [45]. These W
m
values compare well
with earlier results from internal friction [46] and from theoretical estimates [47].
A summary of the temperature dependence of the correlation of serrations (load fluc
tuations) with slip activity is given in Figure 6.13, where, on the right, the mean stress
drop amplitude Ds is plotted, while, on the left, the magnitude of simultaneously active
slip band bundles, n
aB
, is given as determined from the video records according to:
n
aB
_
l=
_
N
b
S
sb
;
11
where
_
l =external deformation rate,
_
N
b
=formation rate of new slip bands in one recorded
active slip band bundle, S
sb
=average slip step height (normal to the crystal surface),
which does not change noticeably with temperature from room temperature (cf. Sec
tion 6.3) up to the PLC range. It is evident that at low T, where n
aB
is high, the fluctua
tions in this number average out well so that a smooth load trace results. However, when
n
aB
becomes small (1 to 10), fluctuations in the load trace are resolved, and they turn into
serrations when n
aB
formally falls below 1, i.e. when only one slip band bundle is active
for a short time with intervals of elastic reloading until breakaway of the next event.
6 Inhomogeneity and Instability of Plastic Flow in CuBased Alloys
120
6.4.2 Analysis of stresstime series
The recorded time series of load (or stress) in the range of plastic instabilities were ana
lysed by several methods with respect to deterministic chaos or randomness and under
the influence of measurement noise. Different methods proposed in literature for such
dynamic time series analyses have been compared [48] such as reconstruction in phase
space and correlation integral [49, 50], determination of Eigenvalues [51], and determi
nation of Lyapunov exponents and K
2
entropy [52, 53]. The problems with finding op
timum embedding parameters have been studied relativating first attempts to detect the
existence of chaos in jerky flow [54]. More successful appears a spacetime analysis
6.4 Deformation Processes at Intermediate Temperatures
121
Figure 6.12: a) High temperature part of the temperature dependence of the crss s
0
) (cf. Figure
6.1a) around its maximum, measured for various Al concentrations (2. . . 15 at%) for CuAl single
crystals oriented for single slip, at a deformation rate of
_
l =1.7 · 10
–3
mm/s (crystal length
l
0
=100 mm) (* Cu15 at% Al, * Cu10 at% Al, & Cu7.5 at% Al, n Cu5 at% Al, ~ Cu
3.5 at% Al, s Cu2 at% Al); b) plot of the maximum stress s
0M
=s
0
(T=T
M
) at the temperatures
T
M
of the crss maxima versus alloy concentration to check Equation (10) by Friedel [44] for the
transition between dislocation breakaway from and dragging along of the solute cloud.
a)
b)
[48], which permits to take into account temporal correlations of the correlation inte
gral, such as in case of quasiperiodic behaviour, after checking the autocorrelation
function (for determination of a proper cutoff) and the power spectrum (for detecting
periodicities).
In evaluations of stresstime series, special care must be taken in case of changes of
the specimen structure during deformation as common in deformation due to work hard
ening. This is shown in the examples of Figure 6.14 [48] for polycrystals deformed in the
PLC regime at different temperatures and for a single crystal oriented for single glide, both
for Cu10 at%Al. For single crystals of Cu5. . . 15 at%Al and for polycrystals (Cu15 at%
Al), the PLC instabilities are of statistic rather than chaotic (deterministic) nature support
ing the recent theoretical treatment by Ha¨hner [55]. For polycrystals, in certain ranges of
deformation conditions at least some deterministic contributions are identified, which are
periodic and seem to correspond to the propagation of the various types of PLC bands. The
long period “type A” serrations (at T=1008C in Figure 6.14) is superposed by a short
period at higher temperature (“type B” at T=1508C in Figure 6.14), while the single crys
tal does not show any periodicity, but indicates a change of structure fromstage I to stage II.
While, according to McCormick [56], the type A serrations are associated with a contin
uous propagation of plastic PLC deformation bands, type B corresponds to discontinuous
propagation of bands, and during type C, serrations at still higher temperature with spatially
6 Inhomogeneity and Instability of Plastic Flow in CuBased Alloys
122
Figure 6.13: Correlation of the temperature dependence of the number of active slip band bundles
n
aB
(Equation (11)) and the average height of stress serrations Ds for Cu10 at% Al crystals de
formed with a rate of
_
l =1.7 · 10
–3
mm/s. Below the shape of the loadtime curves in indicated.
Note the abrupt disappearance of serrations at T
M
.
uncorrelated local deformation bands occur. Accordingly, for types A and B from an anal
ysis of the time series characteristic parameters of the deformation bands (band width, local
plastic shear and shear rate in the band) and of their propagation rate v
B
can be evaluated
[48]. Figure 6.15 gives examples of the latter quantity for type A and B bands in Cu15 at%
Al polycrystrals, which show different dependences on total strain e (Figure 6.15a) and _ e
(Figure 6.15b). The model of Jeanclaude and Fressengeas [57] would predict a decrease of
v
B
with increasing e if spatial coupling of local deformations occurs by crossslip, while an
increase would indicate spatial coupling by internal stresses [58] (cf. Figure 6.5). The ob
served dependence in Figure 6.15a then would mean a change of crossslip transfer to
internal stress transfer with increasing temperature, which does not seem quite reason
able. Further investigations appear necessary and are under way for clarification.
6.4 Deformation Processes at Intermediate Temperatures
123
Figure 6.14: Sequences of stresstime series measured in the PLC region of polycrystals (T=1008C,
T=1508C) and a single crystal (single glide, transition from stage I to stage II, T=3008C).
Figure 6.15: a) Propagation rates v
B
of PLC deformation bands evaluated from time series like
those in Figure 6.14 for the serrations of type A (T=1008C) and type B (T=1508C) for various
total strains e at a strain rate of _ e =1 · 10
–4
s
–1
; b) strain dependence of type B propagation rates
(T=1508C) for variations of external strain rates _ e
_
l=l.
a) b)
6.4.3 Conclusion
The strain ageing process forming solute clouds around the dislocations leads to macro
scopically pronounced plastic instabilities in a certain range of deformation conditions,
which are again intimately connected with strain localization. Here, the reason is the
breakaway of a dislocation from its solute cloud and subsequent rapid multiplication of
less aged dislocation groups. Thus, the overall kinetics (neglecting the serrations) can
be again described in the nucleation rate approach for aged dislocations, where the ki
netics of ageing enters the rate equations [40, 55, 56, 58]. The evolution of each single
stress instability event can be described in such an approach, too, while the details of
the dislocation multiplication and in particular the role of crossslip processes in the
slip transfer from the active into the bordering region still remains to be clarified.
6.5 Deformation Processes at Elevated Temperatures
6.5.1 Dynamical testing and stress relaxation
As indicated above in connection with Figure 6.12, for T >T
M
, the deformation occurs
in a nearly ideal homogeneous manner. This was checked by EM slip line replica and
TEM: No traces of slip could be detected on the crystal surface, and TEM does not
show dislocation groups, but randomly distributed heavily jogged dislocations indicat
ing easy crossslip of screw and climb of edge dislocations. Therefore, no slip line ob
servations are possible. In this range, viscous glide behaviour of dislocations can be as
sumed, and the classical Orowan equation (Equation (4)) _ a R
m
bv with a definite dis
location velocity v and mobile dislocation density R
m
appears realistic. According to
the analysis from Figure 6.12b, these dislocations carry along their (unsaturated) solute
cloud, which now decreases with increasing temperature for entropy reasons. Thus, the
alloying effect diminishes with increasing temperature as seen in Figure 6.1a and Fig
ure 6.12a. The observation of a smaller yield stress for higher alloy concentrations (for
c>5 at%) at T>T
M
, which looks surprising at first sight, can be explained by the well
known increase of the diffusion constant D(c) with solute concentration c [59] in the
treatment of Friedel [44]: The relation between strain rate _ a and applied stress s is
_ a 2R
m
b=kD sinh
sb
2
k=kT % 2R
m
b
3
Ds=kT ;
12
where kbc
M
bc exp
W
m
=kT is the distance of pinning solute atoms along the dis
location. This relation also describes well the observed strainrate sensitivity in stage I
for T >T
M
(Figure 6.16c, where different c values are plotted), which agrees well if de
termined from either stress relaxations (Figure 6.16a) or from strainrate changes (Fig
ure 6.16b), where the initial stress jumps (constant structure) are evaluated.
The course of stress relaxations in this temperature regime can be well described
by a viscous dislocation velocity [60]:
6 Inhomogeneity and Instability of Plastic Flow in CuBased Alloys
124
6.5 Deformation Processes at Elevated Temperatures
125
Figure 6.16: Strainrate sensitivities (cf. Figure 6.1b) in the range of elevated temperatures for
single crystals of CuAl with different Al concentrations measured from stress relaxations (a) and
from strain rate changes (b) taking the “initial” stress changes of the transients (i.e. without struc
tural changes) (_ e
2
5_ e
1
; _ e
1
=1.7 · 10
–5
s
–1
; symbols as in Figure 6.12a); c) plot of the strainrate
sensitivity for T>T
M
(T
M
=temperature at the crss maxima in Figure 6.12a) versus 1/T to check
Equation (12), for initial and stationary (i.e. back extrapolated) stress changes, using all data with
different alloy concentrations ≥5 at%.
a)
b)
c)
v $ s ;
13
and either by a stressdependent mobile dislocation density:
R
m
$ s
n
;
14
or by a Gaussian spectrum of free activation enthalpies. For the first approach, the ob
served n values correspond well with the m=n+1 values (=3.6. . . 3.8±0.5 for Cu
3.5. . . 10 at% Al) usually found from creep experiments for this type of alloys [61]. For
the latter approach, the temperature dependence of the average characteristic relaxation
times changes abruptly at the temperature of the crss maximum, indicating again the
change of ratecontrolling mechanism, i.e. breakaway of dislocations from their solute
cloud for T<T
M
, solute diffusion in the nonsaturated solute cloud dragged along with
the moving dislocation for T>T
M
.
6.5.2 Creep experiments
In order to check by more direct measurements and evaluations creep data for T>T
M
,
additional creep tests have been performed in the special creep setup described in Sec
tion 6.2. Figure 6.17 shows some typical creep curves in the plot of strain rate versus
strain: a) at a fixed stress for various temperatures, and b) at a fixed temperature for var
ious applied stresses for polycrystalline Cu10 at% Al. After a rapid decrease, the strain
rate approaches stationarity (the following rapid increase of _ e
_
l=l is due to specimen
constriction and should be disregarded). In Figure 6.17b for sufficiently low stresses
6 Inhomogeneity and Instability of Plastic Flow in CuBased Alloys
126
Figure 6.17: Creep tests on Cu10 at% Al polycrystals, in plots of strain rate _ e versus strain e: a)
performed at constant stress r/G (G=shear modulus) for various temperatures, and b) at constant
temperature T/T
m
(T
m
=melting temperature) for various stresses. Note the oscillating strain rate at
low stresses in b).
a) b)
(or strain rates), creep occurs with an oscillating strain rate showing the characteristics
known for dynamic recrystallization (e.g. [62]). For instance, the critical strain for the on
set of dynamic recrystallization increases in proportion to the applied stress (Fig
ure 6.18a). The dynamic recrystallization can be induced by a rapid change to a lower
stress in the critical range (Figure 6.18b). This seems to be accompanied by changes of
the dislocation structure, which are to be studied in more detail to obtain more informa
tion on the nature of the recovery processes in this temperature range T>T
M
.
The stationary creep rate, approximated by the minimum rate _ e
min
in Figure 6.17,
varies with stress and temperature (Figure 6.19) according to
6.5 Deformation Processes at Elevated Temperatures
127
Figure 6.18: a) Critical strains for the onset of dynamic recrystallization (DRX), determined from
its first appearance (*) and from the distance of strain rate maxima (*); b) examples for initiat
ing dynamic recrystallization by a change of stress to lower values during creep tests.
a)
b)
Figure 6.19: Plots of the stationary creep rate (cf. Figure 6.16) versus stress (a) and temperature
(b) to determine the parameters in Equation (15).
a) b)
_ e
min
$ r
5
exp
ÀQ=kT
15
with Q&2 eV, which approximates the activation for diffusion of solutes in the alloy or
for self diffusion. The stress exponent (m&5) is slightly higher than that quoted above
from stress relaxations, which has been clarified in [63, 64].
The first rapidly decreasing part of the creep curve contains information on dislo
cation multiplication. At very low stresses, this part of primary creep may even show
increasing strain rate for some time. Observed differences to creep tests in conventional
creep machines [65] can be traced back to the different kinetics of loading. These pro
cesses will be explored further by rapid changes from strain rate to stresscontrolled
conditions at different levels of stress (or strain) (cf. [63, 64]).
6.5.3 Conclusion
In the temperature region T>T
M
, diffusion processes are dominant. The deformation ki
netics can be well described by the viscous glide approach with the dislocation velocity
governed by dragging of solute clouds and a stressdependent mobile dislocation den
sity. This is the result of dislocation multiplication and simultaneous intensive recovery
processes, where dislocation climb and crossslip are important similar to pure metals
[66, 67]. The details of these processes in solid solutions have to be further clarified.
Acknowledgements
This work was possible through the engagement and essential contributions of my co
workers, C. Engelke, A. Hampel, A. Nortmann, J. Plessing, in their dissertation works,
and Ch. Achmus, U. Hoffmann, T. Kammler, M. Ku¨gler, H. Rehfeld, S. Riedig, M.
Schu¨lke, H. Voss, G. Wenzel, A. Ziegenbein, in their diploma works.
In addition, I acknowledge gratefully the continuous discussions and cooperation
with Prof. Dr. Ch. Schwink, and the cooperation in SRO measurements with Prof. Dr.
O. Scha¨rpf (ILL Grenoble) and Dr. R. Caudron (LLB Saclay) by neutron scattering,
and with Prof. Dr. G. Kostorz and Dr. B. Scho¨nfeld (ETH Zu¨rich) by Xray scattering
(with financial support of the Volkswagenstiftung). In particular, the financial support
of our work by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft in the Collaborative Research
Centre (Sonderforschungsbereich, SFB 319A9) is gratefully acknowledged.
6 Inhomogeneity and Instability of Plastic Flow in CuBased Alloys
128
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6 Inhomogeneity and Instability of Plastic Flow in CuBased Alloys
130
7 The Influence of Large Torsional Prestrain
on the Texture Development
and Yield Surfaces of Polycrystals
Dieter Besdo and Norbert WellerdickWojtasik*
7.1 Introduction
The simulation of forming processes applying the FiniteElement method is more and
more in use today. If the results are close to reality, the simulation can save costs in
volved in the forming of testing tools and shorten the development stage of new prod
ucts. But this aim can only be achieved if the model of the forming process is physi
cally plausible. The treatment of contact problems and the modelling of the material be
haviour, e. g., present many problems. The material properties of the anisotropy caused
or at least modified by the forming process in particular are problematic.
In classical continuum mechanics, the material behaviour is described by phenom
enological laws; the inner structure of the material is not considered in detail. Today,
the available CPU’s have reached a performance level that allows us to take the micro
scopic behaviour into account as in texture analysis (see Figure 7.1). Thus, it seems
possible to develop constitutive laws based on an improved physical basis and to use
them in FiniteElement calculations.
7.2 The Model of Microscopic Structures
7.2.1 The scale of observation
In papers on texture analysis and on theories of polycrystals, the expressions ‘micro
scopic’ and ‘macroscopic’are often used. It is thus necessary to define the scale of ob
servation. The resolving power of the microscopic observer is usefully described by the
131
* Universita¨t Hannover, Institut fu¨r Mechanik, Appelstraße 11, D30167 Hannover, Germany
Plasticity of Metals: Experiments, Models, Computation. Collaborative Research Centres.
Edited by E. Steck, R. Ritter, U. Peil, A. Ziegenbein
Copyright © 2001 WileyVCH Verlag GmbH
ISBNs: 3527277285 (Softcover); 3527600116 (Electronic)
following definition. The observer knows the physical phenomenon and mechanism of
slipping, but he is not able to locate the area of slipping in the grain. Thus, if slipping
occurs, he is forced to treat it as a homogeneous in the graindistributed action. This
also means that all points of the grain are describable by only one stress tensor or ve
locity gradient.
The expressions ‘macroscopic’, ‘global’ or ‘polycrystal’ are not related to a de
formed body of a special form; they refer to a volume of many crystals. This volume is
often called a control volume or representative volume, which is large compared with
the microscopic scale. Although it consists of many crystals, it is small in contrast to
any deformed body. Thus, a deformed specimen consists of many representative vol
umes. To start calculations in the interior of the representative volume, one is forced to
have some state quantities of the macroscopic scale as well as of the microscopic scale.
The macroscopic information could be a velocity gradient, for example.
7.2.2 Basic slip mechanism in single crystals
The plastic deformation of a single crystal is assumed to be caused only by slipping in
certain slip systems. A slip system consists of a slip direction and a slip plane. The
planes and directions are determined by the structure of the crystal. In facecentred cu
bic crystals, e. g., the primary slip systems are formed by the {111} planes and the
¸110) directions. Plastic deformation by slipping of a system is only possible if the
shear stress s on the slip system exceeds a critical value s
c
. The deformation gradient,
F and the velocity gradient L, relative to a lattice fixed frame, are then given by:
F = I ÷c
(s
¸m
T
) and L = _ c
(s
¸m
T
) ; (1)
where s
and m
are the orthogonal lattice vectors of the slip direction and the slip
plane. The magnitude of shear in the active slip system is called c
. The equations
7 The Influence of Large Torsional Prestrain on the Texture Development
132
Figure 7.1: View of material structure in continuum mechanics and in texture analysis.
above are only valid if single slip occurs, but generally more than one slip system will
be operating simultaneously. The appropriate equations for multislip follow for the ve
locity gradient by superposition of single slips:
L =
_ c
(s
¸m
T
) : (2)
Nevertheless an analogue treatment of the deformation gradient F is not valid. Further
more, when the elastic distortion of the lattice is considered as well, the expressions be
come more complicated because the distorted lattice vectors must be used for an appro
priate formulation (see e. g. Havner [1]).
7.2.3 Treatment of polycrystals
The main problem of modelling crystal structures is not the formulation for the single
crystal. It is more difficult to find a suitable averaging method to obtain the properties
of the polycrystal. The interactions of the crystals at their grain boundaries during their
deformation are so complex that there are still some simplifications necessary to make
the problem mathematically treatable.
Several texture models have been developed to deal with this problem. Some of
them ignore the grain interactions, while others try to consider them in different ways.
The first and basic models are those of Sachs [2] and Taylor [3, 4]. Simulations based
on the Taylor model show better results compared with textures measured in experi
ments. It is therefore till now often the basis of texture simulations. Generally, most
methods differ from each other in terms of whether the homogeneity of deformations
or the homogeneity of stresses are partly or completely satisfied. A comprehensive
overview of modelling plastic deformation of polycrystals is given in [5].
All texture models require some basic data of the microscopic scale. Usually, at
least the following specifications are considered:
• The polycrystal consists of N
j
crystallites with equal volume. No restrictions about
the grain form are made.
• The orientation of each crystal is given by the Eulerian angles u
1
, y and u
2
. No in
formation about the arrangement of the crystals in the polycrystal is available.
• The elastic constants of the single crystals are given as well as the slip systems in
cluding their critical shear stresses. The assumption of the known critical shear
stresses presents a problem in practice.
7.2.4 The Taylor theory in an appropriate version
The Taylor model, often called FullConstrained model, is the most often used texture
model. The fundamental assumption of the model is that in each crystal, five slip sys
7.2 The Model of Microscopic Structures
133
tems are activated in a way such that the microscopic velocity gradient for the incom
pressible flow is identical with the global one:
grad V = L = A
T
j
5
=1
_ c
(s
¸m
T
)
( A
{z}
microscopic
A
j
÷X
j
with X
j
= A
_
T
j
A
j
: (3)
The expression X
j
= A
_ T
j
A
j
given by the transformation tensor A and its time deriva
tive A
_
is most important. This is the lattice spin of the crystal. To solve the problem,
the equation is decomposed in symmetric and antimetric parts, D and W, respectively.
Thus, if the global velocity gradient is given, the symmetric part can be solved as a set
of linear equations. This leads to 384 possible solutions in the case of 12 slip systems.
The correct solution is the one, which minimizes the internal power of the grain. Espe
cially, if the critical shear stresses are equal on all slip systems, this selection criterion
is not unique, and all combinations of five slip systems that lead to internal power in
side a tolerance limit are supposed to be active. As more than five slip systems operate
simultaneously, this is an extension of the Taylor theory. Another way to solve the am
biguous problem is to vary the initial critical shear stresses with a random generator.
This solution is not a restriction of the model; in some cases, it might improve the
quality of the texture models.
If the magnitude of shear is known for all slip systems, the lattice spin is given
by:
X
j
= W ÷A
T
12
=1
_ c
ges
(s
¸m
T
÷m
¸s
T
)
( A
A
j
; (4)
hence, A
_
j
can be calculated. Integration of Equation (3) leads to the new orientation of
the lattice. Finally, the microscopic stresses can be calculated with the known slip sys
tems. A macroscopic stress tensor and also a mean spin tensor are obtained by aver
aging the crystal data.
Normally the hardening of the crystal is considered by a law of the form:
_ s
c
= f
12
l=1
c
l
; c
b
; _ u
m
2 3
; b; l ÷ [1; . . . ; 12[ ; (5)
which must be evaluated after each step of calculation. Some examples for suitable
hardening laws can be found in [6] and [1]. The calculations documented in [6] also
show that the hardening law strongly effects the stress response and has hardly any in
fluence on the texture development of the polycrystal.
7 The Influence of Large Torsional Prestrain on the Texture Development
134
{z}
macroscopic
7.3 Initial Orientation Distributions
For a practical comparison of measured and calculated textures, the initial orientations
of the crystals should be measured as single orientations of single grains or as nondis
cretized orientation distribution function (ODF). In theoretically based works and re
search projects, it is quite normal to start the calculation with an isotropic state. There
fore, it is necessary to generate a distribution with initial global isotropic properties.
7.3.1 Criteria of isotropy
Before initial orientations can be used for numerical simulations, it is necessary to
check whether an initial isotropy is actually guaranteed and not only orthotropy. Many
criteria can be used to check this although not all of them are sufficient. In [7], e. g.,
the components of the average elastic stiffness tensor were regarded. But for small de
viations from the isotropy configuration, there can be remarkable deviations of the elas
tic modulus for different directions of loading. In [6], the plastic isotropy is proved by
calculating the yield surfaces of the single crystals. If all these yield surfaces are regu
larly distributed in the stress plane, the distribution is thought to be isotropic. This
approach considers only the first possible slip system, and if multislip occurs, the iso
tropy might not be satisfied. It therefore seems to be best to introduce an isotropy test,
which checks the elastic properties as well as the plastic properties under consideration
of multislip.
A suitable test of the elastic isotropy is to calculate the average elastic stiffness ten
sor. The method introduced by Hill [8], which leads to good estimations in the case of
randomly distributed crystals, seems to be the simplest and best method of approxima
tion. A quantity denoting the elastic anisotropy of an orientation distribution may be:
A
E
=
E
max
÷ E
min
E
¸111)
÷ E
¸100)
A
E
= 0 = elastic isotropy;
A
E
= 1 = single crystal isotropy ;
(6)
where the maximum difference of the calculated average elastic modulus is related to
the corresponding data of the single crystal. Thus, the value is independent of the
constants of the single crystal and only the quality of the distribution is assessed. In the
case of ideal isotropy, the quantity A
E
will vanish. A helpful visualization is to draw
the elastic properties of different directions as a body of elastic moduli. Here, distribu
tions with lower quality, concerning isotropy, show remarkable deviations from the
ideal spherical form.
The Taylor model is an ideal tool to check the plastic properties under considera
tion of multislip because at least five slip systems are active. The function
f
AP
(e) = 1 ÷ A
P
(e) with A
P
(e) =
[r
1l
(e) ÷r
2l
(e)[
s
c
(7)
7.3 Initial Orientation Distributions
135
can be used to judge the plastic properties. A
P
is the ratio of the differences of stresses
orthogonal to the tension direction to a mean value of the critical shear stress. In the
best case of isotropy, the function will reach f
AP
(e) = 1\e, and the accompanying plot
will show a sphere.
7.3.2 Strategies for isotropic distributions
A special strategy is only required if the distribution should consist of as few crystals
as possible. But given a later implementation of such a texturebased constitutive law
in a FiniteElement program, this should always be the aim.
Several authors use random distributions generated with the help of a random
generator. Unfortunately, these distributions are only usuable, considering the isotropy,
if they consist of many orientations (>1000). Distributions created by a proper strategy
are generally better than distributions generated randomly when the number of orienta
tions is equal.
Several strategies are based on a discretization of the Euler space. Here, the space
built from the possible combinations of Euler angles is discretized. On account of the
crystal symmetry, it is not necessary to consider the entire Euler space; a small portion
is sufficient. For cubic crystal symmetry and orthorhombic symmetry of the specimen,
the relevant Euler space was given by Pospiech [9]. Unfortunately, this field has a non
linear boundary and therefore it is not easy to discretize it. Mu¨ller [6] and Harren [7]
use a corresponding discretization and obtain distributions of 32. . . 128 and 385 orien
tations, respectively. Isotropy is not satisfied in every case, but the distributions of Mu¨l
ler [6] are better although they consist of fewer orientations.
Asaro and Needlemann [10] and Harren and Asaro [11] use a combination of spe
cific method and random distribution. The unit triangle of the stereographic projection
is used to fix one of the global axes. The attachment of the base in space is done with
an angle given by a random generator. Figure 7.2 shows the elastic properties calcu
lated with data given in [11].
The distributions show a noticeable anisotropy, which is assumed to be caused by
the random generator. The method was used again to check the plastic isotropy with
the result that all distributions obtained had better properties than the original ones.
Another method is given by Mu¨ller [6], who discretized the surface of a sphere to
obtain the positions of local basis vectors. This method leads to distributions of good
quality (see e. g. Figure 7.3), but it is always combined with the problem of the spheri
cal geometry.
This problem can be avoided if one takes the area of a circle for discretization and
obtains the points on the sphere by an equal area projection. A detailed description of the
method is given in [12]. The quality of the distributions naturally depends on the division
of the area and on the number of orientations, but for the same number of orientations, the
isotropy is better or at least comparable to that of the socalled Kugel distributions. Fig
ure 7.4 shows the isotropy test of a distribution generated with this method. Although it
consists of only roughly one hundred orientations, the isotropy is nearly guaranteed.
7 The Influence of Large Torsional Prestrain on the Texture Development
136
7.4 Numerical Calculation of Yield Surfaces
The numerical calculation of yield surfaces with data from orientation distributions can
be carried out in many different ways. But with regard to a comparison with experi
mental data, research methods, which allow the consideration of the sequence of an ex
periment, should be preferred. Generally, all methods are averaging methods, but the
7.4 Numerical Calculation of Yield Surfaces
137
Figure 7.2: Global elastic modulus body of some distributions given in [11].
Figure 7.3: Test of isotropy of the distribution kugel192 given in [6].
Figure 7.4: Test of isotropy of the distribution kr104 given in [12].
procedure of averaging and the basic assumptions vary. The methods can be catego
rized as follows:
Static methods of averaging are based only on the Schmid law and no strain is
considered. Methods of this type are not suitable for a comparison with experimental
data, as the later are usually measured with an offset strain. In [6], a method is pro
posed based on averaging the single crystal yield surfaces. This method can also con
sider kinematic hardening when the surface lies outside the origin. Figure 7.5 shows
two yield surfaces on an initial distribution. The values of the stresses r
XX
, r
YY
and
s
XY
are related to a mean value of the critical shear stresses. This normalization is also
done in the figures below. In [13], this method is combined with some offset simula
tions. When the offset is large, the resulting yield surfaces are similar. Another method,
called MHSSS (Most Highly Stressed Slip Systems), is proposed by Toth and Kova´cs
[14]. This method uses a double averaging, first in the grain and second for the poly
crystal. It is shown in [12] that the calculated yield stress is the harmonic mean of the
five lowest possible stresses causing yielding in different slip systems. The arithmetric
or geometric mean may be used in the same way.
The classical Taylor yield surfaces are based on statics as well. The yield surfaces
shown in Figure 7.6 have been calculated by applying 80 loading paths, which are
marked by the arrows. The best and fastest method for calculating the yield surface in
this manner was introduced by Bunge [15].
Stresscontrolled methods are based on a global given stress tensor. The stress is
increased incrementally until the shear stress in one slip system exceeds the critical val
ue. It is then possible to calculate the amount of shearing that is needed for a static equi
librium with the hardening law. If the critical shear stress is not reached during a step, the
deformation is assumed to be purely elastic. After all deformations of the crystals have
been obtained, the mean value of strain is calculated. The method continues until the off
set strain is reached. Unfortunately, only the stress is given and no information about the
global velocity gradient is supplied. Therefore, antimetric parts are hardly considered. But
for small deformations (e. g. for a simulation of the elasticplastic transition), this method
may be suitable. Figure 7.7 shows initial yield surfaces of an initial kugel distribution. The
graph is due to an ideal calculation, and the symbols correspond to a calculation under
consideration of strain hardening, loading path effects and orientation alterations. The off
set strain used is 0.2%, which is a standard value in material testing. One may notice that
7 The Influence of Large Torsional Prestrain on the Texture Development
138
Figure 7.5: Initial yield surfaces calculated with the radial averaging method.
although a large offset is used, the resultant yield surfaces are smaller than the ones cal
culated with the Taylor model. Therefore, the later ones are only valid for comparison with
yield surfaces measured when a large offset strain is used.
More examples and a detailed description of this method can be found in [12].
Straincontrolled methods are based on a given deformation or velocity gradient.
In a simple manner, the yield stress of the Taylor model is calculable with a strain path
like an experiment. When the components of the global velocity gradient are given for
the stress plane considered, e. g. in the form
L
ij
= f
X
L
X
ij
÷ f
Y
L
Y
ij
with f
X
= cos b and f
Y
= sin b ; (8)
it is possible to apply the loading path desired by choosing suitable values for the an
gle b. L
X
ij
and L
Y
ij
are the tensor components of pure loading in X and Y direction, re
spectively. When b changes, the equivalent strain rate changes, too; it is therefore nec
essary to vary the time increment of the integration to achieve a constant step of
equivalent strain increment during each loading step. Thus, this method is suitable for
calculating yield surfaces as shown in Figure 7.8. Exactly 80 loading paths starting
with pure tension and then continuing counter clockwise round the stress plane are ap
plied. For comparison, the ideal Taylor yield surfaces are shown too. This model shows
the expected effect as the expanding of the yield surfaces caused by the loading path
under consideration of hardening. The hardening law used is the isotropic PAN law
with parameters proposed in [6] and the offset strain is 0.1%.
7.4 Numerical Calculation of Yield Surfaces
139
Figure 7.6: Initial yield surfaces calculated with the Taylor model.
Figure 7.7: Initial yield surfaces calculated with a stresscontrolled method.
When kinematic hardening is considered, the yield surfaces become distorted and
may not be closed.
The only disadvantage is that the classical Taylor theory starts with the full plastic
material state. Thus, the elasticplastic transition is not taken into consideration. A bet
ter method might be the Lin model [16], which similar to the Taylor model assumes
that all crystals have the same strain. Furthermore, nearly the same hardening law can
be used. This method is used in [6] for the calculation of offsetstrain dependent yield
surfaces. The disadvantage is the small deformation area of application. Thus, it is not
useful for texture simulations. The problem is discussed further in [12], and it is shown
that the numerical evaluation can be simplified without restrictions.
7.5 Experimental Investigations
The aim of the experimental investigations was to measure yield surfaces of large pre
strained materials. The large deformation was achieved with a torsiontesting machine
at the Institut fu¨r Mechanik of the Universita¨t Hannover. The measurement of the yield
surfaces was done with a testing machine at the Institut fu¨r Stahlbau of the Technische
Universita¨t Braunschweig. The material of the specimens was always the aluminium al
loy AlMg
3
.
7.5.1 Prestraining of the specimens
The prestraining of the specimens was achieved with a torsiontesting machine, further
described in [12]. In order to measure yield surfaces after the deformation, it was nec
essary to twist thin walled tubular specimens. The final nominal length, inside diameter
and wall thickness of each specimen, were 60 mm, 24 mm and 2 mm, respectively. If
the accuracy of the manufactured specimen is high (e. g. by using a CNCcontrolled
lathe), large deformations without buckling can be achieved. To prevent buckling and
7 The Influence of Large Torsional Prestrain on the Texture Development
140
Figure 7.8: Initial yield surfaces calculated with a straincontrolled Taylor simulation.
to ensure that the cylindrical form of the specimens was maintained, a lubricated man
drel was inserted inside the specimens. A maximal amount of shear of
c
a
= tan w = 1:5 could be reached with that configuration, where w describes the angle
of an axial direction on the surface of the specimen after the deformation. That means
a twist of about 360 degrees for the specimens. The elongation of the specimen was
not suppressed with the result that an elongation always occurred, which nearly de
pended linearly from the twisting angle in agreement with the research done by Po¨h
landt [17] with specimens of aluminium. The maximal elongation was D` = 1:25 mm.
Since the measurement of the yield surfaces was done in another apparatus, the speci
mens were fully unloaded after the torsional deformation.
7.5.2 Yieldsurface measurement
Four different material states have been investigated: specimens without any prestrain and
ones with c
a
=0.5, c
a
=1.0 and c
a
=1.5 magnitudes of shear. The testing apparatus was a
straincontrolled machine with the capability of combined tensiontorsion loadings. The
yield point of the material was detected with the offset strain definition. In all tests, one
specimen was used for 16 loading paths, starting with pure tension and then continuing
counter clockwise round the rsplane. This was done for three reasons. First, this re
duced the costs of specimens. Second, it was not guaranteed that the prestrain is reprodu
cible and last, the multipath measurement data are needed for the comparison with the
theoretical models. These data are ideal to check whether the texture model including
the hardening law is able to describe the material behaviour during such a loading history.
The interpretation of the data measured is based on an additive decomposition of
the total strain increment in an elastic and a plastic part. If the total strain increment is
given by the testing machine, the plastic parts of it are given by:
De
pl
= De
ges
÷
Dr
E
and Dc
pl
= Dc
ges
÷
Ds
G
(9)
when the constants E and G are known. In determining the yield surface, the offset von
Mises equivalent plastic strain was computed using the equation:
De
vM
pl
=
De
2
pl
÷
1
3
Dc
2
pl
r
: (10)
The yielding point was reached when the calculated plastic strain exceeded the given
offset strain:
De
vM
pl
_ e
off
; (11)
where offsets between 0.0015% and 0.1% have been used. It is essential for the offset
definition that the values of E and G are known with high accuracy. Otherwise, large
7.5 Experimental Investigations
141
errors may be the result. If E is measured too large, the resultant yield stress will be
smaller than the real one. In an extreme case, yielding is supposed although the
material is still in the elastic state. On the other hand, if E is measured too small, the
resultant yield stress will be larger than the real one. The shear modulus G has an ap
propriate influence. This possible error in determining the yield stress increases with
decreasing offset. Data obtained by using very small offsets should therefore be treated
with caution.
The determination of the elastic constants E and G is normally done with the first
measured points of a new loading path. The best way is to calculate the regression
coefficients. Although the regression coefficient in the elastic range should always be
constant, that is practically not the case. It always varies in a small range depending on
the number of considered measuring points as shown in Figure 7.9.
Thus, if another number of measuring points is selected for calculating the modu
lus E, the resultant value E and as a consequence also the resultant yield stress will be
changed. This is an especially critical case for the modulus E; the shear modulus G
shows better relations.
7.5.3 Tensile test of a prestrained specimen
This test was done to investigate the appearance of the crosseffect. A crosseffect is
given when the maximum yield stress in the tensile component of stress is altered by
the strain hardening in torsion and vice versa. Normally, the crosseffect and related is
sues are investigated by the measurement of yield surfaces when the plastic deforma
tion at most reaches the usually small offset strain. This tensile test was realized to in
vestigate the crosseffect on a larger scale.
Two tensile test specimens DIN 50125B 10×50 have therefore been produced,
one of nearly isotropy material and the other of prestrained material. Hence, a cylindri
cal specimen was twisted up to fracture, which occurs at a shear rate of c
a
=1.65. The
7 The Influence of Large Torsional Prestrain on the Texture Development
142
Figure 7.9: Calculated value of E in dependence on the number of used measuring points.
tensile specimen was produced from the broken rest as shown in Figure 7.10. An esti
mate led to an amount of shear of c
a
=0.55 at the radius of the final test specimen, but
as a result of the processing, the two specimens were not distinguishable. The result of
the tensile test is shown as a diagram of force and elongation in Figure 7.10.
Additionally, some mechanical properties are given in Figure 7.10. As expected,
the prestrained material is more brittle compared with the other one. Furthermore, the
mechanical strength properties are greater than those of the unstrained specimen. Val
ues never reachable for the unstrained specimen were obtained. This shows that there is
a remarkable crosseffect.
7.5.4 Measured yield surfaces
Some measured yield surfaces are presented below. Detailed discussions and further in
vestigations about the crosseffect and the loading path are given in [12].
First, it is remarkable that 0.0015% was the smallest practicable offsetstrain for
the unstrained specimens, while this value was too small for the prestrained specimens.
There were several runaways among the data measured and therefore the smallest off
set was chosen to 0.005%. A larger one of 0.05% was also chosen for comparison.
Other offsets were only used for unique specimens.
Figure 7.11 shows the measured yield surfaces of unstrained specimens with in
creasing offset.
As expected, the yield surfaces have an elliptical form and for small values, the
axial ratio r/s is closely to the von Mises yield surface. This ratio, however, increases
with increasing offset as well. The data obtained from the largest offset used show an
expansion of the surface, which is surely caused by the specific loading path and the
large offset of 0.1% inducing significant plastic deformation.
7.5 Experimental Investigations
143
Figure 7.10: Tensile test of pre and unstrained material.
A comparison of yield surfaces of prestrained specimens is given in Figure 7.12.
There are remarkable concave areas, which seem to disappear for the more pre
strained specimens. This is causually connected with the loading path because in the
second and third quadrant, no such areas occur. On the other hand, this concave area is
due to the first measured point and, therefore, it is the first loading differing from the
torsional preloading. This might be an important fact. Furthermore, the surfaces show a
hardening with increasing degree of prestrain. There is a significant distortion, a flatten
ing of the portion of the surface opposite the loading direction, and a kinematic harden
ing or a socalled Bauschinger effect occurs.
When the large offset is applied, the most remarkable characteristics disappear.
the yield surfaces shown in Figure 7.13 are ellipses slightly shifted in the loading direc
tion. Furthermore, a hardening with increasing degree of prestraining is noticeable. Ex
ceptionally, the yield surface of the unstrained specimen is measured with an alternate
loading path, which does not affect the shape strongly.
7 The Influence of Large Torsional Prestrain on the Texture Development
144
Figure 7.11: Yield surfaces of unstrained specimens.
Figure 7.12: Yield surfaces of prestrained specimens (small offset strain).
Figures 7.12 and 7.13 show that it is often difficult to assign the characteristics
observed. One may ask if the effects are due to the prestraining or to the parameters of
the measurement. Especially, the loading path for each specimen could be the cause of
some effects. In order to investigate the influence of these parameters, some specimens
were applied to the measure procedure three times. First, the small offset was used;
then the larger one and finally again the small offset. The resultant properties of the un
strained material are shown in Figure 7.14, where only the surfaces measured with the
small offset are presented. The data measured characterized by the * is of the third
measurement of this specimen. Thus, an influence of the loading path can be seen be
cause this yield surface is slightly shifted to the direction of the last loading of the pre
vious path with the large offset.
In fact, there is an influence of the loading path, which does not seem to be too
large because the form of the surface is not affected.
Surprisingly, the prestrained material shows a very different behaviour. In Fig
ure 7.15, correspondent measurement of a specimen prestrained up to c
a
=0.5 is shown.
7.5 Experimental Investigations
145
Figure 7.13: Yield surfaces of prestrained specimens (large offset strain).
Figure 7.14: Influence of the loading path (unstrained material).
The first surface measured with the small offset shows the properties already de
tected in Figure 7.12. The second has nearly an elliptical form. The third surface, mea
sured with the small offset, is a slightly shifted ellipse. Considering the previous yield
surface, the third one shows properties as expected, but compared with the first one,
there are hardly any common characteristics. Form, size and position have changed re
markably. Thus, the prestrained specimens are very sensitive to further deformations
compared with the unstrained ones.
7.5.5 Discussion of the results
The measurement of yield surfaces is not problematic for unstrained specimens even
when small offset strains are used. The data are reproducible and if the offset is small,
there is only a small influence caused by the loading path.
On the other hand, the prestrained specimens were very sensitive. When the form
of the yield surface is not known, it is difficult to identify runaway data and to assign
the effects to parameters of the measure procedure. An amplification of these effects is
due to the problem of determination of the correct elastic modulus.
In comparison with similar investigations (e. g. in [18–24]) agreement as well as
different results can be found.
7.6 Conclusion
In several investigations, the models of polycrystals are based on the motivation that
these models lead to better results in simulating the distortion of yield surfaces. The
7 The Influence of Large Torsional Prestrain on the Texture Development
146
Figure 7.15: Influence of the loading path (prestrained material).
distortion and the resultant anisotropy are often assumed to be caused by the orienta
tion distribution of the single crystals in the material.
The results presented prove that especially prestrained material is very sensitive to
small deformation. This means that the principle form of the yield surface is strongly
sensitive to small plastic deformations. Since this small deformation hardly affects the
texture of the material, it must be assumed that the texture is not the real cause for the
distortion of the yield surface. Additional events and mechanisms must occur in the
material during any plastic deformation.
Further investigations on the numerical calculation of yield surfaces will be under
taken. Especially the question concerning, which method leads to results similar to the
surfaces measured and what kind of microscopic hardening law is needed, will be con
sidered. The fact that almost all parameters of the hardening law must be identified by
the mechanical properties of the polycrystal is problematic. At least, one should be able
to identify all these parameters with standard methods in material testing. Otherwise, it
does not make sense to use microscopicbased material laws. The final aim is to do the
calculation first and then proceed in manufacturing. The other way of doing an experi
ment first and then trying to reach the same results in simulation may be practicable
for research projects, but this is surely not senseful for practical applications.
Finally, a search for a texture model to describe small deformations as well as
large deformations and all this in an acceptable calculation time will be undertaken.
Then, an implementation in a FiniteElement program may be useful.
References
[1] K. S. Havner: Finite Plastic Deformation of Crystalline Solids. University Press, Cam
bridge, 1992.
[2] G. Sachs: Zur Ableitung einer Fließbedingung. Zeitschrift des Vereins deutscher Ingenieure
72 (1928) 734–736.
[3] G. I. Taylor: Plastic Strain in Metals. J. Inst. Metals 62 (1938) 307–323.
[4] G. I. Taylor: Analysis of Plastic Strain in Cubic Crystals. In: J. M. Lessels (Ed.): Stephen
Timoshenko 60th Anniversary Volume, 1938, pp. 307–323.
[5] E. Aernoudt, P. van Houtte, T. Leffers: Deformation and Textures of Metals at Large
Strains. In: H. Mughrabi (Ed.): Plastic Deformation and Fracture of Materials, Vol. 6 of
Materials Science and Technology: A Comprehensive Treatment (Vol.Eds.: R. W. Cahn, P.
Haasen, E. J. Kramer), VCH, Weinheim, 1993, pp. 89–136.
[6] M. Mu¨ller: Plastische Anisotropie polykristalliner Materialien als Folge der Texturentwick
lung. VDI Fortschrittsberichte Reihe 11: Mechanik/Bruchmechanik, VDIVerlag, Du¨ssel
dorf, 1993.
[7] S. V. Harren: The Finite Deformation of RateDependent Polycrystals: I. A SelfConsistent
Framework. J. Mech. Phys. Solids 39 (1991) 345–360.
[8] R. Hill: The Elastic Behaviour of a Crystalline Aggregate. Proc. Phys. Soc. London A 65
(1952) 349–354.
[9] J. Pospiech: Symmetry Analysis in the Space of Euler Angles. In: H. J. Bunge, C. Esling
(Eds.): Quantitative Texture Analysis, 1982.
References
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[10] R. J. Asaro, A. Needlemann: Texture Development and Strain Hardening in Rate Dependent
Polycrystals. Acta. metall. 33 (1985) 923–953.
[11] S. V. Harren, R. J. Asaro: Nonuniform Deformations in Polycrystals and the Aspects of the
Validity of the Taylor Model. J. Mech. Phys. Solids 37 (1989) 191–232.
[12] N. WellerdickWojtasik: Theoretische und experimentelle Untersuchungen zur Fließfla¨chen
entwicklung bei großen Scherdeformationen. Dissertation Universita¨t Hannover, 1997.
[13] D. Besdo, M. Mu¨ller: The Influence of Texture Development on the Plastic Behaviour of
Polycrystals. In: D. Besdo, E. Stein (Eds.): Finite Inelastic Deformations – Theory and Ap
plications. IUTAM Symposium Hannover/Germany 1991, SpringerVerlag, Berlin, Heidel
berg, 1992, pp. 135–144.
[14] L. S. Toth, I. Kova´cs: A New Method for Calculation of the Plastic Properties of Fibre Tex
tures Materials for the Case of Simultaneous Torsion and Extension. In: J. S. Kallend, G.
Gottstein (Eds.): Proc. 8th Int. Conf. on Textures of Materials ICOTOM, 1988.
[15] H. J. Bunge: Texture Analysis in Materials Science. Cuvillier, Go¨ttingen, 1993.
[16] T. H. Lin: Analysis of Elastic and Plastic Strains of a FaceCentered Cubic Crystal. J.
Mech. Phys. Solids 5 (1957) 143–149.
[17] K. Po¨hlandt: Beitrag zur Optimierung der Probengestalt und zur Auswertung des Torsions
versuches. Dissertation TU Braunschweig, 1977.
[18] P. M. Nagdhi, F. Essenburg, W. Koff: An Experimental Study of Initial and Subsequent
Yield Surfaces in Plasticity. J. Appl. Mech. 25 (1958) 201–209.
[19] H. J. Ivey: Plastic StressStrain Relations and Yield Surfaces for Aluminium Alloys. J.
Mech. Engng. Sci. 3 (1961) 15–31.
[20] W. M. Mair, H. L. D. Pugh: Effect of Prestrain on Yield Surfaces in Copper. J. Mech.
Engng. Sci. 6 (1964) 150–163.
[21] J. F. Williams, N. L. Svensson: Effect of Torsional Prestrain of the Yield Locus of 1100F
Aluminium. Journal of Strain Analysis 6 (1971) 263–272.
[22] A. Phillips, C. S. Liu, J. W. Justusson: An Experimental Investigation of Yield Surfaces at
Elevated Temperatures. Acta Mechanica 14 (1972) 119–146.
[23] P. Cayla, J. P. Cordebois: Experimental Studies of Yield Surfaces of Aluminium Alloy and
Low Carbon Steel under Complex Biaxial Loadings. Preprints of MECAMAT 92, Interna
tional Seminar on Multiaxial Plasticity, 1992, pp. 1–17.
[24] A. S. Khan, X. Wang: An Experimental Study on Subsequent Yield Surface after Finite
Shear Prestraining. Int. J. of Plasticity 9 (1993) 889–905.
7 The Influence of Large Torsional Prestrain on the Texture Development
148
8 Parameter Identification of Inelastic Deformation
Laws Analysing Inhomogeneous StressStrain States
Reiner Kreißig, Jochen Naumann, Ulrich Benedix, Petra Bormann,
Gerald Grewolls and Sven Kretzschmar*
8.1 Introduction
The rapid development of numerical mechanics has resulted in
• an increased need for the identification of material parameters,
• new procedures, developed to solve these problems.
A common property of material parameters consists in the fact that they could not be
measured directly.
The classical method of the determination of material parameters is to demand a
quite good agreement between measured data from properly chosen experiments and
comparative data taken from numerical analysis. This will be carried out by the optimi
zation of a leastsquares functional.
Furtherly, the parameter identification based on experiments with inhomogeneous
stressstrain fields, the usage of global and local comparative quantities in the objective
function and optimization by deterministic methods will be described.
8.2 General Procedure
In addition to classical materialtesting methods, current research is done to identify
material parameters of inelastic deformation laws by the experimental and theoretical
analysis of inhomogeneous strain and stress fields. A new method is the parameter
identification using the comparison of numerical results obtained by the FiniteElement
149
* Technische Universita¨t Chemnitz, Institut fu¨r Mechanik, Straße der Nationen 62,
D09009 Chemnitz, Germany
Plasticity of Metals: Experiments, Models, Computation. Collaborative Research Centres.
Edited by E. Steck, R. Ritter, U. Peil, A. Ziegenbein
Copyright © 2001 WileyVCH Verlag GmbH
ISBNs: 3527277285 (Softcover); 3527600116 (Electronic)
method with experimental data, for instance, with displacement fields measured by op
tical techniques [1–7]. The papers [1–4] were realized within the Collaborative Re
search Centre (Sonderforschungsbereich 319).
Unlike this FiniteElement algorithm based method, in this paper, another proce
dure is presented to identify material parameters of inelastic deformation laws. The
principle consists in the experimental determination of the strain distributions in the li
gament of a notched bending specimen at several load steps and the numerical integra
tion of the deformation law at a certain number of points along the ligament with mea
sured strain increments as load. The actual material parameters can be found using the
global equilibrium of the stresses integrated along the ligament with the known exter
nal loads. Besides also local quantities, for instance, the stresses in the grooves of the
notch could be compared. A detailed scheme of this procedure is shown in Figure 8.1.
Below constitutive equations, in the framework of the classical plasticity and
materials as sheet metals or metal plates are studied. The elastic properties should be
isotropic. Viscoplastic effects are neglected. An initial anisotropy, especially a planar
orthotropy is taken into account.
8.3 The Deformation Law of Inelastic Solids
As an example, the deformation law of classical plasticity theory with small strains as
used in the material subroutines of the integration algorithm (cf. Section 8.6.1) will be
considered. At the yield limit holds the yield condition:
F(r; h; p) = 0 : (1)
The linear elasticity law
_ r = E_ e (2)
is valid for loads in the elastic domain
F < 0 or F = 0 and _ r
T
qF
qr
= _ e
T
E
T
qF
qr
< 0 : (3)
For loads into the plastic domain
F = 0 and _ r
T
qF
qr
= _ e
T
C
T
qF
qr
> 0 ; (4)
the deformation law becomes:
_ e = _ e
el
÷ _ e
pl
= E
÷1
_ r ÷
_
k
qF
qr
: (5)
8 Parameter Identification of Inelastic Deformation Laws
150
In this case, the inner variables are assumed to develop in accordance with:
_
h =
_
kq(r; h; p) : (6)
The material stiffness matrix C(r; h; p) arises from Equation (5) by elimination of
_
k
with the help of the consistency condition.
8.2 The Deformation Law of Inelastic Solids
151
Figure 8.1: Scheme for the identification of material parameters by bending tests.
8.4 Bending of Rectangular Beams
8.4.1 Principle
The simultaneous determination of the uniaxial stressstrain curves for tension and com
pression by bending test is known since 1910 [8]. On the other hand, examples for ap
plication were relatively rare publicated [9–11]. Here, this technique is applied to ana
lyse the material properties in the delivery state. Besides, it was developed to calculate
the initial yield surface (Figure 8.2).
8.4.2 Experimental technique
Test material for the own investigation was the stainless steel X6CrNiTi 18.10, which
exhibits a gradual transition from the elastic to the plastic behaviour. All specimens
were made from one and the same metal plate with a thickness of 6 mm.
It is assumed that the sheet metal has a planar orthotropy coming from the produc
tion process. To determine these initially anisotropic material properties, two specimens
are prepared, the axes of which are parallel to the orthotropy directions (Figure 8.3).
Bending tests, being able to provide yield curves and the initial yield surface,
were carried out in a specially constructed fourpoint bending device positioned in a
conventional 100 kN material testing machine. The longitudinal forces in the specimens
can be neglected because the four loads are easily moveable in horizontal direction
with the increasing deformation (Figure 8.4).
8 Parameter Identification of Inelastic Deformation Laws
152
Figure 8.2: General procedure for the investigation of initial material properties.
All tests were made at a velocity of 0.108 mm/min and at a maximum strain rate
of about 10
–5
s
–1
.
The axial and lateral strains at the outer fibres of the bending beams were mea
sured with highelongation strain gages up to maximum strains of 5%. In separate ex
tensive investigations, the measuring accuracy of strain gages was analysed at higher
strains using the Moire´ technique as an experimental reference method. As result, equa
8.4 Bending of Rectangular Beams
153
Figure 8.3: Specimen geometry for bending beams.
Figure 8.4: Device for fourpointbending.
tions for the determination of strain in the elasticplastic region were obtained, whereas
in the elastic region, the producer’s strain gage factor can be used [12, 13].
As an example for the primary experimental results, the measured curves for the
bending moment and the strains at the outer fibres are shown in Figure 8.5.
The high density of data and the smoothness of the curves are a good basis for
evaluation. A maximum strain level of about 0.5% is sufficient to determine initial
material properties and to study the elasticplastic transition.
8 Parameter Identification of Inelastic Deformation Laws
154
Figure 8.5: Experimental results in pure bending of a rectangular beam: a) bending moment; b)
strains at the outer fibres (C compression, T tension).
8.4.3 Evaluation
8.4.3.1 Determination of the yield curves
The following fundamental assumptions are made for the evaluation of elasticplastic
pure bending tests:
• The crosssectional areas remain plane.
• The stress state is uniaxial.
The trapezoidshaped distortion of the crosssection is taken into account, but the defor
mations should be only moderate so that the stress states can be assumed as uniaxial.
In pure bending, the distribution of the usual technical strain e = (l ÷ l
0
)=l
0
is a
linear function of the coordinate y at the deformed beam (Figure 8.6):
e
x
(y) = ÷jy j =
1
h
(e
T
x
÷ e
C
x
) (7)
with j as the curvature of the neutral axis. Then, the bending stress curve is an image
of the uniaxial stressstrain relation of the material (Figure 8.6).
The equivalence between the bending stresses r
x
and the bending moment M
b
and the longitudinal force N = 0, respectively, requires:
M
b
(j) = ÷
_
h
C
(j)
÷h
T
(j)
r
x
(y)b(y)ydy =
1
j
2
_
e
T
x
(j)
e
C
x
(j)
r
x
(e
x
)b(e
x
)e
x
de
x
; (8)
N(j) =
_
h
C
(j)
÷h
T
(j)
r
x
(y)b(y)dy = ÷
1
j
_
e
T
x
(j)
e
C
x
(j)
r
x
(e
x
)b(e
x
)de
x
= 0 : (9)
8.4 Bending of Rectangular Beams
155
Figure 8.6: Strain and stress in a rectangular beam under pure bending.
In Equations (8) and (9), r
x
(e
x
) represents the uniaxial yield curves for tension and
compression. The actual width b of the beam at the coordinate y can be transformed in
b(e
x
) = b
0
[1 ÷ e
z
(e
x
)[ with b
0
as the initial width of the rectangular crosssection.
Differentiation of Equations (8) and (9) with respect to the parameter j gives:
(1 ÷ e
T
z
)e
T
x
de
T
x
dj
r
T
x
÷ (1 ÷ e
C
z
)e
C
x
de
C
x
dj
r
C
x
=
j
b
0
2M ÷ j
dM
dj
_ _
; (10)
(1 ÷ e
T
z
)
de
T
x
dj
r
T
x
÷ (1 ÷ e
C
z
)
de
C
x
dj
r
C
x
= 0 ; (11)
and from there, the stresses r
T
x
(e
T
x
) and r
C
x
(e
C
x
) in the outer fibres:
r
T;C
x
=
1
b
0
h
0
2M ÷ j
dM
dj
de
T;C
x
dj
1
h
h
0
(1 ÷ e
T;C
z
)
(12)
depending on the curvature j. In Equation (12), e
T
x
(j) and e
C
x
(j) represent the corre
sponding strains in the outer fibres of the bending beam.
In contrast to the former works [8–11], the last term in Equation (12) reflects the
trapezoidshaped distortion of the crosssection and takes into account anisotropic, espe
cially orthotropic material behaviour. The quantity h=h
0
in this term can be determined by:
h
h
0
=
e
T
x
÷ e
C
x
j
_
h
C
÷h
T
dy
1 ÷ e
y
(y)
=
e
T
x
÷ e
C
x
_
e
T
e
C
(1 ÷ e
x
)[1 ÷ e
z
(e
x
)[de
x
(13)
assuming incompressibility for the total strains.
In Equation (12), the denominator causes different yield curves for tension and
compression, respectively, whereas the numerator defines the general level of the stress.
These two influences are already seen in the primary experimental results of Figure 8.5.
As a first step in evaluation, the limit of the linear part in the curves of Figure 8.5
was estimated by a multiphase regression method. From these data, the elastic
constants in form of the Young’s modulus E and the Poisson’s ratio m can be easily de
termined using linear elasticity. In a second step, the data curves were approximated by
cubic spline functions. After differentiating, the stresses can be calculated numerically
point by point from Equation (12).
In Figure 8.7, stressstrain relations following from the data of Figure 8.5 are shown.
In addition to Figure 8.5, the yield curves for the whole strain range up to 5% are
presented in Figure 8.8.
The initial yield locus curve is characterized by the uniaxial yield stresses and the
directions of de
pl
in these stress points (cf. Figure 8.2). The yield stresses in tension
and compression, respectively, are defined from the stressstrain relations assuming a
relatively small offset strain of 0.1‰. The plastic strains can be calculated from the
8 Parameter Identification of Inelastic Deformation Laws
156
8.4 Bending of Rectangular Beams
157
Figure 8.7: Yield curves determined from the data of Figure 8.5.
Figure 8.8: Yield curves up to a maximum strain of 5%.
measured total strains at the outer fibres in longitudinal and transverse direction using
the incompressibility of plastic deformation and the elastic deformation law. Then, the
direction of de
pl
can be found from differentiating the curves e
pl
y
(e
pl
x
) at approximately
e
pl
x
= 0:1‰ (Figure 8.9).
8.4.3.2 Determination of the initial yieldlocus curve
From bending tests of straight specimens, the yield stresses and the directions of plastic
flow, i.e. the normal directions of the yield surface at measured yield stresses, for pure
tension and compression in x and ydirection were determined.
If one assumes a quadratic yield function, the most general expression for princi
pal stress states is the quadratic form:
f (r
x
; r
y
) = h
1
r
2
x
÷ h
2
r
x
r
y
÷ h
3
r
2
y
÷ h
4
r
x
÷ h
5
r
y
÷ h
6
= 0 : (14)
One constant is free, hence h
2
was set to be (–1) and h
6
will be positive for:
f (r
x
; r
y
) = h
1
r
2
x
÷ r
x
r
y
÷ h
3
r
2
y
÷ h
4
r
x
÷ h
5
r
y
÷ h
6
= 0 : (15)
The first part of the objective function should minimize the squares of the yield func
tion at the measured yield stresses ^ r:
8 Parameter Identification of Inelastic Deformation Laws
158
Figure 8.9: Plastic strain e
pl
y
(e
pl
x
) from the data of Figure 8.5.
y
1
=
1
2
q
f (^ r
x
(q)
; ^ r
y
(q)
)
_ _
2
÷ min : (16)
Then, the optimality condition
grad y
1
= 0 (17)
gives a system of linear equations for the constants h
1
, h
3
, h
4
, h
5
and h
6
:
[^ r
4
x
[ [^ r
2
x
^ r
2
y
[ [^ r
3
x
[ [^ r
2
x
^ r
y
[ [÷^ r
2
x
[
[^ r
2
x
^ r
2
y
[ [^ r
4
y
[ [^ r
x
^ r
2
y
[ [^ r
3
y
[ [÷^ r
2
y
[
[^ r
3
x
[ [^ r
x
^ r
2
y
[ [^ r
2
x
[ [^ r
x
^ r
y
[ [÷^ r
x
[
[^ r
2
x
^ r
y
[ [^ r
3
y
[ [^ r
x
^ r
y
[ [^ r
2
y
[ [÷^ r
y
[
[÷^ r
2
x
[ [÷^ r
2
y
[ [÷^ r
x
[ [÷^ r
y
[ [1[
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
h
1
h
3
h
4
h
5
h
6
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
=
[^ r
3
x
^ r
y
[
[^ r
x
^ r
3
y
[
[^ r
2
x
^ r
y
[
[^ r
x
^ r
2
y
[
[÷^ r
x
^ r
y
[
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
(18)
with [. . .[ =
q
(. . .). All stresses are normalized.
For yield stresses, all representing only pure tension and compression, the right
side will be zero. To overcome this, the normal directions n = (n
x
; n
y
) were taken into
a second part of the objective function:
y
2
=
1
2
q
^ n
x(q)
qF
qr
y(q)
÷ ^ n
y(q)
qF
qr
x(q)
_ _
2
÷ min : (19)
The optimality condition gives another system of linear equations for h
1
, h
3
, h
4
and h
5
:
[4^ r
2
x
^ n
2
y
[ [÷4^ r
x
^ r
y
^ n
x
^ n
y
[ [2^ r
x
^ n
2
y
[ [÷2^ r
x
^ n
z
^ n
y
[
[÷4^ r
x
^ r
y
^ n
x
^ n
y
[ [4^ r
2
y
^ n
2
x
[ [÷2^ r
y
^ n
x
^ n
y
[ [2^ r
y
^ n
2
x
[
[2^ r
x
^ n
2
y
[ [÷2^ r
y
^ n
x
^ n
y
[ [^ n
2
y
[ [÷^ n
x
^ n
y
[
[÷2^ r
x
^ n
x
^ n
y
[ [2^ r
y
^ n
2
x
[ [÷^ n
x
^ n
y
[ [^ n
2
x
[
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
h
1
h
3
h
4
h
5
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
=
[2^ r
x
^ r
y
^ n
y
[ ÷ [÷2^ r
2
y
^ n
x
^ n
y
[
[÷2^ r
2
y
^ n
x
^ n
y
[ ÷ [2^ r
x
^ r
y
^ n
2
x
[
[^ r
y
^ n
2
y
[ ÷ [÷^ r
x
^ n
x
^ n
y
[
[÷^ r
y
^ n
x
^ n
y
[ ÷ [^ r
x
^ n
2
x
[
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
: (20)
Since h
6
not occurs, this system gives only information about the shape of the ellipse
but not of its extension. Now, we superpose the two parts of the objective function un
der consideration of weighting factors. The weighting factors were chosen to be reci
procal to the variance of measured stresses and normal directions, respectively:
y =
1
s
2
(r)
y
1
÷
1
s
2
(n)
y
2
: (21)
8.4 Bending of Rectangular Beams
159
The approximated initial yieldlocus curve is shown in Figure 8.10.
It could be described well by a shifted von Mises yield ellipse. The initial values
of the deviatoric back stresses could be derived from the centre coordinates of the el
lipse to be
x
0
= 8:3 MPa and
y
0
= 3:2 MPa.
8.5 Bending of Notched Beams
8.5.1 Principle
Pure bending of a deeply notched specimen is a suitable test to investigate material
properties also under conditions of different plane stress states. The geometry of the
specimen is shown in Figure 8.11.
The shape of specimen was optimized to get large ratios r
y
=r
x
of the principal
stresses in the material particles lying in the ligament. Bending tests have the advan
8 Parameter Identification of Inelastic Deformation Laws
160
Figure 8.10: Initial yieldlocus curve: 0.01% offsetstrain, halfaxes ration a=b =
3
_
and angle
c = 458 given; r
Fo
= 218:3 MPa, r
M
x
= ÷19:8 MPa, r
M
y
= ÷14:7 MPa.
tages that with only one specimen, tension as well as compression can be analysed and
that a reversal loading can be realized easily in the experiment.
In this chapter, the determination of the strain distributions in the ligament of the
specimens for each load step is described.
8.5.2 Experimental technique
The inplane Moire´ technique, about which was reported earlier [14], was used to mea
sure the deformation of the specimens. The geometric Moire´ is based on the superposi
tion of two gratings – the deformed object grating and the reference grating. Each
Moire´ fringe, the socalled isothetic, describes the geometric location of all points with
the same Cartesian displacement component. This simple and clear fringe parameter is
reflected in the following fundamental equation:
u
x
(x; y) = pm
x
(x; y) ; (22)
where u
x
is the inplane component of the displacement vector, m
x
fringe order, p pitch
(Figure 8.12), x; y Eulerian coordinates. The preparation of the specimen (left) and a
microphotograph (right) of the object grating were presented in Figure 8.12.
Parallel to the Moire´ technique, strain gage measurements were carried out in the
grooves of notches and in the outer parts of the ligament.
As an example, the steps of loading (1–6), unloading (7) and reversal loading (8–
14) of a notched bending specimen are stated in Table 8.1.
As typical Moire´ fringe fields in Figure 8.13, the isothetics are presented for the
load step 4 from Table 8.1.
The pictures show high concentrations of the strain e
x
close to the grooves of the
notches and only small strains e
y
in the ligament. Because of that, an intense plane
stress state can be expected along the ligament.
Finally, Figure 8.14 demonstrates the remarkable effect that the deformations in the
whole specimen are removed almost completely at a defined reversal bending moment.
8.5 Bending of Notched Beams
161
Figure 8.11: Specimen geometry for notched bending beams.
8 Parameter Identification of Inelastic Deformation Laws
162
Figure 8.12: Moire´ technique.
Table 8.1: Load steps in bending of a notched specimen.
Loading Moment [Nm] Unloading Moment [Nm] Reversal loading Moment [Nm]
1 477 7 2 8 –93
2 552 9 –187
3 609 10 –273
4 655 11 –430
5 689 12 –503
6 736 13 –763
14 –817
Figure 8.13: Isothetic fields for load step 4 from Table 8.1 (left u
x
, right u
y
).
8.5.3 Approximation of displacement fields
By means of Moire´ measurements, we have got some measured values ^ u
x
(^ x
s
; ^ y
s
) and
^ u
y
(^ x
t
;^y
t
) of the displacements but at different points (^ x
s
; ^ y
s
) and (^ x
t
; ^ y
t
) for ^ u
x
and ^ u
y
,
respectively.
To determine the values at given points like needed in our case, an approximation
of the displacement fields will be done. The displacements u
x
and u
y
are independent
from each other so that they could be handled separately. The used method is only de
scribed for u
x
, a detailed discourse is given in [15]. The general idea for approxima
tions is to use a local approach valid in a distinct area
~ u
x
(x; y) =
m
a
m
u
m
(x; y) (23)
with scalar factors a
m
and properly chosen functions u
m
. Polynomial functions are well
established, but if one uses such with higher degree, the solution shows undesired
wavelike effects. On the other hand, it is useful to take functions, which are at least
C
1
continuously to get also a good approximation of the strains.
The problem was solved by a Finite Elementlike approximation. Good results
were obtained using functions of the Serendipityclass of isoparametric 8nodesrectan
gular elements.
The mesh generation could be done with the preprocessor of an arbitrary Finite
Element program. If one takes the same mesh to approach both u
x
and u
y
, this proce
dure has the additional advantage that transformation of the mesh including the approx
imations into the initial configuration is possible. Hence, the description in material co
ordinates and the tracking of material points will be possible.
The functional to determine the scalar factors a
m
was chosen to be:
8.5 Bending of Notched Beams
163
Figure 8.14: u
x
Isothetic field for load step 12 in Table 8.1.
U =
n
e
i=1
1
mi
m
i
j=1
(~ u
x
(^ x
ij
; ^ y
ij
) ÷ ^ u
xij
)
2
_ _
÷ c
1
n
e
i=1
G
i
_
G
i
(~ u
2
x;xx
÷ 2 ~ u
2
x;xy
÷ ~ u
2
x;yy
)dG
i
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
÷ c
2
n
r
r=1
l
r
_
l
r
( ~ u
xI;n
÷ ~ u
xII;n
)
2
dl
r
_
¸
_
_
¸
_ : (24)
The first term consists of the leastsquares sum between approximated and measured
displacements of all n
e
elements. It will be weighted elementwise by the number m
i
of
measured points per element to exclude the influence of a possibly nonregular distribu
tion of measured points. The second term serves the smoothness of the approximation
inside the elements. The third term reduces discontinuities in the first derivatives nor
mal to the boundaries of neighbouring elements.
In Figure 8.15, the approximated isothetics for the load step 4 are shown (cf. Fig
ure 8.13).
For bending specimens, small strains are coupled with finite displacements.
Hence, the parameter identification demands the tracking of material points, the defor
mation fields were transformed into the initial configuration. The points in Figure 8.15
are the originally measured positions of Moire´ fringes, whereas the isolines were nu
merically calculated from the FiniteElement approximation. One can observe a really
good agreement between measured and approximated values.
8 Parameter Identification of Inelastic Deformation Laws
164
Figure 8.15: Approximation of the isothetic fields from Figure 8.13.
In Figure 8.16, the deformations e
x
and e
y
in the ligament for load step 4 (cf. Fig
ures 8.13 and 8.15) are shown.
8.6 Identification of Material Parameters
8.6.1 Integration of the deformation law
The equations of elasticplastic material behaviour, i.e. the deformation law (Equation
(5)), the hardening rule (Equation (6)) and the flow condition (Equation (1)), could be
summarized as:
E
÷1
_ r ÷
_
k
qF
qr
÷ _ e = 0 ; (25)
_
h ÷
_
kq(r; h; p) = 0 ; (26)
F(r; h; p) = 0 : (27)
The integration of these equations will be carried out for measured load steps De at
each reference point of the ligament. Equation (25) represents ordinary differential
equations for the stresses r, Equation (26) such one for the internal variables h. Both
systems are coupled and include the additional unknown scalar
_
k. The yield condition
(Equation (27)) is needed as an additional algebraic condition.
8.6 Identification of Material Parameters
165
Figure 8.16: Deformations e
x
and e
y
for load step 4.
Using implicit Euler time stepping, one finds the following system of nonlinear
equations:
E
÷1
(r
n
÷ r
n÷1
) ÷
_
k
n
qF
qr
n
Dt ÷ De
n
= 0 ; (28)
h
n
÷ h
n÷1
÷
_
k
n
q
n
Dt = 0 ; (29)
F(r
n
; h
n
) = 0 ; (30)
to compute the values r
n
, h
n
and
_
k for the nth load step.
To solve the nonlinear Equations (28) to (30), a Newton method like in [16] was
used. With k as suffix for the number of iterates and d for the increments of the vari
ables, we get:
J[
k
n
dr
dh
d
_
k
_
_
_
_
=
De
n
÷
_
k
k
n
qF
qr
[
k
n
Dt ÷ E
÷1
(r
k
n
÷ r
n÷1
)
_
k
k
n
q[
k
n
Dt ÷ (h
k
n
÷ h
n÷1
)
÷F[
k
n
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
(31)
with the matrix
J[
k
n
=
E
÷1
÷
_
k
k
n
q
2
F
qr
2
[
k
n
Dt
_
k
k
n
q
2
F
qrqh
[
k
n
Dt
qF
qr
[
k
n
Dt
÷
_
k
k
n
qq
qr
[
k
n
Dt I ÷
_
k
k
n
qq
qh
[
k
n
Dt q
k
n
Dt
qF
qr
[
k
n
qF
qh
[
k
n
0
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
; (32)
and the (k ÷ 1)th iterate will be:
r
k÷1
n
h
k÷1
n
_
k
k÷1
n
_
_
_
_
=
r
k
n
h
k
n
_
k
k
n
_
_
_
_
÷
dr
dh
d
_
k
_
_
_
_
: (33)
To improve convergence for considerably large load steps De
n
, it is possible to subdi
vide the load steps into a certain number of linear subload steps.
8 Parameter Identification of Inelastic Deformation Laws
166
8.6.2 Objective function, sensitivity analysis and optimization
To determine the material parameters, the objective function
U =
1
2
n
[c
1
(~ r
M
n
(p
1
) ÷ ^ r
M
n
)
2
÷ c
2
(~ r
N
n
(p
1
))
2
÷ c
3
(~ r
lK
n
(p
1
) ÷ ^ r
lK
n
)
2
÷ c
4
(~ r
uK
n
(p
1
) ÷ ^ r
uK
n
)
2
[ ÷ min
p
(34)
will be minimized. The calculated and measured values of bending stresses r
M
n
and
stresses r
N
n
caused by the normal force, and the longitudinal stresses r
lK
n
and r
uK
n
at the
lower and upper notch grooves were compared. Moment M and normal force N were
computed by numerical integration of stresses at the reference points along the liga
ment. To get the stresses ~ r
M
n
and ^ r
M
n
, the moment will be divided by the resistance mo
ment W =
1
4
bh
2
for ideal plasticity, ~ r
N
n
is got by dividing the normal force by the
crosssectional area. ^ r
N
n
will be zero for the fourpointbending specimen.
The usage of deterministic optimization algorithms requires the knowledge of the
gradient
dU
dp
of the objective function with sufficient accuracy. In our case caused by
the nonlinear equations solved by implicit methods, the derivatives are not available
analytically.
One way to compute the gradient is the numerical sensitivity analysis performed
by the variation of the material parameters. For m parameters, the value of the objec
tive function has to be determined additionally m times for every iteration of the
material parameters. The choice of parameter increments is unsure, and the control of
the accuracy of the derivatives is difficult and also unsure.
Therefore, a semianalytical sensitivity analysis will be preferred. The objective
function,
U = U(z(p)) ; (35)
depends indirectly on the parameters p. The total differential is:
dU =
qU
qz
_ _
T
qz
qp
dp = a
T
dp ; (36)
a is called the sensitivity vector and gives a measure for the sensitivty of the objective
function at arbitrarily parameter changes [17].
The derivatives
qU
qz
could be determined easily from the objective function. The
only difficulty is the determination of
qz
qp
. This will be done by implicit differentiation
similar to [15, 18].
The system G of Equations (28) to (30) depends on the variables r, h and
_
k.
These will be combined to the enlarged state vector:
8.6 Identification of Material Parameters
167
z(p) = (r(p); h(p);
_
k)
T
; (37)
which yet depends on the vector of material parameters. The iterated system (Equations
(28) to (30)) to compute the nth load step could be summarized as:
G
n
(z
n
(p); z
n÷1
(p); p) = 0 : (38)
Implicit differentiation gives:
dG
n
dp
=
qG
n
qz
n
qz
n
qp
÷
qG
n
qz
n÷1
qz
n÷1
qp
÷
qG
n
qp
= 0 (39)
so that
qG
n
qz
n
qz
n
qp
= ÷
qG
n
qz
n÷1
qz
n÷1
qp
÷
qG
n
qp
(40)
is a system of linear equations to determine
qz
n
qp
. The matrix
qG
n
qz
n
represents the iterated
Jacobean J[
n
from Equation (32), which is known in its decomposed form.
Furthermore is:
qG
n
qz
n÷1
=
÷E
÷1
0 0
0 ÷I 0
0 0 0
_
_
_
_
(41)
and
qG
n
qp
=
_
k
n
q
2
F
qrqp
÷
_
k
n
qq
qp
qF
qp
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
(42)
have to be supplied by the material subroutine. Under consideration that
qz
0
qp
= 0, it is
possible to compute the derivatives fo the next load step from that of the previous one
with the accuracy of the integration of the deformation law.
To solve the optimization problem of parameter identification (Equation (34)),
several gradientbased optimization methods like steepest descent, BFGS, GaußNew
ton and LevenbergMarquardt’s methods were tested. The LevenbergMarquardt algo
rithm, which combines steepest descent and GaußNewton method [19, 20], was pre
ferred as a very robust and suitable procedure for the nonlinear leastsquares optimiza
tion. Hereby, the parameter vector will be changed according to
8 Parameter Identification of Inelastic Deformation Laws
168
p
w÷1
= p
w
÷ s
w
(43)
with the search direction
s
w
= ÷ R
w
GN
÷ lI
_ _
÷1
\U
w
; (44)
where R
w
GN
means the actual GaußNewton matrix.
Far from the solution, l will be taken large so that the procedure is nearly a stee
pest descent, and in the neighbourhood of the solution, l will be taken small so that it
is nearly a GaußNewton algorithm. The control of the choice of the parameter l will
be done in such a manner that the next iterate will be searched in a “modeltrust re
gion” with s
w
 < d.
8.6.3 Results of parameter identification
The implemented generalized material model consists of the following equations:
• quadratic yield function (Baltov and Sawczuk [21])
F = N
ijkl
_
r
D
ij
÷
ij
__
r
D
kl
÷
kl
_
÷ r
2
F
(e
pl
v
) = 0 ; (45)
• evolutional relations
• yield stress – isotropic hardening
r
F
= A(e
pl
v
) ; (46)
• kinematic hardening by Backhaus [22]
_
ij
= B(e
pl
v
)_ e
pl
ij
; (47)
• distorsional hardening by Danilov [23]
_
N
ijkl
=
C(e
pl
v
)
_ e
pl
v
_ e
pl
ij
_ e
pl
kl
; (48)
where A, B and C could be chosen as arbitrary functions of the equivalent plastic strain
e
pl
v
.
Some special formulations will be at disposal:
• yield function (shifted von Mises)
F =
3
2
(r
D
ij
÷
ij
)(r
D
ij
÷
ij
) ÷ r
2
F
= 0 ; (49)
8.6 Identification of Material Parameters
169
• yield stress
– modified power law
r
F
= r
Fo
÷ a
1
[(e
pl
v
÷ a
2
)
a
3
÷ a
a
3
2
[ ; (50)
– arctan law
r
F
= r
Fo
÷ a
1
arctan(a
2
e
pl
v
) ÷ a
3
e
pl
v
; (51)
• kinematic hardening
– by Prager (cf. [22])
_
ij
= b
1
_ e
pl
ij
; (52)
– by ArmstrongFrederick (cf. [24])
_
ij
= b
1
_ e
pl
ij
÷ b
2
_ e
pl
v
ij
: (53)
All computations have been carried out with the initial values for r
Fo
,
11o
and
22o
taken from the approximation of the initial yieldlocus curve (cf. Figure 8.10).
The power law (Equation (50)) gave no satisfying results because the parameters
depend on each other and it shows no asymptotic behaviour of the uniaxial flow
curves.
Therefore, the arctan law (Equation (51)) for isotropic hardening combined with
kinematic hardening and initial anisotropy has been used for further computations. Re
sults are shown in Figures 8.17 and 8.18.
The consideration of kinematic hardening by ArmstrongFrederick [24] and of
distortional hardening by Danilov [23] did not reveal any quantitatively better approxi
mation.
8.7 Conclusions
In the paper, some possibilities of bending tests to identify material parameters of in
elastic materials were described. For that reason, the cooperation between theoretically
and experimentally working academics has to be much closer, as this is usual at ger
man technical universities. The foundation of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft –
Collaborative Research Centre (Sonderforschungsbereich 319) – has been proved as a
very effective measure to overcome reservations and to realize such a close coopera
tion.
An important result of this project is that bending tests are suitable very well to
study elasticplastic material properties. Bending tests have the fundamental advantages
8 Parameter Identification of Inelastic Deformation Laws
170
that in one experiment, tension as well as compression exist and that a reversal loading
to identify kinematic strain hardening can easily be realized. In the experiments, some
difficulties result from the fact that strains in a very large extension must be detected.
So, for definition of yield stresses, the offset strain is about 10
–4
, and on the other side,
a maximum strain of 5·10
–2
should be measured. In both cases, the stress level is ap
proximately the same. This taking into account, stable numerical results for the elastic
constants, the yield stresses as well as the yield curves and the anisotropic yieldlocus
curve were obtained from bending tests of specimens.
The identification of hardening parameters was carried out by analysing the dis
placement fields of notched specimens. The suitability of such experiments has been
proved. Further investigations should use all informations about the whole experimen
tally investigated area. Therefore, the use of the FiniteElement method to calculate the
numerical comparative solution is absolutely necessary.
Shortened calculations as described here require low computational times and
may give a deep insight into the effects of several material models in combination with
8.7 Conclusions
171
Figure 8.17: Parameter identification for the bending test of the notched specimen, arctan law for
isotropic hardening, kinematic hardening by Prager (cf. [22]), r
Fo
= 218:3 MPa,
11o
=
÷8:3 MPa,
22o
= ÷3:2 MPa; optimized parameters: a
1
= 94, a
2
= 1626, a
3
= 380, b
1
= 1600;
mean quadratic deviation: 20.7 MPa.
a special analysis of measured data. Such calculations could be used also furthermore
to get reliable starting values for the FiniteElementbased parameter identification.
The authors’ hope that they can continue the research about the relatively new
idea to identify inelastic material properties and parameters by means of the evaluation
of inhomogeneous strain and stress fields. For instance some possibilities are given in
the DFG project [6].
Acknowledgements
The authors would like to thank Prof. Dr. Dr. E. h. E. Steck and Prof. Dr. R. Ritter from
Technical University of Braunschweig for their extensive support during the prepara
tion and realization of this project.
8 Parameter Identification of Inelastic Deformation Laws
172
Figure 8.18: Related uniaxial flow curves to Figure 8.17.
References
[1] E. Stein, D. Bischoff, R. Mahnken: Identifikation mit FiniteElement Methoden. Arbeits
und Ergebnisbericht 1991–1993. Subproject B8, Collaborative Research Centre (SFB 319).
[2] E. Stein: Parameteridentifikation mit FiniteElement Methoden. Fo¨rderungsantrag 1994–
1996. Subproject B8, Collaborative Research Centre (SFB 319).
[3] R. Mahnken, E. Stein: Parameter Identification for Inelastic Constitutive Equations Based
on Uniform and NonUniform Stress and Strain Distributions. This book (Chapter 12).
[4] K. Andresen, S. Dannemeyer, H. Friebe, R. Mahnken, R. Ritter, E. Stein: Parameteridentifi
kation fu¨r ein plastisches Stoffgesetz mit FEMethoden und Rasterverfahren. Bauingenieur
71 (1996) 21–31.
[5] R. Kreissig, J. Naumann: Weiterentwicklung der Theorie der plastischen Verfestigung und
ihre experimentelle Verifikation mit Hilfe des Moire´verfahrens. DFGProjekt 1994–1996/
Zwischenbericht 1996.
[6] R. Kreissig, A. Meyer: Effiziente parallele Algorithmen zur Simulation des Deformations
verhaltens von Bauteilen aus elastischplastischen Materialien. Fo¨rderungsantrag 1996–
1998. Subproject D1, Collaborative Research Centre (SFB 393).
[7] R. Kreissig: Parameteridentifikation inelastischer Deformationsgesetze. Technische Mecha
nik 16(1) (1996) 97–106.
[8] H. Herbert: Über den Zusammenhang der Biegungselastizita¨t des Gußeisens mit seiner
Zug und Druckelastizita¨t. Mitt. und Forschungsarbeit. VDI 89 (1910) 39–81.
[9] A. Nadai: Plasticity. McGrawHill, New York, London, 1931.
[10] V. Laws: Derivation of the tensile stressstrain curve from a bending data. J. Materials Sci.
16 (1981) 1299–1304.
[11] R. A. Mayville, I. Finnie: Uniaxial stressstrain curves from a bending test. Exp. Mech.
22(6) (1982) 197–201.
[12] M. Stockmann, J. Naumann, P. Bormann, F. Pelz: Zur Widerstandsa¨nderung von Dehnungs
meßstreifen bei großen Deformationen. Materialpru¨fung 38(4) (1996) 134–138, 38(5)
(1996) 216–219.
[13] P. Bormann, J. Naumann, M. Stockmann: Biegeversuche zur Ermittlung einachsiger
Fließkurven fu¨r Zug und Druck. In: O. T. Bruhns (Ed.): Große plastische Forma¨nderungen.
Bad Honnef, 1994. Mitteilungen des Inst. fu¨r Mechanik, Nr. 93, RuhrUniversita¨t Bochum.
[14] J. Naumann: Grundlagen und Anwendung des InplaneMoire´verfahrens in der experimen
tellen Festko¨rpermechanik. VDIFortschrittsberichte, Reihe 18, Nr. 110, Du¨sseldorf, 1992.
[15] E. Bohnsack: Continuous field approximation of experimentally given data by finite ele
ments. Computer & Structures 63(6) (1997) 1195–1204.
[16] D. Michael, A. Meyer: Some remarks on the simulation of elastoplastic problems on paral
lel computers. PreprintReihe Chemnitzer DFGForschungsgruppe “Scientific Parallel Com
puting”, Technische Universita¨t ChemnitzZwickau, March 1995.
[17] H. Eschenauer, W. Schnell: Elastizita¨tstheorie. BIWissenschaftsverlag, Mannheim,1993.
[18] R. Mahncken, E. Stein: Identification of Parameters for Viscoplastic Models via FiniteEle
ment Methods and Gradient Methods. IBNMBericht 93/5, Institut fu¨r Baumechanik und
Numerische Mechanik der Universita¨t Hannover, 1995.
[19] J. E. Dennis, R. B. Schnabel: Numerical Methods for Unconstrained Optimization and Non
linear Equations. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, 1983.
[20] S. S. Rao: Engineering Optimization. Wiley & Sons, New York, 1996.
[21] A. Baltov, A. Sawczuk: A Rule of Anisotropic Hardening. Acta Mechanica 1 (1965) 81–92.
[22] G. Backhaus: Deformationsgesetze. AkademieVerlag, Berlin, 1983.
[23] V. L. Danilov: K formulirovke zakona deformacionnogo uproc ˇ nenija. Mechanika tverdogo
tella, Moskva 6 (1971) 146–150.
[24] V. Dorsch: Zur Anwendung und Numerik elastischplastischer Stoffgesetze. In: Pro
zeßsimulation in der Umformtechnik, Band 9, Springer, Berlin Heidelberg, 1996.
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173
9 Development and Improvement of Unified Models
and Applications to Structural Analysis
Hermann Ahrens, Heinz Duddeck, Ursula Kowalsky, Harald Pensky
and Thomas Streilein*
9.1 Introduction
For the numerical analyses of thermomechanically loaded structures, the material be
haviour has to be modelled adequately. Therefore, it is necessary to work on improved
material models. However, it is also important to look at the effects of these material
model variations on the structural level. Thus, also comparisons have to be made be
tween the results of structural analyses applying systematically improved model formu
lations. The numerical results determine the necessary accuracy of the material model.
For the systematic improvement of material models, in each step, only the main
remaining deficiency is eliminated. The accuracy of the numerical results achieved has
to be checked by comparison with experimental data.
The improvements achieved by this contribution cover the material functions, the
shape of yield surfaces, and the consideration of distributed experimental data within
the numerical analysis. To demonstrate the concepts, valid in general, the model by
Chaboche and Rousselier [1] is chosen.
The efficiencies of the necessary tools like timeintegration methods, parameter
identification procedures, and finiteelement formulations are also improved within this
research work.
9.2 On Unified Models for Metallic Materials
There is no universal model, which covers all the possible phenomena of material be
haviour. Therefore, specific models had to be invented for the characteristic properties
174
* Technische Universita¨t Braunschweig, Institut fu¨r Statik, Beethovenstraße 51,
D38106 Braunschweig, Germany
Plasticity of Metals: Experiments, Models, Computation. Collaborative Research Centres.
Edited by E. Steck, R. Ritter, U. Peil, A. Ziegenbein
Copyright © 2001 WileyVCH Verlag GmbH
ISBNs: 3527277285 (Softcover); 3527600116 (Electronic)
of the different materials as steel or concrete or soil. Moreover, models may even cover
only special features of the behaviour of the same material. Thus, the selection and the
development of material models are governed by the specific response, by which a
structure reacts to outer actions.
Some of the known material models are:
• The classical theory of plasticity, which is independent of time.
• Simple rheological models (as e. g. the Bingham model) may describe creep and re
laxation in first order approximations.
• The combination of both leads to the class of ‘superposition models’.
• ‘Unified models’ try to cover all the inelastic phenomena whether they are timede
pendent or not by an unified concept. Internal variables describe via evolutionary
functions the different phases of a material during loading.
The research work, on which this paper reports, deals with unified models throughout.
The evolutionary functions for the internal variables are composed of two main
parts. The first one determines hardening, the second one recovery. In cyclic loading with
inelastic behaviour, at first the hardening term is predominant. Then, with progressing
evolution of the tensors of hardening, the terms describing recovery are becoming domi
nant. This results in a stable state of saturation, e. g. under cyclic loading. Mathematically,
the unified models are differential equations of first order with respect to time.
A further distinction of unified models is that of models based on macroscopic
phenomena and those based on microphysical mechanisms. Examples for the first class
are the overstress model by Chaboche and Rousselier [1], the models by Miller [2] and
Hart [3]. To the latter class belong the models proposed by Estrin [4] and the stochastic
model by Steck et al. [5], which is based on Markov processes.
9.2.1 The overstress model by Chaboche and Rousselier
The research results presented here are using the model by Chaboche and Rousselier
[1] as an exemplary one although the developments are valid generally for any unified
model. Therefore, this model will be presented below in more details expressed in
threeaxial formulation.
For most metals, there exists a – generally not stationary – limit surface in the
stress domain, which separates elastic from inelastic behaviour. The distance of the ac
tual state of stress from this yield surface is defined as ‘overstress’ r
ex
. In overstress
models, r
ex
determines the evolution of the inelastic strain rates.
Assuming stationary distribution of temperature and small strains, the strain rate
may be taken as the sum of elastic and inelastic components:
_ e
ij
= _ e
el
ij
÷ _ e
in
ij
: (1)
The elastic part follows Hooke’s law:
9.2 On Unified Models for Metallic Materials
175
_ e
el
ij
=
1 ÷m
E
_ r
ij
÷
m
E
_ r
kk
d
ij
: (2)
The inelastic strain rate is given by:
_ e
in
ij
= _ p (r
ex
)
qf
qs
ef
ij
; (3)
where an associate flow rule is assumed, whereby the strain projected into the corre
sponding stress space has the same direction as the gradient of f with respect to the de
viator of the effective stresses s
ef
ij
. The function of the overstress f follows from the v.
Mises yield condition including isotropic and kinematic hardening:
f = r
ex
=
3
2
s
ef
ij
s
ef
ij
_ _1
2
÷(K ÷k) (4)
with
s
ef
ij
= r
ef
ij
÷
1
3
r
ef
kk
d
ij
and r
ef
ij
= r
ij
÷
ij
: (5)
The factor
_ p (r
ex
) =
r
ex
D
_ _
n
(6)
is given by a potential function _ p, that is only nonzero, when r
ex
is positive. D and n
are parameters of the model depending on material behaviour. The initial expansion of
the elastic region is governed by the parameter k. The internal variables K and
ij
de
scribe hardening or softening of the material through modifications of the yield surface
with time. Isotropic hardening
_
K = b(Q ÷K) _ p(r
ex
) (7)
results in an affine expansion of the yield surface, which would remain valid also for
reversed loading. The model renders the possibility of introducing several tensors for
kinematic hardening, which is not considered in this case:
_
ij
= C
2
3
a
qf
qs
ef
ij
÷
ij
_ _
_ p(r
ex
) : (8)
The corresponding yield surfaces move in translatoric displacement (Bauschinger effects
in hysteresisloops). The constants b, Q, C and a are parameters of the material model. Q
and a are related to saturation approaches for isotropic and kinematic hardening, b and C
regulate how fast in cyclic loading saturation is attained. The results of a detailed inves
tigation of the capacity of overstress models [1, 6–8] are given by Braasch [9].
9 Development and Improvement of Unified Models
176
9.2.2 Other unified models
The research of project B2 done within the scope of the Collaborative Research Centre
(SFB 319) investigated also some other models with respect to their capacity to cover
material phenomena and to their suitability for numerical applications. The models
shortly discussed below have all been applied also to analyses of structures.
Model by Miller: It is based on macroscopic phenomena and covers instationary states
of the temperature by a specific variable, which is defined differently for given tem
perature regions [2]. The work by Kracht [10] investigates the effects of instationary
states of the temperature on the inelastic deformations. The advantages and deficits of
the model are shown by applying it numerically to practice relevant structural problems
under thermomechanical outer actions.
Model by Hart: This model [3] is investigated thoroughly by Schwesig [11, 12]. It is
proved that the application of this model requires a refined numerical algorithm and a
considerable amount of numerical calculations. The solution can only be improved if
iteration techniques are introduced, which are especially derived for the Hart model.
Model by Estrin: Microphysical models try to describe observed phenomena by micro
mechanical mechanisms based on the theory of dislocations [4, 13, 14]. It is hoped that
they may enlarge the physical understanding of what is really going on in yielding or
creeping materials. Furthermore, the number of constitutive parameters of material
models may be reduced.
The capacity and efficiency of the Estrin model is investigated by Kowalsky [15].
The original version [14] did not cover kinematic hardening like that of the Bauschinger
effect. In [15, 16], a modification in analogy to the models by Chaboche and Rousselier,
Miller and others is proposed. An evolutionary equation is added, which amends this def
icit. The modified model is especially more suited for cyclic loading and for analysing
multiaxial stressstrain fields. In [17], it is shown that for the evaluation of the model pa
rameters, it is possible to make a first estimate of each parameter by considering experi
mental and micromechanical data. In Section 9.8.6, the model by Estrin and the extended
version are applied to structural analyses to demonstrate their capacity.
Improving extension of the model by Chaboche and Rousselier: A modified model is
proposed by Tirpitz [18, 19], where by adding a term of spontaneous elastoplasticity,
adjustments are made for large strain rates. Both parts, the timedependent and the
timeindependent strains, are related in the same way to the hardening behaviour. For
the numerical application, it is necessary to use the same timeintegration procedure.
This is achieved by introducing for the elastoplastic term the time as an independent
variable. In the case of small strain rates and an evaluation of the parameters from ten
sional, creep and cyclic tests, the extended model does not have significant advantages
compared to the original model by Chaboche and Rousselier.
9.2 On Unified Models for Metallic Materials
177
9.3 TimeIntegration Methods
Mathematically, unified models are initial value problems of the form:
_ z = (F(t; z(t)) with z
i
(t
0
) = z
i0
; i = 1; 2; . . . ; n : (9)
They consist of a system of n nonlinear differential equations of first order with regard
to time: one equation representing strain rate bilancing and n ÷1 equations for the evo
lution of the internal variables.
Equation (9) can be solved only by numerical integration, which yields approxi
mate values at distinct points of time t
j+1
. Experience shows that the single step meth
ods are most suited for time intervals, which are determined by an adaptive procedure.
For selecting either the explicit or the implicit integration method, it is necessary to
consider the consequences because both methods differ much in the amount of work
for the numerical formulation, in the needed computer time, in accuracy, and in numeri
cal stability [12, 20, 21]. For explicit methods, the algebraic equations can be solved
directly for the unknowns. However, their numerical stability is restricted, and hence
also the time step lengths. In contrast to this, implicit integration methods are numeri
cally much more stable. Yet, here nonlinear algebraic equations have to be solved by
applying usually some Newtontype iteration procedure. The derivation of the corre
sponding functional matrix is rather tedious.
In the following section, some of the timeintegration methods are briefly pre
sented because they are taken for comparative investigations of the achievable accu
racy. The model by Chaboche and Rousselier is selected for this investigation.
• The explicit RungeKutta method
The unknown values z
i
at the time t
j÷1
follow directly by integration of
z
i
(t
j÷1
) = z
i
(t
j
) ÷
_
t
j÷1
t
j
F
i
(t; z
1
(t); z
2
(t); . . . ; z
n
(t))dt (10)
over the interval from t
j
to t
j÷1
. Since all values for the time t
j
are known, approxima
tions are entering only by the integral in Equation (10). The explicit RungeKutta meth
od solves the problem by:
z
j÷1
= z
j
÷Dt
j÷1
m
r=1
A
r
k
r
(t; z; Dt) order of the global error : q
g
; (11)
~z
j÷1
= z
j
÷Dt
j÷1
~ m
r=1
~
A
r
k
r
(t; z; Dt) order of the global error : ~ q
g
; (12)
9 Development and Improvement of Unified Models
178
with
k
1
(t; z; Dt) = F(t
j
; z
j
) ; (13)
k
r
(t; z; Dt) = F(t
j
÷a
r
Dt
j÷1
; z
j
÷
r÷1
s=1
Dt
j÷1
b
rs
k
s
) ; r = 2; 3; . . . ; m: (14)
The coefficients A
r
;
~
A
r
; a
r
and b
rs
for the RungeKutta method of order m resp.
~ m( ~ m > m) are determined from the condition that the approximate value of z
i
(t
j÷1
)
should be equal to the local Taylor series for z
i
(t
j
÷Dt) up to the potential term Dt
m
.
Equations (11) to (14) employ formulae, which yield two approximate values, q
g
and
~ q
g
, of different order of error with the least possible computational effort. Thus, it is
the appropriate equation system (Equations (11) to (14)) to use for the adaptive control
of time steps. The iteration process is governed by the tolerance limit
e
act
= z
j÷1
÷ ~z
j÷1
 < e
tol
. In the case, the limit of tolerance is satisfied, the next time
step is enlarged if not the step is taken half of the last one.
The RungeKutta method of the 2. and 3. order is an effective integration proce
dure. For higher accuracy, the methods of 4. and 5. order by Fehlberg and Dormand
Prince should be chosen. Complete sets of formulae are given in [20].
• Predictorcorrector method
Applying the trapezoid formula on Equation (10) yields the implicit approach:
z
j÷1
= z
j
÷
Dt
j÷1
2
(F(t
j
; z
j
) ÷F(t
j÷1
; z
j÷1
)) : (15)
Following Heun [20], the iteration proceeds by starting from an explicit formulation
(the predictor):
z
(0)
j÷1
= z
j
÷Dt
j÷1
F(t
j
; z
j
) with z
0
= z(t
0
) : (16)
This is solved by the EulerCauchy method. Then, an implicit equation for corrections
(corrector) is solved:
z
(v÷1)
j÷1
= z
j
÷
Dt
j÷1
2
(F(t
j
; z
j
) ÷F(t
j÷1
; z
(v)
j÷1
)) ; v = 0; 1; . . . : (17)
The corrections are determined in several (in most cases only one or two) iteration
steps until an error limit is met. The step length may be adjusted to the result of the
last steps.
9.3 TimeIntegration Methods
179
• Implicit method of collocation
By starting from the equivalent integral formulation of Equation (9) and by applying
the principle of weighted residuals, one arrives at:
_
t÷Dt
t
dz
T
¦ _ z ÷F(t; z(t))¦dt ÷¦. . .¦
B
= 0 : (18)
The errors weighted by the special functions dz
i
(t) should vanish in regions and at
boundaries. The approximations depend on the selection of the weight functions. The
Dirac function and selecting 0:5 _ n _ 1:0 for the collocation point lead to an unlim
ited stable iteration process. The advantages are discussed in [12, 22]. Here, it is easy
to adapt the time steps: After two steps of the length Dt, the next step is taken as 2Dt.
Both results are used for determining errors.
• Efficiency of the integration methods
The different integration procedures are applied to cyclic loadings of MST+ as given in
Figures 9.1 and 9.2. The set of parameters is given in [23].
In Table 9.1, the following results are presented: q
g
=order of error (see Equations
(11) to (14)), e
tol
=limit of errors, CPUtime=computing time (Pentium P90), r=result
ing stress after 30 cycles. The comparative investigation proves that an accuracy of
e
tol
=10
–2
is sufficient for this specific problem. The implicit collocation methods need
much more computing time although the numbers of iteration steps are smaller. The most
effective method is that of the predictorcorrector by Heun. For problems, which require
higher accuracy, the RungeKutta method of 2. and 3. order and the one by Dormand
Prince are the most efficient.
Braasch [9] showed for longterm creep that a combined approach of explicit and
implicit methods is better than the application of just the explicit method. In each time
step, it is checked whether a local stability criterion (based on the eigenvalues of the func
tional matrix J) is met. If not, the implicit method is used instead of the explicit procedure.
9 Development and Improvement of Unified Models
180
Figure 9.1: Strain(e)time(t)plot (MST+).
t [s]
9.4 Adaptation of Model Parameters to Experimental Results
The mathematical formulations of the material models are derived by physical under
standing of the reactions of the material to various imposed loads and temperatures in
time histories. The models – here of the unified type – express the physical properties
by material functions (equations of evolution) and free parameters p
i
. These parameters
have to be determined by adaptations to experimental results.
Hereby, optimizing processes are applied to find the most suited set of param
eters. The differences between model simulation and experimental results are expressed
9.4 Adaptation of Model Parameters to Experimental Results
181
Figure 9.2: Stress(r)strain(e)plot (MST+).
Table 9.1: Efficiency of different integration procedures applied to the simulation of cyclic load
ings, results after 30 cycles.
Method q
g
e
tol
[]
CPUtime
[s]
Time steps r
[MPa]
P.C. by Heun 2 10
–1
0.49 13173 304.01
R.K. 2./3. order 3 10
–1
0.82 12253 303.96
DormandPrince 5 10
–1
1.43 5402 303.98
Collocation n=0.5 2 10
–1
4.78 1592 303.94
Collocation n=1.0 1 10
–1
6.48 3029 304.07
P.C. by Heun 2 10
–2
0.77 21202 303.98
R.K. 2./3. order 3 10
–2
0.93 12987 303.98
DormandPrince 5 10
–2
2.14 5953 303.98
Collocation n=0.5 2 10
–2
7.31 3118 303.96
Collocation n=1.0 1 10
–2
14.23 9076 304.01
P.C. by Heun 2 10
–4
5.16 144204 303.98
R.K. 2./3. order 3 10
–4
1.65 23704 303.98
DormandPrince 5 10
–4
2.36 7556 303.98
Collocation n=0.5 2 10
–4
18.63 13062 303.98
Collocation n=1.0 1 10
–4
102.58 101738 303.98
by a target function q(p). Values of the parameters follow from the solutions of an
equivalent optimization problem. Because of the manifold of parameter sets, numerical
methods have to be applied, which are determining the parameter values by an iteration
process.
Various algorithms have been developed for this optimizing process. Stochastical
methods as the strategy of selecting evolution apply the principle of random correc
tions. Deterministic methods apply mathematical procedures in search of minima of
functionals as the methods of steepest gradients and the simplex method.
Strategies of hybrid approaches combine both stochastical and deterministic meth
ods. This section firstly describes the different methods, also by their advantages and
disadvantages, and gives recently the results of an investigation, which compares these
methods in their efficiency (see also [23]).
• Target functions q(p)
They can be defined either in absolute or in relative measures of error. Absolute error
values are determined by the quadratic differences between experimental and numerical
values of the state variables z
i
:
q
a
(p) =
n
i=1
(z
exp
i
÷z
sim
i
(p))
2
Dt
i
: (19)
Relative errors may be determined by evaluating the area of the differences between ex
perimental and simulated curves, relating these error areas to the area underneath the
experimental curve:
q
r
(p) =
n÷1
i=1
_
t
i÷1
t
i
[z
exp
(t) ÷z
sim
(t; p)[dt
n÷1
i=1
_
t
i÷1
t
i
[z
exp
(t)[dt
: (20)
For simultaneous adaptations to several experiments, weighting factors w
j
for each of
the tests may be added:
q
w
(p) =
m
j=1
w
j
q
j
(p) : (21)
Braasch proved by investigating several creep tests that the relative measure is the better
one [9]. If for one and the same loadtime, history tests are repeated, then as a rule, the
results will deviate. In this case, the MaximumLikelihood method may be applied, by
which the adaptation is related to the mean values of the test sets, and the standard devia
tions at each data point are chosen for weighting and standardizing the error at each data
point. The target function is defined by a relative measure of errors (see [24]).
9 Development and Improvement of Unified Models
182
• Strategy of selecting evolution
The stochastic method, as e. g. given by Rechenberg [25] and Schwefel [26], works in
analogy of the ‘natural’ mechanism of mutation, selection, heredity. It is a robust proce
dure with a broad path of searching minima, overcoming local relative minima,
although the required computer time may be large. This method is fully developed and
widely used in [9, 16, 27, 28].
• Downhillsimplex method by Nelder and Meat [29]
The deterministic simplex method is based on geometric considerations. A simplex is a
geometric hyper surface spanned between n+1 knots within a ndimensional space.
Each of the knots is given by a parameter vector p
i
of n elements. For n=2 a triangle,
n=3 a tetraeder, and generally, a regular polyeder of n+1 edge points are defined. For
each set of the parameters p
i
, the corresponding target function is evaluated and allotted
to the edge point of the simplex surface. The basic idea is to replace the edge point
p
high
of the maximum target value q
max
by a new point p
new
, which is found by reflect
ing p
high
at the centre of the other n edge points and, which as a rule, is closer to the
minimum. The extension of this procedure by Nelder and Meat [29] introduces an algo
rithm, by which the simplex area is expanded or contracted to adjust it to a better tar
get function q(p).
• Methods applying gradient algorithms
In addition to the direct evaluation of the functional, for which a minimum is searched
for, also the gradients of this function are taken into consideration:
\q(p) =
qq(p)
qp
i
; i = 1; 2; . . . ; n : (22)
The optimum is determined by an iteration process given by:
p
(v÷1)
= p
(v)
÷
(v)
s
(v)
= p
(v)
÷
(v)
H
(v)
\q(p
(v)
) : (23)
H is an iteration matrix, a step length. The different methods are applying different
directions s of the search for a minimum:
• Gradient:
s
(v)
= ÷I\q(p
(v)
) ; (24)
• Newton method:
s
(v)
= ÷¦\
2
q(p
(v)
)¦
÷1
\q(p
(v)
) ; (25)
9.4 Adaptation of Model Parameters to Experimental Results
183
• BFGS method:
s
(v)
= ÷H
(v)
BFGS
\q(p
(v)
) ; (26)
• Conjugate gradients (CG):
s
(v)
= ÷\q(p
(v)
) ÷
¦\q(p
(v)
)¦
T
\q(p
(v)
)
¦\q(p
(v÷1)
)¦
T
\q(p
(v÷1)
)
s
(v÷1)
: (27)
The BroydenFletcherGoldfarbShanno method (BFGS method) proved so far to be nu
merically stable and of very good convergence. It determines better approximations of
the inverse curvature matrix in Equation (25) only by informations of first order and by
the following updating formula:
H
(v÷1)
BFGS
= I ÷
d
(v)
¦g
(v)
¦
T
¦g
(v)
¦
T
d
(v)
_ _
H
(v)
I ÷
g
(v)
¦d
(v)
¦
T
¦g
(v)
¦
T
d
(v)
_ _
÷
d
(v)
¦d
(v)
¦
T
¦g
(v)
¦
T
d
(v)
; (28)
where
H
(0)
BFGS
= I; d
(v)
= p
(v÷1)
÷p
(v)
and g
(v)
= \q(p
(v÷1)
) ÷\q(p
(v)
) :
The efficiency is depending on the choice of suited step lengths
(v)
. To determine
(v)
, the manifolddimensional minimaproblem is reduced towards an onedimensional
by:
q
E
(
(v)
) = q (p
(v)
÷
(v)
s
(v)
) : (29)
Herein, s
(v)
is the given downwards direction. The step lengths
(v)
have to be evalu
ated so that the next iteration point p
(v÷1)
= p
(v)
÷
(v)
s
(v)
is acceptable. To reduce the
amount of calculation work, line search methods have been developed. Mahnken pre
sents a comprehensive review of the onedimensional minimamethods [30].
• Hybrid methods
For the adaptation of the parameters in material models, the mathematical tools should
provide a method, by which a set of parameters of an optimal fit to experimental re
sults is evaluated by the least amount of computer work. The experiences of the re
search work in this project proved that none of the methods discussed above were satis
fying enough. Therefore, a hybrid method has been developed, which combines the ad
vantages of both the evolution and the gradient methods, where the first one avoids
being trapped in a valley of a relative minimum and the second one contributes to high
speed convergency. The hybrid method [23] works in three major procedures:
9 Development and Improvement of Unified Models
184
1. Sets of parameters, which cover the entire possible parameter space:
By a random algorithm, n
a
sets of parameters are chosen that are fulfilling given re
strictions and are evenly spread over the entire parameter space. Thus, it is assured that
the global minimum is not missed. Then, the best n
b
< n
a
sets are selected as starting
values for application of the evolution strategy.
2. Determination of the local fields of minima:
The strategy of evolution is applied to find as many as possible surroundings of local
minima.
3. Evaluation of the local minima by the BFGS method:
Having passed a given limit of quality or a maximum number of generations, the best
sets of parameters of each of the parent generations is taken as the starting set for the
application of the BFGS method. The optimizing procedure is stopped when a local
minimum is reached. The sets of parameters for all the determined local minima are
then taken as starting sets for a repeated strategy of evolution, by which the global
minimum is searched for.
This iteration procedure is repeated as long as a given criteria for finishing is not satis
fied (CPUtime or error q).
• Efficiency of the optimizing methods
The special case investigated is the adaptation of the parameters of the material model of
Chaboche and Rousselier to cyclic experimental results. The efficiency is tested by reiden
tification of the parameters. For the numerical simulation of the experiments, two tests are
selected: one of proportional loading and another one of nonproportional loading path, for
which a parameter vector p
opt
is given. For the set of parameters p
opt
for q(p
opt
) =0% (see
Equations (20) and (21)), two variations are investigated: a slight one (p
01
for
q(p
opt
) =23%) and a stronger one (p
02
for q(p
02
) =87%). The sets of parameters are given
[23]. Five different methods for optimizing the adaptation are selected: the evolution strat
egy (Evo), the simplex(Sim), the BFGS, the CG and the hybrid method (Hyb).
For the methods using random values, the results are determined by mean values
of 10 test runs. For the hybrid method, the number of starting vectors is restricted to
n
a
=1 (p
start
=p
01
or p
02
). The switch from the evolution strategy to the BFGS method
is governed by the value of the relative target function of q=20%.
The efficiency is evaluated by the CPUtime (Pentium P90) required for reaching
the target function value of q(p) =0.02%. The results are presented in Figures 9.3 and
9.4 with respect of the CPUtime, the evolution method is in these cases requiring
much more time than the other methods. This is caused by the random search that de
lays the precise localization of the minimum. Whereas the deterministic methods do
need only about 1/6 of the computing time.
The hybrid method is – taking both Figures 9.3 and 9.4 into considerations – the
most efficient method, followed closely by the BFGS method. For the methods of gra
dients, several restarts had been necessary to localize the minimum. Possible causes are
instabilities of the numerical optimizing or interim paths to only local minima. The hy
brid method avoids these ‘traps’.
9.4 Adaptation of Model Parameters to Experimental Results
185
9.5 Systematic Approach to Improve Material Models
In the usual formulation of material models, the equations describing the properties of
the material are expressed in closed form being valid for the entire region of the struc
tural variables (see Equation (6)). In this formulation, adaptation of the parameters – as
discussed in Section 9.4 – is the only mean for adjusting the model to experimental re
sults. However, when the material functions do not cover the real behaviour, then adap
tation of the parameters will not be very successful. For this case, an improvement is
achieved when the functions are expressed (in analogy to FiniteElement methods) in
discrete sections of the entire regions of the variables by shape functions. Thus, the ma
terial functions themselves can also be determined by an optimization process because
the number of unknowns are increased. This method of discretization of the material
functions has been developed by Braasch [9, 31, 32]. By sufficiently small discretiza
tion, even very complicated material behaviour can be covered by the simulation as ac
curate as desirable. If the final discrete expressions of the material functions are ex
pressed by a complete single function – say a polynomial –, then new material func
tions are derived, which are closer to test results.
Moreover, this procedure of discretization can also be applied to scrutinize the
completeness of the model with regard to the physical assumptions. If even for very
9 Development and Improvement of Unified Models
186
Figure 9.3: CPUtime, starting vector p
01
.
Figure 9.4: CPUtime, starting vector p
02
.
[
s
]
[
s
]
fine discretizations of the given material functions and optimal adaptations of the pa
rameters, the differences between experimental and computed results are still unaccept
able, then the basic assumptions of the material model are wrong or insufficient. In this
case, the material model has to be modified or extended taking into account other or
additional physical effects. Hence, the approach of discretization of the material func
tions is also a powerful tool to check the basic assumptions of the material model.
• Example of application
The methodical way is demonstrated here by applying the procedure to the model by
Chaboche and Rousselier in its onedimensional formulation with one variable for kine
matic hardening (see Section 9.2.1). For experimental results, the tests by Styczynski
[33] of pure aluminium Al550 at a temperature of 550 K are taken. The load path con
sists of a prior tension phase and three creep phases. For monotonous loading, isotropic
and kinematic hardening cannot be distinguished. For more information on complete re
sults, values of the parameters etc., see [9].
The optimization of the parameters for closed form, material functions may have
been achieved by methods as in Section 9.4 in a first step. If there are still differences
between test results and numerical simulation, it may be justified to assume firstly that
the chosen functions of the material properties may be wrong.
Therefore, in a second step, the material function _ p is discretized in analogy to the
FiniteElement method by:
_ p(r
ex
) = f
D
(r
ex
) = a
i
r
n
i
ex
÷b
i
for r
i÷1
< r
ex
_ r
i
: (30)
The overstress region of the model is subdivided into smaller sections. For each of the
sections, the exponentials n
i
on the stresses are taken to be constant. The shape functions
for the additional parameters a
i
and b
i
have to fulfil the conditions of continuity up to the
first derivatives. For the a
i
and b
i
, the optimization algorithm for parameter adaptation is
once more applied including all the other parameters. The computation for the example
proves that a subdivision into more than four discrete sections does not improve the mod
el results although the yield functions have been optimized with respect to the overstress.
Figure 9.5 shows that the ‘4 sections’ discretization is covering the test results much better
than the single function assumption. Nevertheless, the stressstrain curve in Figure 9.5 is
still far off the test results, and the first transient creep phase is somewhat too large. These
deficits prove that the model is basically insufficient.
Now, in a third step, improvements of the physical properties of the material mod
el have to be selected. They may be found by careful interpretation of the second step
and by experiences gained from other material models. Here for example, the material
function _ p is assumed to depend on the overstress and isotropic hardening in a form of
a product:
_ p(r
ex
; K) = f
D
(r
ex
)g
D
(K) : (31)
In addition to f
D
(r
ex
), also the function g
D
(K) is discretized by:
9.5 Systematic Approach to Improve Material Models
187
g
D
(K) = c
j
K
Q
_ _
l
j
÷d
j
for K
j÷1
<
K
Q
_ K
j
: (32)
The parameters c
j
and d
j
are determined by an optimization process together with all
the other parameters with the restriction that the function g
D
(K) is continuous up to the
first derivatives. Figure 9.6 shows that now the numerical results for the ‘4 sections’
are fitting much better to the experimental results.
The so far achieved model is tested by applying it to a threephase tension experi
ment Al550ZS, which has not been included in the adaptation of the parameters. The
results are given in Figure 9.7. Both the ‘1 section’ and the ‘4 sections’ simulations do
not cover the test satisfactorily. Therefore, the basic physical assumptions are further
improved. The evolutionary equation for the kinematic hardening is refined by includ
ing static recovery:
_
ij
= C
2
3
a
qf
qs
ef
ij
÷
ij
_ _
_ p (r
ex
) ÷
3
2
c
r÷1
v
ij
: (33)
9 Development and Improvement of Unified Models
188
Figure 9.5: Computed results and test Al55007.
Figure 9.6: Computed results and test Al55007.
t [s]
t [s]
Herein, c and r are additional parameters. The accompanied state of stress depends
now on the time rate. Additional investigations proved that a discretization of the func
tion in Equation (33) does not lead to significant improvements compared to those al
ready achieved by the closed form amendment of Equation (33). The improved results
are shown in Figures 9.8 and 9.9 for the experiments, as which the adaptation is based
as well as the Al550ZS test is not included in the adaptation procedure.
9.5 Systematic Approach to Improve Material Models
189
Figure 9.7: Prediction of test Al550ZS.
Figure 9.8: Computed results and test Al55007.
Figure 9.9: Prediction of test Al550ZS.
t [s]
In comparing all the results of Figure 9.5 up to Figure 9.9, it is well demonstrated
how the proposed method does have a strong capability to improve the material mod
els. In Section 9.8.3, an example is investigated to validate the effects of this improve
ment approach to analyses of structures.
9.6 Models Employing Distorted Yield Surfaces
In most of the material models, the yield function is assumed to be of the v. Mises type.
Isotropic hardening expands the yield surface, kinematic hardening shifts the surface
translatorically. In both cases, the original geometry of the surface is not changed. Experi
ments especially of nonmonotonous load paths, however, show that the yield surfaces
may be distorted (nonproportional change of the main axis, rotation of the axis, and ro
tated ‘buckling’) (see [34, 35]). This section presents mathematical expansions of the ma
terial models, which cover these distortional phenomena of the yield surfaces.
• Development of yield surfaces with different loadings
Figure 9.10 shows in the twodimensional srspace yield surfaces, which have been
derived by Phillips and Tang [36] from experiments on aluminium specimen (Al 1100)
at normal temperature. At the start, the yield surface is a well developed v. Mises el
lipse. After the load path form A to B in uniaxial direction, the double symmetry is
lost, the yield surface ‘buckles’ out in direction of the loading. For the path ABCD,
the symmetry is lost completely and it is distorted severely. A biaxial load path from A
directly to D results in quite a different yield surface although the final stress point D
is the same.
The main phenomena of the development of yield surface distortions are:
9 Development and Improvement of Unified Models
190
Figure 9.10: srspace yield surfaces [36].
• In the unloaded state, the yield surface is of elliptical form.
• The loading path causes a distortion in the path direction.
• The axis of the ellipse decreases in loading direction.
• Perpendicular to the loading path, the axis does not change its length.
• The curvature of the yield surface is larger in direction of the load path and smaller
at the opposite section.
• The distortion of the yield surface depends very much on the load path.
• Yield functions and hardening tensors
The distorted yield surfaces can be described mathematically by introducing higher or
der tensors. The investigations by Wegener [37] proved that these expansions can be
adapted to the different distortion forms. The yield function f is defined by the stress
deviator s
ij
and internal hardening tensors h. The following equations are representing
yield surfaces in a kind of hierarchy with increasing complexity and hardening proper
ties (see Sayir [38]). They all belong to the class of polynom yield surfaces:
f (s
ij
; h
(k)
...
) = h
(0)
÷h
(1)
ij
s
ij
÷s
ij
h
(2)
ijkl
s
kl
÷s
ij
(s
kl
h
(3)
ijklmn
s
mn
) ÷. . . : (34)
• The yield function (of 2. degree) with isotropic hardening (v. Mises) is:
f
0
=
3
2
s
ij
s
ij
_ _1
2
÷(K ÷k) with s
ij
= r
ij
÷
1
3
r
kk
d
ij
: (35)
K is a scalar hardening tensor of zero order. The yield surface expands proportional
preserving its original geometry.
• The yield surface (of 2. degree) with kinematic hardening (v. Mises/Prager) is:
f
1
=
3
2
s
ef
ij
s
ef
ij
_ _1
2
÷(K ÷k) with s
ef
ij
= r
ef
ij
÷
1
3
r
ef
kk
d
ij
and r
ef
ij
= r
ij
÷
ij
:
(36)
A hardening tensor of 2. order
ij
is added, which results in translatoric displace
ment of the yield surface. r
ef
ij
are the effective stresses, which are related to the dis
tance of the current stress point from the centre of the kinematical displaced yield
surface. Equation (36) is identical with the formulation by Chaboche and Rousselier
in Section 9.2.1.
• The yield surface of 2. degree with distortional hardening (Edelmann and Drucker
[39]) is given by:
f
2
=
3
2
s
ef
ij
s
ef
ij
÷s
ef
ij
b
ijkl
s
ef
kl
_ _
_ _1
2
÷(K ÷k) : (37)
9.6 Models Employing Distorted Yield Surfaces
191
Here, a hardening tensor of 4. order b
ijkl
is added to Equation (36). It leads to
change of the lengths of the axes and rotation of the yield surface. The double sym
metry is still preserved.
• The yield surface of 3. degree with distortional hardening (Sayir [38], Rees [40],
Betten [41] and Lehmann [42]) is given by:
f
3
=
3
2
s
ef
ij
s
ef
ij
÷s
ef
ij
b
ijkl
s
ef
kl
÷s
ef
ij
s
ef
kl
c
ijklmn
s
ef
mn
_ _
_ _1
2
÷(K ÷k) : (38)
A term of a hardening tensor of 6. order c
ijklmn
is added to Equation (37). It results
in the change of the curvature of the yield surface (see Figure 9.11). The symmetry
of the surface form is lost completely.
For the yield functions of distortional hardening (Equations (37) and (38)), numerical cal
culations proved that the condition of convexity is not always assured for all the possible
values of the tensor. The state tensors of fourth and sixth order may lead to a numerical
bursting of the convex yield surface so that some sections are no longer valid (see Fig
ure 9.12).
Special investigations proved that an always stable formulation is achieved for the
yield function of 2. degree distortional hardening if a stabilized tensor of 2. order is in
troduced:
^s
ef
ij
= (g
ijkl
÷b
ijkl
)s
ef
kl
: (39)
The constants g
ijkl
are describing the preceding form and orientation of the yield sur
face in the space of principle stresses. In the case of purely isotropic hardening in the
beginning, the constants follow from the v. Mises condition. In the case of anisotropy,
the g
ijkl
have to be evaluated from experimental results. The stabilized yield function is:
9 Development and Improvement of Unified Models
192
Figure 9.11: Variation of c
121212
leads to distortion (dashed lines).
f
2s
= (3J
2
(^s
ef
ij
))
1
2
÷(K ÷k) =
3
2
^s
ef
ij
^s
ef
ij
_ _1
2
÷(K ÷k) : (40)
The hardening properties are the same as in Equation (37). By the introduction of the
2. invariant of ^s
ef
ij
, it is assured that f has reell points of zero value.
• Material models for distortional hardening of 2. and 3. order
The hierarchy of progressively more complex hardening rules is given here for the
model by Chaboche and Rousselier model (see Section 9.2.1). It starts from isotropic
hardening. The additional hardening tensors are of polynomial type. Each of the follow
ing yield functions is valid for all the evolutionary equations of the actual model.
• Model with isotropic hardening, f = f
0
as in Equation (35):
_
K = b
K
(Q
K
÷K) _ p(r
ex
) : (41)
• Model with kinematic hardening, f = f
1
as in Equation (36), additional:
_
ij
= b
a
2
3
Q
a
qf
qs
ef
ij
÷
ij
_ _
_ p(r
ex
) : (42)
• For distortional hardening of 2. degree, f = f
2
as in Equation (37), additional:
_
b
ijkl
= b
b
÷Q
b
qf
qb
ijkl
÷b
ijkl
_ _
_ p(r
ex
) : (43)
9.6 Models Employing Distorted Yield Surfaces
193
Figure 9.12: ‘Bursting’ violates the condition of convexity.
• For distortional hardening of 3. degree, f = f
3
as in Equation (38), additional:
_ c
ijklmn
= b
c
÷Q
c
qf
qc
ijklmn
÷c
ijklmn
_ _
_ p(r
ex
) : (44)
The Equations (43) and (44) are structured similarily to the known evolutionary equa
tions as those of Equations (41) and (42). However, the distortional hardenings are not
developing in direction of the inelastic strain rates – as the Prager rule in Equation (42)
– but in direction of the gradients of the corresponding hardening tensors. This is in ac
cordance to the ‘principle of the maximum hardening effect’ (Wegener [37]).
• Numerical simulations of saturated yield surfaces
To prove the efficiency of the material models given above, a saturation process is simu
lated. The experimental results on mild steel Fe 510 are produced within the project B10
(Peil [35]) by Dannemeyer [43]. The material parameters of the various models (Equations
(41) to (44)) are adapted to the cyclic experimental results of the saturated yield surfaces
applying the optimization procedure presented in Section 9.4. The sets of parameters are
determined so that each set is the best fit to all the yield surfaces of the three experiments
(see Table 9.2). The parameters are given in [23]. The differences between experimental
and numerical results are taken as criteria for the quality of the simulations q
fl
, that is the
sum of all the deviations for n different points on the yield surface:
q
fl
=
1
2n
n
i=1
r
exp
f;i
÷r
sim
f;i
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸ ÷ s
exp
f;i
÷s
sim
f;i
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_ _
: (45)
In Table 9.2, the results are compared. It proves that the extension by distortional harden
ing is improving the quality of the numerical simulation considerably. Figure 9.13 presents
the saturated yield surfaces for the different material models for one of the experiments:
the biaxial tests as given by the stressstrain path in Figure 9.13a. The model by Chaboche
9 Development and Improvement of Unified Models
194
Table 9.2: Quality of the distortional material models for three different types of model.
Tests De Dc Error q
fl
[MPa]
[%] [%]
Chaboche Distortional hardening of
and Rousselier
2. degree 3. degree
Tension/compression 0.490 – 8.24 6.94 3.88
Torsion – 0.848 7.74 5.42 3.10
Biaxial 0.347 0.600 12.88 7.76 7.10
Mean value 9.62 6.70 4.69
and Rousselier does not cover the rotation of the axis and the distortional ‘bumbs’ of the
yield surfaces. The model of 2. degree distortional hardening describes the rotation and the
change in lengths of the axis correctly. Yet, only the model with 3. degree distortional
hardening can reproduce the characteristic ‘bumbs’distorsions.
• Numerical simulation of cyclic experiments
Within project B10 (Peil [35]), specimens of hollow cylinders of mild steel Fe 510
have been tested. The results are given by Reininghaus [44]. The cyclic loading of pro
portional and nonproportional load paths reached saturations after 15 cycles.
For the numerical simulation, all the different models as given above by Equations
(41) to (44) are investigated. The parameter adaptation is considering the proportional ex
periments by relative weight factors to result in equivalent simulations of these tests.
Hence, deficiencies are showing up only for the nonproportional load path. The sets of
9.6 Models Employing Distorted Yield Surfaces
195
Figure 9.13: Numerical simulation with different models of the biaxial test results with saturation
after 5. cycle: a) load path; b) model of kinematic hardening; c) model of 2. degree distortional
hardening; d) model of 3. degree distortional hardening.
a)
b)
c)
d)
c
=
3
_
[
%
]
s
3
_
[
M
P
a
]
s
3
_
[
M
P
a
]
s
3
_
[
M
P
a
]
parameters are given in [23]. As quality criterion q, the relative differences of the areas
beneath the curves are chosen as explained in Section 9.4 (Equations (20) and (21)).
Figure 9.14 presents some of the results after saturation. The rehysteresisloops
for nonproportional loading as given by Figure 9.14a are shown. The model by Cha
boche and Rousselier (Equation (42)) is underestimating the maximum stress. Whereas
the models of distortional hardening do fit much better (see Figure 9.14c and d). The
relative error q is reduced to half the value of model b (Figure 9.14b).
• Adaptation results for one or multiaxial test results
The adaptation is usually applied to uniaxial tests. Hence, it is questionable whether the set
of parameters, which is adapted to these simpler tests, is also covering multiaxial load paths.
Within the project A2 [34], experiments have been carried out for uniaxial as well
as for biaxial tests of AlMg
3
. The results are given by Gieseke [45]. These results are
9 Development and Improvement of Unified Models
196
Figure 9.14: Saturation curves of cyclic nonproportional loading as given in a); b) model of kine
matic hardening, where q=11.60%; c) model of 2. degree distortional hardening, where q=6.63%;
d) model of 3. degree distortional hardening, where q=5.72%.
a)
b)
c)
d)
c
=
3
_
[
%
]
taken for a numerical investigation applying both models, that by Chaboche and Rous
selier and that of the distortional hardening (Equation (43)). The adaptation is applied
alternatively to the experimental data of uniaxial and of biaxial test results. More de
tails are given in [23, 46].
Some of the results of these investigations are the following:
• As a rule, the nonproportional tests are not sufficiently covered by models adapted
to uniaxial tests.
• Uniaxial test data do not include the distortional phenomena.
Hence, the adaptation has to be applied to multiaxial load paths if models should be de
rived, which can safely be used for a broader application of more complex load paths
as in actual structures.
9.7 Approach to Cover Stochastic Test Results
For the investigation of the effects of distributed material properties on the results of
structural analyses, a special kind of steel is selected (Warmarbeitsstahl 1.2344 DIN
X40CrMoV5 1). This steel is especially suited for high temperatureloaded steel tools
(see also Section 9.8.6). The temperature may be as high as 700 K.
The experimental data are provided by the project A5 (Rie et al. [47]). To limit
the experimental effort, here only one type of test is selected. 27 specimens (of the
same production charge) are tested by a twostep tension load. The creep curves are
9.7 Approach to Cover Stochastic Test Results
197
Figure 9.15: Experimental creep data of 27 specimen.
t [s]
X40CrMoV51
T = 733 K
tension phases: _ e =5·10
–5
s
–1
shown in Figure 9.15. They are distinctively scattered around a mean value curve.
There may be several sources for this stochastic behaviour. However, for the following
approach, it is assumed that such scattering curves are given by experimental tests as
material phenomena.
• Statistical interpretation of the data
From Figure 9.15, the supposition may be justified that the results are clustered around
some mean value for each specific time. Therefore, the data of strains are selected as
stochastic variables. Arguments for satisfying the conditions of a normal Gaussian dis
tribution are:
• The mean values e of the strains (see Figure 9.15) are a smooth function well in the
centre of the distributed test results.
• The curves for the standard deviation s
e
of these tests (see Figure 9.16) are also
smooth and follow the creep phases very well.
• The coefficient of variance v is almost constant and has a value of 0.05 in the first
creeping phase and inclines to 0.07 in the second phase.
• Each test value is compared with the probabilistically expected one. The cumulative
distribution functions turned out to be almost equal.
• The coefficients of variance have values below the limits given by Sachs [48].
Therefore, a logarithmic normal distribution is not required, a Gaussian distribution
can be assumed.
• The distribution satisfies further criteria as those for adaptation to normal distribu
tion given by KolmogoroffSmirnoff.
9 Development and Improvement of Unified Models
198
Figure 9.16: Expected mean values e for strains of the experimental results of 27 tests and stan
dard deviation s
e
.
t [s]
In Figure 9.16, the characteristic statistical values of means and standard deviations are
shown for the test data. In the small table, the same characteristics are given if only a
group of nine specimens (9
1
, 9
2
, 9
3
) would have been investigated. The differences are
small.
• Concept for the statistical approach
It should be possible to express stochastically distributed test results by correspond
ingly distributed sets of parameters in the functional formulations. Some considerations
have already been given by Braasch [24]. As it is shown before, the experimental data
obey a normal Gaussian distribution. The estimated mean values and the variances are
determined from the test results (e =l
e
; s
2
e
=r
2
e
). Then, for the assumed Gaussian
distribution, an infinite number of ‘artificial’ tests is defined, which possesses the same
characteristic statistical values. From this infinite number of tests, discrete straintime
curves can be simulated. In Figure 9.17, such curves are presented for quantils of equal
distances of 5%. This results in 19 ‘artificial tests’. It proved to be necessary to follow
this concept to find the parameter distribution.
• Evaluation of stochastic parameters
The ideal curves of Figure 9.17 are the basis for the adaptation of the parameters of the
model by Chaboche and Rousselier. The adaptation of the parameters follows the proce
dures described in Section 9.4. The example of Figure 9.17 is of special nature because the
adaptation process proved that assuming only isotropic hardening is sufficient. The param
eters C and a corresponding to kinematic hardening (see Equation (8)) can be dropped.
Furthermore, the initial yield limit k can be neglected (see Equation (4)).
9.7 Approach to Cover Stochastic Test Results
199
Figure 9.17: Idealized creep curves derived from infinite Gaussian distribution.
t [s]
Hence, only 5 parameters E, n, D, b, Q of Equations (2) to (7) have to be evalu
ated. It is obvious also to assume only one value for the Young’s modulus E. Figure
9.18a shows the results of the parameter evaluations for each of the 19 curves in Fig
ure 9.17. The four parameters are presented along the axis representing the cumulative
distribution values. The functions are largely antimetrical to the centre of F(x)=0.5.
The parameter D is almost constant. Therefore, in Figure 9.18c, the same functional
distribution is presented for only three free parameters.
If the same evaluation of the parameters is applied – not to the ideal distribution,
but directly to the curves of the test results –, then the functional distributions of the
parameters are not at all smooth curves (see Figure 9.18b and the corresponding Figure
9.18a). Better parameters for the test results are achieved when only three parameters
are free for adaptations (see Figure 19.8d compared to Figure 9.18b).
The results are:
• fixed values for E=1.80· 10
5
MPa,
D=8.88· 10
2
MPa s
1/n
,
• three functional distributions given in Figure 9.18c for the parameters n, b, Q of
Equations (6) and (7).
In the next step of the approach, the distribution functions of Figure 9.18c should be
presented by fit polynomials. Thus, all the stochastical parameters are described as
functions of the cumulative distributions, the quantils.
9 Development and Improvement of Unified Models
200
Figure 9.18: Results of the parameter evaluation for the idealized creep curves of Figure 9.17: a)
ideal distribution, 4 free parameters; b) test results, 4 free parameters; c) ideal distribution, 3 free
parameters; d) test results, 3 free parameters.
a)
b)
c)
d)
cumulative distribution function F(x)
empirical cumulative distribution function S(x)
cumulative distribution function F(x)
empirical cumulative distribution function S(x)
• Application to analyses of structures
Having arrived at material models, where – at least some, if not all – the parameters
are given in form of Gaussian distributions, random selections of material properties
may be produced and allocated to physical points of the structure, say to the Gaussian
points of FiniteElement discretizations.
Hereby, it should be considered that the material model is already adapted to test
results, which are integrals of the behaviour of the entire test specimen. Therefore, the
pointwise distribution over a structure should have distances not smaller than the di
mensions of the specimen. If the areas of identical material properties are too small,
then the stochastic approach of the material model is suppressed because now structural
analysis is driving towards the mean values. For the practical application, it is proposed
to assign random values of stochastic material properties (the parameters of the model)
to somewhat larger areas. An example is presented in Section 9.8.5.
• Generalization
So far, the proposed statistical approach has been applied and verified only for a single
type of experimental tests. This procedure offers best possibilities to take into account
simultaneously different types of tests with complex loadings, which is necessary to de
scribe the distributed material behaviour of real structures. Therefore, the sets of param
eters have to be adapted simultaneously to test results of different loading types, e.g.
tension tests with different strain rates, creep or relaxation in different levels of stresses
or of strains, cyclic loadings. Before the simultaneous adaptation for parameter optimi
zation is applied, all the different types of test results have to be replaced by idealized
distributions like those in Figure 9.17. For weighting the different test results, the stan
dard deviations of each of them may be taken as weight measure. The procedure fol
lows the same steps as given for the single type example.
9.8 Structural Analyses
The stressstrain developments in structures exposed to high thermomechanical outer
actions are in general geometrically as well as physically nonlinear and also timede
pendent. For the following examples of applications, it is assumed that strains and de
formations are sufficiently small for applying a geometrical linear theory and that the
states of temperatures may be stationary. For the FiniteElement method, the formula
tion in displacements is chosen (see [9, 10, 12, 15]). For a mixed FiniteElement meth
od formulation, algorithms and analysis are presented in [19].
9.8 Structural Analyses
201
9.8.1 Consistent formulation of the coupled boundary
and initial value problem
The problem is described by the following basic equations and by additional boundary
and initial value conditions:
• equilibrium
r
ij;j
÷p
i
= 0 in X; (46)
• kinematic relations
e
ij
÷
1
2
(u
i;j
÷u
j;i
) = 0 in X; (47)
• material model
_ e
ij
÷E
÷1
ijkl
_ r
kl
÷_ e
in
ij
= 0 in X; (48)
_ e
in
ij
÷ _ p(r
ij
; q
ij
)
qf
qs
ef
ij
= 0 in X; (49)
_ q
ij
÷h(r
ij
; q
ij
) ÷r(r
ij
; q
ij
) = 0 in X: (50)
The boundary value problem is solved by FiniteElement method in a weak formula
tion of the equilibrium conditions [49, 50]. The integration of the initial value problem
is discussed in Section 9.3. The collocation method is applied, assuming linear approxi
mations within time steps in implicit formulation, for all examples except in Section
9.8.4, where higher order tensors for hardening are investigated. The nonlinear equa
tions are solved by NewtonRaphson iteration. For the structural discretization, iso
parametric elements with quadratic approximations are chosen. The analysis proceeds
along the following equations:
1. Stiffness matrix of the total structure:
K =
_
X
(DH)
T
~
E(DH) dX; (51)
D operational matrix
H element functions
~
E =
_
E
÷1
÷nDt
q _ e
in
qr
÷
A
23
A
÷1
33
A
32
_
÷1
A
ij
partial derivatives
9 Development and Improvement of Unified Models
202
ü
ï
ï
ï
ý
ï
ï
ï
ï
þ
, (52)
2. Residuum:
Dr =
_
X
H
T
DpdX÷
_
C
r
H
T
Df dC
r
÷
_
X
(DH)
T
DrdX÷
÷
_
X
(DH)
T
~
E ÷(DH)Dv ÷E
÷1
Dr ÷ _ e
in
Dt ÷
A
23
A
÷1
33
(÷Dq ÷ _ qDt)
_ ¸
dX: (53)
3. Global iteration:
K DDm = Dr : (54)
4. Total increments of displacements:
Dm = Dm ÷DDm : (55)
5. Local iteration:
DDr =
~
E
_
(DH)Dm ÷E
÷1
Dr ÷ _ e
in
Dt ÷
A
23
A
÷1
33
(÷Dq ÷ _ qDt)
_
; (56)
DDq =
A
÷1
33
(÷Dq ÷ _ qDt ÷
A
32
DDr) ; (57)
Dr = Dr ÷DDr ; Dq = Dq ÷DDq : (58)
9.8.2 Analysis of stressstrain fields in welded joints
In project C4, Wohlfahrt [51] investigated experimentally welded joints for steel
StE460NA. Uniaxial tension tests under room temperature have been performed for
specimens of the base metal, of the weld metal and for four different modifications of
the microstructure within the heat affected zone (HAZ). The results have been used for
adaptions of the parameters of the model by Chaboche and Rousselier applying the
methods discussed in Section 9.4. In Figure 9.19, the stressstrain curves are shown for
the different materials as given by the numerical simulation after parameter adaptation.
The experimental results are not shown because of only small differences to the numer
ical evaluations. It proved that the original model by Chaboche and Rousselier is cover
ing the tests sufficiently.
For the numerical analysis of the 100 mm long welded joint, symmetry is as
sumed. The numerically simulated welded joint is elongated by 4.0 mm within 900 s.
This would be equivalent to a medium strain of e
m
= 40:0‰ and a strain rate of
_ e
m
= 4:4 10
÷5
s
÷1
within a homogeneous material. The structural model (see Figures
9.8 Structural Analyses
203
9.20 and 9.21) is composed of the three zones, where the HAZ of a total thickness of
approximate 2.1 mm is divided into four different kinds of microstructures. The struc
tural model is twodimensional. Further details are given in the contribution to this
book by the project C4 [51].
Figures 9.20 and 9.21 show the results of the analysis: the distribution of the
longitudinal strains caused by the material inhomogeneity for mean strains of
e
m
= 2:8‰ (t = 63 s) and for e
m
= 8:0‰ (t = 180 s).
9 Development and Improvement of Unified Models
204
Figure 9.19: Tension tests for the different materials of a welded joint.
Figure 9.20: Strain e
x
[–] for e
m
=2.8‰, t =63 s.
_ e =5·10
–5
s
–1
From Figure 9.20, it is proved that high inelastic strains (and, hence, also higher
strain rates) are developing within the weld metal and at the edges of the HAZ. These
strain rates are larger as those of the tests in Figure 9.19 for the parameter adaptation.
This is caused by the stiffer layers C and M within the HAZ being also restrained in
the direction along the welded joint (see Figure 9.19). For higher loads, as in Figure
9.21 for mean e
m
= 8:0‰, the strains within the weld are only slightly larger than
8.0‰, whereas the strains in the base metal are approaching 8‰. For greater e
m
, the
relative results do not change remarkable.
The analysis of the welded joint proved in general what has been measured also
in the experiments of the project C4 [51]: The heat affected zone is responsible for
nonuniform distributions of strains and stresses. The present investigations do not cov
er, however, the threedimensional inhomogeneity within the HAZ.
9.8.3 Thickwalled rotational vessel under inner pressure
The small vessel of Figure 9.22 under pressure is taken as a structural example to inves
tigate the effects of the different material models of Section 9.5 on the stressstrain fields in
the walls [9]. Compared are the following variants (see Section 9.5, Equations (30) to (33)):
A Discretization of material function _ p(r
ex
) = f
D
(r
ex
)
B Discretization of both functions _ p(r
ex
; K) = f
D
(r
ex
)g
D
(K)
C Additional term of static recovery (see Equation (33)).
The structure of Figure 9.22 is discretized by 8nodes elements (reduced integration in
2×2 Gaussian points). The load history of inner pressures is chosen so that for the vari
9.8 Structural Analyses
205
Figure 9.21: Strain e
x
[–] for e
m
=8.0‰, t =180 s.
ant C, the most critical Gaussian point is stressed and strained equal to the material
curves, which are used in Section 9.5 to determine the parameters. These conditions
yield the following load path: Firstly, the inner pressure is raised to p
i
= 1:4 MPa with
in t = 100 s. Then, the increase of pressure is slowed down so that for t = 480 s,
p
i
= 4:82 MPa is reached.
Figure 9.23 shows the differences in the stress fields of one section by applying
the three variants A, B, C. Different assumptions for material models produce also dis
tinctly different stress fields in structures. The same structure as in Figure 9.22 has also
been taken as an example for the investigations with the models by Hart, Chaboche
and Rousselier, and by Miller (see [52]).
9.8.4 Application of distorted yield functions
This section reports on the applicability of the concept given in Section 9.6 of higher
order hardening tensors for considering also distorted yield surfaces. Also the effects of
9 Development and Improvement of Unified Models
206
Figure 9.22: Geometry of a thickwalled vessel.
Figure 9.23: Stationary stresses along section IIII of Figure 9.22.
the extension of the model by Chaboche and Rousselier given in Section 9.6 are evalu
ated. The structural example is a strip with a central hole (see Figure 9.24). Two differ
ent cases are investigated for cyclic patterns of imposed displacements u and v. In the
first case, the strip is strained only in v direction. In the second case, imposed v and u
displacements of the edges are following in cycles of 908 phase shifting as shown in
the timedependent diagram in Figure 9.24c.
Two models are applied for both cases I and II. In the first one, the original mod
el and the kinematic hardening rule (Equation (42)) as given in Section 9.6 are em
ployed. The second model is that of distortional hardening of 3. degree (Equations (43)
and (44)).
The structural analysis by the FiniteElement method yields results given in Fig
ures 9.25 and 9.26. They show the v. Mises stresses r
v
at the time of the third cycle
peak. For the uniaxial imposed displacements v, Figure 9.25 shows no significant dif
ferences in the stress fields of both applied models.
In the case of twodimensional imposed displacements v and u, in Figure 9.26, the
model of distortional hardening (b) yields a very different v. Mises stress field compared
to the simple one of kinematic hardening (a), especially in the region above the hole. More
refined investigations, not shown here, revealed that the differences between a and b in
Figure 9.26 are caused mainly by the additional term for distortional hardening of 2. de
gree (Equation (43)), whereas the 3. degree refinement of Equation (44) is – at least in this
example – of minor effect. However, other applications of nonproportional stress or strain
paths may prove that also the 3. degree hardening term is significant.
For the same example of a structure (Figure 9.24), the case I is chosen to investi
gate the efficiency of the different time integration methods discussed in Section 9.3.
For the material model, that of Equation (42) with kinematic hardening is chosen. The
integration process is stopped when the accuracy of e
tol
= 10
–3
is reached.
In Table 9.3, the different integration methods are compared with regard to their ef
ficiency when applied to a structure (see also Section 9.3), where this was done at the level
of the model. q
g
is the order of error (Equations (11) to (14)). The required computing time
is related to the employment of a Pentium P90 computer. The v. Mises stress r
v
is taken
from a point of maximum value. On the level of structural analyses, the RungeKutta
methods proved to be more efficient than in comparison on the level of models (see Ta
9.8 Structural Analyses
207
a) b) c)
Figure 9.24: Structural example: a) case I; b) case II; c) imposed cycles for v and u.
t [s]
ble 9.1). The lowest time required is that of the RungeKutta version by DormandPrince.
This is caused by the additional efforts needed for structures by expressing the load vector
and for determining the stresses etc. This is proportional to the time steps needed. The
predictorcorrector method by Heun requires more than twice the number of time steps
as the two best methods although the higher order of error, q
g
= 5, is connected with a
9 Development and Improvement of Unified Models
208
a) b)
a) b)
Figure 9.25: v. Mises r
v
stress fields for cyclic imposed displacements v as in Figure 9.24a after
3. cycle, t =90 s: a) model of kinematic hardening; b) model of 3. degree distortional hardening.
Figure 9.26: v. Mises r
v
stress fields for cyclic imposed displacements v and u as in Figure
9.24b after 3. cycle, t =90 s: a) model of kinematic hardening; b) model of 3. degree distortional
hardening.
larger amount of efforts within the evaluation of the material model. However, on the level
of structural analyses, these additional efforts are relatively small.
If the model of distortional hardening is applied in the comparative investigation
then, the RungeKutta method by DormandPrince needs the following computer times:
• model of distortional hardening of 2. degree (Equation (43)): 8201 s,
• model of distortional hardening of 3. degree (Equation (44)): 38421 s.
This shows that the distortional hardening of higher degree requires considerably more
computer time because of much more unknowns in each Gaussian point to be evaluated.
9.8.5 Application of the statistical approach of Section 9.7
For the investigation of the applicability of material models covering the statistical dis
tribution of test results, the strip with two circular holes and two half circle cuts in the
centre line from the project C2 (Ritter and Friebe [53]) is taken (see Figure 9.27). The
metal strip is 40 mm long, 13 mm broad and 3 mm thick. The material is that of Sec
tion 9.7. The structure is loaded by a longitudinal tension force of 37 kN under a tem
perature of 733K.
The FiniteElement method analyses took advantage of the double symmetry (see
Figure 9.27) although this may not be allowed for a more consistent statistical scatter
ing of deviations in the material properties. The investigated net consists of 168 iso
parametric 8nodes elements. For the statistical distribution, the results of Section 9.7
are applied, where the free parameters of the material model are expressed in a normal
Gaussian distribution.
In a first step, the structure is analysed by assuming homogeneous material all
over the plate, where, for the material parameters, the values of the mean expectation
l
e
are selected as well as those of the band of distribution l
e
±r
e
. The results of this
homogeneous approach are needed to evaluate the differences to results when the
material differs over the plate.
In the second step, the material properties are inhomogeneously scattered over the
plate. Because of experimental restrictions, the metal strip has the same extensions as
the uniaxial specimen. Therefore, the subdivision in rectangular sections is not conve
9.8 Structural Analyses
209
Table 9.3: Efficiency of different time integration methods (Section 9.3).
Method q
g
e
tol
[–]
CPUtime
[s]
Time steps r
v,max
[MPa]
P.C. by Heun 2 10
–3
2126 28597 431.6
R.K. 2./3. order 3 10
–3
1652 21446 431.6
R.K. Fehlberg 5 10
–3
1663 16065 431.6
DormandPrince 5 10
–3
1571 13090 431.4
nient. Nevertheless, as an example, one quarter of the strip is divided into 10×3 rectan
gular sections (see Figure 9.28). To each of these sections, then a value of the cumula
tive distribution function corresponding to Figure 9.18c is allotted by a random pro
cess. One of these distributions is presented in Figure 9.28 c. This random process is
applied 25 times, which yields 25 different distributions of material properties over the
plate. In Figure 9.27, the results are shown: the development of the edge displacement
u
j
with time for different distributions of the material parameters. The u
j
for the 25 ran
dom distributions are rather close to the homogeneous case of mean values l
e
as
should be expected. The homogeneous cases for the l
e
±r
e
values are, of course, upper
and lower bounds relatively far away from the random cases. The coefficient of vari
ance is 0.038 for homogeneous material and 0.010 for the 25 cases of different material
in the 3×10 sectional rectangles.
In order to demonstrate the local effects of statistical distributions, the computed
strains e
x
are shown in Figure 9.28 for two cases: a) homogeneous material (l
e
), b)
scattered distribution corresponding to the cumulative distribution values in c). The dis
tribution of e
x
along the plate does not differ very much between case a) and case b).
In spite of large differences in c) (Figure 9.28c), the same results can be drawn
from Figure 9.29, where the strains e
x
along the section II (see Figure 9.27) are
plotted for the different cases of material distribution.
The conclusion of these investigations is that statistical scattering of the test re
sults even of larger deviations in the material models is levelled out if this scattering is
distributed over the entire structure. This is especially true for mechanical quantities,
which follow from integrals like displacements. For local quantities as stresses, the sta
tistical scattering may be more of relevance.
9 Development and Improvement of Unified Models
210
Figure 9.27: Displacement u
j
over time for different material distributions.
t [s]
9.8 Structural Analyses
211
Figure 9.28: Strains e
x
[–] for t =15000 s: a) homogeneous (l
e
); b) 3/10 areas of cumulative dis
tribution values as in c).
a) b) c)
Figure 9.29: Strains e
x
along section II (see Figure 9.27).
9.8.6 Numerical analysis for a recipient of a profile extrusion press
With this structural example, the applicability is proved of the material model based on
the microphysical approach by Estrin [14] (see also Section 9.2.2) to structural ana
lyses. Detailed results are given in [15, 16]. Moreover, the capacity and efficiency in
structural applications are investigated for the following material models:
• microphysical model by Estrin,
• extended microphysical model by Kowalsky,
• model by Chaboche and Rousselier with an additional term for static recovery,
• Burgers model.
Figure 9.30 shows the main geometrical parts of the extrusion press taken here as an
example for application. The working temperature is 733 K. For the material, the
‘Warmarbeitsstahl’ X40CrMoV5 1 is chosen (see also Section 9.7).
Recipients of rectangular crosssections for receiving the hot aluminium billets are
more prone to failure than those with circular cross sections. Therefore, alternative so
lutions are investigated, where, e. g., the inner part is composed of some independent
segments.
The structural discretization and the loadtime sequences of the working processes
are given in more details in [16], where also experimental results from project C2 [53]
are documented, on which the application is based.
The recipient is loaded by temperatures and by pressures. Some of the thermal ac
tions are already imposed in the course of assembling the recipient. The intermediate
ring is heated and then placed over the internal segments (see Figure 9.30). Cooling
imposes prestressing. Then, this is repeated also for the outer cover ring. In the manu
facturing periods, the entire recipient is loaded by the temperature of the billet and by
the press cycles (see Figure 9.31).
9 Development and Improvement of Unified Models
212
Figure 9.30: Extrusion press for aluminium profiles.
Some of the results are presented in Figures 9.32 to 9.34. The radial displace
ments of the inner surface at the vertical axis of symmetry are plotted over time in Fig
ure 9.32. The different models applied do not result in significant different displace
ments within the time of the assemblage. They are shrinking deformations caused by
cooling. However, larger differences are calculated for the working cycles. Since the
original model by Estrin covers only isotropic hardening, there is no incremental in
crease of the deformations during load reversal of the cycles. The Burgers model does
not cover hardening. Therefore, the deformations increase linearly with each cycle. The
extended microphysical model and the model by Chaboche and Rousselier lead to satu
ration of the deformations with increased numbers of cycles.
In Figure 9.33, the accumulated inelastic strains after finishing the assemblage are
shown for each of the models in one of the quadrants. They are especially large for the
analyses assuming the model by Burgers. The other differences are small because the
stresses are rather small in this load situation.
The inner working pressure reverses the loading of the rings. Hence, different as
sumptions for hardening rules result in different stresses. In Figure 9.34, the maximum
v. Mises r
v
stresses are plotted during the fourth loading cycle. The maximum values
are 996 MPa for the model by Chaboche and Rousselier and 1490 MPa for the model
by Estrin. The latter one does not simulate inelastic stress release because the model does
not include kinematic hardening.
9.8 Structural Analyses
213
Figure 9.31: Loading history by internal pressure.
Figure 9.32: Radial displacements u
y
.
s
Acknowledgements
This final report draws conclusions and results from many individual papers and co
workers at the institute (see [9–12, 15–19, 22–24, 28, 31, 32, 46, 52]). The authors are
indebted to them for these contributions.
9 Development and Improvement of Unified Models
214
Figure 9.33: Accumulated inelastic strains after assemblage for four models.
Figure 9.34: v. Mises stresses during the fourth loading cycle for four models.
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[4] Y. Estrin: Stoffgesetze der plastischen Verformung und Instabilita¨ten des plastischen
Fließens. VDIVerlag, Heft 642, Hamburg, 1987.
[5] E. Steck, F. Thielecke, M. Lewerenz: Development and Application of Constitutive Models
for the Plasticity of Metals. This book (Chapter 4).
[6] O. T. Bruhns, P. S. White, J. L. Chaboche, J. V. D. Eikhoff: Constitutive Modelling in the
Range of Inelastic Deformations. EUR 17999, 1988.
[7] D. Nouhailhas: A Viscoplastic Modelling Applied to Stainless Steel Behavior. Proceedings
of the Second International Conference on Constitutive Laws for Engineering Materials:
Theory and Application, Tucson, Arizona, USA, 1987.
[8] D. N. Robinson, P. A. Bartolotta: Viscoplastic Relationships with Dependence on Thermome
chanical History. NASA CR174836, 1985.
[9] H. Braasch: Ein Konzept zur Fortentwicklung und Anwendung viskoplastischer Werkstoff
modelle. Bericht Nr. 9271, 1992.
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lysen. Bericht Nr. 9369, 1993.
[11] M. Schwesig, H. Ahrens, H. Duddeck: Erfahrungen aus der Anwendung des inelastischen
Stoffgesetzes nach Hart. Festschrift Schardt, Schriftenreihe Wissenschaft und Technik 51,
TH Darmstadt, 1990, pp. 423–438.
[12] M. Schwesig: Inelastisches Verhalten metallischer Werkstoffe bei ho¨heren Temperaturen –
Numerik und Anwendung. Bericht Nr. 8957, 1989.
[13] Y. Estrin, L. P. Kubin: Local Strain Hardening and Nonuniformity of Plastic Deformation.
Acta metallurgica 34(12) (1986) 2455–2464.
[14] Y. Estrin, H. Mecking: Microstructural Aspects of Constitutive Modelling of Plastic Defor
mation. ElasticPlastic Failure Modelling of Structures with Applications – PVP – Vol. 141,
ASME, 1988.
[15] U. Kowalsky: Mikrophysikalisch begru¨ndetes Werkstoffmodell zur Berechnung thermome
chanisch beanspruchter Konstruktionen. Bericht Nr. 9478, 1994.
[16] U. Kowalsky, H. Ahrens: FEAnalysis of the Recipient of an Extrusion Press Applying Mi
crostructureRelated Material Model. Computers & Structures 64 (1–4) (1997) 655–665.
[17] U. Eggers: Verification of a MicrostructureRelated Constitutive Model by Optimized Identi
fication of Material Parameters. Low Cycle Fatigue and ElastoPlastic Behavior of Matiersl
– 3, Berlin, 1992, pp. 405–410.
[18] E.R. Tirpitz, M. Schwesig: A Unified Model Approach Combining RateDependent and
RateIndependent Plasticity. Low Cycle Fatigue and ElastoPlastic Behavior of Materials –
3, Berlin 1992, pp. 411–417.
[19] E.R. Tirpitz: Elastoplastische Erweiterung von viskoplastischen Stoffmodellen fu¨r Metalle –
Theorie, Numerik und Anwendung. Bericht Nr. 9270, 1992.
[20] G. EngelnMu¨llges, F. Reuter: Numerische Mathematik fu¨r Ingenieure. B.I.Wissenschafts
verlag, Mannheim, 1987.
[21] P. Rentrop, K. Strehmel, R. Weiner: Ein Überblick u¨ber Einschrittverfahren zur numerischen
Integration in der technischen Simulation. GAMMMitteilungen, Heft 1, 1996, pp. 9–43.
[22] D. Dinkler, M. Schwesig: Numerische Lo¨sung von Anfangswertproblemen in der Statik und
Dynamik. Festschrift Heinz Duddeck, SpringerProd.Ges. 1988, pp. 99–116.
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[23] T. Streilein: Erfassung formativer Verfestigung in viskoplastischen Stoffmodellen. Bericht
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[24] H. Braasch: Erfassung streuenden Materialverhaltens in Stoffmodellen. Bericht Nr. 9375,
1993, pp. 1–14.
[25] I. Rechenberg: Evolutionsstrategie – Optimierung technischer Systeme nach den Prinzipien
der biologischen Evolution. Friedrich Frommann Verlag, Stuttgart – Bad Cannstatt, 1972.
[26] H.P. Schwefel: Evolutionsstrategie und numerische Optimierung. Dissertation, TU Berlin,
1975.
[27] D. Mu¨ller, G. Hartmann: Identification of Materials Parameters for Inelastic Constitutive
Models Using Principles of Biologic Evolution. J. of Engineering Materials and Technology
(ASME) 111 (1989) 299–305.
[28] M. Bergmann: Lo¨sung von Optimierungsproblemen mit parallelisierten Evolutionsalgorith
men. Bericht Nr. 9375, 1993, pp. 15–28.
[29] J. A. Nelder, R. Meat: A Simplex Method for Function Minimization. Computer Journal 7
(1965) 308–313.
[30] R. Mahnken: Duale Methoden fu¨r nichtlineare Optimierungsprobleme in der Strukturme
chanik. Forschungs und Seminarberichte aus dem Bereich der Mechanik der Universita¨t
Hannover, F 92/3, 1992.
[31] H. Braasch, H. Duddeck, H. Ahrens: A New Approach to Improve Material Models. J.
Engng. Mat. Technol. (ASME) 117 (1995) 14–19.
[32] H. Braasch: Concept to Improve the Approximation of Material Functions in Unified Mod
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405–410.
[33] A. Styczynski: Experiments on pure Aluminium. Unpublished data.
[34] W. Gieseke, K. R. Hillert, G. Lange: Material State after Uni and Biaxial Cyclic Deforma
tion. This book (Chapter 2).
[35] U. Peil, J. Scheer, H.J. Scheibe, M. Reininghaus, D. Kuck, S. Dannemeyer: On the Behav
iour of Mild Steel Fe 510 under Complex Cyclic Loading. This book (Chapter 10).
[36] A. Phillips, J. L. Tang: The Effect of Loading Path on the Yield Surface at Elevated Tem
peratures. Int. J. Solids Struct. 8 (1972) 463–474.
[37] K. Wegener: Zur Berechnung großer plastischer Deformationen mit einem Stoffgesetz vom
Überspannungstyp. Braunschweiger Schriften zur Mechanik, Nr. 21991.
[38] M. Sayir: Zur Fließbedingung der Plastizita¨tstheorie. IngenieurArchiv 39 (1970) 414–432.
[39] F. Edelmann, D. C. Drucker: Some Extensions of Elementary Plasticity Theory. J. Franklin
Institute 251 (1951) 581–605.
[40] D. W. Rees: Yield Functions that Account for the Effects of Initial and Subsequent Plastic
Anisotropy. Acta Mechanica 43 (1982) 223–241.
[41] J. Betten: Plastische Anisotropie und BauschingerEffekt; allgemeine Formulierung und
Vergleich mit experimentell ermittelten Fließortkurven. Acta Mechanica 25 (1994) 79–94.
[42] T. Lehmann: Anisotrope plastische Forma¨nderungen. Rheol. Acta, Darmstadt 3 (1964)
281–285.
[43] S. Dannemeyer: Zum Einfluß der Prozeßparameter bei der experimentellen Ermittlung von
Fließfla¨chen. Dissertation aus dem Institut fu¨r Stahlbau der TU Braunschweig, 1995.
[44] M. Reininghaus: Baustahl St52 unter zweiachsiger plastischer Wechselbeanspruchung. Dis
sertation aus dem Institut fu¨r Stahlbau der TU Braunschweig, 1994.
[45] W. Gieseke: Fließfla¨chen und Versetzungsstrukturen metallischer Werkstoffe nach plasti
scher Wechselbeanspruchung. Dissertation aus dem Institut fu¨r Werkstoffe der TU Braun
schweig, 1995.
[46] T. Streilein: Viskoplastische Werkstoffmodelle – formatives Verfestigungsverhalten bei ein
und mehraxialer Beanspruchung. Numerische Methoden der Plastomechanik, Tagungsband,
Institut fu¨r Mechanik der Universita¨t Hannover, 1995, pp. 307–321.
9 Development and Improvement of Unified Models
216
[47] K.T. Rie, H. Wittke, J. Olfe: Plasticity of Metals and Life Prediction in the Range of Low
Cycle Fatigue: Description of Deformation Behaviour and CreepFatigue Interaction. This
book (Chapter 3).
[48] L. Sachs: Angewandte Statistik. SpringerVerlag, Berlin, 1992.
[49] O. C. Zienkiewicz: The Finite Element Method. 3rd. edn., McGrawHill Book Company,
London, 1977.
[50] H. Ahrens, D. Dinkler: FiniteElementMethoden. Teil I. Bericht Nr. 8850, 1994, Teil II.
Bericht Nr. 8851, 1996.
[51] H. Wohlfahrt, D. Brinkmann: Consideration of Inhomogeneities in the Application of Defor
mation Models, Describing the Inelastic Behaviour of Welded Joints. This book (Chapter
16).
[52] M. Schwesig, H. Braasch, G. Kracht, H. Duddeck, H. Ahrens: Erfahrungen aus der Anwen
dung inelastischer Stoffgesetze bei ho¨heren Temperaturen. In: D. Besdo (Ed.): Numerische
Methoden der Plastomechanik, Tagungsband, Hannover, 1989.
[53] R. Ritter, H. Friebe: Experimental Determination of Deformation and Strain Fields by Op
tical Measuring Methods. This book (Chapter 13).
The publications [9–12, 15–19, 22–24, 28, 31, 32, 46, 50, 52] resulted from the Institut fu¨r Sta
tik, TU Braunschweig.
References
217
10 On the Behaviour of Mild Steel Fe 510
under Complex Cyclic Loading
Udo Peil, Joachim Scheer, HansJoachim Scheibe, Matthias Reininghaus,
Detlef Kuck and Sven Dannemeyer*
10.1 Introduction
The aim of this project is to develop a material model for the prediction of the material
behaviour of mild steel Fe 510 under multiaxial cyclic plastic loading.
First of all, detailed information about the material response under cyclic plastic
loading are necessary. Therefore, extensive experimental investigations are made in
cluding uniaxial single and multiplestep tests and biaxial tensiontorsion tests with
various prestrains, increasing or decreasing strain amplitudes, and several proportional
and nonproportional biaxial loading paths, respectively. Cyclic hardening or softening
in the uniaxial case, or additional hardening under nonproportional loading are some
of the observed effects.
To describe the material peculiarities, the twosurface model of DafaliasPopov
has been modified. The improvements result in a rateindependent, isothermal twosur
face model, which is presented here.
Experimental data from the uniaxial and biaxial tests, and, in addition, from tests
on structural components are compared with corresponding calculations made with the
new model.
The results demonstrate the capabilities of the extendedtwosurface model to pre
dict the behaviour of mild steel and steel constructions under multiaxial cyclic plastic
loading.
218
* Technische Universita¨t Braunschweig, Institut fu¨r Stahlbau, Beethovenstraße 51,
D38106 Braunschweig, Germany
Plasticity of Metals: Experiments, Models, Computation. Collaborative Research Centres.
Edited by E. Steck, R. Ritter, U. Peil, A. Ziegenbein
Copyright © 2001 WileyVCH Verlag GmbH
ISBNs: 3527277285 (Softcover); 3527600116 (Electronic)
10.2 Material Behaviour
10.2.1 Material, experimental setups, and techniques
The investigated material was mild steel Fe 510. The chemical and mechanical charac
teristics of the different heats used in the investigations can be found in the correspond
ing papers (Scheibe [1], Reininghaus [2]).
Two types of specimens were used in the investigations. Figures 10.1 and 10.2
show sketches of both the cylindrical specimens used in the experiments with uniaxial
loading, and the tubular specimens for the biaxial investigations.
Different servohydraulictestingmachines wereusedintheuniaxial investigations. The
biaxial investigations were performed on a 160 kNtensioncompression “SCHENK” uni
versal testing machine, extended with a 1000 Nmtorsion drive and an extensometer.
10.2.2 Material behaviour under uniaxial cyclic loading
10.2.2.1 Parameters
In the straincontrolled experiments, the strain rate _ e was chosen for values between 3.5
and 24‰/min. For the forcecontrolled experiments, the loading rate was 3 kN/s. All
10.2 Material Behaviour
219
Figure 10.1: Cylindrical specimen for uniaxial experiments.
Figure 10.2: Tubulartype specimen for biaxial experiments.
tests were performed at room temperature. The varied parameters in the uniaxial loaded
tests were the strain amplitude e
a
(2, 3, 5, 8, and 12‰), the mean strain e
m
(–40, –25,
0, 10, 25, and 40‰), and the strain history (see Figure 10.3 for explanation).
The uniaxial tests were performed paying particular attention to effects of the se
quence of loadings, the evolution of cyclic hardening and softening, the relaxation of
mean stresses, and the size of the elastic region.
To investigate the ratchetting effects, stresscontrolled experiments were per
formed varying the initial strain e
m
, the stress amplitude r
a
, the mean stress r
m
, and
the stress ratio R=r
u
/r
o
.
10.2.2.2 Results of the uniaxial experiments
Straincontrolled experiments
Typical results of the different multiplestep tests without mean strain are shown in Fig
ures 10.4 and 10.5.
In these figures, the courses of the halfrange of stresses vs. the number of half
cycles are shown. In addition, the strain vs. time is plotted for explanation in the upper
left part of the diagram. The resulting stress vs. strain is given in the upper right part.
10 On the Behaviour of Mild Steel Fe 510 under Complex Cyclic Loading
220
Figure 10.3: Varied parameters of the uniaxial experiments.
Figure 10.4: Multiplestep test (MST), e
a
=128532‰.
After passing the linearelastic region, the distinct yield point and the yield pla
teau, mild steel Fe 510 shows the well known Bauschinger effect if the specimen is un
loaded. During the cyclic loading, the maximum stresses of a hysteresisloop are not
constant: For amplitudes e
a
smaller than 5‰, the maximum stresses decrease from cy
cle to cycle, and a saturated state is reached after 500 or more cycles (cyclic softening).
Amplitudes e
a
higher than 5‰ cause an increase of maximum stresses during the first
40 cycles (cyclic hardening).
Note that cyclic softening or hardening is understood as a decrease or an increase of
the stress amplitude in comparison with the stress level of the monotonic stressstrain
curve at this strain level. For e
a
_12‰, the stress level of the monotonic stressstrain
curve is almost constant (with r=r
F
). Therefore, cyclic hardening or softening can be
observed easily. Stress levels Dr/2 (for symmetric amplitudes) greater than r
F
are seen
by definition as cyclic hardening, and stress levels Dr/2 lower than r
F
as cyclic softening.
A cyclic stressstrain curve is achieved by plotting the corresponding stress ranges
Dr/2 at the stabilized states vs. the corresponding strain amplitudes e
a
. Figure 10.6
shows a typical monotonic stressstrain curve along with two cyclic stressstrain curves.
The intersection of the curves at a strain of 5‰ characterizes the border between cyclic
softening and cyclic hardening.
10.2 Material Behaviour
221
Figure 10.5: Multiplestep test (RFE), e
a
=2122‰.
Figure 10.6: Cyclic stressstrain curves.
The cyclic stressstrain curves obtained after 40 cycles and the one after 500 cycles
differ if smaller amplitudes are used. This shows that a saturated state is not reached after 40
cycles at all. With higher amplitudes, the two curves tend to become identical: The steady
state is reached during the first 40 cycles. However, after prestraining with a higher am
plitude (e.g. path MST, Figure 10.4), the stabilizedstate is alreadyreachedafter a fewcycles.
Figure 10.7 shows a multiplestep test (MST) with a mean strain of e
m
=+40‰.
The maximum stress at 52‰ (or the maximum stress level Dr/2) decreases within the
first cycles. Note that this transient behaviour is not a cyclic softening according to the
above definition because, during the first loops of the amplitude e
a
=12‰, only the
mean stress caused by the mean strain returns to zero.
Parallel to this socalled meanstress relaxation, a cyclic hardening of the
e
a
=12‰ amplitude takes place, but due to the dominance of the meanstress relaxa
tion, only a softening of the stress level Dr/2 can be observed.
A comparison of the stabilized loops for amplitudes e
a
=12‰ with different mean
strains shows that the different mean strains do not significantly influence the shape or
the maximal stress amplitudes of the hysteresisloops.
Figure 10.8 shows the cyclic stressstrain curves for different mean strains. It is
seen that the maximum stress amplitude Dr/2 depends only on the strain amplitude e
a
.
This result is the basis for the above definition of cyclic hardening or cyclic softening
under a given strain amplitude.
Another important point besides the effect of cyclic hardening is the influence of
the cyclic loading on the size of the elastic region. The elastic regions were determined
using an offsetproofstrain method (see Scheibe [1] for further explanation) with a
proof strain of 0.03‰ and a constant elastic modulus E
0
of 206000 MPa.
Figure 10.9 deals with the evolution of the elastic domain during uniaxial cyclic
loading. The diagram shows that the size of the elastic domain k is a function of the
maximum strain amplitude e
max
. If the former is greater than 5‰, the size of the elastic
region is reduced to the value k
s
&100 MPa. For strain amplitudes lower than 5‰, the
elastic region decreases very slowly (e
a
=2‰ in Figure 10.9). The dashed line of the
amplitude e
a
=2‰ shows that the size of the elastic region tends to reach the same val
ue as that of the greater amplitudes within some hundred cycles.
10 On the Behaviour of Mild Steel Fe 510 under Complex Cyclic Loading
222
Figure 10.7: Multiplestep test (MST) 128532‰, with a mean strain of 40‰.
Stresscontrolled experiments
As a result of the stresscontrolled experiments concerning the ratchetting effect (Kuck
[3]), different variations of the ratchetting effect were found (Figure 10.10):
a) quick saturation, especially with small r
a
and r
m
,
b) positive increase of strain without saturation,
c) negative increase of strain with gradual saturation (at a large number of cycles),
d) increase of strain with gradual saturation, reversal, and then constant increase of
strain.
In addition, the influence of the mentioned crosssection of the specimen and with it the
kind of stress (initial crosssection: technical stress, and actual crosssection: effective
stress) on the number of cycles needed to reach the saturated state, was investigated.
The tests show an increase of ratchetting with decreasing minimum stress at constant
maximum stress (Figure 10.11), and, in addition, a distinct mean stress (34.5 MPa), where
no ratchetting is found (Figure 10.12). The amount of the occurred ratchetting depends on
the difference between the actual mean stress and the mean stress, which leads to zero
ratchetting (Kuck [3]).
10.2 Material Behaviour
223
Figure 10.8: Cyclic stressstrain curve for different mean strains.
Figure 10.9: The evolution of the elastic region under cyclic loading.
10 On the Behaviour of Mild Steel Fe 510 under Complex Cyclic Loading
224
Figure 10.10: Different appearances of the ratchetting effect.
Figure 10.11: Influence of R = r
u
=r
o
:
10.2.3 Material behaviour under biaxial cyclic loading
10.2.3.1 Parameters
For the biaxial tests, the loading path (Figure 10.13), the sequence of different loading
paths, the loading intensity e
B
(defined by Equation (1)), and the ratio D between ten
sile and torsional loads (defined by Equation (2)) were varied. Note that e
B
is not a me
chanical derived equation, it is used only to compare biaxial and uniaxial loads here.
For the experimental investigations, different loading intensities e
B
between 1.90‰ and
7.10‰ were chosen.
e
B
=
e
2
a
÷
1
3
c
2
a
_
; (1)
D =
3
_
e
a
c
a
: (2)
The achieved stress curves and the calculated uniaxial equivalent stresses (based on the
theory of v. Mises) show the influences of various sequences of loading paths or the
additionalhardening effect.
Moreover, the yieldsurface investigations give additional insight into the evolu
tion of the elastic region under complex loadings. Here, the influence of the intensity
e
B
and the loading path on the location, shape, and size of the measured yield surface
were investigated.
Additional experiments were made to determine the influence of several param
eters coming out of the process of yield point probing itself, i.e. technique and se
quence of yield point probing, choice of the starting point, or fixing of the elastic mod
ulus.
10.2 Material Behaviour
225
Figure 10.12: Influence of the mean stress.
10.2.3.2 Relations of tensile and torsional stresses
Figure 10.14 gives some characteristic results of the evolution of the tensile and tor
sional stress in the transient state of biaxial cyclicloaded mild steel.
The evolution of the stresses of the biaxial proportional and nonproportional tests
differs with increasing intensities. For a proportional loading, only the maximum stress
es increase and the stress curve grows without changing its shape (Figure 10.14a).
10 On the Behaviour of Mild Steel Fe 510 under Complex Cyclic Loading
226
Figure 10.13: Biaxial loading paths.
Figure 10.14a)–h): Tensile and torsional stresses under biaxial proportional and nonproportional
loadings.
"
10.2 Material Behaviour
227
a) Path 03; D = 1:0 b) Path 07; D = 1:0
c) Path 10; D = 1:0 d) Path 09; D = 1:0
e) Path 09; D = 1:0 f) Path 09; D = 2:4
g) Path 08; D = 1:0 h) Path 08; D = 1:0
On the other hand, for some of the nonproportional loadings, a significant change in
the shape of the stress course in addition to the increase of the maximum stresses can be
found (Figure 10.14b, g–i). Note that the loading path and the relation D between e
a
and c
a
does not change. The results of a varying D can be seen in Figure 10.14d–f. In Fig
ure 10.15, the uniaxial equivalent stresses r
v
are plotted vs. the maximum equivalent
strain or intensity e
B
. In these experiments, the cyclic hardening in the uniaxial cyclic
stressstrain curve starts at about 3‰. The difference between the cyclic stressstrain
curve of the uniaxial experiments described in Section 10.2, and the curve seen in Fig
ure 10.15, depends on the different heats of Fe 510 used in the two investigations.
Comparing the cyclic stressstrain curve with the equivalent stresses of the pro
portional loadings, no significant difference in the maximum stresses between the uni
axial and the biaxial proportional loadings can be found. A significant difference be
tween the cyclic stressstrain curve and the equivalent stresses is found however for
nonproportional loading paths. This effect is named additional hardening here.
The additional hardening appears to be strongly dependent on the type of non
proportional loading. In general, the additional hardening increases by an increasing
phase angle u (Figure 10.13). For higehr values of u (between 60 and 90 degrees, path
06 and 07), the additional hardening is almost constant. The amount of additional hard
ening of path 10 corresponds to that of path 07. The highest amount of additional hard
10 On the Behaviour of Mild Steel Fe 510 under Complex Cyclic Loading
228
i) Path 08; D = 1:0 j) Step 1: Path 03
k) Step 2: Path 07 l) Step 3: Path 03
Figure 10.14i)–l): Tensile and torsional stresses under biaxial proportional and nonproportional
loadings.
ening is found in experiments with the strain path 09 (“Butterfly”). Here, the equiva
lent stress in the saturated state reaches the level of the uniaxial tensile strength. The
additional hardening fades when the nonproportionality of the loading has decreased.
Figure 10.14j–l shows the results of an experiment, where a specimen was first
uniaxially loaded (e
a
=6‰) up to a saturated state, then underwent a nonproportional
loading path 07 (e
B
of 8‰), and finally was uniaxially loaded again.
The cyclic hardening during the first loading stage is followed by an additional
hardening in the second stage. During the third loading, the additional hardening fades
so that the saturated stressstrain curves of the first and the third loading level are
nearly identical.
10.2.3.3 Yieldsurface investigations
Yield surfaces were investigated in the transient and in the saturated state of the
material behaviour. To reduce timeconsumptional manual controlling, a computer pro
gram was developed, which allows yield surfaces at any point of any complex loadings
to be established automatically. This program and the experimental setup is described
comprehensively by Dannemeyer [4].
An offsetproofstrain method was used to define the onset of plastic flow. For an
increasing offsetproof strain, the yield surfaces of mild steel Fe 510 in saturation show
the same effects as described for other materials (e.g. Michno and Findley [5]). The distinct
corner in preloading direction and the flattening opposite to it tend to blur, and the size of
the surface increases, mainly against the preloading direction (Figure 10.16). The
Bauschinger effect is responsible for this uneven expansion when the offset value increases.
An offsetproof strain of 0.05‰ was used for the yieldsurface investigations in
the saturated state. To determine yield surfaces in the transient state of the material be
haviour, the offsetproof strain was reduced to 0.03‰. A further decrease of the offset
proof strain was restricted by the precision of the technical setup.
In this investigation, several yieldsurface determinations were performed on a
single specimen. 16 yield probings with different ratios of sizes of tensile and torsional
strain increments are combined to build up a yield surface. To investigate the influence
10.2 Material Behaviour
229
Figure 10.15: Uniaxial equivalent stresses of biaxial loading paths.
of the sequence of the different yieldprobing directions, yield surfaces were deter
mined using two different sequences (Figure 10.17).
For materials, which reach a cyclically stable state during cyclic loading, the in
fluence of the probing sequence can be excluded if the specimen is loaded with several
cycles between two yield probings. The small hardening effects drawn by the previous
yield probing disappear completely, and a similar loading state can be reached at the
beginning of every new yield probing (Figure 10.18). This allows yield surfaces to be
investigated with negligible dependence on the probing path (Figure 10.19). (The turn
over points and the first yield points are marked with arrows here. The loading path for
each of the yield surfaces is given by symbols.)
This method is called the singlepoint technique (SPT) here, in contrast to the mul
tiplepoint technique (MPT), where several yield points are investigated one after another,
each time unloading to a starting point located somewhere within the yield surface.
10 On the Behaviour of Mild Steel Fe 510 under Complex Cyclic Loading
230
Figure 10.16: Effect of various offsetproof strains on the yield surface of mild steel Fe 510.
Figure 10.17: Sequences of yield point probings.
3
_
s
10.2 Material Behaviour
231
Figure 10.18: Singlepoint technique.
Figure 10.19: Yield surfaces determined with the singlepoint technique and current elastic modu
li under proportional and nonproportional loading paths.
3
_
s
The influence of the probing sequence on a yield surface determined with the
multipleprobing technique is systematic by nature (Figure 10.20). So, the measured
yield surface can be corrected, at least in quality, if a surface investigated with the sin
gleprobing technique is used as a reference.
Another effect, which influences a yieldpoint determination on mild steel Fe 510,
should be described here. In Figure 10.21, the stressstrain curve of the initial loading
and the elastic region after the turnover of the 20th cycle of a specimen under uniaxial
tensioncompression load is plotted.
In order to compare the two gradients, the turnover point of the 20th cycle is
moved to the origin. It is seen that the slope of the initial loading curve is nearly con
stant over the plotted range of 1.3‰. After being loaded 20 times into the plastic
range, a distinct proportional region is missing.
This nonlinearity of the stressstrain curve under preloading affects the yieldsur
face determination in different ways. In general, for the determination of a yield locus,
it is necessary to start the yieldpoint determinations somewhere in the elastic region, if
possible in the centre of the elastic region to secure an almost rectangular touch of the
elasticplastic border.
Due to the nonlinear area after a turnover point, the unloading strain e
s
becomes
a parameter of the size of the established yield surface.
The results of an experiment, shown in Figure 10.22, demonstrate the effect of
various unloading strains on the yield surface of a uniaxial cyclic tensioncompression
loaded specimen. It is obviously that the expansion of the yield surface against the pre
loading direction depends on the amount of the unloading strain. The diameter of the
yield surface rectangular to the preloading direction is not affected, however.
After preloading, the lack of a distinct area of proportionality influences the yield
surface determination not only in the setting of a starting point but also in the calculation
of plastic strains. Using an offsetproofstrain definition in combination with an automa
10 On the Behaviour of Mild Steel Fe 510 under Complex Cyclic Loading
232
Figure 10.20: Yield surfaces determined with the multiplepoint technique and current elastic
moduli under proportional and nonproportional loading paths.
3
_
s
tized experimental procedure, a continuous separation of elastic and plastic strains has to be
carried out online during a yield probing. The elastic moduli (E and G) can be set either to
constant values for the whole experiment, or they can be determined from the gradient of a
defined number of data considered to be linearelastic. If the current elastic moduli change
during a cyclic loading and constant moduli are considered in the online calculation of
plastic strains, the resulting yield point does not correspond to the existing yield point.
Figure 10.23 shows the results of yieldsurface determinations with fixed and cur
rent elastic characteristics. In comparison to the Figures 10.19 and 10.20, it can be seen
that the size of the yield surface depends strongly on how the elastic moduli are given.
10.2 Material Behaviour
233
Figure 10.21: Sections of the stressstrain curve of mild steel Fe 510 under uniaxial cyclic ten
sioncompression loading.
Figure 10.22: The effect of various unloading strains e
s
on yield loci under cyclic uniaxial ten
sioncompression loading.
3
_
s
The SPTloci with constant elastic moduli show a corner and a distinct flattening,
whereas the MPTloci of the same type are smoother and have increased in size. If
nonproportional loading paths are used, the difference in size of the SPT and MPT
loci is at its greatest (Figure 10.23, upper left yield surface).
In the transient state of material behaviour, yieldsurface investigations are more
sensitive than in the saturated state. Even in the area of the yield plateau, a yieldpoint
determination with its incursion into the plastic region influences strongly the later
yieldpoint probes. In general, the intensive hardening during the first few cycles ex
cludes the use of the singlepoint technique in the transient state.
The multiplepoint technique and a further decrease of the offsetproof strain to small
est values seemto help getting realistic results for mild steel at this stage of a cyclic loading.
When a new specimen is first loaded, the yield surface contracts and starts to move
in the stress space immediately after the elastic limit is passed. In addition, a distortion of
the initial round yield surface (r
3
_
sspace) occurs. The pronounced isotropic softening
is strongest during the first cycle, and in the case of a proportional load, it is usually com
pleted after a few cycles depending on the load intensity (see also Figure 10.9).
If the load is of a nonproportional type, the shrinkage of the yield surface is almost
completed at the beginning of the second cycle (Figure 10.24). This isotropic softening is
always connected with a kinematic hardening. In further states of the cyclic loading, the
yield surface continues to move to higher stresses after the shrinkage is already completed.
In Figure 10.24, the results of an experiment in the transient state are presented.
During the first cycle, the yield surface decreases at constant uniaxial equivalent stress
es r
v
, and from the second to the fifth cycle, a distinct increase of the maximum stress
es obtained by a movement of the yield surface takes place. It can be stated that the ad
ditional hardening of a nonproportional load is also a type of kinematic hardening.
10 On the Behaviour of Mild Steel Fe 510 under Complex Cyclic Loading
234
Figure 10.23: Yield surfaces investigated with constant elastic moduli under proportional and
nonproportional loading paths.
3
_
s
This distortion of the yield surface (formative hardening), including the deviation
of the initial round shape by forming a corner in preloading direction and a flat side at
the opposite, is the third mechanism of hardening besides the isotropic and kinematic
hardening found on cyclic loaded mild steel Fe 510.
In general, the shape of a preloaded yield surface depends on the type of load.
All investigated proportional loading paths of the same intensity show yield surfaces,
which are nearly identical in size and shape. They show a distinct corner in preloading
direction and a flattening opposite to it. In addition, the two diameters of the yield sur
face change differently during a proportional load. In the saturated state, the diameter
in direction of the preloading (d
1
, Figure 10.25) has shrunk to 40% of the initial value,
whereas the second diameter rectangular to the preloading direction (d
2
) decreases only
to 70% as seen in Figure 10.19, for example. A nonproportional load forms a more
10.2 Material Behaviour
235
Figure 10.24: Yield surfaces of the first, second and fifth cycle of a nonproportional cyclic
loaded specimen in the transient state.
Figure 10.25: Definition of diameters of a yield surface.
3
_
s
rounded and smoother shape, and the diameters decrease more homogeneously because
of the changes in the direction of the load increments.
An approximate alignment of the yield surface with the corner and the flattening
towards the direction of the stress increment can be found only at proportional loading
paths. At some of the nonproportional loading paths, the direction of the stress incre
ment at the turnover point differs distinctly from the direction of the suggested axis of
symmetry of the yield surface (see Figure 10.19).
Additional yieldsurface investigations were performed for the subproject A10
(Prof. Besdo [6]) on torsional preloaded AlMg
3
.
10.3 Modelling of the Material Behaviour of Mild Steel Fe 510
10.3.1 Extendedtwosurface model
10.3.1.1 General description
Extensive investigations were made into the suitability of several models to describe
the characteristical effects of the material behaviour of cyclic loaded mild steel Fe 510
(Heuer [7], Scheibe [1]). Based on these investigations, it can be concluded that the
twosurface model of Dafalias and Popov [8] represents a suitable basis for further de
velopments. The extensions of the original twosurface model are presented here. The
new extendedtwosurface model (ETSmodel) is described completely by Scheibe [1],
Reininghaus [2], Scheer et al. [9], Peil and Kuck [10], Peil and Reininghaus [11], and
Reininghaus [12]. Here, only the fundamental description of the model is given.
The fundamental parts of this model are:
• three memory surfaces in the strain space,
• the consideration of the additionalhardening effect based on experimental findings
to describe nonproportional loadings and the consideration of
• a softening of the loading surface, and
• an isotropic hardening of the bounding surface.
One important aspect of the presented model is that the material or model parameters,
which are determined once for the mild steel Fe 510, are fixed for this material. All cal
culations shown in this paper were carried out with the same set of parameters. There
was no extra fitting necessary for any special kind of loading path or calculation.
10 On the Behaviour of Mild Steel Fe 510 under Complex Cyclic Loading
236
10.3.1.2 Loading and bounding surface
The original twosurface model of Dafalias and Popov assumes that the yield surface
or loading surface and the memory or bounding surface (Figure 10.26) harden kinemati
cally and isotropically, while the two surfaces are in contact. If there is no contact be
tween the two surfaces, the memory surface remains unchanged, while the loading sur
face moves according to the Mro´z rule [13]. This rule secures a tangential contact with
out any intersection if the two surfaces come into contact.
Both the loading surface and the bounding surface are assumed as hyperspheres
in the deviatoric stress space and are represented as:
F =
1
2
(
~
r
D
÷
~
)(
~
r
D
÷
~
) ÷
1
3
k
2
= 0 ; (3)
^
F =
1
2
(
~
r
D
÷ ^
~
)(
~
r
D
÷ ^
~
) ÷
1
3
^
k
2
= 0 (4)
with
k radius of the yield or loading surface,
^
k radius of the bounding surface,
~
centre of the loading surface (kinematic hardening),
^
~
centre of the bounding surface,
~
r
D
deviatoric stress tensor.
In this basic formulation, the model has some disadvantages:
• the yield plateau of mild steel cannot be predicted,
• there is no possibility to distinguish between monotonic and cyclic loadings, and
• an update problem of the variable d
in
(overshooting problem) occurs.
In the ETSmodel, which is described here, the loading surface remains unchanged:
The surface can contract or expand, move, but not be distorted. In contrast to the origi
10.3 Modelling of the Material Behaviour of Mild Steel Fe 510
237
Figure 10.26: Loading and bounding surface.
nal model of Dafalias and Popov, the bounding surface in the ETSmodel is only able
to harden or soften isotropically. Furthermore, two bounding surfaces instead of one are
implemented. The inner one corresponds to the original bounding surface in the model
of Dafalias and Popov. The outer one is used as a control surface and is activated only
under nonproportional loadings.
The plastic modulus in the ETSmodel is calculated from Equation (5):
P =
^
P
0
÷ h
d
d
in
÷ d
(5)
with
d distance between the actual stress point and the bounding surface (see Figure 10.26),
d
in
distance between the yield point and the bounding surface (see Figure 10.26),
^
P
0
plastic modulus of the strain hardening region,
h shape parameter.
The plastic modulus P is split up into a modulus for the kinematic hardening P
a
and
the isotropic hardening P
k
:
P = P
a
÷ P
k
: (6)
P
k
is calculated from the formulation of the isotropic hardening or softening of the
yield surface. P
k
is a function of the size of the new implemented memory surface in
the strain space. The plastic modulus P
a
for the kinematic hardening is determined
from the difference between the total plastic modulus P and the plastic modulus for the
isotropic hardening P
k
.
During the development of the model, different rules for the kinematic hardening
of the surface were tested (Reininghaus [2]). The best results are obtained with the
original kinematic hardening rule of Mro´z [13], therefore all results presented here are
calculated with this rule.
10.3.1.3 Strainmemory surfaces
The strainmemory surfaces in the strain space allow the monotonic and cyclic material
behaviour to be taken into account.
• Strain memory M
m
for monotonic behaviour
The size q
m
of this memory surface can be understood as the maximum plastic strain
amplitude during the whole cyclic loading:
M
m
=
1
2
(
~
e
p
÷
~
b
m
)(
~
e
p
÷
~
b
m
) ÷
3
4
q
2
m
= 0 ; (7)
10 On the Behaviour of Mild Steel Fe 510 under Complex Cyclic Loading
238
q
m
=
_
dq
m
; (8)
dq
m
=
1
2
H
m
~
n
~
n
m
+
de
vp
; (9)
~
b
m
=
_
d
~
b
m
; (10)
d
~
b
m
=
1
2
H
m
d
~
e
p
(11)
with
H
m
= 0 for
M
m
_ 0
M
m
= 0 and
~
n
~
n
m
+
< 0 ;
_
(12)
H
m
= 1 for M
m
= 0 and
~
n
~
n
m
+
_ 0 ; (13)
~
n normal to the loading surface,
~
n
m
+
normal to the monotonic strainmemory surface,
~
e
p
plastic strain tensor,
~
b
m
centre of the monotonic strainmemory surface,
de
vp
equivalent plastic strain increment,
q
m
size of the monotonic strainmemory surface.
• Strain memory M
s
for cyclic behaviour
The increase of size q
s
of the memory surface M
s
during a cycle only depends on an
additional factor (c
s
in Equations (15) and (16)). The change in the size of this memory
surface describes cyclic hardening or softening:
M
s
=
1
2
(
~
e
p
÷
~
b
s
)(
~
e
p
÷
~
b
s
) ÷
3
4
q
2
s
= 0 ; (14)
dq
s
= (1 ÷ H
m
)H
s
c
s
~
n
~
n
s
+
de
vp
; (15)
d
~
b
s
= [(1 ÷ H
m
)H
s
(1 ÷ c
s
) ÷ H
m
[d
~
e
p
; (16)
q
s
=
_
dq
s
; (17)
~
b
s
=
_
d
~
b
s
(18)
10.3 Modelling of the Material Behaviour of Mild Steel Fe 510
239
with
H
s
= 0 for
M
s
_ 0
M
s
= 0 and
~
n
~
n
s
+
< 0 ;
_
(19)
H
s
= 1 for M
s
= 0 and
~
n
~
n
s
+
_ 0 ; (20)
~
n
s
+
normal to the saturated strainmemory surface,
~
b
s
centre of the saturated strainmemory surface,
q
s
size of the saturated strainmemory surface,
c
s
factor for the isotropic hardening per cycle.
• Strain memory M
a
for the actual loading direction
The memory surface M
a
for the actual loading direction will decrease to zero when the
angle between the normal vector of the loading surface and the normal vector of the
memory surface M
a
exceed 908:
M
a
=
1
2
(
~
e
p
÷
~
b
a
)(
~
e
p
÷
~
b
a
) ÷
3
4
q
2
a
= 0 ; (21)
dq
a
=
1
2 ~
n
~
n
a
+
de
vp
; (22)
d
~
b
a
=
1
2
d
~
e
p
; (23)
q
a
=
_
dq
a
; (24)
~
b
a
= (1 ÷ H
a
)
~
e
p
÷
_
d
~
b
a
(25)
with
H
a
=
1 for
~
n
~
n
a
+
< 0
0 for
~
n
~
n
a
+
_ 0
_
; (26)
~
n
a
+
normal to the actual strainmemory surface,
~
b
a
centre of the actual strainmemory surface,
q
a
size of the actual strainmemory surface.
10 On the Behaviour of Mild Steel Fe 510 under Complex Cyclic Loading
240
10.3.1.4 Internal variables for the description of nonproportional loading
The variable Z is used to distinguish between a proportional and a nonproportional
loading within the current loading increment. Z is defined as:
Z = 1 ÷
d
D
[d
~
r
D
[
D
[
~
r
D
[
for [d
~
r
D
[ > 0 ; (27)
Z = 0 for [d
~
r
D
[ = 0 : (28)
The internal variables F
S
and F
L
are functions of Z and de
vp
. In the case of propor
tional loading, F
S
and F
L
are assigned to zero. During nonproportional loading, both
variables rise to the value one. During the process, F
L
has a temporal delay to F
S
. Ef
fects, which occur immediately with the setin of a nonproportional loading, are con
trolled by the variable F
S
, and those processes, which occur slowly during a nonpro
portional loading, are controlled by F
L
. If the nonproportional loading is followed by a
proportional one, both internal variables decrease to zero again to simulate the erasure
of the additional hardening found in the experiments (see Section 10.2.3.2):
F
S
=
_
dF
S
; (29)
dF
S
= W
2
(Z ÷ F
S
)de
vp
(30)
with
W
2
= 0:1 tanh(q
m
=q
+
) for Z _ F
S
;
W
2
= 0:01 for Z < F
S
:
_
F
L
=
_
dF
L
; (31)
dF
L
= W
3
(Z ÷ (1 ÷ cos 308))de
vp
(32)
with
W
3
= (1 ÷ F
L
)
0:1
for Z _ 1 ÷ cos 308 ;
W
3
= F
L
for Z < 1 ÷ cos 308 :
_
~
r
~
r
10.3 Modelling of the Material Behaviour of Mild Steel Fe 510
241
10.3.1.5 Size of the yield surface under uniaxial cyclic plastic loding
The size of the yield surface k is defined to be:
k = k
s
÷ (k
0
÷ k
m
)2
÷10
q
m
q
+
÷ (k
s
÷ k
m
)2
÷10
q
s
q
+
(33)
with
k
m
= 0:6 k
0
size of the yield surface after the first plastic loading,
k
s
= 0:4 k
0
size of the yield surface for the saturated state.
10.3.1.6 Size of the bounding surface under uniaxial cyclic plastic loading
The mathematical formulation of the bounding surface has to describe a curve, which
is formed from the parts of the monotonic or the cyclic stressstrain curve, which
delimit the current maximum stress for a given strain (see Figure 10.15).
• Section I for q
m
< q
+
; q
s
< q
+
:
^
k = const = k
0
; (34)
• Section II for q
m
_ q
+
; q
s
< q
+
:
^
k = k
0
÷ 0:73 (q
m
÷ q
+
) ÷ 0:0162 (q
m
÷ q
+
)
2
; (35)
• Section III for q
m
_ q
+
; q
s
_ q
+
:
^
k = k
0
÷ 0:73 (q
m
÷ q
+
) ÷ 0:0162 (q
m
÷ q
+
)
2
÷ D
^
k 1 ÷
q
s
q
+
_ _
÷5
_ _
q
s
÷ q
+
q
m
÷ q
+
(36)
with
k
0
initial size of the yield surface,
D
^
k cyclic hardening due to uniaxial loading.
10.3.1.7 Overshooting
The overshooting problem is connected with the update of the initial value d
in
. To pre
vent the overshooting effect, the initial value d
in
is limited to:
d
in;min
= 0:35 d
max
with d
max
=
2
3
_
2(
^
k ÷ k) : (37)
10 On the Behaviour of Mild Steel Fe 510 under Complex Cyclic Loading
242
10.3.1.8 Additional update of d
in
in the case of biaxial loading
In the case of uniaxial loading, a new d
in
has to be determined as soon as there is an
angle higher than 908 between the normal vector of the strainmemory surface M
a
and
the normal vector of the yield surface. In the case of biaxial loading, an additional up
date is made if the angle between the normal vector of the yield surface and the current
deviatoric stress vector exceeds 308.
10.3.1.9 Memory surface F
/
The memory surface F
/
is defined as a surface in the stress space, which allows the
model to remember a previous or current nonproportional loading. The surface is con
nected with the internal variables F
S
and F
L
. Its formulation is similar to the v. Mises
yield rule:
F
/
= (
~
r
/
÷
~
/
)(
~
r
/
÷
~
/
) ÷
2
3
k
/2
= 0 : (38)
In the case of uniaxial loading, this surface corresponds to the loading surface in size
and location. During a nonproportional loading, the memory surface shows an addi
tional isotropic hardening:
k
/
= 2:0
_
P
/
de
vp
÷ k (39)
with
P
/
= 5:0 (k
/
max
÷ k
/
)F
S
÷ (k
/
÷ k)(1 ÷ F
S
)
2
d ÷ d
D
d
in
_ _
2
; (40)
k
/
max
= k
/
PAR
F
S
÷ k ; (41)
P
/
plastic modulus for the isotropic hardening of the memory surface,
k
/
actual size of the memory surface,
k
/
max
maximal size of F
/
,
k
/
PAR
maximal difference between the size of the loading surface and this memory sur
face.
If the current stress point lies within the memory surface, the location of F
/
remains un
changed. For a contact of the stress point with the memory surface, the surface moves
in a way that the normal vector of the memory surface corresponds to the normal vec
tor to the yield surface. Meanwhile, the stress point remains on the memory surface.
The displacement of this surface is defined as:
10.3 Modelling of the Material Behaviour of Mild Steel Fe 510
243
~
/
=
~
r
D
÷ (
~
r
D
÷
~
)
k
/
k
: (42)
An additional considerable influence on the predicted material behaviour is obtained by
a modification of the update behaviour of d
in
, in combination with the definition of F
/
.
For a stress point lying within the memory surface, the value d
in
is constantly updated
so that the material behaves in a quasielastic manner. However, in regions with
d
in
< d
in;min
, the constant value d
in;min
(see Equation (37)) instead of the updated d
in
is
taken into consideration.
10.3.1.10 Additional isotropic deformation of the loading surface
due to nonproportional loading
The isotropic deformation of the memory surface F
/
and the loading surface F differs
by the amount of 2:0
_
P
/
de
vp
(see Equation (39)). Parallel to the isotropic deformation
of the memory surface F
/
, the loading surface changes in a way that a hardening of the
memory surface causes an additional softening of the loading surface. The amount of
the change of the loading surface is
_
P
/
de
vp
.
The incremental deformation of the loading surface is given by:
dk = (k
0
÷ k
m
)
b
q
+
a
b
q
m
q
+
ln a
_ _
dq
m
÷ (k
s
÷ k
m
)
b
q
+
a
b
q
s
q
+
ln a
_ _
dq
s
_ _
÷
_
P
/
de
vp
:
(43)
The additional deformation of the loading surface can only be expressed by an incremental
form. The incremental equations are formulated in a way that the integrated increments
converge to limits. These limits are the known maximal values of the parameters.
During a cyclic multiaxial loading, where the stress point is located mostly on the
loading surface, this additional deformation of the loading surface generates a deforma
tion of the calculated stress path.
10.3.1.11 Additional isotropic deformation of the bounding surface
due to nonproportional loading
To describe effects of biaxial loading, an additional isotropic deformation of the bounding
surface is necessary. Therefore, the additional parameters F
D
and d
lim
have to be defined.
The definition of the parameter F
D
depends on the memory surface F
/
. For a
stress path going through the memory surface, this parameter converges to its maximal
value. For a stress point on the memory surface, the parameter is reduced to zero dur
ing cyclic loading:
F
D
=
_
P
D
de
vp
; (44)
10 On the Behaviour of Mild Steel Fe 510 under Complex Cyclic Loading
244
• stress point within the memory surface and r
v
< k
0
:
P
D
= P
(F
D;max
÷ F
D
)
F
D;max
F
L
(45)
with F
D;max
fitparameter,
• stress point on the memory surface and r
v
< k
0
:
P
D
= ÷0:01P
F
D
F
D;max
; (46)
• stress point on the memory surface and r
v
_ k
0
:
P
D
= 0:0 : (47)
The parameter d
lim
is defined as a limitation of the distance between the loading and
the bounding surface. For values d < d
lim
, an additional isotropic hardening of the
bounding surface occurs. For d > d
lim
, this additional hardening of the bounding sur
face decreases. The plastic modulus of the additional isotropic deformation of the
bounding surface is given by:
^
P
Z
= P F
S
(F
B;max
÷ F
B
)
F
B;max
_ _
0:2
for d _ d
lim
; (48)
^
P
Z
= ÷P
F
B
F
B;max
(0:001 ÷ F
S
) for d > d
lim
(49)
with
F
B;max
= (D
^
k
1
F
S
÷ F
D
2:0)F
L
; (50)
10.3 Modelling of the Material Behaviour of Mild Steel Fe 510
245
Figure 10.27: Multiplestep test.
10 On the Behaviour of Mild Steel Fe 510 under Complex Cyclic Loading
246
Figure 10.28: Path 03, e
B
=7.1‰.
Figure 10.29: Path 07, e
B
=2.8‰.
Figure 10.30: Path 07, e
B
=4.9‰.
10.3 Modelling of the Material Behaviour of Mild Steel Fe 510
247
Figure 10.31: Path 08, e
B
=4.9‰.
Figure 10.32: Path 09, e
B
=2.8‰.
Figure 10.33: Path 09, e
B
=4.9‰.
F
B
=
_
^
P
Z
de
vp
; (51)
d
lim
= 1:0 (D
^
k
1
F
0:2
S
÷ F
D
2:0) ; (52)
^
P
Z
plastic modulus for the additional isotropic hardening of the bounding surface due
to nonproportional loading,
D
^
k material parameter,
F
B
additional isotropic hardening of the bounding surface due to nonproportional
loading.
The additional hardening resulting from a nonproportional loading F
B
(Equation (51))
is added to the size of the bounding surface
^
k (Equations (34) to (36)) regardless of the
amount of q
m
and q
s
.
10.3.2 Comparison between theory and experiments
Figures 10.27 to 10.33 show the experimental results in the left column and the results
of the calculations with the ETSmodel in the right column. Note that all calculations
(uniaxial, proportional and nonproportional) are made with the same set of parameters.
It can be seen from these figures that the response of mild steel Fe 510 under uniaxial,
proportional and nonproportional loading histories is well predicted by the model.
10.4 Experiments on Structural Components
10.4.1 Experimental setups and computational method
Calculations using several models were made on typical components of steel construc
tions like necked girders, girders with holes, or plates with holes. Figures 10.34 to
10.36 show specimens used in these investigations.
All experiments were performed forcecontrolled. The longitudinal strains in the
interesting sections were measured with strain gauges.
For the description of the structural behaviour, the FiniteElement method was
used. Precise informations concerning details of the computational methods can be
found in the corresponding papers [1, 2, 9, 14].
10.4.2 Correlation between experimental and theoretical results
First, the results of an experiment with a necked girder and the corresponding calcula
tions are presented. The cyclically loaded girder (Figure 10.35) shows repeating plastic
deformations in the area of the neck.
10 On the Behaviour of Mild Steel Fe 510 under Complex Cyclic Loading
248
10.4 Experiments on Structural Components
249
Figure 10.34: Plate with a hole.
Figure 10.35: Necked girder.
In the right diagram of Figure 10.37, the forcestrain relation measured directly at
the edge of the neck is presented. The forcestrain relation predicted by the ETSmodel
is plotted in the left diagram of this figure.
The calculated forcestrain relation shows a good correspondence with the results
of the experiment. The amount of the increase of the plastic strains per cycle is well
predicted for both amplitudes. The strains of the upper turnover points are almost 10%
smaller than the strains in the experiment. The higher difference of the measured and
calculated strains in the area of the lower turnover points is caused by the more inten
sive bulge of the calculated hysteresisloops.
10 On the Behaviour of Mild Steel Fe 510 under Complex Cyclic Loading
250
Figure 10.36: Girder with holes.
Figure 10.37: Forcestrain diagrams of a necked girder (experiment and calculation).
As a second example, Figure 10.38 shows a comparison between measured and cal
culated strains e
xx
of a plate with a hole (X = 0:0 in Figure 10.34) for the first 10 load
steps. It is seen that the differences between the results of the calculations with the models
of Reininghaus (biaxial) [2] and Scheibe (uniaxial, Z = 0) [1] are small. As an additional
result, Figure 10.38 shows that the “biaxial” extensions of the ETSmodel to include non
proportional effects do not influence the results of the calculations of the uniaxial loaded
plate with a hole. If a nonproportional load occurs, distinct differences are obtained
merely because this kind of load is not mentioned in the model of Scheibe.
10.5 Summary
Both the exact knowledge of the material behaviour and a model to simulate this be
haviour are necessary for a precise calculation of the response of structures under plas
tic cyclic loads.
Extensive investigations were carried out into the material behaviour of structural
mild steel Fe 510 under uniaxial, load and straincontrolled loads as well as under dif
ferent biaxial proportional and nonproportional loads combined with yieldsurface in
vestigations.
10.5 Summary
251
Figure 10.38: Plate with a hole, LK2, cycle 1–10, experiment and calculations.
[
½
]
The twosurface model of DafaliasPopov was extended to fit the individual char
acteristics of mild steel behaviour under cyclic loads. This extendedtwosurface model
is able to simulate precisely the behaviour of Fe 510 under various proportional and
nonproportional multiaxial cyclic loads.
Linking up with a FiniteElement program, structures and structural elements un
dergoing cyclic or random plastic deformations are calculated.
References
[1] H.J. Scheibe: Zum zyklischen Materialverhalten von Baustahl und dessen Beru¨cksichtigung
in Konstruktionsberechnungen. Tech. Univ. Braunschweig, Institut fu¨r Stahlbau, Bericht
Nr. 6314, 1990.
[2] M. Reininghaus: Baustahl Fe 510 unter zweiachsiger Wechselbeanspruchung. Tech. Univ.
Braunschweig, Institut fu¨r Stahlbau, Bericht Nr. 6326, 1994.
[3] D. Kuck: Experimentelle Untersuchungen zum RatchettingVerhalten bei Baustahl ST523.
Dissertation TU Braunschweig, 1996.
[4] S. Dannemeyer: Zur Vera¨nderung der Fließfla¨che von Baustahl bei mehrachsiger plas
tischer Wechselbeanspruchung. Dissertation TU Braunschweig, 1999.
[5] M. J. Michno, W. N. Findley: A Historical Perspective of Yield Surface Investigations for
Metals. Int. J. NonLinear Mechanics 11 (1976) 59–82.
[6] D. Besdo, N. WellerdickWojtasik: The Influence of Large Torsional Prestrain on the Tex
ture Development and Yield Surfaces of Polycrystals. This book (Chapter 7).
[7] H. Heuer: Untersuchung zur Anwendbarkeit des Einfließfla¨chenModells auf das zyklische
Materialverhalten von Baustahl. Diplomarbeit, Tech. Univ. Braunschweig, 1988.
[8] Y. F. Dafalias, E. P. Popov: A Model of Nonlinearly Hardening Materials for Complex Load
ings. Acta Mechanica 21 (1975) 173–192.
[9] J. Scheer, H.J. Scheibe, D. Kuck, M. Reininghaus: Stahlkonstruktionen unter zyklischer Be
lastung. Arbeits und Ergebnisbericht 1987–1990. Subproject B5, Collaborative Research
Centre (SFB 319): Stoffgesetze fu¨r das inelastische Verhalten metallischer Werkstoffe – Ent
wicklung und Technische Anwendung, Tech. Univ. Braunschweig, Institut fu¨r Stahlbau,
1990.
[10] U. Peil, D. Kuck: Stahlkonstruktionen unter zyklischer Belastung. Arbeits und Ergebnisbe
richt 1991–1993. Subproject B5, Collaborative Research Centre (SFB 319): Stoffgesetze fu¨r
das inelastische Verhalten metallischer Werkstoffe – Entwicklung und Technische Anwen
dung, Tech. Univ. Braunschweig, Institut fu¨r Stahlbau, 1993.
[11] U. Peil, M. Reininghaus: Baustahl unter mehrachsiger zyklischer Belastung. Arbeits und
Ergebnisbericht 1991–1993. Subproject B5, Collaborative Research Centre (SFB 319):
Stoffgesetze fu¨r das inelastische Verhalten metallischer Werkstoffe – Entwicklung und Tech
nische Anwendung, Tech. Univ. Braunschweig, Institut fu¨r Stahlbau, 1993.
[12] M. Reininghaus: Baustahl ST52 unter plastischer Wechselbeanspruchung. Dissertation TU
Braunschweig, 1994.
[13] Z. Mro´z: An Attempt to Describe the Behavior of Metals under Cyclic Loads Using a More
General Workhardening Model. Acta Mechanica 7 (1968) 199–212.
[14] J. Scheer, H.J. Scheibe, D. Kuck: Zum Verhalten ausgeklinkter Tra¨ger unter zyklischer
Beanspruchung. Bauingenieur 65 (1990) 463–468.
10 On the Behaviour of Mild Steel Fe 510 under Complex Cyclic Loading
252
11 Theoretical and Computational Shakedown Analysis
of NonLinear Kinematic Hardening Material
and Transition to Ductile Fracture
Erwin Stein, Genbao Zhang, Yuejun Huang, Rolf Mahnken
and Karin Wiechmann*
Abstract
The research work of this project is based on Melan’s static shakedown theorems for
perfectly plastic and linear kinematic hardening materials. Using a 3D generalization
of Neal’s 1D model for limited hardening, a socalled overlay model, a new theorem
and a corollary are derived for general nonlinear kinematic hardening materials. For
the numerical treatment of the structural analysis of 2D problems, the FiniteElement
method (FEM) is used, while enhanced optimization algorithms are used to perform the
shakedown analysis effectively. This will be demonstrated with some numerical exam
ples. Treating a crack as a sharp notch, the shakedown behaviour of a cracked ductile
body is investigated and thresholds for no crack propagation are formulated.
11.1 Introduction
11.1.1 General research topics
The response of an elasticplastic system subjected to variable loadings can be very
complicated. If the applied loads are small enough, the system will remain elastic for
all possible loads. Whereas if the ultimate load of the system is attained, a collapse
mechanism will develop and the system will fail due to infinitely growing displace
ments. Besides this, there are three different steady states that can be reached, while the
loading proceeds: 1. Incremental failure occurs if at some points or parts of the system,
253
* Universita¨t Hannover, Institut fu¨r Baumechanik und Numerische Mechanik, Appelstraße 9a,
D30167 Hannover, Germany
Plasticity of Metals: Experiments, Models, Computation. Collaborative Research Centres.
Edited by E. Steck, R. Ritter, U. Peil, A. Ziegenbein
Copyright © 2001 WileyVCH Verlag GmbH
ISBNs: 3527277285 (Softcover); 3527600116 (Electronic)
the remaining displacements and strains accumulate during a change of loading. The
system will fail due to the fact that the initial geometry is lost. 2. Alternating plasticity
occurs, this means that the sign of the increment of the plastic deformation during one
load cycle is changing alternately. Though the remaining displacements are bounded,
plastification will not cease and the system fails locally. 3. Elastic shakedown occurs if
after initial yielding plastification subsides and the system behaves elastically due to
the fact that a stationary residual stress field is formed and the total dissipated energy
becomes stationary. Elastic shakedown (or simply shakedown) of a system is regarded
as a safe state. It is important to know if a system under given variable loadings shakes
down or not.
11.1.2 State of the art at the beginning of project B6
In 1932, Bleich [1] was the first to formulate a shakedown theorem for simple hyper
static systems consisting of elastic, perfectly plastic materials. This theorem was then
generalized by Melan [2, 3] in 1938 to continua with elastic, perfectly plastic and lin
ear unlimited kinematic hardening behaviour. Koiter [4] introduced a kinematic shake
down theorem for an elastic, perfectly plastic material in 1956, that was dual to Me
lan’s static shakedown theorem. Since then, extensions of these theorems for applica
tions of thermoloadings, dynamic loadings, geometrically nonlinear effects and internal
variables have been carried out by different authors (Corradi and Maier [5], Ko¨nig [6],
Maier [7], Prager [8], Weichert [9], Polizzotto et al. [10]). However, little progress has
been made in the formulation of a corresponding shakedown theorem for materials
with nonlinear kinematic hardening. The only attempt was made by Neal [11], who
formulated a static shakedown theorem for materials with nonlinear kinematic harden
ing in a 1D stress state by using the Masing overlay model [12]. Several papers were
published concerning especially 2D and 3D problems (Gokhfeld and Cherniavsky
[13], Ko¨nig [14], Sawczuk [15, 16], Leckie [17]). The shakedown investigation of
those problems leads to grave mathematical problems. Thus, in most of these papers,
approximate solutions based on the kinematic shakedown theorem of Koiter [4] or on
the assumption of a special failure form were derived. But these solutions often lost
their bounding character due to the fact that simplifying flow rules or wrong failure
forms were estimated. Until the beginning of project B6, only a few papers were pub
lished, in which the FiniteElement method was used for the numerical treatment of
shakedown problems (Belytschko [18], Corradi and Zavelani [19], GrossWeege [20],
Nguyen Dang and Morelle [21], Shen [22]).
11.1.3 Aims and scope of project B6
In the framework of the geometrically linearized theory, the shakedown behaviour of
linear elastic, perfectly plastic, of linear elastic, linear unlimited kinematic hardening
and of linear elastic, nonlinear limited kinematic hardening materials were taken under
11 Theoretical and Computational Shakedown Analysis
254
consideration. The theoretical and numerical treatment of the shakedown behaviour of
these material models was one major scope of project B6. Based on static shakedown
theorems, the numerical treatment of 2D and 3D field problems for arbitrary nonlin
ear kinematic hardening materials by FiniteElement method should be realized. One
special task was the formulation and the proof of a static shakedown theorem for lim
ited nonlinear kinematic hardening materials. In Section 11.2, a 3D overlay model is
presented, that was developed to describe nonlinear, limited kinematic hardening
material behaviour. This model is an extension of the 1D overlay model of Neal [11].
A static shakedown theorem and a corollary, that were formulated and proved for the
proposed material model, are extensions of Melan’s static shakedown theorems for per
fectly plastic and linear kinematic hardening materials [2].
While analytical solutions of shakedown problems can only be derived for very
simple systems, FiniteElement methods based on displacement methods should be
used for the numerical treatment and solution of 2D and 3D shakedown problems.
After discretizing the system and accounting for the shakedown conditions, usually a
nonlinear mathematical optimization problem is derived, that is very large scaled.
Solving optimization problems like these is normally very difficult. Thus, effective opti
mization algorithms should be formulated and implemented, that were designed especi
ally to take account of the special structure of the problems. Section 11.3 is concerned
with the numerical approach based on static shakedown theorems. The discretized opti
mization problems for the proposed material models are discussed briefly.
In Section 11.3.5, numerical examples show the effectivity of the proposed formu
lation. Solutions for perfectly plastic and kinematic hardening materials are compared.
One important scope of project B6 was the examination of hardening and softening
materials. While classic shakedown theorems imply implicitly that a material under cyc
lic loading behaves stable after only one or two loading cycles, experimental investiga
tions show that stable cycles can be reached only after several loading cycles and
sometimes only asymptotically. Thus, the influence of cyclic hardening and softening
on the shakedown behaviour of materials had to be taken under consideration. The ex
amination of cyclic hardening material with the Chaboche constitutive equation [23],
will be considered in Section 11.3.5.3. An incrementalfailure analysis for this material
is carried out, and the results are compared with those of the 3D overlay model de
scribed in Section 11.2.
Stress singularities occur if macroscopic cracks develop in a solid material. Under
these circumstances, classical shakedown theorems cannot be used. Thus, one major
aim of project B6 was to apply shakedown theory directly to fatigue fracture to include
stress singularities into shakedown investigations. In Section 11.4, we will apply shake
down theory to fatigue fracture to derive thresholds for no crack propagation. Classic
shakedown theorems predict a zero shakedown limit load for a cracked body because
of singular stresses at the crack tip. But experiments for ductile materials show that
limits exist, for which no crack propagation occurs. We will consider the crack as a
sharp notch, the notch root of it being a material constant at threshold level (Neuber
[24]). The threshold of a fatigue crack follows then from the stationarity of the plastic
energy dissipated in the cracked body.
1.1 Introduction
255
11.2 Review of the 3D Overlay Model
There exist many mathematical models to describe the kinematic hardening behaviour
of materials, for example the Prager linear kinematic hardening model [25], its modifi
cation by Ziegler [26], Mro´z multisurface model [27], Dafalias and Popov’s twosur
face model [28] and so on. In Stein et al. [29], a socalled 3D overlay model was de
veloped to describe the nonlinear kinematic hardening material behaviour. We will
give here a brief review of the proposed model.
A macroscopic material point x ÷ X ¸ IR
3
is assumed to be composed of a spec
trum of microscopic elements (or microelements). Each microelement is numbered with
a scalar variable n ÷ [0; 1[. Stresses and strains are separately defined for the macro
scopic material point (macrostress and macrostrain) and the microelements (micro
stresses and microstrains). They are denoted by r(x); e(x) and w(x; n); g(x; n), respec
tively.
The macrostress r has to fulfil the equilibrium condition:
div r(x) = b(x); \ x ÷ X : (1)
In the framework of geometrically linear continuum mechanics, the kinematic relation
e(x) =
1
2
(\u(x) ÷(\u(x))
T
); \x ÷ X ; (2)
holds between the displacement u and the strain e.
By assuming that the stress r of a macroscopic material point (macrostress) is the
weighted sum of the stresses w of all microelements (microstresses), the macroscopic
material point and the corresponding microelements deform in the same way, and we
get the following static and kinematic relations:
r(x) =
1
0
w(x; n)dn ; (3)
g(x; n) = e(x); \ n ÷ [0; 1[ : (4)
Furthermore, we suppose that all microelements are linear elastic, perfectly plastic and
have the same temperature, the same elastic moduli, but different yield stresses k(n).
For convenience, k(n) can be considered as a monotone growing function of n. Addi
tionally, the validity of the additive decomposition of the microstrain g in an elastic
and a plastic part is supposed. Thus, the following relations can be derived for the mi
croelements:
g(n) = g
E
(n) ÷g
P
(n) ; (5)
11 Theoretical and Computational Shakedown Analysis
256
g
E
(n) = E
÷1
w(n) ; (6)
÷U(w) _ k
2
(n) ; (7)
_ g
P
(n) =
_
k(n)
qU
qw
;
_
k(n) _ 0 ; (8)
_
k(n)[U(w) ÷k
2
(n)[ = 0 ; (9)
where E stands for the symmetrical elasticity tensor and U() is the yield function. For
simplicity, the argument x of the fields will be omitted partly.
Assume that at a certain macrostress, the microelement number n begins to yield,
the function k(x; n) is then uniquely determined by the macroscopic r; efunction in the
1D case:
r(n) =
n
0
k(
n)d
n ÷(1 ÷n)k(n) : (10)
It is easy to show that, similar to k(n); r is also a monotone growing function of the
variable n (see Figure 11.1). For n = 0, we have r = r(n = 0) = k(n = 0) = k
0
. The
maximum value of r (denoted by r
Y
or K) is derived by setting n = 1 in Equation
(10):
r
Y
= r(n = 1) = K =
1
0
k(n)dn : (11)
Thus, k
0
and K can be identified with the initial yield stress r
o
and the ultimate stress
of the macroelement r
Y
, respectively. For the 3D case, there is an analogous relation
between r and k(n) as Equation (10), namely:
11.2 Review of the 3D Overlay Model
257
Figure 11.1: Kinematic hardening of a macroscopic material point and yield stresses of the micro
elements in 1D case.
U(r) =
n
n=0
k(
n)d
n ÷(1 ÷n)k(n) : (12)
Now, we define the difference between the microstress w(n) and the macrostress r as
the residual microstress and denote it by p(n):
p(n) = w(n) ÷r : (13)
For the residual microstress defined in this way, we have:
p(n) = 0; n ÷ [0; 1[; for r _ r
o
; (14)
and
p(n) ,= 0; n ÷ [0; 1[; for r > r
o
: (15)
It is necessary to notice that Equation (15) holds for all n ÷ [0; 1[ even if U(r) is smal
ler than k(n).
Integration of Equation (13) yields:
1
0
p(x; n)dn = 0; \ x ÷ X ; (16)
where Equation (3) has been used. From Equation (13) can be concluded that the resul
tant of p(n) does not contribute to the macrostress r. All microstress fields, which ful
fil Equation (16), can be regarded as residual microstress fields.
For a kinematic hardening material, it is possible to represent the residual micro
stress p(x; n) by a backstress (x), which describes the translation of the initial yield
surface:
p(x; n) = ÷
U(r) ÷k(n)
U(r) ÷k(0)
(x) : (17)
It is easy to show that the microstress in Equation (17) satisfies Equation (16).
For the 3D overlay model described above, the following static shakedown theo
rem has been formulated and proved (e.g. Stein et al. [30], Zhang [31]):
Theorem 1: If there exist a timeindependent residual macrostress field q(x) and a
timeindependent residual microstress field p(x; n), satisfying
U[m p(x; 0)[ _ [K(x) ÷k
0
(x)[
2
; \ x ÷ X ; (18)
such that for all possible loads within the load domain, the condition
11 Theoretical and Computational Shakedown Analysis
258
U¦m[r
E
(x; t) ÷q(x) ÷ p(x; 0)[¦ _ k
2
0
(x) (19)
is fulfilled \x ÷ X and \t > 0, where m > 1 is a safety factor against inadaptation, then
the total plastic energy dissipated within an arbitrary load path contained within the load
domain is bounded, and the system consisting of the proposed material will shake down.
The static shakedown theorem 1 is formulated by using the residual microstress p. Con
sidering the relation between the backstress and the residual microstress p in Equation
(17), it is also possible to formulate the following corollary directly in terms of the back
stress , i.e.:
Corollary 1: If there exist a timeindependent residual macrostress field q(x) and a
timeindependent field (x), satisfying
U[m (x)[ _ [K(x) ÷k
0
(x)[
2
; \ x ÷ X ; (20)
such that for all possible loads within the load domain, the condition
U¦m[r
E
(x; t) ÷q(x) ÷ (x)[¦ _ k
2
0
(x) (21)
is fulfilled \ x ÷ X and \t > 0, then the system will shake down.
For the formulation of the static shakedown theorem 1 and the corresponding corollary
1, only the values of k
0
and K have been used. That means that the shakedown limits
for systems of the considered material do not depend on the particular shape of the
function k(n), and therefore do not depend on the particular r; ecurve but, solely, on
the magnitudes of k
0
and K.
For K(x) = k
0
(x) (an elastic, perfectly plastic material), we have = 0 due to
Equation (20), and theorem 1 reduces to Melan’s theorem [2, 3] for an elastic, perfectly
plastic material. For K(x) ÷ ÷· (materials with unlimited kinematic hardening), the
constraint (Equation (20)) imposed on the backstresses (x), can never become active
and therefore may be dropped. In this case, we get the static shakedown theorem of
Melan for a linear, unlimited kinematic hardening material.
11.3 Numerical Approach to Shakedown Problems
11.3.1 General considerations
For the numerical approach of shakedown problems, both the static and the kinematic
theorems can be employed. However, the use of the static theorems has the advantage
that the discretized optimization problem is regular. Therefore, only static theorems
were used for the following considerations. Furthermore, for the FiniteElement discre
11.3 Numerical Approach to Shakedown Problems
259
tization, only elements based upon the displacement method were used. In the follow
ing sections, we will limit our attention to planestress problems (for more details and
other stress situations, see e.g. Zhang [31], Stein et al. [32], Mahnken [33]).
11.3.2 Perfectly plastic material
We are interested in finding the maximal possible enlargement of the load domain al
lowing still for shakedown. Thus, for systems consisting of linear elastic, perfectly plas
tic material, we get the following optimization problem in matrix notation:
b ÷ max ; (22)
NG
i=1
C
i
q
i
= Cq = 0 ; (23)
U[br
E
i
(j) ÷q
i
[ _ r
2
o
; \(i; j) ÷ 1 ×¸ ; (24)
for load domains of the form of a convex polyhedron with M load vertices. Here, b is
the maximal possible enlargement of the load domain, NG is the number of Gaussian
points. 1 = [1; . . . ; NG[ and ¸ = [1; . . . ; M[ are sets containing all Gaussian points and
load vertices, respectively. C is a systemdependent matrix and r
E
i
(j) is the elastic
stress vector at the ith Gaussian point, which corresponds to the jth load vertex P(j)
of the load domain. The Equations (23) and (24) represent the discretized static equilib
rium conditions for the residual stresses and the shakedown conditions controlled at the
Gaussian points, respectively. q
i
is the residual stress vector in the ith Gaussian point.
In general, the discretized shakedown problem (Equations (22) to (24)) is a large
scaled optimization problem. Direct use of standard optimization algorithms such as the
sequential quadratic programming method (SQPmethod) is not effective. Thus, two op
timization algorithms were formulated and implemented to take account of the special
structure of the problem (Equations (22) to (24)).
11.3.2.1 The special SQPalgorithm
Dual methods do not attack the original constrained problem directly, but instead attack
an alternative problem, the dual problem, whose unknowns are the Lagrange multi
pliers of the primal problem.
In order to solve the dual problem, a projection method is used. Each subproblem
is then solved iteratively. The iteration matrix needed to do so was implemented due to
Bertsekas’s algorithm. To make the algorithm even more effective for large sized prob
lems, a QuasiNewton method was used and a BFGSupdate formula was implemented
(for details of the proposed methodology, see Stein et al. [32], Mahnken [33]).
11 Theoretical and Computational Shakedown Analysis
260
11.3.2.2 A reduced basis technique
The main idea is to solve Equations (22) to (24) in a sequence of reduced residual
stress spaces of very low dimensions. Starting from the known state b
(k÷1)
and q
(k÷1)
,
a few (r) basis vectors b
p;k
; p = 1; . . . r, are selected from the residual stress space B
d
.
They form a subspace B
r;k
(or reduced residual stress space) of B
d
. The improved state
(k) is determined by solving the reduced optimization problem. Due to its low dimen
sion, the reduced problem can be solved very efficiently by using a SQP or a penalty
method. The kth state is obtained by an update for q
k
and Db
k
. Selecting new reduced
basis vectors, the process is repeated until a convergence criterion for Db
k
is fulfilled.
One way for generating the basis vectors is to carry out an equilibrium iteration. The
intermediate stresses during the iteration are in equilibrium with the same external load,
and their differences are thus residual stresses. Details can be found in [29–31].
11.3.3 Unlimited kinematic hardening material
For the investigation of the shakedown behaviour of systems consisting of unlimited ki
nematic hardening material, we restrict the load domain in the same way as in Section
11.3.1, and the following optimization problem can be formulated [31]:
b ÷ max ; (25)
NG
i=1
C
i
q
i
= 0 ; (26)
U[br
E
i
(j) ÷q
i
÷
i
[ _ r
2
o
; \(i; j) ÷ 1 ×¸ ; (27)
where
i
is the affine backstress vector at the ith Gaussian point.
Defining now vectors y
i
in such a way that
y
i
= q
i
÷
i
; (28)
where the y
i
are not restricted. Thus, the equality constraints (Equation (26)) of Equa
tions (25) to (27) can be dropped:
b ÷ max ; (29)
U[br
E
i
(j) ÷y
i
[ _ r
2
o
; \(i; j) ÷ 1 ×¸ : (30)
A modified optimization problem is derived, that has a very simple structure. Zhang
[31] formulated and proved a lemma to solve this problem:
11.3 Numerical Approach to Shakedown Problems
261
Lemma 1: The maximal shakedown load factor b
s
of Equations (29) and (30) can be
derived through
b
s
=
b; with
b = min
i÷1
b
i
; (31)
where b
i
, (i ÷ 1), is the solution of the subproblem
b
i
÷ max ; (32)
U[b
i
r
E
i
(j) ÷y
i
[ _ r
2
o
: (33)
The dimension of Equations (32) and (33) is very low. Thus, it can be solved effec
tively with a usual SQPmethod.
Relationship between perfectly plastic and kinematic hardening material
The shakedown load of a system consisting of unlimited kinematic hardening material
is determined by that point x
i
p
, where the maximum possible enlargement of the elastic
stress domain o
E
i
p
is the least in comparison to other points. Thus, the failure is of local
character. This reflects the fact that a system, that consists of unlimited kinematic hard
ening material and is subjected to cyclic loading, can fail only locally in form of alter
nating plasticity [34]. Incremental collapse cannot occur since it is connected with a
nontrivial, kinematic compatible plastic strain field, which has global character.
The shakedown load of a system consisting of perfectly plastic material cannot be
larger than the shakedown load of the same system consisting of unlimited kinematic
hardening material with the same initial stress r
o
. However, it is possible that the
shakedown loads for perfectly plastic and kinematic hardening material are identical.
This is the case only if alternating plasticity is dominant in both cases. It is easy to
show that
q
i
p
= y
i
p
(34)
holds.
Concluding, the following conclusions can be drawn from lemma 1:
1. A system consisting of unlimited kinematic hardening material and subjected to
variable loading can fail only locally in form of alternating plasticity.
2. The kinematic hardening does not influence the shakedown load if the same sys
tem with perfectly plastic material, subjected to the same loading, fails in form of
alternating plasticity in such a manner that there exists at least one point x
i
p
, for
which the enlarged elastic stress domain b
s
o
E
i
p
is just contained in the yield surface
shifted to ÷q
i
p
. A further shift of the yield surface at this point would cause that a
portion of the enlarged elastic domain b ÷so
E
i
p
leaves the yield surface. In the se
quel, the alternating plasticity with the special character mentioned before will be
denoted by APSC. In all other cases, an increase of the shakedown load due to ki
nematic hardening is expected.
11 Theoretical and Computational Shakedown Analysis
262
3. If the shakedown loads for perfectly plastic and unlimited hardening material are
identical, then alternating plasticity is the dominant failure form in both cases.
4. The shakedown load determined for perfectly plastic material is exact if it is identi
cal with that determined for unlimited kinematic hardening material, provided the
latter is determined exactly.
11.3.4 Limited kinematic hardening material
As mentioned in Section 11.2, the shakedown limit of a system consisting of limited kine
matic hardening material depends only on the values k
0
and K. For this reason, the given
function k(n) may be replaced by a step function of n ÷ [0; 1[. The step function has to be
chosen such that its minimum is equal to k
0
and its area is equal to K. That is,
K =
m
l=1
Dn
l
k
l
; m _ 2 ; (35)
where m is the number of the intervals of the step function and
k
l
is the value of the
step function of the lth interval with the length Dn
l
.
For plane stress problems, the microelements may be incorporated in a natural
way. The thickness t of the structure is divided into several (m _ 2) layers with the
thicknesses t
l
, l = 1; 2; . . . ; m. Each layer behaves elastic, perfectly plastic and has a
corresponding yield stress k
l
(one value of the step function). The thicknesses of the
layers have to be chosen such that
t
l
t
= Dn
l
; \l ÷ [1; . . . ; m[ : (36)
By doing so, a unique relation between the layers of the structure and the intervals of
the step function is established. The microelements of the lth interval are replaced by
the lth layer of the structure. The parallel connection of the microelements is realized
by discretizing all layers in the same way. That is, elements that lie on top of each
other have the same nodes. Thus, it is guaranteed that elements of different layers have
the same kinematics.
Dividing the structure into Ne elements with NG Gaussian points and m layers,
we get the discretized shakedown problem (Stein et al. [32]):
b ÷ max ; (37)
NG
i=1
C
i
m
s=1
t
s
t
q
i;s
=
NG
i=1
C
i
q
i
= Cq = 0 ; (38)
U(br
E
i
(j) ÷q
i;1
) _
k
2
1
= k
2
0
; \ (i; j) ÷ 1 ×¸ ; (39)
11.3 Numerical Approach to Shakedown Problems
263
U(p
i;1
) _ (K ÷
k
1
)
2
= (K ÷k
0
)
2
; \i ÷ 1 : (40)
The Equations (38), (39) and (40) represent the discretized static equilibrium conditions
for the residual macrostresses and the shakedown conditions controlled at the Gaussian
points, respectively. q
i;s
and p
i;s
are the residual stress vector and the residual micro
stress vector in the sth layer of the ith Gaussian point. Between q
i;s
; p
i;s
and the resi
dual macrostress vector q
i
, the following relation holds:
q
i;s
= q
i
÷p
i;s
: (41)
For m = 1 and K =
k
1
, Equations (37) to (40) reduce to the discretized shakedown
problem for a perfectly plastic material. In this case, we have p
i;1
= 0; q
i
= q
i;1
and the
constraint (Equation (40)) can be dropped. We come to the other extreme case by as
suming K ÷ ·, which corresponds to an unlimited kinematic hardening material. Due
to K ÷ ·, the constraint (Equation (38)) can never become active, and thus p
i;1
is not
constrained. Correspondingly, the constraint (Equation (40)) may be dropped as well.
To solve the optimization problem (Equations (37) to (40)) effectively, the re
duced basis technique presented in Section 11.3.2.2 was extended (for details, see e.g.
Zhang [31], Stein et al. [32]).
11.3.5 Numerical examples
In this section, numerical examples of different structures are considered. The influence
of kinematic hardening on the shakedown limit is demonstrated.
11.3.5.1 Thinwalled cylindrical shell
A cylindrical shell with wall thickness d and radius R is subjected to an internal pres
sure p and an internal temperature T
i
(Figure 11.2). The external temperature T
e
is
equal to zero for all times t. For T
i
= T
e
and p = 0, the system is assumed to be stress
free. The pressure and the temperature can vary between zero and their maximum val
ues p and
T
i
. The corresponding load domain is defined by:
0 _ p _ bc
1
p
o
= p ; 0 _ c
1
_ 1 ; 0 _ T
i
_ bc
2
T
o
i
=
T
i
; 0 _ c
2
_ 1 : (42)
To visualize the influence of kinematic hardening on the shakedown limits, the follow
ing three constitutive laws are considered:
1. Elastic, perfectly plastic material with initial yield stress k
o
(curve 1 in Figure
11.2b).
2. Limited kinematic hardening material with K = 1:35 k
o
(curve 2 in Figure 11.2b).
3. Unlimited kinematic hardening with K = ÷· (curve 3 in Figure 11.2b).
11 Theoretical and Computational Shakedown Analysis
264
Curves 1, 2 and 3 in Figure 11.2b show that the kinematic hardening does not always
increase shakedown limits. The common part of the curves represents load domains,
which lead exclusively to APSC (Section 11.3.3.1) in all three cases, whereas both al
ternating plasticity and incremental failure can occur for the remaining load domains.
11.3.5.2 Steel girder with a cope
A steel girder with a length of 4 m will be investigated. It consists of an IPB500 pro
file with a cope on either side. The girder is simply supported and, in the middle, it is
subjected to a concentrated single load P. Both corners of the copes are provided with
a round drill hole of radius r = 8 mm (see Figure 11.3a). The material is St 523 with
an initial yield stress r
o
= 37:5 kN/cm
2
and a maximal hardening r
Y
= 52:0 kN/cm
2
.
The hardening can be regarded as kinematic.
Experimental investigations
At the Institute for Steel Construction of the University of Braunschweig, the girder
was investigated experimentally [35]. First of all, the behaviour of the system subjected
to cyclic loading was of interest. Additionally, for comparison, the ultimate load was
determined experimentally as well.
Firstly, the girder was subjected to different cyclic load programs. The load pro
gram of the first 15 cycles is shown in Table 11.1. Then, the girder was subjected to a
load program, where the load varied between 0 and 600 kN with a velocity of 600 kN/
min. The number of load cycles, that led to a crack (with a length of 1 mm) at a drill
hole, was 145. The number of load cycles, that led to a collapse of the girder, was 372.
After collapse due to cyclic loading, the girder was shortened on either side by
50 cm, and it was recoped as before. Then, for this system, the ultimate load was deter
mined as 887 kN. Note that this value can also be regarded as the ultimate load of the
initial system since only those crosssections near the cope are responsible for failure
of the system.
11.3 Numerical Approach to Shakedown Problems
265
Figure 11.2: Thinwalled cylindrical shell: a) system and loads; b) shakedown diagram.
Numerical investigations
Due to the symmetry of the system and the loading, only one quarter of the system was
considered for numerical investigation. For the FiniteElement discretization, two different
types of elements were employed. The web of the girder was discretized by using 8128
isoparametric elements each with 4 nodes (see Figure 11.3a). The upper and the lower
flanges were discretized with 768 and 640 DKT (discrete Kirchhoff triangle)elements,
respectively. Apart from bending forces, the DKTelements can also be stressed in plane
in order to take account of the fact that the flanges are not subjected to pure bending.
For the numerical investigation, both the ultimate load and the shakedown load
were calculated. The solutions were obtained by the reduced basis technique. In order
to demonstrate the influence of kinematic hardening on the ultimate load and on the
shakedown load, respectively, the calculations were performed both for a perfectly plas
tic and a kinematic hardening material. The results are shown in Table 11.2.
Note that the value for the ultimate load determined numerically (877.7 kN) was
1% lower than the value determined by experiment (887 kN).
From Table 11.2, it can be seen that, while the ultimate load increases by a factor of
r
Y
=r
o
due to kinematic hardening, the shakedown load remains unaltered. In this case, the
girder fails due to alternating plasticity near the drill holes (see Section 11.3.2.1).
11 Theoretical and Computational Shakedown Analysis
266
Figure 11.3: a) Discretization of the steel girder; b) loadstrain diagram at one of both drill holes
of the girder.
Table 11.1: Loading program of the first 15 cycles for a steel girder.
Cycles 1–5 Cycles 6–10 Cycles 11–15
P: 0 > 540 kN P: 0 > 320 kN P: 0 > 540 kN
It should be pointed out that, originally, the experiment was not intended to ana
lyse shakedown behaviour. During the experiment, the amplitudes of the cyclic loads
were higher than the theoretical shakedown load. Thus, no shakedown behaviour could
be observed. However, some valuable information can be drawn from the loadstrain
diagram for the first 5 load cycles shown in Figure 11.3b. The strains were measured
directly at one of the drill holes.
In Figure 11.3b, a region can be observed, where the load P is linearly propor
tional to the strains, i.e., where the system behaves purely elastic. The amplitude of the
region is between 155.2 kN and 179.5 kN. A comparison shows that the numerical re
sults are in good agreement with the experiment.
11.3.5.3 Incremental computations of shakedown limits of cyclic kinematic hardening
material
To describe the cyclic kinematic hardening behaviour of materials, many models have
been developed. Mro´z’s multisurface model [27], the twosurface model of Dafalias
and Popov [28] and Chaboche’s model [23] are three of the best known examples.
Here, we use Chaboche’s model as an example and investigate its shakedown behav
iour. Due to the fact that no shakedown theorems for cyclic hardening materials have
been formulated yet, an incremental method will be used to calculate the shakedown limit.
Examples and comparison
As our first example, we consider the square plate with circular hole illustrated in Fig
ure 11.4. The length of the plate is L and the ratio between the diameter D of the hole
and the length of the plate is 0.01. The thickness of the plate is t = 1 cm. The system
is subjected to the biaxial loading p
1
and p
2
. Both can vary independently between
zero and their maximum values p
1
and p
2
. The corresponding load domain is defined
by:
0 _ p
1
_ bc
1
r
o
=p
1
; 0 _ c
1
_ 1 ; (43)
0 _ p
2
_ bc
2
r
o
=p
2
; 0 _ c
2
_ 1 : (44)
The results are shown in Table 11.3, where b
pih
denotes the shakedown limit for the
pathindependent hardening material and b
cyh
the shakedown limit for the cyclic kine
matic hardening material.
11.3 Numerical Approach to Shakedown Problems
267
Table 11.2: Numerical ultimate and shakedown load for a steel girder.
Material type Ultimate load in kN Shakedown load in kN
1. Perfectly plastic 633.2 164.2
2. Kinematic hardening 877.7 164.2
It is shown that the results from optimization methods with cyclic independent hard
ening properties are upper bounds for those from incremental computation with cyclic
kinematic hardening materials. It turned out that for about 20 cycles, the values b
cyh
approach b
pih
with an error less than 1%. It should be pointed out that the computation
efforts for the cyclic processes are much higher in comparison with optimization methods.
The second example to be considered is a CTspecimen with a notch as shown in
Figure 11.5. It is subjected to a uniaxial loading p, which may vary between 0 and p.
Five different values of notch root radius r are used to obtain a wide range of
shakedown limits. Table 11.4 shows the results of the incremental computations.
For this example too, the shakedown limits are the same as those of numerical
optimization apart from the fact that the number of load paths, which we have taken
for the incremental hardening, has no influence on the shakedown limit of the system.
Remark 1: Elastic shakedown does not implement damage and creep phenomena. En
gineers are interested in the admissible number of cycles for lowcycle fatigue,
which cannot be derived from classical shakedown theorems. An approximated
reduced load factor b
+
< b for scalarvalued damage can be achieved in a post
process assuming conservatively that the loads always alternate between their
maximum and minimum values in all load cycles.
11 Theoretical and Computational Shakedown Analysis
268
Figure 11.4.: Geometry and loading conditions of a square plate with a centric circular hole.
Table 11.3: Shakedown limits for a plate with centric hole.
p
1
= p
2
b
pih
b
cyh
N
0.0/1.0 0.69633 0.69629 300
0.2/1.0 0.65458 0.65417 20
0.4/1.0 0.61758 0.61750 20
0.6/1.0 0.58433 0.58417 20
0.8/1.0 0.55471 0.55417 20
1.0/1.0 0.52775 0.52707 20
Remark 2: There is an important connection between shakedown theory and structural
optimization admitting inelastic deformations, which is a demanding task in the
frame of the design under modern safety considerations related to the failure of a
structure as given in the new EUROCODES.
11.4 Transition to Ductile Fracture
To solve the optimization problem (Equations (37) to (40)) for a system with complicated
geometry and load domain, the numerical methods like FiniteElement method should be
usually used (see [32, 36]). For a problem with no more than two loading parameters (load
domain with four vertices), Stein and Huang [37] developed an analytical method for de
termination of the shakedownload factor b. The advantage of this method is that only the
maximum effective stress in the system must be calculated. The shakedownload factor b
follows directly from a closed form. For a load domain with only one parameter (load
domain with two vertices), the result for b is especially simple, it reads:
11.4 Transition to Ductile Fracture
269
Figure 11.5: Geometry and loading conditions of a compact tension specimen.
Table 11.4: Shakedown limits for a CTspecimen.
b
pih
b
cyh
N
r = 0:1 0.069325 0.069292 20
r = 0:2 0.085133 0.085083 20
r = 0:3 0.092504 0.092083 20
r = 0:4 0.101117 0.101042 20
r = 0:5 0.107392 0.107292 20
b =
2r
o
r
eff
; (45)
where r
eff
is von Mises effective stress and r
o
is the elastic limit. From Equation (45)
can be concluded that the shakedown limit load of the system is as large as twice as its
elastic limit.
Making use of this result, Huang and Stein [38] calculated the shakedown limit
load of a notched body under variable tension r as illustrated in Figure 11.6a. It reads:
b =
2r
o
r
eff
=
r
o
pr
_
K
1 ÷m ÷m
2
_ ; (46)
where K is the stressintensity factor (SIF), m is Poisson’s ratio. Thus, the maximal
stressintensity factor K
sh
, under which the system will still shake down, reads:
K
sh
= bK =
r
o
pr
_
1 ÷m ÷m
2
_ : (47)
If the applied SIF K does not exceed the shakedown limit SIF K
sh
, the notched body
shakes down. Otherwise, alternating plasticity occurs at the notch root.
Shakedown limit SIF for a cracked body
In [38], Huang and Stein applied Neuber’s material block concept [24] to the shake
down investigation of a cracked body. Accordingly, the continuum ahead of a sharp
notch is considered as a material block with finite linear dimension e (Figure 11.6b).
Across this block, no stress gradient can develop. The original notch should be re
placed by an effective notch with radius r
+
(> r). The stressconcentration factor is re
11 Theoretical and Computational Shakedown Analysis
270
Figure 11.6: a) A compact tension specimen under cyclic loading; b) modified notch; c) modified
crack.
duced due to the enlarged notch radius. The classic strength theory is then still usable.
The effective notch radius r
+
is obtained in such a way that the average stress over the
block e of the original notch is equal to the maximum stress of the modified notch, i.e.:
r
y
max
[
r
+
=
1
e
e
0
r
y
[
r
dr
1
: (48)
Using Craeger’s relation for the stress distribution [39] at the notch root, the following
relation can be derived:
2K
pr
+
_ =
1
e
e
0
K
2p(r=2 ÷r
1
)
p 1 ÷
r
2(r=2 ÷r
1
)
!
dr
1
=
2K
p(r ÷2e)
p : (49)
For r
+
, one gets:
r
+
= r ÷2e : (50)
Thus, the effective notch radius is equal to the original one plus two times Neuber’s
material block size e.
In the case of a crack (Figure 11.6c), the effective cracktip radius, denoted by q, can
be obtained immediately by setting r
+
= r ÷2e and r = 0 in Equation (47), yielding:
q = 2e : (51)
Equation (51) indicates implicitly that a crack can be treated as a notch with radius q.
In fact, experiments with different materials done by Frost [40], Jack and Price [41],
and Swanson et al. [42] show that a cracked body under cyclic loadings behaves in an
identical manner as a notched body does if the latter has the same geometry as the
cracked body and the notch root radius r is small enough (see also [43, 44]). The
shakedown limit stressintensity factor reads:
K
sh
=
r
o
pq
_
1 ÷m ÷m
2
_ : (52)
Thus, the shakedown limit stressintensity factor of a cracked body is proportional to
the initial yield stress r
o
times the square root of the effective cracktip radius q. For a
material, r
o
is usually given. The problem now is to establish the effective cracktip ra
dius q. A direct measurement of this parameter is difficult. Using an indirect method,
Kuhn and Hardrath [45] calculated the effective cracktip radii for metallic materials
and proposed a relationship between q and the ultimate strength r
Y
of a material de
picted in a diagram.
For a given material, the initial yield stress r
o
and ultimate stress r
Y
can be mea
sured by a simple tension experiment. The effective cracktip radius q is taken directly
from the diagram given in [45]. Knowing these quantities, the shakedown limit SIF K
sh
11.4 Transition to Ductile Fracture
271
follows immediately from Equation (52). In Table 11.5, the shakedown limit SIFs K
sh
for some materials are selected. At the same time, fatigue thresholds for the same
materials are listed there. They were obtained by other authors with experimental meth
ods of other theoretical approaches [46, 47].
It can be seen that the shakedown limit SIFs K
sh
of cracked bodies agree quite
well with their fatigue thresholds K
th
. This agreement indicates that the reason for
crack arrest in these materials is the shakedown of the cracked bodies. In these cases,
the fatigue threshold of a cracked body can be predicted by using shakedown theory.
11.5 Summary of the Main Results of Project B6
One major issue of project B6 was the formulation of a 3D overlay model for nonlin
ear hardening materials. For this class of materials, a static shakedown theorem and a
corresponding corollary were formulated and proved, which are generalizations of Me
lan’s static shakedown theorems for perfectly plastic and linear kinematic hardening
materials. A systematic investigation of the numerical treatment of shakedown prob
lems using FiniteElement method was carried out. The findings were used to employ
efficient optimization strategies and algorithms developed to take advantage of the spe
cial structure of the arising optimization problems. As an important result of these in
vestigations, explicit conclusions about the failure forms of cyclically loaded systems
could be drawn, i.e. incremental collapse or alternating plasticity. The influence of cyc
lic hardening and softening on the shakedown behaviour of structures was studied in
crementally. The results were compared with those derived for the 3D overlay model.
A new methodology was proposed to include stress singularities into shakedown
investigations allowing for the prediction of fatigue thresholds of ductile cracked
bodies. Thus, a transition from shakedown theory to cyclic fracture mechanics was
achieved.
11 Theoretical and Computational Shakedown Analysis
272
Table 11.5: Shakedown limit SIFs K
sh
and fatigue thresholds K
th
for various materials.
Material r
o
[MPa] r
Y
[MPa]
q
_
m
1/2
K
sh
[Mnm
–3/2
] K
th
[Mnm
–3/2
] Ref.
2 1/4 Cr1Mo 345 528 13.549· 10
–3
8.25 8.3 [45]
SA 3872.22 390 550 12.433· 10
–3
8.6 8.3 [45]
SA 3872.22 340 520 13.708· 10
–3
8.14 8.6 [45]
SA 3872.22 290 500 14.346· 10
–3
7.3 9.6 [45]
Docol 350 260 360 19.128· 10
–3
8.9 5.4 [46]
SS 141147 185 322 22.316· 10
–3
7.6 6.0 [46]
HP Steel 210 304 25.504· 10
–3
9.5 6.2 [46]
HP Steel 160 279 28.692· 10
–3
8.1 6.7 [46]
HP Steel 120 242 36.662· 10
–3
7.8 8.2 [46]
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[24] H. Neuber: Kerbspannungslehre. Springer Verlag, 1958.
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[25] W. Prager: A New Method of Analyzing Stresses and Strains in Workhardening Plastic Sol
ids. J. Appl. Mech., 1956, pp. 493–496.
[26] H. Ziegler: A Modification of Prager’s Hardening Rule. Quart. Appl. Math. 17 (1955) 55–
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[27] Z. Mro´z: On the Description of Anisotropic Workhardening. J. Mech. Phys. Solids 15
(1967) 163–175.
[28] Y. F. Dafalias, E. P. Popov: A Model of Nonlinearly Hardening Materials for Complex Load
ing. Acta Mechanica 43 (1975) 173–192.
[29] E. Stein, G. Zhang, R. Mahnken, J. A. Ko¨nig: Micromechanical Modeling and Computation
of Shakedown with Nonlinear Kinematic Hardening Including Examples for 2D Problems.
In: Proc. CSME Mechanical Engineering Forum, Toronto, 1990, pp. 425–430.
[30] E. Stein, G. Zhang, J. A. Ko¨nig: Shakedown with Nonlinear Hardening Including Structural
Computation Using Finite Element Method. Int. J. Plasticity 8 (1992) 1–31.
[31] G. Zhang: Einspielen und dessen numerische Anwendung von Fla¨chentragwerken aus ideal
plastischem bzw. kinematisch verfestigendem Material. PhD thesis, Institut fu¨r Baumechanik
und Numerische Mechanik, Universita¨t Hannover, 1992.
[32] E. Stein, G. Zhang, R. Mahnken: Shakedown Analysis for Perfectly Plastic and Kinematic
Hardening Materials. In: Progress in Computational Analysis of Inelastic Structures,
Springer Verlag, 1993, pp. 175–244.
[33] R. Mahnken: Duale Methoden in der Strukturmechanik fu¨r nichtlineare Optimierungsprob
leme. PhD thesis, Institut fu¨r Baumechanik und Numerische Mechanik, Universita¨t Hanno
ver, 1992.
[34] J. A. Ko¨nig: Shakedown of ElasticPlastic Structures. PWNPolish Scientific Publishers,
1987.
[35] J. Scheer, H. J. Scheibe, D. Kuck: Untersuchung von Tra¨gerschwa¨chungen unter wiederhol
ter Belastung bis in den plastischen Bereich. Bericht Nr. 6099, Institut fu¨r Stahlbau, TU
Braunschweig, 1990.
[36] E. Stein, G. Zhang, Y. Huang: Modeling and Computation of Shakedown Problems for
Nonlinear Hardening Materials. Computer Methods in Mechanics and Engineering 321
(1993) 247–272.
[37] E. Stein, Y. Huang: An Analytical Method to Solve Shakedown Problems with Linear Kine
matic Hardening Materials. Int. J. of Solids and Structures 18 (1994) 2433–2444.
[38] Y. Huang, E. Stein: Shakedown of a Cracked Body Consisting of Kinematic Hardening
Material. Engineering Fracture Mechanics 54 (1996) 107–112.
[39] M. Craeger: Master Thesis, Lehigh University, 1966.
[40] N. E. Frost: Notch Effects and the Critical Alternating Stress Required to Propagate a
Crack in an Aluminium Alloy Subject to Fatigue Loading. J. Mech. Engng. Sci. 2 (1960)
109–119.
[41] A. R. Jack, A. T. Price: The Initiation of Fatigue Cracks from Notches in Mild Steel Plates.
International Journal of Fracture Mechanics 6 (1970) 401–409.
[42] R. E. Swanson, A. W. Thompson, I. M. Bernstein: Effect of Notch Root Radius on Stress In
tensity in Mode I and Mode III Loading. Metallurgical Transactions A 17A (1986) 1633–
1637.
[43] N. E. Dowling: Fatigue at Notches and the Local Strain and Fracture Mechanics Ap
proaches. In: Fracture Mechanics, 1979.
[44] D. Taylor: Fatigue Thresholds. Butterworth, 1989.
[45] P. Kuhn, H. F. Hardrath: An Engineering Method for Estimating NotchSize Effect in Fa
tigue Test on Steel. Technical report, NACA technical note, 1952.
[46] R. O. Ritchie: NearThreshold Fatigue Crack Growth in 2 1/4 Cr1Mo Pressure Vessel Steel
in Air and Hydrogen. J. of Eng. Materials and Technology 102 (1980) 293–299.
[47] J. Wasen, K. Hamberg, B. Karlsson: The Influence of Grain Size and Fracture Surface Ge
ometry on the NearThreshold Fatigue Crack Growth in Ferritic Steels. Mat. Sci. Engng.
102 (1998) 217–226.
11 Theoretical and Computational Shakedown Analysis
274
12 Parameter Identification for Inelastic Constitutive
Equations Based on Uniform and NonUniform
Stress and Strain Distributions
Rolf Mahnken and Erwin Stein*
Abstract
In this contribution, various aspects for identification of material parameters are discussed.
The underlying experimental data are obtained from specimen, where stresses and strains
can be either uniformor nonuniformwithin the volume. In the second case, the associated
simulated data are obtained from FiniteElement calculations. A gradientbased optimiza
tion strategy is applied for minimization of a leastsquares functional, where the corre
sponding sensitivity analysis if performed in a systematic manner. Numerical examples
for the uniform case are presented with a material model due to Chaboche with cyclic
loading. For the nonuniform case, material parameters are obtained for a multiplicative
plasticity model, where experimental data are determined with a grating method for an
axisymmetric necking problem. In both examples, the effect of different starting values
and stochastic perturbations of the experimental data are discussed.
12.1 Introduction
12.1.1 State of the art at the beginning of project B8
The project B8 of the Collaborative Research Centre (SFB 319) has been started in
1991 with the intention to identify material parameters of constitutive models for in
elastic material behaviour. Though the interest for reliable modelling has always been
very high in the engineering community, up to that time, the concepts for parameter
identification concerning experimental and numerical issues were fairly limited. In par
ticular the state of the art was as follows:
275
* Universita¨t Hannover, Institut fu¨r Baumechanik und Numerische Mechanik, Appelstraße 9a,
D30167 Hannover, Germany
Plasticity of Metals: Experiments, Models, Computation. Collaborative Research Centres.
Edited by E. Steck, R. Ritter, U. Peil, A. Ziegenbein
Copyright © 2001 WileyVCH Verlag GmbH
ISBNs: 3527277285 (Softcover); 3527600116 (Electronic)
• The experiments producing the experimental data were mostly conducted in simple
tension, compression or torsion, respectively. In this way, the sample, e.g. a cylindrical
hollow specimen, is subjected to an axial load (force or displacement), which produces
strains and stresses assumed to be uniform within the whole volume of the specimen.
• The identification process for the underlying material models was performed in the
framework of a geometric linear theory.
• For optimization of the resulting leastsquares functional (at least within the SFB
319) evolutionary strategies were preferred.
• In some situations it may occur that more than one set of parameters can give rea
sonable fits. This issue of instability (or even nonuniqueness in the case of identi
cal fits) has not been considered.
12.1.2 Aims and scope of project B8
As a main consequence of the first item in the above overview it was observed that pa
rameters derived from an optimal leastsquares fit of uniaxial experiments do not neces
sarily predict nonuniform deformations. This is due to the facts that (i) a uniaxial ex
periment does not provide enough information to obtain an accurate simulation of the
nonuniform case, and (ii) the ideal test conditions of uniformness often cannot be real
ized in the laboratory. In nearly all mechanical tests deformations eventually cease to
be uniform due to localization, fracture and other failure mechanisms. E.g., nonuni
formness is unavoidable in the case of necking of the sample in tension tests or barrel
ing due to friction of the sample in compression tests. Therefore a main object of pro
ject B8 was to develop a more general approach, which accounts for this inhomogene
ity by performing parameter identification using FiniteElement simulations.
The next issue is concerned with the geometric setting. It is quite obvious that
material parameters obtained from a fit within a geometric linear setting in general do
not carry over to the finitedeformation regime. This in particular holds if extreme
loads are subjected to the specimen thus yielding large deformations. To this end pa
rameter identification within a geometric nonlinear theory has been performed.
In a common – classical – approach, parameter identification is formulated as an
optimization problem, where a leastsquares functional is minimized in order to provide
the best agreement between experimental data and simulated data in a specific norm.
Algorithms for solution of this problem, basically, may be classified into two classes,
i.e. methods, which only need the value of the leastsquares function (zeroorder meth
ods) and descent methods, which require also the gradient of the leastsquares function
(firstorder methods). Very often an evolutionary method is preferred in practice be
cause of its versatility (see e.g. Mu¨ller and Hartmann [1] and Kublik and Steck [2]).
However, in general, these methods are very timeconsuming due to many function
evaluations (several hundred thousand). Thus for reasons of efficiency an optimization
strategy based on gradient evaluations has been developed.
For determination of the gradient of the associated leastsquares functional, basically
two variants are known from the literature: (1) The finitedifference method: This tech
12 Parameter Identification for Inelastic Constitutive Equations
276
nique, though conceptionally very simple in general, is regarded as inefficient due to many
function evaluations and accuracy problems. (2) The sensitivity analysis: In this concept
the gradient is determined analytically consistent with the formulation of the underlying
direct problem. As part of the work of project B8 the latter concept has been developed
firstly to the uniform case, and then it was carried over to the nonuniform case.
Another object of project B8 was to discuss and investigate the stability of the re
sults for the identification process since instability is a typical feature of inverse prob
lems (see Baumeister [3], Banks and Kunisch [4]). To this end two indicators are inves
tigated: We examine the eigenvalues of the Hessian of the leastsquares function, and
we study the effect of perturbations of the experimental data on the parameters.
Furthermore, for the case of numerically instable results, we introduce a regularization
due to Tikhonov, which can be interpreted as an enhancement of the basic leastsquares
functional by adequate model information.
Parameter identification essentially relies on experimental data obtained in the lab
oratory. In this respect it is obvious that for the nonuniform case spatially distributed
data give more information as data evaluated only at certain points, e.g. using strain
gauges. Therefore optical methods turned out to be the ideal tools in order to obtain
the underlying data sets, and in our examples the experimental data were obtained with
a grating method in collaboration with the projects C1 (Dr. Andresen [5]), C2 (Prof.
Ritter [6]) and B5 (Prof. Peil [7]).
In this contribution we will describe our approach for parameter identification,
firstly, to the conventional uniform case, and secondly, to the nonuniform case, where
the FiniteElement method is applied. To specify, this work is structured as follows: In
the next Section 12.2 the basic terminology for identification problems pertaining to the
direct problem and the inverse problem is introduced. In Section 12.3 a systematic con
cept for parameter identification is briefly described for the uniform case, and in Section
12.4, it is extended to the nonuniform case. In Section 12.5 two examples for parameter
identification based on experimental data obtained within the Collaborative Research Cen
tre (SFB 319) are presented. In the first example the Chaboche model [8] is considered
with a sample in cyclic loading, and in the second example we investigate an axisym
metric necking problem of mild steel. Section 12.6 gives a summary of the main results
of project B8, and furthermore, we discuss issues of future research work.
12.2 Basic Terminology for Identification Problems
12.2.1 The direct problem: the state equation
In the sequel, we denote by / a (vector)space with elements j of admissible material
parameters, and g(j; ^ u(j)) is the state equation, which may represent e.g. the (nonlin
ear) state of the discretized form of an initial value problem or the variational form of
an initial boundary value problem. The state equation g may be dependent on the pa
rameters j, both explicitly and implicitly, where the implicit dependency is defined via
12.2 Basic Terminology for Identification Problems
277
the state variable ^ u(j) ÷ U, and where U is a (function)space of admissible state vari
ables ^ u(j). With this notation, we formulate the direct problem:
Find u(j) ÷ U such that g(j; u(j)) = 0 for given j ÷ / : (1)
In what follows, we assume existence of the solution u(j):= Arg ¦g(j; ^ u(j)) = 0¦ for
all j ÷ /.
12.2.2 The inverse problem: the leastsquares problem
Let
~
D denote an observation space, and let
~
d ÷
~
D denote given data from experiments.
In general experimental data are not complete, e.g. for cyclic loading tests very often
they are available only for a part of the cycles. To account for this possible incomplete
ness, we introduce an observation operator / mapping the trajectory u(j) to points
/ u(j) in the observation space T (Banks and Kunisch [4], p. 54). With this notation
we formulate the inverse problem:
Find j ÷ / such that /u(j) =
~
d for given
~
d ÷
~
D : (2)
An identification process based on experimental data is typically influenced by two
types of errors: Using the notations ^ u for the true state and j
+
for the correct param
eter vector, then the following situations may arise (Banks and Kunisch [4]):
• / ^ u ,=
~
d due to measurement errors,
• ^ u ,= u(j
+
) due to model errors.
In general, the first error type is taken into account by statistical investigations of the
data. The second type is reduced by increasing the complexity of the model, which in
general is accompanied by an increase of material parameters n
p
.
Referring to the classical definitions of Hadamard [9], a problem is wellposed if the
conditions of (i) existence, (ii) uniqueness and (iii) continuous dependence on the data for
its solution are satisfied simultaneously. If one of these conditions is violated, then the
problem is termed illposed. Since in practice the number of experimental data is larger
than the number of unknown parameters, problem (2) in general is overdetermined, thus
excluding the existence of a solution due to measurement and/or model errors. The clas
sical strategy therefore uses an optimal approach of simulated data u(j) and experimental
data
~
d, thus replacing problem (2) by the leastsquares optimization problem:
Find j ÷ / such that for given
~
d ÷
~
D: f (j):=
1
2
/u(j) ÷
~
d
2
~
D
÷ min
j÷/
: (3)
• Remarks
1. In practice, experimental data are given at discrete time or loadsteps. Therefore,
for the following discussions it is natural to set
~
D ¸ IR
n
dat
for the observation space,
12 Parameter Identification for Inelastic Constitutive Equations
278
with n
dat
as the number of experimental data. Furthermore, very often parameters are
independent of each other such that / ¸ IR
n
p
can be separated, where n
p
is the number
of material parameters, Next, we use the short hand notation /u(j) =: d(j) ÷ IR
n
dat
,
thus indicating the transformation of the simulated data to the observation space (e.g.
by an interpolation procedure). Then, the resulting leastsquares problem reads:
f (j) =
1
2
d(j) ÷
~
d
2
2
÷ min
j÷/
; / =
n
p
i=1
/
i
; /
i
:= ¦a
i
_ j
i
_ b
i
¦ : (4)
Here, a
i
; b
i
are lower and upper bounds for the material parameters, respectively.
2. In many situations, the problems (3) or (4), though wellposed, may lead to nu
merically instable solutions, i.e. small variations of
~
d then lead to large variations of
the parameters j. These difficulties are caused if
(a) the material model has (too many) parameters, which yield (almost) linearly de
pendencies within the model, or if
(b) the experiment is inadequate in the sense that some effects intended by the model
are not properly “activated”.
It has already been mentioned that a typical step for reducing the model error is to in
crease the complexity of the model, which generally is accompanied by an increase of
the material parameters. A typical example is the modification of the standard J2flow
theory with the linear Prager rule in order to account for anisotropic hardening effects.
A further extension is possible with the nonlinear Chaboche model [8] (see also Equa
tion (8) in the forthcoming Section 12.3) in order to account for nonlinear kinematic
hardening effects. In doing so, it should be realized that the introduction of additional
material parameters may also result into the aforementioned numerical instability for
the identification process if appropriate steps are not performed when planning the ex
periment. To summarize, the contradictory requirements for numerical stable results
and reducing the model error have to be carefully balanced.
3. In some cases, even nonuniqueness for the parameter set may occur: This was ob
served by Mahnken and Stein [10, 11] for two material models under certain loading
conditions. The main consequences are that at least cyclic loading becomes necessary
in case of the Chaboche model [8], and for identification of the Steck model [12] ex
periments have to be performed at different temperatures.
4. As a consequence of the above Remark 2, it is strongly recommended to study the
effect of perturbations of the experimental data on the parameters. This may indicate
possible instabilities of the identification process. Furthermore, the eigenvalue structure
of the Hessian of f (j) gives further information about the stability. However, a system
atic strategy to detect possible instabilities so far is not available.
5. A mathematical tool, suitable to overcome possible numerical instabilities, is a regu
larization of the functional in Equation (4), and this leads to the more general problem:
f
c
(j):=
1
2
_
_
_
_
W
d
(d(j) ÷
~
d)
_
_
_
_
2
2
÷
c
2
_
_
_
_
W
l
(j ÷ ~ j)
_
_
_
_
2
2
÷ min
j÷/¸IR
np
: (5)
12.2 Basic Terminology for Identification Problems
279
Here, the matrices W
d
÷ IR
n
dat
×IR
n
dat
and W
l
÷ IR
n
p
× IR
n
p
, the scalar c ÷ IR
÷
and the
a priori parameters j ÷ IR
m
are regularization parameters (see Baumeister [3]). Note
that the first part of the functional in Equation (5) is also obtained when considering
parameter identification based on statistical investigations in the context of a Maxi
mumLikelihood method in order to account for measurement errors. It is noteworthy
that the r.h.s. of the functional is also related to the Bayesian estimation (see Bard [13],
Pugachew [14]). The above functional provides the opportunity to include physical in
terpretation of some parameters, obtained e.g. by “hand fitting”, into the optimization
process if numerical instabilities occur. However, a systematic concept for determina
tion of the regularization parameters in the context of parameter identification for visco
plastic material models so far is not available.
6. Problems of the above kind like Equations (4) or (5) with separable constraints
may be solved with the projection algorithm due to Bertsekas [15]:
j
(j÷1)
=T¦j
(j)
÷
(j)
H
(j)
\f (j
(j)
)¦ ; (T¦j¦)
i
:= min(b
i
; (max(j
i
; a
i
)) ;
i = 1; . . . ; n
p
: (6)
Note that the above iteration scheme requires the gradient of the associated least
squares functional. This task is generally performed in the sensitivity analysis, where
the gradient is determined consistent with the formulation of the underlying direct prob
lem. Note also that the iteration matrix
H has to be “diagonalized” in order to insure
descent properties of the search directions for algorithm (see Bertsekas [15] and Mahn
ken [16] for an explanation of this terminology and further details).
12.3 Parameter Identification for the Uniform Case
In this section, we briefly describe a systematic strategy for parameter identification for
the uniform case within a geometric linear setting. A detailed description is given in
Mahnken and Stein [11, 17].
12.3.1 Mathematical modelling of uniaxial viscoplastic problems
Let 1 = [0; T[ be the time interval of interest. The uniaxial stress is designated by
r = r
11
: 1 ÷ IR, while e
el
and e
in
: 1 ÷ IR, are the elastic and inelastic parts of the
small strain tensor components e
in
ij
and e
el
ij
, respectively. The model equations represent
ing onedimensional viscoplasticity with small strains are summarized as follows:
e = e
el
÷ e
in
additive split of total strains ; (7 a)
e
el
=
1
E
r elastic strains ; (7 b)
12 Parameter Identification for Inelastic Constitutive Equations
280
_ e
in
=
_
^e
in
(r; q; h; e
in
; . . . ; j) evolution for inelastic strains ; (7 c)
_ q =
_
^ q(r; q; h; e
in
; . . . ; j) evolution for internal variables . (7 d)
Here, additionally, we defined the temperature h, the elastic modulus E, and j ÷ IR
n
p
is
a vector of n
p
material parameters characterizing the inelastic material behaviour.
There exists a great variety of constitutive relations in the literature according to
the above skeletal structure (Equations (7a) to (7d)) (see e.g. Miller [18], Lemaitre and
Chaboche [19] and references therein). Many approaches intend to provide for a num
ber of different characteristic effects such as strain ratedependent plastic flow, creep or
stress relaxation. In doing so, a yield criterion with the inherent specification of loading
and unloading conditions as in timeindependent classical plasticity is not needed. The
resulting equations are currently referred to as “unified models”. Concerning the inter
nal variables, in principle they are argued for macroscopic or microscopic reasons de
pending on the basic conception.
Three representative examples for the evolution equations _ e
in
and _ q in Equation
(7) were treated by Mahnken and Stein in [11, 17] within project B8, i.e. the models of
Chaboche [8], Bodner and Partom [20] and Steck [12] (see also Kublik and Steck [2]).
In this contribution only the Chaboche model with the evolution equations
_ e
in
=
F
K
/
_ _
n
/
sign (r ÷ ) if F > 0
0 else
_
¸
_
¸
_
(8 a)
_
R = b(q ÷ R)_ e
in
sign (_ e
in
) isotropic hardening (8 b)
_ = c(c ÷sign (_ e
in
))_ e
in
kinematic hardening (8 c)
F = (r ÷ ) sign (r ÷ ) ÷ R ÷k
/
overstress (8 d)
shall be considered, where j:= [n
/
; K
/
; k
/
; b; q; c; c[
T
is the vector of material parameters
related to the inelastic material behaviour.
In addition to the Equations (7a) to (7d), we assume that initial conditions
r(t = 0) = r
0
; e
in
(t = 0) = e
in
0
; q(t = 0) = q
0
(9)
are given, which complete the formulation of the initial value problem.
The representation above – and in the forthcoming two subsections – is based on
stresscontrolled experiments. Of course, analogous arguments hold for the complemen
tary tests, i.e. straincontrolled experiments, where experimental data are given for a
stress distribution ~ r(t); t ÷ 1.
12.3 Parameter Identification for the Uniform Case
281
12.3.2 Numerical solution of the direct problem
We define N as the number of time steps Dt
k
= t
k
÷ t
k÷1
; k = 1; . . . ; N; t
0
= 0; t
N
= T.
Using the second order midpointrule at each time step, from Equations (7a) to (7d),
we obtain the update relations
e
k
= e
k÷1
÷Dt
k
_ e
in
k÷1=2
÷ De
el
k÷1
; (10)
q
k
= q
k÷1
÷ Dt
k
_ q
k÷1=2
; (11)
where we applied the notation:
_ e
in
k÷1=2
=
_
^e
in
(1=2(r
k÷1
÷ r
k
) ; 1=2(q
k÷1
÷ q
k
); . . . ; j) ; (12)
_ q
k÷1=2
=
_
^ q(1=2(r
k÷1
÷r
k
) ; 1=2(q
k÷1
÷q
k
); . . . ; j) ; (13)
De
el
k÷1
=
1
E
(r
k
÷ r
k÷1
) : (14)
Since the state variables e
k
and q
k
are not known in advance, the following nonlinear
system of equations has to be solved at each time step:
g
k;1
(e
k
; q
k
):= e
k
÷e
k÷1
÷Dt
k
_ e
in
k÷1=2
÷ De
el
k÷1
= 0 ; (15)
g
k;2
(e
k
; q
k
):= q
k
÷ q
k÷1
÷Dt
k
_ q
k÷1=2
= 0 : (16)
Defining G
k
:= [g
k;1
; g
T
k;2
[
T
and a vector of state variables Y
k
:= [e
k
; q
T
k
[
T
, Equations
(15) and (16) may be summarized as:
G
k
(Y
k
) = 0 : (17)
Referring to the notation of Section 12.2.1, Equation (17) will be termed as the state
equation, describing the state of the variables Y
k
:= [e
k
; q
T
k
[
T
at the kth time step.
Furthermore, using the notation of Section 12.2.1, we have the direct problem:
Find Y
k
(j) such that G
k
(Y
k
(j)) = 0; k = 1; . . . ; N for given j ÷ / : (18)
The iterative solution of Equation (17) is obtained with a Newton method. Details of
this strategy with applications to the material models of BodnerPartom, Chaboche and
Steck are described in Mahnken and Stein [11, 17].
12.3.3 Numerical solution of the inverse problem
For reasons of simplicity, in the sequel we will assume that the discrete values for time
integration ¦t
k
¦
N
k=1
¸ 1 and for the experimental data ¦t
exp
k
¦
n
dat
k=1
¸ 1 do coincide for both
12 Parameter Identification for Inelastic Constitutive Equations
282
the numerical values e
k
(j) = e(t
k
; j) and the observations ~e
k
=~e(t
k
); k = 1; . . . ; N. The
following considerations can be extended to more complex situations in a straightforward
manner. Theresultinginverseproblemthenbecomestheleastsquares optimizationproblem:
Find j ÷ / such that for given
~
d ÷
~
D:
f (j) =
1
2
N
k=1
(e
k
(j) ÷~e
k
)
2
÷ min
j÷/¸IR
n
p
;
/ =
n
p
i=1
/
i
; /
i
:= ¦a
i
_ j
i
_ b
i
¦ : (19)
As before, a
i
; b
i
are lower and upper bounds for the material parameters.
A schematic flow chart for solution of problem (19) with a simplified description is
shown in Figure 12.1. It can be seen that basically an outer loop for iteration of the material
parameters and an inner loop for iteration of the state variables
^
Y
k
(j) are performed. In the
outer looptheBertsekas algorithm(Equation(6)) is applied, wherethe gradient is determined
ina sensitivityanalysis. For details pertainingtothis strategywithapplications tothematerial
models of BodnerPartom, Chaboche and Steck, we alsorefer toMahnkenand Stein[11, 17].
12.4 Parameter Identification for the NonUniform Case
As already mentioned in Section 12.1.2, very often the assumption of uniform stress
and strain distributions during the experiment cannot be guaranteed due to the experi
12.4 Parameter Identification for the NonUniform Case
283
Figure 12.1: Schematic flow chart of the optimization strategy for the uniform case with outer
and inner iteration loops.
mental conditions or failure mechanisms. Therefore, we will consider parameter identi
fication with FiniteElement simulations in order to take into account inhomogeneities
within the sample. In what follows, we give a brief review for a geometrically nonlin
ear continuumbased formulation of the direct problem as a variational problem and
furthermore of the associate leastsquares problem. For solution of these problems, a
standard linearization procedure is applied for the direct problem and a sensitivity anal
ysis is performed for the inverse problem. In the forthcoming sections, we will com
ment on the similarities of these associated concepts. More details of our approach are
documented in Mahnken and Stein [10, 21] for the geometric linear case, and in Mahn
ken and Stein [22], this concept has been extended to the geometric nonlinear case.
12.4.1 Kinematics
Let B ¸ IR
n
dim
be the reference configuration of a continuous body B with smooth
boundary @B, and let X ÷ B ¸ IR
n
dim
be the position vector in the Euclidian space IR
n
dim
with spatial dimension n
dim
= 1; 2; 3. We shall denote by @
u
B and @
r
B those parts of
the boundary @B, where configurations are prescribed as u and boundary tractions are
prescribed as t, respectively. As usual, we assume @
u
B @
r
B = @B and
@
u
B ¨ @
r
B = O. In addition,
b denotes the body force per unit volume. As before, we
define 1:= [t
0
; T[ ÷ IR
÷
as a time interval of interest, and / ¸ IR
n
p
designates the
(vector)space of material parameters.
Following Barthold [23] the fundamental mapping for describing the current con
figuration of the body for varying time t ÷ 1 and varying parameter j ÷ / is given as:
^ u:=
B ×1 × / ÷ IR
n
dim
,
(X; t; j) ÷u = ^ u(X; t; j) :
_
(20)
As usual, we restrict ourselves to configurations u satisfying J := det(F) > 0 and
u = u on @
u
B, where we use the shorthand notation F:=
^
F(X; t; j):= @
X
u for the de
formation gradient at (X; t; j). The exposition that follows crucially depends on the ba
sic assumption:
X = ^ u(X; t = t
0
; j)\ (X; j) ÷ (B ×/) ; (21)
i.e. the initial configuration B at time t = t
0
is independent of the parameter set j. It is
noteworthy that this restriction, e.g., does not hold for more complex situations in shape
optimization, and would necessitate the introduction of a reference configuration invariant
of the design variables j (Barthold [23], Haber [24]). Thus, we will regard the set
(X; t; j) ÷ B × 1 ×/ as the independent variables in the ensuing considerations.
An illustration of the mapping (Equation (20)) for the body B at fixed time t for
two different parameter sets j
1
; j
2
÷ / is shown in Figure 12.2.
12 Parameter Identification for Inelastic Constitutive Equations
284
12.4.2 The direct problem: Galerkin weak form
Let j ÷ / be given, and let us assume a partition of the time interval 1 =
N
k=1
[t
k÷1
; t
k
[
into N subintervals (for problems of elasticity and plasticity t
k
refers to the load step).
Denoting by u
k
= ^ u(v; t
k
; j) the configuration at time t
k
for the parameter set j, the
balance equation of linear momentum and the set of Dirichlet and Neumann boundary
conditions at the (k)th step read:
divr
k
÷ q
b = 0 in B ;
u
k
= u
k
on @
u
B ;
r
k
n = t
k
on @
r
B : (22)
Here, r
k
designates the Cauchy stress tensor. Using the notation ¸v: v) for the L
2
dual
pairing on B of functions, vectors or tensor fields, an equivalent formulation is the clas
sical weak form (principal of virtual work) of the momentum equations at time t
k
. In a
spatial description this results into the direct problem:
Find u
k
such that g(u
k
) = ¸s : d
d
)[
t=t
k
÷ g[
t
k
= 0 \ du and for given j ÷ / ; (23)
where the Kirchhoff stress tensor s = Jr is introduced. Furthermore, a spatial rate of de
formation tensor induced by the virtual displacement du is defined as d
d
:= sym(q
u
du),
and g:= ¸
b du) ÷ ¸t du)
@
r
B
designates the external part of the weak form. For the case
of inelastic problems the above set of equations has to be supplemented by initial condi
tions Z(X; t
0
; j) = Z
0
, where Z denotes a set of history variables.
The iterative solution of the nonlinear problem (Equation (23)) is based on a stan
dard Newton method, in which a sequence of linearizations of the weak form (Equation
(23)) is performed. To this end the Gaˆteaux derivative q
D
g(u
k
) of problem (Equation (23))
as shown in Table 12.1 is determined. Here, l
D
:= q
u
Du and d
D
:= sym(l
D
) are a velocity
gradient and a spatial rate of deformation tensor, respectively, induced by the linearization
increment Du. Additionally, c is the fourth order spatial material operator.
12.4 Parameter Identification for the NonUniform Case
285
Figure 12.2: Illustration of twoparameterdependent configurations at fixed time.
12.4.3 The inverse problem: constrained leastsquares optimization problem
As in Section 12.3, we assume identical time (load) steps ¦t
k
¦
N
k=1
and observation
states ¦t
j
¦
n
t
dat
j=1
, where experimental data
~
d
j
÷
~
D are available, and where
~
D denotes the
observation space. In particular,
~
d
j
may contain stresses, strains, displacements, reaction
force fields etc. Since in general only incomplete data are available from the experi
ment, we introduce an observation operator / mapping the configuration trajectory
u
k
= ^ u(v; t
k
; j); k = 1; . . . ; N to points of the observation space
~
D. Note that this defini
tion of / also accounts for quantities such as stresses, strains, reaction force fields etc.
since these quantities can be written in terms of the basic dependent variable u
k
. Then
we consider the leastsquares optimization problem:
Find j ÷ / such that for given
~
d ÷
~
D: f (j):=
1
2
N
k=1
/u
k
÷
~
d
k
[[
2
~
D
÷ min
j÷/
; (24)
where u
k
satisfies the weak form of the direct problem (Equation (23)).
The solution procedure for problem (Equation (24)) is schematically illustrated in
Figure 12.3. As for the uniform case in Figure 12.1, an outer loop is performed with
the Bertsekas algorithm (Equation (6)). Then determination of /u
k
, needed for evalua
tion of the leastsquares functional (Equation (24)), is performed only at the converged
state of the direct problem, i.e. when problem (Equation (23)) is satisfied at the kth
time (load) step.
Next we will briefly resort to the parameter sensitivity q
j
u
k
. To this end firstly,
the parameter sensitivity q
j
g(u
k
) of the weak form (Equation (23)) is determined, at
equilibrium, analogously as in the linearization procedure. The resulting expression for
q
j
g(u
k
) is given in Table 12.1 in a spatial setting, where now a spatial rate of deforma
tion tensor induced by the parameter sensitivity q
j
u
k
= v
j
is defined as
d
j
:= sym(q
u
v
j
). Note that q
j
g(u
k
) also requires the spatial material operator c of the
linearization procedure. Furthermore we defined the sensitivityload term ¸q
p
j
s : d
d
)[
t=t
k
,
which excludes dependencies of s via the configuration u. The determination of this
term becomes a major task of the sensitivity analysis, and we refer to Barthold [23]
and Mahnken and Stein [22] for further details.
12 Parameter Identification for Inelastic Constitutive Equations
286
Table 12.1: Weak form, Gaˆteaux derivative for linearization and linear equation for parameter
sensitivity in a spatial formulation.
• Weak form (principle of virtual work)
g(u
k
) = ¸s : d
d
)[
t=t
k
÷ g[
t
k
= 0
• Gaˆteaux derivative for linearization
q
D
g(u
k
) = ¸(c : d
D
) : d
d
÷l
D
s : d
d
)[
t=t
k
• Linear equation for parameter sensitivity
q
j
g(u
k
) = ¸(c : d
j
) : d
d
÷ l
j
s : d
d
÷ q
p
j
s : d
d
)[
t=t
k
= 0
In the practical implementation, firstly, the sensitivity load term is determined in a
preprocessing procedure consistent with the underlying integration algorithm. Having
obtained q
j
u
k
by solution of the associate linear equation, the total derivative q
j
w
k
(u)
of any quantity w(u
k
) is performed in a postprocessing procedure. Further details of
the procedure are described in Mahnken and Stein [22].
We close this section with the remark that the above results can be easily ex
tended to the enhanced element formulation described by Simo and Armero [25].
12.5 Examples
12.5.1 Cyclic loading for AlMg
In this example parameters for the Chaboche model (Equations (7) and (8)) are deter
mined in the case of an aluminium/magnesium alloy. The underlying experimental data
were obtained from project A2 (Prof. Lange [26]).
The experiments were performed at room temperature for a cylindrical hollow
specimen with an outer radius of 28 mm and a thickness of 2 mm. The specimen were
subjected to a periodic strain of an amplitude of e
max
= 0:3% at a strain rate of
_ e = 0:2% s
–1
. 110 cycles were generated during the test, however, experimental data
are available only for 20 cycles out of these. Youngs modulus has been predetermined
as E = 1:09 10
5
MPa.
As an objective function for the inverse problem the simple leastsquares function
12.5 Examples
287
Figure 12.3: Schematic flow chart of the identification process for the nonuniform case with
outer and inner iteration loops.
f (j) =
1
2
r(j) ÷ ~ r
2
2
(25)
is minimized, which is the analogue of Equation (19) for the case of straincontrolled ex
periments. Note that due to the incompleteness of the data set ~ r contains data only for 20
cycles out of the total of 110. The minimization was performed with an evolutionary strat
egy as described in Schwefel [27] and with the Bertsekas algorithm(Equation (6)). For the
first method we used three “parents” and “twenty descendants”, whilst for the latter the
BFGSmatrix was used as an iteration matrix and a GaussNewton matrix for precondi
tioning. The computer runs were performed on an IBM250T.
The starting vector and the solution vectors are given in Table 12.2. Concerning the
Bertsekas algorithm, three different runs were made. Run 1 and Run 2 were started with
the vector in the second column, however, for Run 2, a regularization was performed
using the extended functional Equation (5). Here, for B
d
and for B
l
, the unity matrix is
chosen, and we set c = 10
÷5
. It can be seen that no convergence was attained for Run
1 after 2000 iteration steps, whilst minimization with the regularized functional attained
convergence after 201 steps. The corresponding minimal eigenvalue of the Hessian at
the solution point is 7.62· 10
–2
, thus indicating stable results. This also is confirmed by
Run 3, where each data was perturbed stochasticly with a maximal value of 10%, and
where the effect of this perturbation is negligible. In the last two columns of Table 12.2
results for the evolutionary strategy are shown. After 897 iterations the results are still
poor (Run 4), and after 10256 iterations and 168 h, the value for the objective function
is still above that obtained by the Bertsekas algorithm (Run 2) in 24 min.
12 Parameter Identification for Inelastic Constitutive Equations
288
Table 12.2: Cyclic loading for AlMg: starting and obtained values for the material parameters of
the Chaboche model for AlMg in case of different optimization strategies and leastsquares func
tions. Concerning Run 3 see Section 12.5.1. ITE and NFUNC denote the number of iterations and
function evaluations, respectively.
Bertsekas algorithm Evolutionary strategy
Start Run 1 Run 2 Run 3 Run 4 Run 5
n
/
[–] 5.0· 10
0
4.582· 10
0
1.360· 10
1
1.360· 10
1
4.971· 10
0
1.250· 10
1
K
/
[MPa] 1.0· 10
2
2.344· 10
2
4.242· 10
1
4.242· 10
1
1.972· 10
2
3.896· 10
1
b
/
[–] 1.0· 10
2
5.195· 10
0
4.824· 10
0
4.824· 10
0
5.115· 10
0
5.068· 10
0
q [MPa] 1.0· 10
2
6.233· 10
1
6.827· 10
1
6.827· 10
1
6.488· 10
1
6.697· 10
1
c [–] 1.0· 10
2
0.206· 10
–1
1.542· 10
3
1.542· 10
3
1.173· 10
2
1.546· 10
3
c [MPa] 1.0· 10
2
9.840· 10
4
4.719· 10
1
4.719· 10
1
1.792· 10
2
4.736· 10
1
k
/
[MPa] 1.0· 10
1
0.000· 10
0
0.000· 10
0
0.000· 10
0
8.543· 10
–1
2.238· 10
0
f (j) 3.491· 10
5
9.620· 10
3
2.135· 10
3
3.335· 10
3
8.936· 10
3
2.135· 10
3
f
l
(j) – – 3.582· 10
–5
– – –
CPU [min] – 192 24 – 1440 605· 10
3
ITE
NFUNC
– 2000
2072
201
250
–
–
897
17752
10256
20493
Remark – no conver
gence
regularized perturbed – –
12.5 Examples
289
Figure 12.4: Cyclic loading for AlMg. Up: Stress versus time for the solution parameter set for
the first 18 out of 110 cycles. Note the incompleteness of the experimental data set. Down: Stres
ses versus strains for three different cycles. The numbers 1, 30, 110 correspond to the specific cy
cles.
t [s]
Figure 12.4 depicts the stresses versus strains for three different cycles for the so
lution vector of the material parameters. It can be seen that very substantial agreement
of experimental and simulated data is obtained, except for the first cycle, where the
model is not able to simulate the horizontal plateau. This explains the relatively high
model error for the values of the objective function at the solution point in Table 12.2.
12.5.2 Axisymmetric necking problem
In this section numerical results for the necking of a circular bar are presented. The ma
terial of the specimen is a mild steel, Baustahl St52, due to the german industrial codes
for construction steel. The experimental data were obtained with a grating method. For
this purpose, firstly, grid marks were positioned on the surface of the sample, and these
were recorded by a digital CCDcamera at different observation states t
i
; i = 1; . . . n
t
dat
in the displacementcontrolled experiment. In Figure 12.5, the sample with the grating
is shown at four observation states 5, 7, 10, 13 as introduced in Figure 12.7. More de
tails concerning the grating method are given in the contribution of project C2 (Prof.
Ritter [6]). The next step concerns the image processing by use of numerical methods
in order to obtain the final data for the identification process. This task is described in
more detail in the contribution of project C1 (Dr. Andresen [5]).
The elastic constants are E = 20 600 kN/cm
2
for Youngs modulus and m = 0:3 for
Poissons ratio. The material is assumed to be elastoplastic, modelled by large strain multi
plicative von Mises elastoplasticity with nonlinear isotropic hardening summarized in
Table 12.3 (see Simo and Miehe [28] for further details). Solution of the direct problem
is done with a productformula algorithm according to Simo [29]. The solution of the in
verse problem is based on the general setting described in the previous section. Details
12 Parameter Identification for Inelastic Constitutive Equations
290
Figure 12.5: Axisymmetric necking problem: photographs with a CCDcamera of the sample and
the grating at four different observation states NLST as introduced in Figure 12.7.
12.5 Examples
291
Table 12.3: Large strain multiplicative von Mises elastoplasticity.
s = ldev(ln b
el
) ÷ K ln Jg
÷1
Kirchhoff stress
U(s; e; j) = dev(s) ÷
2
3
_
W
/
(e; j) yield function
W
/
(e; j) = r
0
÷ q(1 ÷ exp(÷be)) flow stress
÷
1
2
L
t
(b
el
)b
el
÷1
= c
dev(s)
dev(s)
flow rule
_ e = c
2
3
_
variable evolution
c _ 0; U _ 0; cU = 0 loading and unloading conditions
j:= [r
0
; b; q[
T
; n
p
= dim(j) = 3 vector of material parameters
Table 12.4: Axisymmetric necking problem: starting and obtained values for the material parame
ters of a mild steel, Baustahl St52, for three different optimization runs. n
ite
denotes the number
of iterations.
Run 1 (Q1/E4) Run 2 (Q1/E4) Run 3 (Q1/E4)
Starting Solution Starting Solution Starting Solution
r
0
[MPa] 300.0 360.26 400.0 360.26 400.0 346.09
b [–] 10.0 3.949 20.0 3.949 20.0 3.951
q [MPa] 800.0 436.72 2000.0 436.72 2000.0 419.73
f (j) [–] 1.738· 10
4
4.210· 10
2
3.012· 10
4
4.210· 10
2
2.685· 10
4
3.245· 10
2
Perturbed no no yes
n
ite
34 34 39
Figure 12.6: Axisymmetric necking problem: different levels for spatial discretization.
concerning the sensitivity analysis consistent with the productformula algorithm of Simo
[29] for determination of the load term q
p
j
s
k
can be found in Mahnken and Stein [22].
An axisymmetric enhanced strain element (Q1/E4) described by Simo and Ar
mero [25] is used in the element formulation, and only a quarter of the bar is consid
ered for discretization using the appropriate symmetry boundary conditions.
The object is to identify the 3 parameters b; q; r
0
of Table 12.3, which character
ize the inelastic behaviour of the material. To this end the following leastsquares func
tional is minimized
12 Parameter Identification for Inelastic Constitutive Equations
292
Figure 12.7: Axisymmetric necking problem: comparison of simulation and experiment. Up: Load
versus elongation. Down: Necking displacement versus total elongation.
f (j) =
n
t
dat
i=1
1
2
u
j
(j) ÷ ~ u
j

2
÷
n
t
dat
i=1
1
2
(w(F
i
(j) ÷
~
F
i
))
2
; (26)
where ~ u
j
and
~
F
i
(j),
~
F
i
, i = 1; . . . ; n
t
dat
denote data for configurations and the total loads,
respectively. The number of load steps is N = 40, the number of observation states is
n
t
dat
= 9, and we have n
m
p
= 12 for the number of observation points. A multilevel
strategy is applied in order to accelerate the optimization process by using solutions on
coarser grids as starting values on finer grid. In this example the total number of levels
is five (Figure 12.6).
In Table 12.4 results for the parameters j of three different runs are listed. Whilst
Run 1 and Run 2 differ in their starting vectors in order to take into account possible
local minima, the purpose of Run 3 is to investigate the effect of a perturbation of the
experimental data on the final results [11]. The perturbation was performed stochasticly,
whereby each data was varied by a maximum value of 5%. It can be observed that
Run 1 and Run 2 give identical results, thus indicating no further local minima. The re
sults for Run 3 differ only slightly from the results of Run 1 and Run 2, thus indicat
ing a stable solution with respect to measurement errors.
In Figure 12.7 the results for the total load versus total elongation and maximal
necking displacement versus total elongation are compared for simulation and experi
ment. Figure 12.8 depicts a 2D illustration of the final FiniteElement grid at different
observation states and the corresponding experimental data along the side of the sam
ple. It can be observed that for both quantities of different type, displacements and
forces, excellent agreement is obtained after optimization.
12.5 Examples
293
Figure 12.8: Axisymmetric necking problem: comparison of experiment and FiniteElement simu
lation for the configurations at four different observation states NLST as introduced in Figure
12.7. The circles represent the experimental data.
12.6 Summary and Concluding Remarks
In this contribution the main issues of project B8 of the research period 1991–1996 for
identification of parameters for inelastic constitutive equations were presented. The
main purpose of the project was to develop a general concept of gradientbased optimi
zation strategies for the uniform case and to extend this strategy to the nonuniform,
geometrically nonlinear case in order to take into account inhomogeneities of stresses
and strains within the sample during the experiment. The main results of the project
and the cooperation with other projects from the Collaborative Research Centre (SFB
319) are listed as follows:
Theoretical results
• A gradientbased optimization algorithm has been developed for minimization of a
leastsquares functional. In particular a projection algorithm due to Bertsekas is ap
plied, which accounts for possible upper and lower bounds for the parameters. Qua
siNewton methods with GaussNewton preconditioning are used as iteration ma
trices.
• A unified strategy for an analytical sensitivity analysis in the case of uniform stress
and strain distributions is obtained, valid for a certain class of constitutive equations
with internal variables. The resulting scheme is consistent with the corresponding
time integration scheme, and as a main result a recursion formula is obtained. It
has been applied to the material models of Chaboche, Steck and BodnerPartom.
• A unified strategy for an analytical sensitivity analysis of the variational (Galerkin)
form in the case of nonuniform stress and finitestrain distributions is obtained. As
for the uniform case it is consistent with the timeintegration scheme.
• Investigations of uniqueness (or stability, respectively) for the inverse problem for
certain material models were performed (see Remark 3 of Section 12.2.2). The
main consequences are that at least cyclic loading becomes necessary in case of the
Chaboche model [11], and for identification of the Steck model experiments have to
be performed at different temperatures [10].
• A regularization technique for stabilization of the leastsquares problem based on a
priori information has been introduced. Applications were done for the BodnerPar
tom model [11].
Numerical results
• Parameter identification for the methods of Chaboche, Steck and BodnerPartom
based on experimental data for experiment with uniform stresses and strains was
performed.
12 Parameter Identification for Inelastic Constitutive Equations
294
• Comparative results with the evolutionary strategy showed great advantage of gradi
entbased schemes with respect to execution time.
• Parameter identification with the FiniteElement method was performed in the
frame of nonlinear multiplicative plasticity using experimental data obtained with a
grating method.
Cowork with other projects of the Collaborative Research Centre (SFB 319)
• Experimental work was done for a compact tension specimen and a necking prob
lem in cooperation with the projects C1 (Dr. Andresen [5]), C2 (Prof. Ritter [6]),
B5 (Prof Peil, Prof. Scheer [7]).
• Results for the compact tension specimen were published in a joint publication in
Der Bauingenieur (see Andresen et al. [30]).
• For parameter identification for an aluminium/magnesium alloy subjected to cyclic
loads, data of project A2 (Prof. Lange [26]) were used.
Concluding remarks
The concepts proposed in this paper provide a flexible approach for identification of in
elastic material models. This opens the possibility to obtain more insight into the non
uniformness of the samples during the experiment and on the reliability of the numeri
cal results. However, some open questions remain to be considered for future work:
• Further development in this area should take into account phenomena such as dam
age, localization and temperaturedependent effects, which very often are highly
nonuniform during the experiment.
• In practice we know that measurement techniques possess limited accuracy. A prob
abilistic investigation of these dispersion phenomena can be done with the Maxi
mumLikelihood method (see Bard [13], Pugachew [14] and project B1 (Prof. Steck
[31]). Furthermore we know that repetition of the same experiment with different
samples in general yield different values. Reasons for this scattering of the data
may be due to inhomogeneities, load uncertainty, production, nature of the phenom
enon. Therefore this randomness also necessitates a probabilistic approach, where
e.g. the Bayesian estimation is a common strategy (see Bard [13] and Pugachew
[14]). The consideration of the above uncertainties seems to be a major task when
performing parameter identification in the future.
• In the work done so far the effect of discretization errors both in space and in time
is not considered, especially in the frame of a proper error control. Therefore it
would be of interest to take into account adaptive strategies in the context of the
optimization process.
12.6 Summary and Concluding Remarks
295
• The shape of the leastsquares functional, which is the objective function of the re
sulting optimization problem, may not be convex, and thus different local minima
may occur. In this respect, a more systematic approach could be a hybrid method,
that is to combine a stochastic method with our deterministic strategy.
• The material model at hand might be insufficient for specific physical effects such
that an errorcontrolled adaptive modelling might be necessary.
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[12] E. A. Steck: A Stochastic Model for the HighTemperature Plasticity of Metals. Int. J. of
Plast. 1 (1985) 243–258.
[13] Y. Bard: Nonlinear Parameter Estimation. Academic Press, New York, 1974.
[14] V. S. Pugachew: Probability Theory and Mathematical Statistics for Engineers. Pergamon
Press, Oxford, New York, 1984.
[15] D. P. Bertsekas: Projected Newton methods for optimization problems with simple con
straints. SIAM J. Con. Opt. 20(2) (1982) 221–246.
[16] R. Mahnken: Duale Verfahren fu¨r nichtlineare Optimierungsprobleme in der Strukturmecha
nik. Dissertation, Forschungs und Seminarberichte aus dem Bereich der Mechanik der Uni
versita¨t Hannover, F 92/3, 1992.
12 Parameter Identification for Inelastic Constitutive Equations
296
[17] R. Mahnken, E. Stein: GradientBased Methods for Parameter Identification of Viscoplastic
Materials. In: H. D. Bui, M. Tanaka (Eds.): Inverse Problems in Engineering Mechanics,
A. A. Balkama, Rotterdam, 1994.
[18] A. K. Miller: Unified Constitutive Equations for Creep and Plasticity. Elsevier Applied
Science, London New York, 1987.
[19] J. Lemaitre, J. L. Chaboche: Mechanics of solid Materials. Cambridge University Press,
Cambridge, 1990.
[20] S. R. Bodner, Y. Partom: Constitutive equations for elasticviscoplastic strainhardening ma
terials. Trans. ASME, J. Appl. Mech. 42 (1975) 385–389.
[21] R. Mahnken, E. Stein: A Unified Approach for Parameter Identification of Inelastic
Material Models in the Frame of the Finite Element Method. Comp. Meths. Appl. Mech.
Eng. 136 (1996) 225–258.
[22] R. Mahnken, E. Stein: Parameter Identification for Finite Deformation ElastoPlasticity in
Prinicpal Directions. Comp. Meths. Appl. Mech. Eng. 147 (1997) 17–39.
[23] F. J. B. Barthold: Theorie und Numerik zur Berechnung und Optimierung von Strukturen aus
isotropen, hyperelastischen Materialien. Dissertation, Forschungs und Seminarberichte aus
dem Bereich der Mechanik der Universita¨t Hannover, F 93/2, 1993.
[24] R. B. Haber: Application of the Eulerian Lagrangian Kinematic Description to Structural
Shape Optimization. Proc. of NATO Advanced Study Institute on ComputerAided Optimal
Design, 1986, pp. 297–307.
[25] J. C. Simo, F. Armero: Geometrically Nonlinear Enhanced Strain Mixed Method and the
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[26] W. Gieseke, K. R. Hillert, G. Lange: Material State after Uni and Biaxial Cyclic Deforma
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[27] K. P. Schwefel: Numerische Optimierung von ComputerModellen mittels der Evolutions
strategie. Birkha¨user Verlag, Basel, 1977.
[28] J. C. Simo, C. Miehe: Associative Coupled Thermoplasticity at Finite Strains: Formulation,
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[29] J. C. Simo: Algorithms for Static and Dynamic Multiplicative Plasticity that Preserve the
Classical Return Mapping Schemes of the Infinitesimal Theory. Comp. Meths. Appl. Mech.
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for the Plasticity of Metals. This book (Chapter 4).
References
297
13 Experimental Determination of Deformation
and Strain Fields by Optical Measuring Methods
Reinhold Ritter and Harald Friebe*
13.1 Introduction
The experiment is an essential basis for the development of material laws, which de
scribe the inelastic behaviour of metallic materials. It is needed first of all to observe
such a behaviour in order to get knowledge of the process of the corresponding meth
ods. Furthermore, the parameters for such material laws must be measured. They can
be achieved from experimentally determined, multidimensional loaddeformation distri
butions. The experiment is finally necessary for the comparison with the calculation in
order to verify the implanted material laws. The requirements of the measuring meth
ods result from the tasks of the experiment.
13.2 Requirements of the Measuring Methods
Since the FiniteElement programs, set up with the developed material laws, lead to
two or threedimensional distributions of the searched values, also such measuring
methods are needed, which allow larger object areas to be analysed connected and two
dimensional. As one must furthermore plan on a large local change of the material be
haviour, a high local resolution of the measuring method is also required. In addition,
measuring systems must be developed, with which deformation and strain fields can
be measured even in the transitional areas from inelastic to elastic material behaviour.
The measurements should preferably be able to be executed on the original be
cause the model laws for the transfer of results from the model to the original are in
general very complicated, especially for inelastic material behaviour. Inelastic material
behaviour is often observed at high temperatures up to approx. 10008C. The measuring
methods should also be usable in such temperature areas. A measurement directly on
the testing machine in the testing field during an ongoing test is practical.
298
* Technische Universita¨t Braunschweig, Institut fu¨r Messtechnik und Experimentelle Mechanik,
Schleinitzstraße 20, D38106 Braunschweig, Germany
Plasticity of Metals: Experiments, Models, Computation. Collaborative Research Centres.
Edited by E. Steck, R. Ritter, U. Peil, A. Ziegenbein
Copyright © 2001 WileyVCH Verlag GmbH
ISBNs: 3527277285 (Softcover); 3527600116 (Electronic)
Finally, measuring methods without contact and interaction are advantageous. All
of these requirements lead to the development and the use of the optical fieldmeasur
ing techniques. The corresponding methods are distinguished by the following charac
teristics.
13.3 Characteristics of the Optical FieldMeasuring Methods
First, twodimensional structured patterns are generated in the form of intensity distri
butions, which are related to the searched values of the considered object surface. The
Figures 13.1 and 13.2 show two such patterns. In Figure 13.1, there are two groups of
lines, which consist of straight lines of constant width. They include an angle of 908
and form the socalled cross grating. If this is e. g. firmly attached to the considered
surface, then both will be deformed in the same way when by a loading.
The pattern in Figure 13.2 is produced e. g. if laser light illuminates a rough sur
face. The remitted beams interfere. As a result of the distribution of different ampli
tudes and phases, a granularlike intensity distribution comes into existence, which is
called the Speckle effect [1].
13.3 Characteristics of the Optical FieldMeasuring Methods
299
Figure 13.1: Cross grid.
Figure 13.2: Speckle pattern.
In a second step, such patterns are recorded in the image plane by recording cam
eras, and their image points are determined from the digital image processing. From
this, the searched object values can be determined by a calibrated test setup [2, 3].
This process is described in the following by the example of the objectgrating meth
od, which is suited mostly for the deformation analysis of inelastic material behaviour.
13.4 ObjectGrating Method
13.4.1 Principle
The precondition is a grating structure, which is firmly attached to the considered ob
ject surface. This is recorded from two or more different positions and orientations in
reference to the object by cameras [4] (Figure 13.3). By retransforming the digitally de
termined image coordinates, e. g. the grating intersection points, into the object space,
the local vectors of the corresponding object points can be determined.
The difference of the local vectors of an object point as a result of a deformation
of the object leads to the deformation vector. The change of the distance between two
neighbouring object points related to their original distance describes the strain [5].
The stereophotographic setup of Figure 13.3 represents the simplest arrangement
according to the photogrammetric principle [6]. There in general, only the local vector
of an object point is of interest.
In case of plane deformation of the object, only one recording camera of the opti
cal setup is needed. With regard to the previously described 3D objectgrating
method, then this is called a 2D objectgrating method.
The following results have been achieved for the development of this measuring
method for the deformation analysis of objects with inelastic material behaviour.
13 Experimental Determination of Deformation and Strain Fields
300
Figure 13.3: Principle of the objectgrating method.
13.4.2 Marking
First, the technology for marking the object had to be improved as marks are needed,
which not only remain attached to the object caused by greater deformations of the ob
ject surface, but which also can be recognized at high temperatures. The wellknown
screen print principle was the basis for the further development [7].
If a mixture of TiO
2
particles of approx. 0.3 lm diameter and ethanol is sprayed
through a screenlike mask on the polished object surface, then a gratinglike structure
comes into existence after the ethanol is vaporized and the mask is removed. This is
composed of the blank polished object surface and local limited fields, which each con
sist of a great number of such TiO
2
particles. Figure 13.4 shows a REMpicture of
such a grating structure.
By dark field illumination, the object surface appears dark, and each grating field
is light due to the diffuse remission of the individual TiO
2
particles. Figure 13.5 is one
example for this type of illumination and also the recognizability of the grating at high
temperatures [8].
13.4 ObjectGrating Method
301
Figure 13.4: TiO
2
grating in REM.
Figure 13.5: Cross grating at 8508C.
This type of grating structure can also follow a very large deformation of the ob
ject surface without being destroyed (Figure 13.6).
13.4.3 Deformation analysis at high temperatures
The objectgrating method is also suitable for deformation analyses at high tempera
tures. The specimen with the attached TiO
2
grating is enclosed by a radiation heater in
the testing machine. It is heated up by infrared radiation. The visible radiation part
serves as a dark field illumination of the test surface with the grating. This is recorded
through a glass window built in the wall of the heater by a camera (Figure 13.7).
So far, the method has been developed for only inplane deformation analysis. In
the case of the 3D objectgrating method, the heater would have to be furnished with
a second window. However, for this, another heater or illumination concept would be
13 Experimental Determination of Deformation and Strain Fields
302
a) b)
Figure 13.6: Cross grating on a curved object surface; a) not deformed; b) strongly deformed.
Figure 13.7: Principle of the optical deformation analysis at high temperatures (top view).
necessary in order to produce the necessary dark field illumination of the grating for
both cameras also at high temperatures. In addition, the test setup cannot be calibrated
at high temperatures in the existing heater.
13.4.4 Compensation of virtual deformation
As a result of complicated initial conditions, the recorded grating images for determin
ing the searched deformation are perhaps superimposed by unwanted rigid body move
ments of the considered specimen. These can lead to large errors in determining the de
formation according to the 2D grating method. In Figure 13.8, the possible grating dis
tortions are listed.
With the aid of an eight parameter pseudoaffine transformation [9] by Equations
(1) and (2), it is possible by knowing the parameters a
1
to a
8
to transform the image
coordinates distorted by rigid body movements to undistorted ones:
13.4 ObjectGrating Method
303
Figure 13.8: Grating distortions as a result of translatory and rotatory rigid body movements in re
lation to the camera coordinate system.
x
t
a
1
a
2
x a
3
y a
4
xy ;
1
y
t
a
5
a
6
x a
7
y a
8
xy :
2
The following steps are necessary in order to compensate possible virtual deformations
with an otherwise inplane deformation of the object:
A reference object with an attached grating is fastened to the specimen so that the
rigid body movements of both are equal, but such that the reference object is not de
formed.
After orienting the plane specimen surface and reference object parallel to the im
age plane of the recording camera, the simultaneous recording of the specimen and ref
erence grating takes place.
From the coordinates of the reference grating referring to the nondeformed and de
formed specimen state, the parameters for the retransformation i.e. its virtual deformation
can be determined from Equations (1) and (2). With the aid of the now known retransfor
mation instruction, the true deformation of the specimen can be obtained from the image
coordinates referring to both loading states observed in the specimen. Figure 13.9 shows
two fields of lines of the same strain, one with (a) and the other without (b) virtual strains.
13 Experimental Determination of Deformation and Strain Fields
304
Figure 13.9: Lines of the same strain a) with and b) without virtual strains.
13.4.5 3D deformation measuring
A strategy has been developed for the exact calibration of the system for a 3D defor
mation measurement [10, 11]. For this purpose, formulations and algorithms have been
developed, which are based on the photogrammetric principle. Afterwards, the inner
and outer orientation of the cameras used are determined with an appropriate calibra
tion object and the wellknown bundle adjustment.
13.4.6 Specifications of the objectgrating method
In Table 13.1, the exemplary data for the accuracy of the objectgrating method when
using a camera with 1024×1024 pixels has been put together. These refer in one case
to the camera and as an example to an object measuring area of 20×20 mm
2
.
A camera with a higher resolution leads either to a higher resolution of the mea
suring area or at the same resolution to recording a larger object area.
This method can currently be used for temperatures up to 10008C and measuring
areas from 0.1×0.1 mm
2
to any size. It primarily provides the field of the local vectors
of the observed object points and the displacement and strain fields derived from them.
13.5 Speckle Interferometry
13.5.1 General
When developing material laws for the inelastic behaviour of metallic materials, the
transition to elastic procedures must be included. Therefore, optical fieldmeasuring
methods are needed, with which both areas can be analysed.
Since the objectgrating method despite of all of its advantages is not sensitive
enough for determining strains, which are smaller than 0.3%, a supplementary measur
ing method had to be developed, with which lower scales are also attainable.
13.5 Speckle Interferometry
305
Table 13.1: Example for the accuracy of the objectgrating method.
Camera Object
Measuring area: 1024×1024 Pixel 20×20 mm
2
Number of measuring points approx.: 75×75 75×75
Accuracy of the displacement approx.: 0.02 Pixel 0.4 lm
Reference length of the strain: 13 Pixel 0.25 mm
Accuracy of the strain approx.: 0.2% 0.2%
The measuring method developed for this is based on wellknown optical paths of
rays of the Speckle interferometry for measuring the in and outofplane displacement
of an object surface [12, 13].
With this, one can e. g. make each one of the both inplane components of the
displacement visible directly in the form of correlation fringes without the outofplane
component being included (Figure 13.10). The visibility and thus also the possibility of
obtaining qualitative values online can be done e. g. on a video monitor. This offers
the possibility of selectively controlling the deformation processes.
The quantitative evaluation of the Speckle interferometric measuring is carried out
according to the wellknown phaseshift principle [14]. The primary results consist in
the phase differences (Figure 13.11), from which the field distributions of the single
displacement components can be derived (Figure 13.12). The strain distributions are ob
tained from the displacement field by numerical differentiation.
An optical differentiation can be realized by the shearographic principle. Due to
the relative shift of the interfering paths of rays, only a small number of correlation
fringes can be obtained in comparison to the previously mentioned displacement mea
13 Experimental Determination of Deformation and Strain Fields
306
Figure 13.10: Correlation fringes.
Figure 13.11: Phase pictures of x, y and zdisplacement.
suring. This strain information is overlapped by large geometric influences and slope
influences. Therefore, no online observation of the strain is possible. Studies have
shown that shearography is better suited for a qualitative proof of deformations.
13.5.2 Technology of the Speckle interferometry
The use of the electronic Speckle interferometry (ESPI) in the material and construc
tion testing requires a compact and transportable measuring head, which can be directly
adapted on a testing machine.
The developed and practically tested measuring instrument is based on the applica
tion of modern optoelectronic elements such as laser diodes as a light source, piezo crys
tals for a nanometer exact phase shift of the light and a CCDcamera [15]. For every dis
placement component, a path of rays of illumination with a laser diode, a phase shift de
vice and a shutter is built in the measuring head. The three displacement directions are
recorded nearly simultaneously by rapidly switching between the illumination direc
tions. Switching to the individual sensitivity directions takes only a few milliseconds.
In this way, it is possible to record slow running deformation processes in 3D.
The development of the measuring head includes the construction of a control de
vice as well as the programming of the software to control and evaluate the measuring
data saved in an adapted computer.
Figure 13.13 shows the measuring head. It has the dimensions 250×250
×350 mm
3
and is adapted on a testing machine (Figure 13.14).
For a quantitative evaluation of correlation fringes by the phaseshift principle, an
initial value for the phase order is needed. This is given in the easiest case manually by
online observation. In principle, the heterodyne method can be used for the automation
of the order determination. It is based on using two light sources of different wave
13.5 Speckle Interferometry
307
Figure 13.12: Lines of constant displacement for x, y and zdirection.
lengths. For this technique, the measuring head has been expanded to two illumination
sources for each path of rays. However, this procedure requires, in addition to a very
high degree of accuracy for the phase determination, also a stronger protection against
disturbing surrounding influences than with the measuring setup introduced here.
13.5.3 Specifications of the developed 3D Speckle interferometer
The essential specifications of the developed 3DESPI are represented in Table 13.2.
This method primarily leads to the field of displacements and by numeric differ
entiation the strains of the observed object surface.
13 Experimental Determination of Deformation and Strain Fields
308
Figure 13.13: 3DESPI measuring head.
Figure 13.14: 3DESPI on a testing machine.
13.6 Application Examples
The application possibilities of the objectgrating method and the electronic Speckle in
terferometry are introduced by three examples. They are related to their use in deforma
tion and strain analysis at high temperatures, in fracture mechanics as well as welding.
13.6.1 2D objectgrating method in the hightemperature area
To examine the inelastic material behaviour at high temperatures, a tensile test was
done with a notched tensile specimen (Figure 13.15) according to the setup in Figure 13.7
at 6508C. The task was to determine its plane deformation by using the 2D object
grating method. To correct possible virtual deformations, the specimen was furnished
with a reference object (Section 13.4.4).
The essential test data are listed in Table 13.3.
In Figure 13.16, a grating section of the nondeformed and the deformed state of
the specimen are shown.
Figure 13.17 shows the determined strain fields for the inplane directions.
13.6.2 3D objectgrating method in fracture mechanics
This example refers to the deformation and strain analysis in the area of the crack tip
of a fracture mechanic CTspecimen (Figure 13.18). Since in addition to the inplane
strain, also the outofplane displacement was searched, the 3D objectgrating method
was used.
13.6 Application Examples
309
Table 13.2: Specifications of the 3DESPI.
Measuring surface: 10×7 mm
2
to 600×450 mm
2
Measuring area outofplane: 0.4. . . 20 lm
inplane: 1. . . 50 lm
Accuracy outofplane: 0.04 lm
inplane: 0.1 lm
Strain resolution: ca. 10
–6
Local resolution: 768×580 Pixel or 1024×1024 Pixel
Object distance: 100 mm to 2000 mm
Measuring head dimensions: 250×250×350 mm
3
Displacement measurements qualitative: online
quantitative: 3D by phase evaluation
Figure 13.19 shows the calibrated testing setup with two CCDcameras directed
at the specimen. In Table 13.4, the essential testing data are listed.
From the recorded local vectors describing the different form states, the displace
ment and strain fields were derived. Figure 13.20 shows the searched outofplane dis
placement and Figure 13.21 the strain distribution in the tensile direction.
13.6.3 Speckle interferometry in welding
For the experimental testing of the elastic and inelastic behaviour of a cold pressure
butt welding CopperAluminium specimen (Figure 13.22), the electronic Speckle inter
ferometry was applied. The ESPI shown in Figure 13.14, which was adapted to the ten
sile machine, was used.
13 Experimental Determination of Deformation and Strain Fields
310
Figure 13.15: Tensile specimen; a) incl. reference object; b) geometry.
Table 13.3: Data from the tensile test at high temperature.
Temperature: 6508C
Material: Steel: X2CrNi18 9
Measuring method: 2D objectgrating method (p=0.2 mm)
Dimensions: H=100 mm, W=13 mm
Testing field: 19 mm×12.2 mm
Material behaviour: elastic/inelastic
Displacement measurement: inplane
Since the measurement of all three displacement directions is possible for small
load intervals, the deformation of the elastic state could be observed online and quanti
tatively recorded as well as the change between two purely inelastic states. In Figure 13.23,
the phase images of the inplane displacements (corresponding to lines of constant dis
placement) of an elastic, and in Figure 13.24 of an inelastic deformation are shown.
Finally, the displacement fields were determined by evaluating the phase images
according to the mentioned phaseshift principle, and the 2D strain distributions were
13.6 Application Examples
311
Figure 13.16: Section of the tensile specimen; a) nondeformed; b) deformed.
Figure 13.17: Lines of constant strain a) in x and b) in ydirection.
13 Experimental Determination of Deformation and Strain Fields
312
Figure 13.18: Geometry of the CTspecimen.
Figure 13.19: Testing arrangement with two CCDcameras.
Table 13.4: Data of the fracture mechanic test.
Material: AlMg
3
Measuring method: 3D objectgrating method (p=77 lm)
Dimensions: W=20 mm, B=2 mm
Test field: 6×4.5 mm
2
Material behaviour: inelastic
Displacement measurement: inplane, outofplane
derived from these. Figure 13.25 shows the isolinear representation of these strains
from the inelastic deformation.
13.7 Summary
With the optical fieldmeasuring methods, object values can be determined two or
threedimensionally. Therefore, they are used especially when contours, deformations
and strains of a larger area of the observed object surface should be measured together.
Although these methods are based on optical principles, which have been well
known for a long time, they were first able to be used when compact lasers for the gen
eration of coherent light and efficient PCs including adapted software for digital image
processing of a large quantity of optical measuring data were developed.
13.7 Summary
313
Figure 13.20: Outofplane displacement field.
13 Experimental Determination of Deformation and Strain Fields
314
Figure 13.21: e
x
strain field.
Figure 13.22: Geometry of the CuAl specimen.
Optical fieldmeasuring methods are primarily used today in the manufacturing
and quality control as well as in the material and construction testing. In the manufac
turing and quality control, they are used among other things for the automatic record
ing of form dimensions and to recognize global or locally limited defects. In the materi
al and construction testing, these methods are preferably used for determining displace
ment and strain fields when testing objects with complicated structures with respect to
their dimensioning.
In connection with the development of material laws for the description of the in
elastic behaviour of metallic materials, especially the objectgrating method and the
electronic Speckle interferometry have been further developed. Here, the main goal was
their adaptation for the solution of three essential tasks: Firstly, they should be used for
the observation of inelastic processes in order to get knowledge for the development of
such material laws. Secondly, parameters had to be measured for these laws. Finally,
experimentally determined displacement and strain fields were required as a compari
son to the corresponding achieved data obtained by FiniteElement calculations in order
to verify the material laws included in them.
13.7 Summary
315
a) b)
Figure 13.23: Phase image in the elastic area a) in x and b) in ydirection.
a) b)
Figure 13.24: Phase image in the inelastic area a) in x and b) in ydirection.
The essential result of the further development of the objectgrating method and
the Speckle interferometry for material and construction testing consists in realizing
compact measuring instruments, which can be adapted directly on a testing machine
thereby making measurements directly in the testing field possible. This was achieved
by applying modern optoelectronic elements such as fibre optics, laser diodes and
CCDcameras. In addition, both elastic and inelastic processes can be recorded from
room temperature up to high temperatures (approx. 10008C). The measurement is
made without contact and interaction. The methods yield primarily the field of the 3D
local vectors (objectgrating method) or the field of the 3D displacement vectors
(Speckle interferometry). During the further development of the objectgrating method,
principles of the nearfield photogrammetry were used; the Speckle interferometric mea
suring method, which is now available, is based on wellknown interferometric paths of
rays, which have been integrated in a compact 3D system here.
The further developed fieldmeasuring methods have, in the meantime, been used
many times in various ways in material testing with respect to their reliability.
The results obtained and experiences made have encouraged further tests. It
should be tested in this way whether these field methods are also suitable for an on
line measurement with the goal of process control. Furthermore, it is planned to modify
the methods so that larger object surfaces can be recorded in order to e. g. carry out an
automated construction or building supervision.
13 Experimental Determination of Deformation and Strain Fields
316
Figure 13.25: Lines of constant strain a) in x and b) in ydirection from the inelastic deformation.
References
[1] R. K. Erf: Speckle Metrology. Academic Press, INC., London, 1978.
[2] R. Ritter: Messung von Weg und Dehnung mit Feldmeßmethoden. Materialpru¨fung 36(4)
(1994) 130–133.
[3] R. Ritter: Optische Feldmeßmethoden. In: W. Schwarz (Ed.): Vermessungsverfahren im
Maschinen und Anlagenbau. Verlag Konrad Wittwer GmbH, Stuttgart, 1995, pp. 217–234.
[4] R. Ritter: Moireverfahren. In: C. Rohrbach (Ed.): Handbuch fu¨r experimentelle Spannungs
analyse. VDIVerlag, Du¨sseldorf, 1989, pp. 299–322.
[5] M. Erbe, K. Galanulis, R. Ritter, E. Steck: Theoretical and experimental investigations of
fracture by finite element and grating methods. Engineering Fracture Mechanics 48(1)
(1994) 103–118.
[6] K. Kraus: Photogrammetrie, Band 1: Grundlagen und Standardverfahren. Du¨mmlerVerlag,
Bonn, 1986.
[7] V. Cornelius, C. Forno, J. Hilbig, R. Ritter, W. Wilke: Zur Formanalyse mit Hilfe hochtem
peraturbesta¨ndiger Raster. VDIBerichte Nr. 731, 1989, pp. 285–302.
[8] J. Olfe, K.T. Rie, R. Ritter, W. Wilke: InsituMessung von Dehnungsfeldern bei Hochtem
peraturLowCycleFatigue. Zeitschrift fu¨r Metallkunde 81(11) (1990) 783–789.
[9] D. Winter: Optische Verschiebungsmessung nach dem Objektrasterprinzip mit Hilfe eines
fla¨chenorientierten Ansatzes. Dissertation TU Braunschweig, 1993.
[10] D. Bergmann, R. Ritter: 3D Deformation Measurement in Small Areas Based on Grating
Method and Photogrammetry. SPIE’s Proceedings Vol. 2782, Besanc¸on, 1996, pp. 212–223.
[11] J. Thesing: Entwicklung eines Versuchsstandes und eine Auswertestrategie zur dreidimen
sionalen Verformungsmessung nach dem Objektrasterprinzip. Studienarbeit am Institut fu¨r
Technische Mechanik, Abteilung Experimentelle Mechanik, TU Braunschweig 1995 (un
published).
[12] A. Felske: SpeckleVerfahren. In: C. Rohrbach (Ed.): Handbuch fu¨r experimentelle Span
nungsanalyse. VDIVerlag, Du¨sseldorf, 1989, pp. 372–397.
[13] R. Jones, C. Wykes: Holographic and Speckle Interferometry. Cambridge University Press,
1983.
[14] D. Bergmann, B.W. Lu¨hrig, R. Ritter, D. Winter: Evaluation of ESPIphaseimages with
regional discontinuities: Area based unwrapping, SPIE’s Proceedings Vol. 2003, Interfero
metry VI, San Diego, 1993, pp. 301–311.
[15] J. Hilbig, K: Galanulis, R. Ritter: Zur 3DVerformungsmessung mit einem Elektronischen
Speckle Pattern Interferometer (ESPI). VDIBerichte Nr. 882, 1991, pp. 233–242.
References
317
14 SurfaceDeformation Fields from Grating Pictures
Using Image Processing and Photogrammetry
Klaus Andresen*
14.1 Introduction
Grating methods provide a wellknown technique for deriving the shape, the displace
ment or the deformation of the surface of an object [1]. A regular periodic grating may
be projected or fixed on the surface of an observed object. If the surface is flat, a sin
gle image is sufficient to derive the physical grating coordinates on the object. For a
curved surface, two or more images taken from different locations are needed to calcu
late spatial coordinates by photogrammetric methods. In the images, the coordinates of
suitable marks will be determined. Depending on the experimental setup, the physical
coordinates of a plane surface or the 3D coordinates of a curved surface will be de
rived from these data [2].
According to the application, a different type of grating is applied, e.g. a line grat
ing, a point grating, a cross grating or a circle grating. Here, cross gratings generated
by two mainly orthogonal bands of lines will be investigated because the related im
ageprocessing methods proved to be most stable when analysing largely deformed
grating patterns by linefollowing algorithms. Moreover, the cross point coordinates
could be determined in most cases automatically with subpixel accuracy [3, 4].
Projected gratings provide a simple and cheap means to deliver cross points of
the surface if only the shape of the object is asked for. However, if the deformation is
needed, only a fixed grating is applicable because the displacement of material points
from an undeformed and a deformed state must be given. The experimental setups and
different techniques of fixing cross gratings on a surface will be explained in the next
section.
The accuracy of the grating coordinates in the images of roughly 0.1 pixel limits
the possible applications. Depending on the resolution of the digitized image and on
the scale between image and object, one has approximately a relative error of “0.1/
number of pixels”. When a CCDvideo camera with 512 pixel is used, an accuracy of
20 lm is obtainable in an object region of 100 × 100 mm
2
. The local accuracy of the
318
* Technische Universita¨t Braunschweig, Rechenanlage des MechanikZentrums,
Schleinitzstraße 20, D38106 Braunschweig, Germany
Plasticity of Metals: Experiments, Models, Computation. Collaborative Research Centres.
Edited by E. Steck, R. Ritter, U. Peil, A. Ziegenbein
Copyright © 2001 WileyVCH Verlag GmbH
ISBNs: 3527277285 (Softcover); 3527600116 (Electronic)
strain within a mesh, however, is almost independent of the scale and is about
±0:002 . . . 0:004 if the pitch of the grating lines is about 15–20 pixels and the line
width is about 5–7 pixel, which is an optimal assumption. This means that only inelas
tic deformation of metals in a range larger than 0.01 or 1 percent strain delivers a suit
able accuracy.
Wholefield methods for elastic strains are based on interference or Speckle tech
niques. The related optical patterns need quite different imageprocessing methods as
e.g. Moire´ or phaseshift algorithms [5], which will not be treated in this text.
14.2 Grating Coordinates
For deformation analysis, initially periodic gratings will be applied in practice. Their
basic patterns are points given by filled circles, crosses given by two intersecting bands
of lines or overlapping circles for very large deformation of sheet metal. Each pattern
may be distorted to a certain extent during the deformation process. The coordinates
are principally defined as the centre of the circle or by the intersection of the two arms
of a cross. The geometrical structure of the grating points is assumed to be matrixlike,
i.e. a single point is characterized by its row index i and its column index j.
Also the digital image of a grating taken by a CCDcamera is stored in a rectan
gular matrix of e.g. 512 rows (index x) and columns (index y), respectively. Each ele
ment contains a grey or intensity value (0 . . . 256; 8 bit), which is proportional to the
light intensity of a related small region of the object surface.
The grating coordinates in the images are expressed in pixel. By suitable filtering
techniques, subpixel accuracy is reachable even in noisy images with low contrast. For
a simulated image in Figure 14.1 with a relatively large deformation of the grating, the
frequency distribution of the errors [pixel] is given in Figure 14.2. The results are de
rived with a linefollowing filter as described in the next section. Obviously, about
85% of the deviations from the theoretical coordinates are less than 0.1 pixel. The
larger deviations will be observed in regions with a big curvature.
14.2.1 Crosscorrelation method
For less deformed cross pattern, a correlationfilter method has proved to supply cross
coordinates with subpixel accuracy [4]. Such a filter will be constructed according to
an idealized intensity distribution of a cross, where the filter constants c
ij
are propor
tional to that distribution. Then, a filtered value
~
f
kl
is calculated by a convolution sum:
14.2 Grating Coordinates
319
~
f
kl
=
K=2
i=÷K=2
L=2
j=÷L=2
c
ij
f
k÷i;l÷j
: (1)
If this filter is applied to a picture, a smooth correlation function is resulting, which
mainly amplifies the cross region and which shows its maximum values in the centre
of each cross.
The pixel indices (x
m
; y
m
) of the maximum points could be taken as cross coordi
nates, however, with a limited accuracy of one pixel. This can be improved if the maxi
mum (~ x
max
; ~ y
max
) of a local 2D polynomial of the form
f (~ x; ~ y) = a
0
÷ a
1
~ x ÷ a
2
~ y ÷ a
3
~ x
2
÷ a
4
~ x~ y ÷ a
5
~ y
2
(2)
14 SurfaceDeformation Fields from Grating Pictures Using Image Processing
320
Figure 14.1: Simulated cross grating.
Figure 14.2: Frequency distribution of deviation [pixel].
is calculated, which approximates the grey values of the central maximum point and its
8 neighbouring points using local coordinates (~ x = x ÷ x
m
; ~ y = y ÷ y
m
). This technique
generally provides an accuracy of ±0:1 pixel, and it was applied to different deforma
tion processes showing relatively small changes of the original rectangular cross grat
ing structure.
14.2.2 Linefollowing filter
For highly deformed cross gratings, the above described technique failed because of
the big change of the width and the inclination of the crosses and its arms. For these
images, a linefollowing filter was developed [6]. It is used to determine both bands of
cross lines separately with subpixel accuracy. The intersection of these two bands then
delivers the wanted cross coordinates with high accuracy. This technique proved to be
stable even for strongly deformed and curved grating lines.
For initializing the linesearch procedure, first, one point on the line and the related
line direction must be given. This is performed manually by two click points perpendicu
lar to the line or automatically with a rotational invariant filter [7], which determines the
centre of the line and its direction. But this filter is not stable when passing through cross
points. Hence, a new elliptic correlation filter of the following form was developed:
G(x; y) = G
x
(x)G
y
(y)W
y
(y) = cos
p
2A
x cos
3p
2B
y cos
p
2B
y : (3)
A and B in Equation (3) may be regarded as the principal semiaxes of an ellipse and
hence as half the filter length and the filter width, respectively (Figure 14.3). This filter
is rotated locally into gratingline direction (Figure 14.4). The hatlike filter form G
x
in
xdirection amplifies all values on the line and the relatively large extension in that di
rection guarantees a stable linefollowing quality. The cosinelike filter function G
y
with two negative side lobes is known to detect lines with an intensity distribution sim
ilar to the central lobe. The negative side lobes provide a zero filter response if applied
to a constant grey level region in the image. The weight function W
y
decreases the
function G
x
steady to zero at y = ±B, which provides a smooth filter response.
14.2 Grating Coordinates
321
Figure 14.3: Filter function of an elliptical filter.
This filter is moved perpendicular through a line in 5 7 discrete steps. The re
sulting filter response takes on a maximum value in the centre of the line. To provide
subpixel accuracy, the filter responses are approximated by a second order polynomial
in the maximum point. The maximum value of the polynomial then delivers coordi
nates with subpixel accuracy. A similar method determines the centroid of an area be
tween the filter responses and a suitable threshold to define the centre coordinates of a
line. In practice, the filter is moved in column or line direction in the image according
to which direction is closer to the perpendicular direction because a shift in an arbitrary
angle through a grating line needs complex interpolation procedures.
For optimal results, the filter width 2B should be about 2 2:5 times the grating
line width W and a filter ratio A=B = 2 2:5 with the larger values for noisy data
guarantees a stable and robust linefollowing characteristic even through cross points
and small gaps in the line. The needed line direction for the filter rotation is derived
from the foregoing points by extrapolation.
To demonstrate the power of the described technique, a low quality image of the
surface of a metal block, deformed by forging, is evaluated (Figure 14.5). The original
ly rectangular grating pattern of equal line width, etched into the material, becomes
strongly curved in some regions. Also, the line width and the intensity distribution of
the lines are quite different in horizontal and vertical direction according to the com
pression and extension of the material. Hence, different filters must be used for each
line. Figure 14.6 directly shows the grey values of a small subsection marked in Figure
14.5 by a box, and Figure 14.7 supplies the same information in a 3D representation.
In both Figures, the resulting lines of the filter process are drawn into the images. Ob
viously, the centre lines are smooth even when the image is noisy and when the line
pattern has a very low contrast.
14 SurfaceDeformation Fields from Grating Pictures Using Image Processing
322
Figure 14.4: The rotatable elliptic line searching filter.
14.2 Grating Coordinates
323
Figure 14.5: Deformed grating on the surface of a metal block deformed by forging.
Figure 14.6: Grey distribution of a cross.
Figure 14.7: 3D intensity distribution.
14.3 3D Coordinates by Imaging Functions
When looking at the 3D displacement of small flat deformation fields – e.g. crack tips
in a volume of 10 × 10 × 2 mm
3
–, a simplified numerical method can be used instead
of stereo photogrammetry to derive the spatial grating coordinates [8]. A calibrated
grating on a glass plate is moved exactly parallel and perpendicular to its plane in pre
cise 3 . . . 5 steps DZ in Zdirection. The coordinates (X
ijk
; Y
ijk
; Z
ijk
) form a dense rectan
gular grid in space, and they are known exactly. Since from each step, an image is re
corded, also the related image coordinates are known. Hence, a pair of 3D polyno
mialimaging functions n = f (X; Y; Z); g = g(X; Y; Z) for each camera can be calcu
lated, which transforms each grid point (X; Y; Z) into an image point (n; g), i.e. it ap
proximates the real stereoimaging function. Suitable approximating functions are poly
nomials with free parameters since that provides a linearequation system when using a
Gaussian leastsquares fit. Hence one has:
n(a) =
a
ijk
X
i
Y
j
Z
k
; g(b) =
b
ijk
X
i
Y
j
Z
k
; (4)
where the vectors a = (a
ijk
); b = (b
ijk
) describe free parameters. Each vector is deter
mined separately by minimization. For a, one has:
(n
ijk;measured
÷ n
ijk
(a))
2
= min : (5)
A similar equation holds for g(b). For each camera, this supplies a set of two func
tions, which transform any point within the grid volume into an image point. Vice ver
sa, also a point in space (X
P
; Y
P
; Z
P
) can be calculated if its image coordinates
(n
1m
; g
1m
), (n
2m
; g
2m
) are known in at least 2 images. Then, one has:
n
1
(X
P
; Y
P
; Z
P
) = n
1m
; n
2
(X
P
; Y
P
; Z
P
) = n
2m
; (6)
g
1
(X
P
; Y
P
; Z
P
) = g
1m
; g
2
(X
P
; Y
P
; Z
P
) = g
2m
: (7)
These are 4 equations for the 3 unknown spatial coordinates (X
P
; Y
P
; Z
P
), which easily
are solved by numerical iteration.
This technique also works if the image plane in the camera is tilted (Scheimpflug
condition), which provides a larger, wellfocussed area in space when using stereo cam
eras. Moreover, the method is easy to program and there proved to be no convergence
problems. It was applied to the propagation of a crack tip [9, 10].
14 SurfaceDeformation Fields from Grating Pictures Using Image Processing
324
14.4 3D Coordinates by CloseRange Photogrammetry
14.4.1 Experimental setup
A general method for measuring spatial coordinates of an object grating is adopted
from closerange photogrammetry. A measuring device was developed consisting of 2
or 3 stereo cameras in a stiff framework. A movable support, which first holds a cali
brating glass plate later on holds the considered objects [11, 12]. Before any measure
ment can take place, the exterior and the intrinsic orientation of the cameras must be
known. The related calibration procedure is based on a high quality cross grating,
which is fixed on a plane glass plate. The orthogonal grating lines define a global coor
dinate system (X; Y; Z); (X; Y) in the plane and (Z) perpendicular to it. With respect to
this system, the exterior orientation – the projection centre (X
0
; Y
0
; Z
0
) and a rotation
matrix R describing the rotation of the local camera system (x; y; z) into the global sys
tem – must be determined. The constants of the intrinsic orientation are the focal
length c, called camera constant, and lens distortion factors A; B; R
0
, described later on.
The glass plate is moved in 3 parallel steps in DZ
/
direction, which might be in
clined by small angles
x
;
y
against the Zdirection; in Figure 14.8, only a plane con
figuration is shown. Given the pitch DX; DY of the cross grating and an arbitrary shift
of the origin (X
0
; Y
0
) in that plane, the coordinates of the spatial grid coordinates are:
X
ijk
= X
S
÷ iDX ÷ a
x
Z
k
; (8)
Y
ijk
= Y
S
÷ jDY ÷ a
y
Z
k
; (9)
Z
ijk
= Z
k
(10)
14.4 3D Coordinates by CloseRange Photogrammetry
325
Figure 14.8: Setup for camera calibration, plane configuration.
with i = 1; . . . ; M; j = 1; . . . ; N in the plane and k = 1; . . . ; L in shift direction, where
a
x
= tan
x
, a
y
= tan
y
and Z
k
= Z
/
k
=
1 ÷ a
2
x
÷ a
2
y
q
; which is the related distance on
the Zaxis due to a parallel shift of Z
/
k
. X
S
; Y
S
; DX; DY are given parameters of the cross
grating, while
x
;
y
, and Z
k
(k = 1; . . . ; L ÷ 1) are unknown quantities, which will be
determined together with the parameters of the camera orientation in a modified bun
dleblock adjustment. Instead of moving the cross grating, it is also possible to shift the
cameras and fasten the grating if this results in a simpler setup.
In each shifted position, the cross grating is recorded. This means that each cam
era takes the images of a spatial grid, which approximately coincides with the measur
ing volume of the device.
14.4.2 Parameters of the camera orientation
Here, only a short summary will be given for the theory of the bundleblock adjust
ment because it is wellknown in the relevant publications [2]. The intrinsic and exter
ior orientation of a camera in space is described by its projection centre (X
0
; Y
0
; Z
0
),
the focal length c, the rotation matrix R = (r
ij
) usually given by 3 Euler angles, and
the distance (n
0
; g
0
) of the origin in the image plane to the optical axis. Then the trans
formation from the space coordinates (X; Y; Z) to the image coordinates (n; g) is for
each point (i; j; k) within the grid:
n = n
0
÷ c
(X ÷ X
0
)r
11
÷ (Y ÷ Y
0
)r
21
÷ (Z ÷ Z
0
)r
31
(X ÷ X
0
)r
13
÷ (Y ÷ Y
0
)r
23
÷ (Z ÷ Z
0
)r
33
÷ u(n; g) ; (11)
g = g
0
÷ c
(X ÷ X
0
)r
12
÷ (Y ÷ Y
0
)r
22
÷ (Z ÷ Z
0
)r
32
(X ÷ X
0
)r
13
÷ (Y ÷ Y
0
)r
23
÷ (Z ÷ Z
0
)r
33
÷ v(n; g) : (12)
u(n; g); v(n; g) describe the lens distortion, which are assumed to be radial symmetric:
u(n; g) = (A
1
(R
2
0
÷ R
2
) ÷ A
2
(R
4
0
÷ R
4
))(n ÷ n
0
) ; (13)
v(n; g) = (A
1
(R
2
0
÷ R
2
) ÷ A
2
(R
4
0
÷ R
4
))(g ÷ g
0
) ; (14)
where the radius R is given by:
R =
(n ÷ n
0
)
2
÷ (g ÷ g
0
)
2
q
: (15)
R
0
is a constant of the objective, usually about 70% of the maximum width of the im
age plane, and A
1
; A
2
are the required distortion parameters.
Now p will be defined as the vector of the unknown parameters:
14 SurfaceDeformation Fields from Grating Pictures Using Image Processing
326
p = (¦X
0
; Y
0
; Z
0
; n
0
; g
0
; r
ij
; c; A
1
; A
2
¦
l
; a
x
; a
y
; Z
1
; . . . ; Z
L÷1
; ¦X
ijk
; Y
ijk
; Z
ijk
¦
m
) ; (16)
where subscript l means that this set of parameters is repeated for each camera. Further
on, a certain number m of spatial coordinates are not used directly, but they are taken
to be unknown parameters. This provides a higher accuracy because it couples the pa
rameters of the cameras in a global leastsquares fit. (n
/
ijkl
; g
/
ijkl
) are measured image co
ordinates of the camera l. By a bundleblock adjustment, the unknown parameters in p
are determined altogether by minimizing the sum of the squared differences between
the measured and the calculated image coordinates. Here, the expression for n is given,
a similar expression holds for g:
F(p) =
camera
l
grid
ijk
(n
ijkl
(p) ÷ n
/
ijkl
)
2
= min : (17)
To solve Equation (17), it is linearized with respect to an initial parameter vector p
0
:
F(p
0
) ÷
qF(p
0
)
qp
Dp = 0 for every (i; j; k; l) (18)
yielding an overdetermined system of linear equations for an increment Dp, which is
solved by the leastsquares method. Starting from suitable initial values p
0
, a global
iteration is performed until Dp is less than a given threshold. p and its standard devia
tion are the final result. Numerical experience has proved that about half the number of
grating points should be dealt with as unknown points to get an optimal convergence
and accuracy of the nonlinear iteration process.
Programming of the bundleblock adjustment and also its application requires a
lot of experience, especially choosing suitable initial values becomes a very sensitive
task. Meanwhile, commercial products are available [13].
14.4.3 3D object coordinates
If the parameters of the orientation are known, there are wellknown algorithms [2] to
determine spatial object points by ray intersection, provided the coordinates of the ad
joined points in the stereo images are given. This is generally true for grating images.
However, it is also possible to determine whole elements in space without know
ing adjoined points if the elements are to be described analytically by a set of free pa
rameters [14, 15]. Practical examples are circles, straight lines and curved lines. Also
cylinders and spheres in space can be treated if a sequence of contour points in the
images are detected.
14.4 3D Coordinates by CloseRange Photogrammetry
327
14.5 Displacement and Strain from an Object Grating:
Plane Deformation
The strain tensor of a local grating point in a plane (x; y) can be calculated from the
displacement of the vectors dr
1
i
(i = 1; . . . ; 4) in the deformed state and dr
0
i
in the un
deformed state, where dr
i
means the connection to the neighbouring 4 grating points.
Generally, the displacement is due to a rigid body motion and a deformation of
the object. For the calculation of strain in a grating point, first, the centre of the de
formed element will be shifted parallel into the related undeformed centre. Then, the
variation of the four drvectors describes a rotation and the desired plastic deformation
or strain. The rotation will be separated from the strain in a theory of large deformation
as follows. Assuming, the vectors (dr
0
1
; dr
0
2
) will be deformed into (dr
1
1
; dr
1
2
), then a de
formation gradient F is calculated from the linear relations:
dr
1
1
= Fdr
0
1
; dr
1
2
= Fdr
0
2
: (19)
F will be split into the left rotation tensor R and a right deformation tensor U:
F = RU : (20)
From the right CauchyGreen tensor G:
G = F
T
F = U
T
R
T
RU = U
T
U ; (21)
a deformation tensor [16] is given:
U =
G
_
= c
0
1 ÷ c
1
G (22)
with
c
1
=
1
trG ÷ 2
det G
_
p ; c
0
= c
1
det G : (23)
trG = g
11
÷ g
22
is the trace of G and det G is the related determinant. The elements of
the deformation tensor U
U
11
U
12
U
21
U
22
=
1 ÷ e
x
e
xy
e
xy
1 ÷ e
y
(24)
include the wellknown planestrain components e
x
; e
y
; e
xy
. In a cross point, 4 strain val
ues according to the four meshes surrounding the point are calculated. The average of
these values is taken to define the local strain tensor in the central point.
A similar technique can be applied to spatial surfaces if the curvature is relatively
small within the considered area. Then, 4 pairs of vectors as in the plane case are taken
14 SurfaceDeformation Fields from Grating Pictures Using Image Processing
328
to calculate the strain in its centre point. After moving the deformed centre point and
the related vectors into the undeformed state, each of the pairs of spatial vectors, form
ing a triangle, are rotated into an arbitrary reference plane, in which a plainstrain ten
sor can be calculated as described in the foregoing section.
14.6 Strain for Large Spatial Deformation
14.6.1 Theory
The described procedure for calculating the spatial deformation fails if the curvature is
large. Then, virtual strains arise already from the rotation of an element into a reference
plane.
Geometrically based methods for evaluating large strain are published in [17, 18].
Here, an improved method based on a deformation function is proposed. It delivers a
deformation gradient for the central point using the 8 neighbouring points in the grat
ing.
To derive the deformation function, 4 meshes of a plane grating are considered
with basic coordinates (x; y; z) as shown in Figure 14.9. The coordinates of the unde
formed grating are (x
ij
; y
ij
; z
ij
= 0) with indices (i; j = ÷1; 0; 1) or written as a vector
x
ij
= (x
ij
; y
ij
; 0)
T
. The coordinates of the deformed element are x
ij
= (x
ij
;y
ij
;z
ij
)
T
.
14.6 Strain for Large Spatial Deformation
329
Figure 14.9: Undeformed grating element and spatially deformed one.
The total displacement of each point again is given by a rigid body translation, a
rotation and a plastic deformation of the element. To eliminate the rigid body motion,
first, the central vector x
00
will be subtracted:
~x
ij
= x
ij
÷ x
00
: (25)
Then, a rotation matrix will be determined, which moves the normal vector n of the
surface element into the zaxis. Approximately, the normal vector is derived from the
cross product of the difference vectors:
d
x
= ~x
10
÷ ~x
÷10
; d
y
= ~x
01
÷ ~x
÷0÷1
; (26)
n = d
x
× d
y
: (27)
The unit vector n
0
delivers the 3. row of the rotation matrix R. The first row is taken
from the unit vector d
0
x
, which means that the deformed xdirection nearly coincides
with the related undeformed direction after rotating the element. The 2. row is given by
the cross product n
0
× d
0
x
.
Now, the rotated coordinates are:
^ x
ij
= Rx
ij
(i; j = ÷1; 0; 1) ; (28)
and the related displacement vectors:
q
ij
= ^ x
ij
÷ x
ij
: (29)
Regarding these vectors, a deformation function for each coordinate can be assumed,
which describes the displacement from the undeformed to the deformed state:
^ x = x ÷ f (x; y) ; ^ y = y ÷ g(x; y) ; ^z = h(x; y) : (30)
The functions f ; g will be approximated by polynomials of second order, e.g.:
f (x; y) = f
0
÷ f
1
x ÷ f
2
y ÷ f
3
x
2
÷ f
4
xy ÷ f
5
y
2
(31)
with f
0
= 0, since ^x
00
= 0. For g, a similar function with coefficients g
k
is taken. The
deformation function h for ^z is less relevant since only the deformation in the tangen
tial plane is considered.
From these functions, the deformation gradients in the central point x
00
are de
rived. Hence, one has:
q^ x=qx = 1 ÷ f
1
; q^ x=qy = f
2
; (32)
q^ y=qx = g
1
; q^ y=qy = 1 ÷ g
2
: (33)
To determine the coefficients f
k
(k = 1 . . . 5), a leastsquares method applied to the x
component of displacement vector q
xij
requires
14 SurfaceDeformation Fields from Grating Pictures Using Image Processing
330
ij
¦q
xij
÷ f (x
ij
; y
ij
)¦
2
=
!
min : (34)
In the case of rectangular meshes with pitches Dx; Dy in the basic plane, the matrix of
the normal equations can be calculated analytically. With respect to symmetry, the coef
ficients f
1
; f
2
are totally uncorrelated and one has:
f
1
=
ij
x
ij
q
xij
=
ij
x
2
ij
; f
2
=
ij
y
ij
q
xij
=
ij
y
2
ij
; (35)
and similar equations for g
1
; g
2
:
g
1
=
ij
x
ij
q
yij
=
ij
x
2
ij
; g
2
=
ij
y
ij
q
yij
=
ij
y
2
ij
: (36)
Generally, weight coefficients w
ij
may be introduced according to the significance of
the displacement values q
ij
, leading e.g. to f
1
=
ij
x
ij
q
xij
w
ij
=
ij
w
ij
x
2
ij
. If the totally 8
edge points are existing, the following simple expressions are resulting (w
ij
= 1):
f
1
= ¦(q
x11
÷ q
x10
÷ q
x1÷1
) ÷ (q
x÷11
÷ q
x÷10
÷ q
x÷1÷1
)¦=(6Dx) ; (37)
f
2
= ¦(q
x11
÷ q
x01
÷ q
x÷11
) ÷ (q
x1÷1
÷ q
x0÷1
÷ q
x÷1÷1
)¦=(6Dy) : (38)
Similar equations hold for g
1
; g
2
with q
xij
replaced by q
yij
. Taking weight coefficients
w
ij
= 0 in the four corner points, the simple central differences, e.g. f
1
=
(q
x10
÷ q
x÷10
)=2Dx, are resulting. This proved to yield the least errors for noisefree
grating coordinates as shown in the next section.
Now, the deformation gradient F
F =
1 ÷ f
1
f
2
g
1
1 ÷ g
2
(39)
is given in point (0,0), and the strain can be calculated according to Equations (19) to
(24).
Generally, already the undeformed element may be spatially curved and no longer
rectangular. Then, both elements, undeformed 1 and deformed 2, will be shifted into
the origin. There, they are rotated as described in the foregoing section, meaning that
the normal vector n
1
; n
2
coincide with the zaxis and that the deformed xdirections
show into the basis xdirection. Then, a displacement vector is calculated from the dif
ferences of the rotated coordinates:
q
ij
= ^ x
2
ij
÷ ^ x
1
ij
; (40)
and according to Equations (30) to (34), a system of normal equations can be deter
mined. In this case, Equation (34) must be built up and solved numerically because no
symmetry of the meshes is provided.
14.6 Strain for Large Spatial Deformation
331
14.6.2 Correcting the influence of curvature
Numerical simulation, as described in the next section, shows a systematic error for the
strain. In the average, it is always too small because only the tangential projection of
the curved surface is used. A noticeable improvement is derived when the arc length of
14 SurfaceDeformation Fields from Grating Pictures Using Image Processing
332
Figure 14.10: Correcting the displacement vector by arc length.
Figure 14.11: Hatlike deformed metal sheet.
Figure 14.12: Principal strain e
I
.
deformed surface is considered in the xz or yzplane, respectively. This can be per
formed approximately by calculating a secondorder polynomial of displacement in z
direction through the deformed but translated and rotated points ^ x
÷10
, ^ x
00
, ^ x
10
in Fig
ure 14.10. Using numerical integration, the arc length of this curve is determined.
Then, it proved to give optimal deviations with almost zero average when adding 50%
to 70% of the difference between the length of the curve and its projection to the dis
placement in xdirection. A similar procedure holds for the ydirection. The errors of
the strain could be decreased by 20% to 50% depending on the pitch of the grating.
14.6.3 Simulation and numerical errors
The spatial strain procedure was tested on a hatlike deformed metal sheet. The defor
mation functions u(r) and w(r) in zdirection were assumed to be radial symmetric:
u(r) = c
u
sin (2pr=R
0
) ; w(r) = c
w
cos (pr=R
0
) ; (41)
14.6 Strain for Large Spatial Deformation
333
Figure 14.13: Difference of e
Ith
÷ e
I
without compensation of curvature.
Figure 14.14: Difference of e
Ith
÷ e
I
with 70% compensation of curvature.
r =
(x
2
÷ y
2
)
p
; u = arctan (y=x) : (42)
Then, the deformed hat is given by:
^ x = x ÷ u(r) cos (u) ; ^ y = y ÷ u(r) sin (u) ; ^z = w(r) : (43)
The exact principal strains in rdirection are:
e
Ith
=
(1 ÷ du=dr)
2
÷ (dw=dr)
2
q
÷ 1 ; e
IIth
= u=r : (44)
Regarding the following figures, the parameters were c
u
= 0:5, c
w
= ÷4;
R
0
= 5; Dx = Dy = 0:33. In Figure 14.11, the hatlike deformed sheet is given for
30 × 30 lines. Figure 14.12 shows the principal strain e
I
calculated according to Sec
tions 14.5 and 14.6.1. Figure 14.13 demonstrates the related error e
Ith
÷ e
I
if no com
pensation of the curvature is taken into account. Obviously, the difference is always
positive with an average value of 0.006.
Figure 14.14 shows the same deviation with 70% curvature compensation due to
Section 14.6.2. The average value is reduced to 0.002 and the maximum error from
0.011 to 0.007. Hence, in this example, the maximum deviation from the theoretical
values is always less than 0.7% of the maximum strain e
I
= 0:96. A 100% compensa
tion does not reduce the maximum values but increases the minimum values to –0.007.
Figure 14.15 shows the influence of the grating pitch on the relative maximum er
ror for the above chosen example. The error increases with the pitch in the interesting
14 SurfaceDeformation Fields from Grating Pictures Using Image Processing
334
Figure 14.15: Relative maximum error of strain e
Ith
÷ e
I
with respect to grating pitch.
interval approximately like a secondorder polynomial. For a 10 × 10 grating, the relat
ed maximum error becomes already 6%.
14.7 Conclusion
The grating techniques, as described in this chapter, were applied to a large variety of
deformation processes, e.g. cracktip propagation, lowcycle fatigue, hightemperature
creep, coldwelded zones of CuAlspecimen, necking of cylindrical tension specimen,
holes in thinsheet metal, crystal deformation and many examples more. This was per
formed mainly for research purposes to get insight into deformation processes, to test
FiniteElement results or to determine the parameters in new constitutive laws for in
elastic deformation [19, 20].
With some modifications, the photogrammetric equipment and the software also
were applied to measure the dimension of industrial parts [8] to determine the radius of
cutting tools and to derive the contour of a fossil fish.
A new field of practical applications comes from metal forming. Especially for
sheet metal forming of the body works of cars, the grating methods are used for failure
analysis. Often, it must be decided whether the characteristics of the material or the
shape of the pressing tool cause the defects on the surface. Also, the influence of oil
films on the flow of the material and on the friction between tool and sheet metal shall
be investigated to optimize the forming process and the mechanical equipment.
For these future applications, the imageprocessing hardware and software must
be improved further with respect to the following topics:
• developing fully automatic programs for incrementally deformed pattern series,
• improving the portability of the software as to support PC’s and workstations,
• looking for lowcost hardware equipment for technology transfer into industry, and
• implementing state of the art graphical user interfaces and plotting software.
These goals seem to be in the reach within the next years because the computing
power still increases every year, thus allowing more sophisticated algorithms for auto
matic image processing.
References
[1] P. J. Sevenhuijsen, J. S. Sirkis, F. Bremand: Current trends in obtaining data from grids. Ex
per. Techn. 27 (1993) 22–26.
[2] K. Kraus: Photogrammetrie, Vol. 2. Du¨mmler, Bonn, 1984.
[3] J. S. Sirkis, T. J. Lim: Displacement and strain measurement with automated grid methods.
Exp. Mech. 31 (1991) 382–388.
References
335
[4] K. Andresen, B. Hu¨bner: Calculation of Strain from an Object Grating on a Reseau Film
by a Correlation Method. Exp. Mech. 32 (1992) 96–101.
[5] K. Andresen, Q. Yu: Robust phase unwrapping by spin filtering combined with a phase di
rection map. Optik 94 (1993) 145–149.
[6] Z. Lei, K. Andresen: Subpixel grid coordinates using line following filtering. Optik 100
(1995) 125–128.
[7] P.E. Danielsson, Q.Z. Ye: A new procedure for line enhancement applied to fingerprints.
Report of Linko¨ping University, Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Linko¨pin, Sweden, 1983,
p. 581.
[8] K. Andresen: 3DVermessungen im Nahbereich mit Abbildungsfunktionen. Mustererkennung
92, 14. DAGM Symposion, Dresden, 1992, pp. 304–309.
[9] K. Andresen, B. Kamp, R. Ritter: 3DContour of Crack Tips Using a Grating Method. Sec
ond International Conference on Photomechanics and Speckle Metrology, San Diego 1991.
SPIE Proceedings Vol. 1554A (1991) 93–100.
[10] K. Andresen, B. Kamp, R. Ritter: Threedimensional surface deformation measurement by
a grating method applied to crack tips. Opt. Eng. 31 (1992) 1499–1504.
[11] K. Andresen, Z. Lei, K. Hentrich: Close range dimensional measurement using grating
techniques and natural edges. SPIE 2248 (1994) 460–467.
[12] K. Andresen, K. Hentrich, B. Hu¨bner: Camera Orientation and 3DDeformation Measure
ment by Use of Cross Gratings. Optics and Lasers in Engineering 22 (1995) 215–226.
[13] CAP – Combined Adjustment Program, Users Manual. Fa. Rollei Braunschweig, FRG,
1989.
[14] K. Andresen: Ermittlung von Raumelementen aus Kanten im Bild. Zeitschrift fu¨r Photo
grammetrie und Fernerkundung 59 (1991) 212–220.
[15] F. Neugebauer: Calculation of curved lines in space from nonhomologues edgepoints. Opti
cal 3D Measurement Techniques III, Eds. Gruen/Kahmen, Vienna 1995, pp. 506–515.
[16] J. Stickforth: The Square Root of a ThreeDimensional Positive Tensor. Acta Mechanica 67
(1987) 233–235.
[17] F. Bredendick: Methoden der Deformationsermittlung an verzerrten Gittern. Wiss. Zeit
schrift der Techn. Univ. Dresden 18 (1969) 531–538.
[18] L. Eberlein, P. Feldmann, R. V. Thi: Visioplastische Deformations und Spannungsanalyse
beim Fliesspressen. Umformtechnik 26 (1992) 113–118.
[19] K. Andresen, R. Ritter, E. Steck: Theoretical and Experimental Investigations of Fracture
by FEM and Grating Methods. Defect Assessment in Components – Fundamentals and Ap
plications. Mechanical Engineering Publications, London, 1991, pp. 345–361.
[20] K. Andresen, S. Dannemeyer, H. Friebe, R. Mahnken, R. Ritter, E. Stein: Parameteridentifi
kation fu¨r ein plastisches Stoffgesetz mit FEMethoden und Rasterverfahren. Bauing. 71
(1996) 21–31.
14 SurfaceDeformation Fields from Grating Pictures Using Image Processing
336
15 Experimental and Numerical Analysis
of the Inelastic Postbuckling Behaviour
of ShearLoaded Aluminium Panels
Horst Kossira and Gunnar Arnst *
15.1 Introduction
The engineering problem of the presented research project is based on the design and
loading of the aerospace structure shown in Figure 15.1. Although the example in Fig
ure 15.1 depicts a possible structure of a hypersonic vehicle, the construction is typical
for supersonic and common subsonic transport aircrafts. To examine the basic phenom
ena of the loadcarrying behaviour in the postbuckling range, the analysis of such struc
tures can be reduced to a simplified mechanical model of an initially flat, shearloaded
panel. For practical reasons, our investigations were limited to aluminium (Al2024T3)
panels at ambient temperature and 2008C. Within the high postbuckling regime or at
high load levels and elevated temperatures in supersonic vehicles, moderate inelastic
strains occur and the behaviour of the considered structure becomes geometric and
physically nonlinear.
Due to the high complexity of the problem, analytical investigations must be ac
companied by tests in order to validate the numerical model. It is based on the Finite
Element method and therefore can be easily applied to different geometries and bound
ary conditions. The main problem of the numerical model is the choice of suitable
material models since no universal material model for the description of the inelastic
behaviour of arbitrary metallic materials exists. To simplify the adaption of the pre
sented numerical model to different materials, the used solution algorithm is designed
to allow a very easy implementation of different material models. In case of the consid
ered aluminium alloy, the performance of several material models is examined for the
rateindependent plasticity at ambient temperature and viscoplastic behaviour at ele
vated temperature. The identification of their parameters from suited material test re
sults is demonstrated.
All shear tests, including quasistatic monotonic, cyclic and creep and relaxation
tests at elevated temperatures, are conducted with a specially designed test setup
337
* Technische Universita¨t Braunschweig, Institut fu¨r Flugzeugbau und Leichtbau,
Hermann Blenk Straße 35, D38108 Braunschweig, Germany
Plasticity of Metals: Experiments, Models, Computation. Collaborative Research Centres.
Edited by E. Steck, R. Ritter, U. Peil, A. Ziegenbein
Copyright © 2001 WileyVCH Verlag GmbH
ISBNs: 3527277285 (Softcover); 3527600116 (Electronic)
(“PApS”, Figure 15.2) generating pure shear load with clamped boundary conditions.
The rigid edges of the picture frame are pinjointed, where the pins are located exactly
at the corners of the square specimen. The pins are parted so that the tested area of the
specimen forms a square field with no cutouts with a dimension of 500×500 mm
2
.
Therefore, the comparison of numerical and theoretical results achieved with the me
chanical model shown in Figure 15.3 are not influenced by uncertainties in the assump
tion of the geometry or the boundary conditions.
The test setup is equipped with nine infrared radiators in front of the shear panel
and eight heating elements, which are placed directly on the edges of the shear frame.
In combination with five separate temperature controllers, a nearly constant temperature
distribution can be achieved in the tested area of the panel up to 2008C. Until now, 78
monotonic and cyclic tests at ambient and elevated temperature and different panel
thicknesses have been performed on this test setup.
15 Experimental and Numerical Analysis of the Inelastic Postbuckling Behaviour
338
Figure 15.1: Typical structure.
Figure 15.2: Test setup PApS.
15.2 Numerical Model
15.2.1 FiniteElement method
Two partly different formulations of the fundamental equations and affiliated solution
methods are used. The behaviour of the considered material at room temperature can
be described by means of rateindependent material models for spontaneous plasticity.
This type of nonlinear material models are implemented in the framework of the geome
trically nonlinear static equations of the plate theory, and the problem is solved by incre
mentaliterative methods. At the other hand, the viscoplastic problem introduces real
timedependency with higher demands regarding the timeintegration accuracy and stabil
ity. Therefore, a more closed formulation of the fundamental equations of the continuum
theory and the constitutive equations is used to apply a suitable timeintegration method.
Both methods base on the following assumptions of the continuum theory: Adopting a
total Lagrange formulation with an additive decomposition of the strain tensor, large de
formations but only small strains are admissible. The mixed variational principle, which is
used to derive the finite elements, bases on the KirchhoffLove plate theory. This theory
yields reasonably good results since the considered panels are sufficiently slender. All ma
terial models are implemented in the numerical model by means of the normality rule of
the classical theory of plasticity, applying a v. Mises type of inelastic potential. A mixed
principle is chosen since such a formulation produces displacements and stresses with the
same degree of approximation as primary unknowns, and therefore provides some advan
tages concerning the computational effort in the treatment of the nonlinearities. All pri
mary unknowns of the described variational formulations are approximated with bilinear
polynoms, yielding a fournoded plate element.
15.2 Numerical Model
339
Figure 15.3: Mechanical model.
15.2.1.1 Ambient temperature – rateindependent problem
The used variational functional is derived from the principle of virtual displacements
with the straindisplacement relation as a restriction and reads for a certain state t:
dA
t
d
F
r
t
c
Ã
À
1
2
r
t
C
À1
r
!
dF À
F
dv
t
p dF 0 :
1
This principle is transformed into an incremental form, yielding the linear stiffness ma
trix, the tangent and the secant matrix. The solution for each increment is achieved by
an arc lengthcontrolled modified NewtonRaphson iteration. In this form, the material
law in the incremental form De DDr is comprised in the tangent matrix, and the
nonlinear constitutive equations of the rateindependent material models can be easily
included. The inplane, coupling and bending stiffnesses of the plate material are deter
mined by integration of the actual elasticplastic tangent moduli D given by the used
material model over the plate thickness. This integration assumes discrete layers with
constant properties in thickness direction, and the description of the material behaviour
is reduced to the plain stress constitutive equation in each layer. The elasticplastic tan
gent modulus is updated only once for each load increment using the results of the pre
vious load step, yielding an EulerCauchy type of integration of the nonlinear constitu
tive equations. This method considerably reduces the numerical effort. Furthermore, no
differentiation of the constitutive equations is needed as it would be the case in implicit
integration methods, and therefore, the material model can be changed very easily. Sta
bility problems in the integration of the used material models were never observed, and
it can be shown that the error in the solution for the used constitutive equations re
mains sufficiently small since the magnitude of the load increments, which is restricted
by the geometric nonlinearities, is small enough. Details can be found in [1] and [2].
The described solution method is in principle capable of calculating snapthrough ef
fects. However, due to the quasistatic basis of the method, a socalled instable equilib
rium path connects the starting and the end point of the snapthrough. This path repre
sents a fair approximation only for moderate snapthroughs. Simulations of severe
snapthroughs, which occur in the range of unloading during cyclic shear tests after
very high load amplitudes, lead – in connection with the development of plastic strains
during the snapthrough – to obviously wrong solutions and numerical problems. To
improve the capabilities of the used method, the described FiniteElement formulation
was extended to calculate dynamic effects by solving the complete equation of move
ment. For simplicity, the damping matrix is formed by a linear combination of the used
consistent mass matrix and the systemstiffness matrix. The magnitude of damping is
fitted to experimental results. The accelerations and the velocities are derived from the
displacements using the Newmark scheme. To reduce the numerical effort, the dynamic
method is only used if the quasistatic method detects a limit point in the loading path
and a snapthrough is starting. In this point of loading, the determinant of the system
matrix changes its sign. When after the snapthrough, the velocities of the structure are
small enough, the quasistatic method is used again.
15 Experimental and Numerical Analysis of the Inelastic Postbuckling Behaviour
340
15.2.1.2 Elevated temperature – viscoplastic problem
The temporal derivative of the basic variational principle (Equation (1)) is used to de
rive the FiniteElement formulation. To achieve a closed formulation of the problem,
the equations related to the material model are included in the principle by means of
Lagrange multipliers. In case of the Chaboche model, those equations are: the consis
tency condition, the overstress function and the evolution equations for isotropic and
kinematic hardening. The corresponding Lagrange multipliers can be determined by the
requirement that each term of the variational principle has to form an energy. Like in
the rateindependent problem, a layered model is adopted. However, the plate stiffness
is formulated directly in terms of the primary unknowns. In the sense of a “rate
approach” [3], the primary unknowns are the velocities, the temporal derivatives of the
stresses, respectively the membrane forces, and the bending moments plus the temporal
derivative of the viscoplastic potential and the effective strain rate of each layer. The
complete viscoplastic problem is solved by a predictorcorrector method similar to a
midpointtype timeintegration algorithm. One predictor and one corrector step is used
for solving the equations in one timeincrement. A comprehensive discussion of this
method is given in [4]. This timeintegration scheme was chosen in order to avoid the
analytical or numerical determination of the tangentstiffness matrix needed in the
framework of implicit timeintegration schemes to establish the NewtonRaphson itera
tion. Therefore, this method reduces the difficulties of the implementation of new con
stitutive equations. An automatic timestep control is established by limiting the magni
tude of the increment of equivalent total strain within each timestep. The critical value
for this increment of equivalent total strain is determined by numerical experiments.
15.2.2 Material models
All investigations are made for the aluminium alloy 2024T3 (AlCuMg2/3.1354T3),
where T3 denotes the rolling and prestraining pretreatment. The results of tension tests
at room temperature and elevated temperature are given in Figure 15.4. There is a dis
tinct plastic orthotropy at room temperature, which must be taken into consideration in
the material model. This orthotropy vanishes at higher temperatures. The results of the
tests at 2008C with different loading rates give an impression of the changed mechani
cal properties of the material at elevated temperatures.
15.2.2.1 Ambient temperature – rateindependent problem
The cyclic elastoplastic behaviour of the considered aluminium alloy 2024T3 at ambi
ent temperature can be described by two or more surface rateindependent material
models based on the classical theory of plasticity. In the conducted investigations, the
performance of twelve different material models, respectively combinations of their ba
sic characteristics, were examined.
15.2 Numerical Model
341
Those basic characteristics are:
• the number (Mroz) and shape of the yield surfaces, i. e. v. Mises, Hill, Rees,
DoongSocie,
• the rule for the translation of the yield surface, respectively kinematic hardening,
i. e. Mroz, PhillipsWeng, TsengLee,
• the rule for the isotropic hardening, i. e. Ellyin, and
• the way, the plastic tangent modulus is determined, i. e. Dafalias or McDowell.
A more detailed description of the used material models is given in [1, 5, 6]. The influ
ence of the translational rule on the performance material models shall be discussed in
more detail. All of the described models use v. Misestype yield surfaces. Deformable
yield surfaces shall not be discussed here in more detail.
The Mroz model for the material used is sketched in Figure 15.5. Four surfaces
are located in the stress space. The inner one surrounds the elastic region and is of the
Hilltype. This type of yield surface is based on the v. Mises surface, but can be de
formed by adjusting additional shape parameters. All surfaces can move in the stress
space in the sense of kinematic hardening expressed in terms of the backstress tensor.
This effect is substantial for the representation of the Bauschinger effect occurring in
cyclic loading of metallic materials. Furthermore, the description of the plastic aniso
tropy is made possible by adjusting the starting values of the backstress tensor. There
fore, kinematic hardening is necessary even for the simulation of tests with monotonic
loading. Plastic loading takes place when the stress point is located on the yield surface
and moves in an outward direction. Stress states beyond the yield surface are not ad
missible. This is controlled in all types of material models of this category by the so
called consistency condition. Therefore, the movement of the yield surface during plas
tic loading with kinematic hardening is restricted by this condition. The direction of the
movement of the yield surface has to be established separately. For the Mroz model,
15 Experimental and Numerical Analysis of the Inelastic Postbuckling Behaviour
342
Figure 15.4: Tensile tests at room temperature and at 2008C.
the translation of the yield surfaces is chosen in a way that subsequent yield surfaces
get into contact in points with equal directed normals. In other words, the surfaces
approach each other tangentially.
An isotropic hardening during plastic loading, which means an expansion of the
surfaces, is possible. This type of hardening describes the stabilization of the materials
hysteresis and is controlled by means of the accumulated effective plastic strain. Its
contribution to the entire hardening is small since the considered alloy shows a rapid
stabilization under cyclic loading. Each surface of the Mroz model is connected with a
constant plastic tangent modulus. This causes a piecewise linear approximation of the
inelastic stressstrain relation, which is a central advantage of this model since the ini
tial position of the yield surfaces, their diameter, the shape parameters of the yield sur
faces and the plastic tangent moduli can easily be determined as the graphic in Figure
15.5 demonstrates. Unfortunately, the storage capacity needed for this model in numeri
cal analyses is comparatively high since three backstress tensors have to be stored.
The second described material model is the TsengLee model. It consists of only
one yield surface and a socalled memory surface in the stress space. The yield surface
shows kinematic and isotropic hardening, whereas the memory surface can only expand
in the sense of isotropic hardening. The translational rule for the kinematic hardening is
chosen in an approximation of the test results of Phillips [7]. These results indicate that
the translation on the yield surface is directed along the actual stress increment. To
avoid an intersection of the yield and the memory surface, Tseng and Lee [8] formu
lated their translational rule as a combination of the “Phillips direction” and a direction
of movement, which is determined by the distance measure between the actual stress
point on the yield surface and a point on the memory surface with the same outer nor
15.2 Numerical Model
343
Figure 15.5: Mroz model.
mal. Unfortunately, the Mroz direction predominates the kinematic hardening in some
constellations of the position of the yield surface and loading direction. To improve this
behaviour, an own modified formulation for a combined translational rule was devel
oped, which enforces the movement along the “Phillips direction”. In both models, the
tangent modulus is determined as a function of a distance measure between the actual
stress point and a point on the memory surface. Considering nonproportional harden
ing effects, the distance measure used in the equation of Dafalias for the tangent modu
lus is directed along the stress increment. If the yield surface is in contact with the
memory surface and the distance measure becomes zero, the tangent modulus is deter
mined by a simple RambergOsgood power law, which is fitted to the properties of the
material under monotonic loading. The usage of two different equations for the tangent
modulus – for repeated loading and for monotonic loading – is affirmed by tests con
ducted by Phillips [7].
The fourth model in this comparison is formed by a twosurface model with a
pure Mroztype translational rule and the Dafalias equation for the tangent modulus.
All parameter identifications for the considered models are performed by means
of stochastic, respectively evolutional optimizing methods, using a leastsquare formula
tion of the object function. To use the material models for the calculation of the behav
iour of the shearloaded panels, their parameters are identified simultaneously by the re
sults of four uniaxial tensioncompression tests with specimen made of the considered
aluminium alloy in the typical pretreatment state. The results of the tensioncompres
sion tests are fairly good approximated by all four described material models. An ex
ample is given for the TsengLee model in Figure 15.4, where only the first tensile
loadings are depicted.
Since wide areas of cyclic shearloaded and buckled panels exhibit nonpropor
tional paths for one component of normal strain and the shear strain, special emphasis
is laid on the capabilities of the material models in reproducing nonproportional hard
ening effects. Results of straincontrolled tensiontorsion test (provided by G. Lange et
al. [9], Institute of Material Science, Techn. Univ. Braunschweig) are used to examine
the performance of the material models considering the effect of nonproportional hard
ening. The results of the simulation of a typical nonproportional strain path are shown
in Figure 15.6. The first loading of the tubular specimen leads to pure shear. Then, the
specimen is unloaded and a combined tensiontorsion loading starts. After total unload
ing, this load cycle starts again. Obviously, the models using a pure Mroztype transla
tional rule show a poorer correlation with the test data, especially in the development
of the tensile stress. In contrast, the models using the combined translational rules are
able to give a good simulation of the behaviour even up to high cycle numbers.
With one indicated exception, all results given in this paper, concerning the be
haviour of shearloaded panels at ambient temperature, are calculated with the de
scribed TsengLee material model.
15.2.2.2 Elevated temperature – viscoplastic problem
The viscoplastic problem is treated with unified, respectively overstress material mod
els. The models of Steck [10] (in an isothermal formulation, see Equations (2) and (3))
15 Experimental and Numerical Analysis of the Inelastic Postbuckling Behaviour
344
and Chaboche [11] with several modifications are in examination. Several creep, stress
and straincontrolled uniaxial tests were performed (supported by K.T. Rie et al. [12],
Institute of Surface Engineering and Plasmatechnology, Techn. Univ. Braunschweig) to
provide results for the process of parameter identification. This is necessary because of
the strongly underdetermined character of such a problem, and since it is known that a
parameter identification with only one distinct type of test result usually cannot repre
sent the properties of the material sufficiently.
• Steck model:
e_
in
A
1
e
ÀV
2
r
iso
sinh
V
1
r
eff
N
sign
r
eff
with r_
iso
h
1
e
ÀV
3
r
iso
je_
in
j À A
2
e
V
4
r
iso
;
2
r_
kin
h
2
e
V
1
r
iso
ÀV
5
r
kin
sign
r
eff
e_
in
À A
3
sinh
V
6
r
kin
and r
eff
r À r
kin
:
3
• Chaboche model:
e_
in
f
K
N
; for f > 0 with f
_
D
T À X À R
_
; X C
2
3
ae
in
À X_ e
in
and R
_
c
Q À Re_
in
:
4
Figure 15.7 depicts the results for the simulation of three creep tests with the Steck model
and the basic Chaboche model (Equation (4)). The parameters of both models are simul
15.2 Numerical Model
345
Figure 15.6: Results of tensiontorsion tests compared to different material models.
taneously identified from the three creep tests. The creep rates of the uniaxial tests are of
the same magnitude as the typical rates occurring in certain spots of the corresponding
shearpanel tests. However, the results of FiniteElement calculations performed with
these sets of material parameters are not in good correlation with the shear tests. It is as
sumed that better results – regarding the calculation of the behaviour of the shear panels –
can be achieved if a fair approximation of a set of creep tests, tension tests at higher load
ing rates, and a special transient, stresscontrolled test are achieved.
The simultaneous identification of the parameters of the material models from
those tests is performed by optimizing methods using a combination of gradient and
stochastic algorithms. Unfortunately, parameter identifications with both models are not
successful. Numerical experiments show that the main problem is the reproduction of
the tension test at high loading rates (the result of a test at 1 MPa/s is depicted in Fig
ure 15.4). To avoid this problem, the overstress function of the Chaboche model is
modified by adding a term accounting for additional, rateindependent inelastic strains.
This “overlaying method” is among others described in [13] and [14]. Within the engi
neering approach, the interaction between both parts of inelastic strains is neglected.
Good results are achieved with a very simple approximation of those rateindependent
strains by a type of RambergOsgood power law for isotropic hardening. It is the same
approximation as it is assumed for the monotonic hardening regime within the ratein
dependent TsengLee model described above. With this additional term, two new pa
rameters are introduced into the material model. A very good starting value (regarding
15 Experimental and Numerical Analysis of the Inelastic Postbuckling Behaviour
346
Figure 15.7: Simulation of creep tests with the Steck and the basic Chaboche material model.
further parameter identification of the complete material model) for those parameters
can be found manually within a few iterations if it is assumed that the major part of
the inelastic strain, occurring in a fast tension test (see Figure 15.4), is described only
by this RambergOsgood term. The approach without kinematic hardening is possible
here since no inelastic orthotropy is present. As a matter of fact, no cyclic effects con
cerning this part of inelastic strains can be simulated. The results of a simultaneous
identification of the parameters of this model are given in Figure 15.4 for the tension
tests, in Figure 15.8 for the creep tests, and in Figure 15.9 for a transient test.
Additional tests with notched specimen (measurement and processing of strain
distribution was provided by R. Ritter and H. Friebe [15], Institute of Measurement
Techniques and Experimental Mechanics, Techn. Univ. Braunschweig) were conducted
to characterize the multiaxial behaviour of the considered material and to examine the
accuracy of the material models in the multiaxial case. Figure 15.10 shows the mea
sured strain distribution (lefthand side) and the numerical results (righthand side)
achieved with the modified Chaboche model for a creep test after 12 hours. The speci
men was loaded to a nominal value of tensile stress of 180 MPa in the smallest cross
section. Considering the resolution of the optical measuring method of 0.1–0.2% strain,
the numerical results are in very good correlation with the test results. All results given
in this paper concerning the behaviour of shearloaded panels at elevated temperature
are calculated with the described modified Chaboche material model.
15.2 Numerical Model
347
Figure 15.8: Simulation of creep tests with the modified Chaboche model (combined identifica
tion).
15 Experimental and Numerical Analysis of the Inelastic Postbuckling Behaviour
348
Figure 15.9: Simulation of transient tests with the modified Chaboche model (combined identifi
cation).
Figure 15.10: Test and numerical results for a creep test with an inhomogeneous specimen.
15.3 Experimental and Numerical Results
15.3.1 Test procedure
All tests conducted on the test setup PApS at ambient temperatures are incremental
step tests. The temporal course of loading of the specimen at elevated temperature is
controlled by a computer. In case of tests at elevated temperatures, the specimen is
mounted loosely in the shear frame at ambient temperature first. Then, the shear frame
and the panel are heated. After that, the 100 screws, which clamp the specimen be
tween the halves of the shear frame, are tightened. This procedure avoids a preloading
of the panel and the occurrence of significant thermal buckles due to the different ther
mal strains of the aluminium panel and the steel shear frame. Nevertheless, the imper
fections of the panel at the beginning of the mechanical loading are slightly higher than
in tests at room temperature. The angle of shear (see Figure 15.3) and the central de
flection of the buckled panel are determined by inductive displacement transducers. Ad
ditionally, strain gauge rosettes are positioned at different points of the shear panels,
and in some cases, the entire displacement field has been measured by means of engi
neering photogrammetry.
15.3.2 Computational analysis
The shear panels are discretized with regular meshes as it is shown in Figure 15.11. Si
mulations of shearanglecontrolled tests are conducted with prescribed deformations of
the edges of the panels. The resulting load is obtained by integrating the stress resul
tants along the edges. In case of loadcontrolled tests like creep tests, the rigid clamp
ing of the panels is simulated by introducing constraints for the nodal deformations on
the edges into the FiniteElement equation system. The load is then applied as a single
force on one corner of the panel. An examination of the convergency of the spatial dis
cretization of the panels showed that regular meshes with 20×20 elements are suffi
cient since a further refinement gives no significant improvement of the results for the
central deflection (Figure 15.11) or the effective shear load. Since the computational ef
fort – especially for the solution of the viscoplastic problem – is very high even
16×16 element meshes are used. Meshes with refinements near the clamped bound
aries of the panel improve the solution only when the whole mesh is very coarse. It
has been shown by comparative analyses that the idealization of the panel with ten
layers in thickness direction is sufficient for the rateindependent problem. Typical
creep analyses are conducted with only seven layers without a significant loss of accu
racy in the global and local results since the distribution of the inelastic strains along
the cross section of the panels is more smooth than in the spontaneous plasticity prob
lem. The determination of the critical timestep sizes related to accuracy and stability
shall not be discussed here in detail. Numerical experiments show that the creep behav
iour of the shear panels is reproduced within acceptable accuracy for the current param
15.3 Experimental and Numerical Results
349
eters of the material model if a timestep of about 10 s is used at the very beginning of
the creep process. This comparatively small timestep can be increased very rapidly.
The critical timestep for stability can be determined also by numerical experiments
and is larger than 160 s.
15.3.2.1 Monotonic loading – ambient temperature
Figure 15.11 shows some experimental and numerical results for the first loading of
panels with 1.4 mm thickness at ambient temperature. The angle of shear is plotted ver
sus the central deflection. For an undamaged plate, the first symmetric buckling mode
always corresponds to the lowest eigenvalue. For this reason, the plate will buckle sym
metrically. Within the pre and the lower postbuckling range, the behaviour of the pan
els is strongly influenced by initial geometric imperfections. The influence of the geo
metric imperfections vanishes at least when the angle of shear reaches values of about
0.128. As the first plastic deformation occurs at an angle of shear of about 0.28, the
geometric imperfections do not affect the plastic deformation. Numerous numerical ana
lyses show that the angle of shear at first yielding is approximately a constant for panel
thicknesses between 1.2 mm and 3.0 mm.
The first yielding takes place at a spot on the edges, where the main buckle is
constrained by the clamping. Further load increase leads to a propagation of plastic re
gions at this spot and along the tension diagonal on the concave sides of the buckle.
15 Experimental and Numerical Analysis of the Inelastic Postbuckling Behaviour
350
Figure 15.11: First loading of shear panels with a thickness of 1.4 mm.
The loadangleofshear diagram shows no direct influence of the first plastic deforma
tions on the overall stiffness of the panels until – depending on the panel thickness –
the angle of shear reaches values of 0.58 or more. Figure 15.12a depicts theoretical re
sults for the deformation state and current distribution of the tangent modulus in three
planes of the plate for a 1.6 mm panel at different loading states. The tangent modulus
is a measure for the local stiffness and the development of plastic strains since it repre
sents the slope of the uniaxial referencestressstrain curve of the material. Therefore, in
the regime of elastic straining, its value is equal to the elastic modulus and decreases
with increasing plastic loading. The distribution of the tangent modulus at an angle of
shear of 0.358 (superceding the value of the critical buckling load by a factor of 20),
which is shown on the lefthand side of Figure 15.12a, shows still large areas of nearly
elastic states. Higher loads lead to a distribution of the tangent modulus, which is
shown on the righthand side of Figure 15.12a. In this case – at an angle of shear of
0.68 –, the plastic regions cover the whole plate, and in the tension field, the plastic or
tangent modulus decreases considerably due to large plastic deformations. From a com
parison of the deformation states follows that the magnitude of the buckling deflections
are not very much increased from the lower to the higher load as the loadcarrying
mechanism of the panel is shifted from bending to membrane tension.
15.3.2.2 Cyclic loading – ambient temperature
The load reversal represents the most critical point of the behaviour of the cyclically
loaded panel since remaining deformations from prior plastic loading act like geometri
15.3 Experimental and Numerical Results
351
Figure 15.12a: Deformation states and distributions of the plastic tangent modulus at maximum
load.
cal imperfections each time when zero load is passed. The computed distribution of the
deflection and the corresponding distribution of the effective plastic strain at zero load
are shown in Figure 15.12b. As a matter of fact, the larger remaining deformations
after higher loads lead to more intense snapthroughs from the current buckling form to
the buckling form after load reversal with buckles perpendicular to the former ones.
This can be seen in Figure 15.13, where the results of the first cycle of shear tests
(1.4 mm panel thickness) at increasing amplitudes of the applied load, respectively of
the angle of shear, are illustrated. Due to inevitable small disturbances in the tests, the
direction of the central deflection after passing zero load is not predictable. Therefore,
there are two possible paths of the central deflection after each snapthrough.
With increasing load amplitude, the snapthrough becomes more complicated
since it can run through different even unsymmetric buckling forms as intermediate
states. In cases when the central deflection has the same sign in both load extrema, the
load reversal can lead to a “doublesnapthrough” with an intermediate state with oppo
site central deflection. For the theoretical computations, a change of the deformation
path after reaching the bifurcation point at load reversal – the socalled branch switch
ing – is obtained by using small geometric imperfections or disturbances corresponding
to the desired buckling mode. In cases of a more intense and complicated snapthrough
behaviour, the described dynamic method is used. In this case, the branch switching is
managed by applying a suitable distribution of accelerations, which disturbs the system
and induces the dynamic snapthrough procedure. This is illustrated in Figure 15.14,
where the subsequent deformation states and the distribution of the velocity normal to
the plate in a moment corresponding to the depicted intermediate deformation state are
shown.
15 Experimental and Numerical Analysis of the Inelastic Postbuckling Behaviour
352
Figure 15.12b: Deformation states and distributions of the effective plastic strain before snap
through after different maximum loads.
15.3 Experimental and Numerical Results
353
Figure 15.13: Angle of shear vs. central deflection, results for 1.4 mm panels at different load am
plitudes.
Figure 15.14: Dynamic snapthrough, deformations and velocity distribution.
The snapthrough in Figure 15.14 was computed in the first cycle of a cyclic
shear test (panel thickness 1.6 mm) at the very high amplitude of the angle of shear of
0.78. The results for the central deflection of this test are given in Figure 15.15. Addi
tionally to the numerical results achieved with the TsengLee model, the starting and
ending points of the first and second snapthrough computed with the Mroz model are
shown in this figure. As can be easily seen, the accuracy of the used material model
has a large influence on the reproduction of the snapthrough behaviour since it de
pends strongly on the remaining plastic deformations at the bifurcation points. In most
cases, the repeated buckling behaviour remains the same after the second load cycle. In
this test, the cyclic buckling behaviour did not change. Only in one of 22 cyclic tests, a
random behaviour in changing the sign of the central deflection was observed. Further
more, Figure 15.15 shows that the global cyclic loaddeformation course is obviously
stabilized after the second cycle, and the results for the 10th and 50th cycle are nearly
identical. Since the correlations between numerical results and test results are fairly
good, the numerical model is applied to different aspect ratios (a/b, see Figure 15.3). In
Figure 15.16, the development of the central deflection and the buckling pattern of two
panels with different aspect ratios are shown. Typical results, which can be used in the
design of shear panels for defining the distance of stringers and frames, are shown in
Figure 15.17.
15 Experimental and Numerical Analysis of the Inelastic Postbuckling Behaviour
354
Figure 15.15: Angle of shear vs. central deflection, results for 1.6 mm panels at very high load
amplitude (left) and at higher numbers of cycles (right).
15.3 Experimental and Numerical Results
355
Figure 15.16: Buckling modes and central deflection, cyclic loading, aspect ratios a/b=1.5 and
2.0.
Figure 15.17: Load at angle of shear of 0.38 and 0.58 vs. thickness, different aspect ratios.
15.3.2.3 Timedependent behaviour
The general buckling behaviour and the buckling mode of panels loaded at 2008C are
very similar to those at room temperature. Results for the monotonic first loading of
panels at different temperatures are shown in Figure 15.18. The loading rate for the
tests at elevated temperature is 0.17 kN/s. It is known from the parameter identification
of the material models, that the tangent modulus at the beginning of loading at 2008C
is only 10% smaller than at room temperature. Therefore, the “global stiffness”, which
means the ratio between the global angle of shear and the load, is nearly the same for
all examined temperatures in the prebuckling regime. When the panel starts to buckle,
the occurring bending stresses together with the shear stress lead to early inelastic
strains, which yield a stronger decrease of the global stiffness than at room tempera
ture. Further analyses show that in the range of panel thicknesses between 1.2 and
1.8 mm, an increase of the panel thickness of approximately 0.2 mm covers the loss of
global stiffness in the postbuckling regime due to the increase of the temperature from
208C to 2008C. The development of the central deflection during monotonic loading
of the shear panels at 2008C is almost equal to the situation at room temperature if the
postbuckling regime is concerned. The theoretical buckling loads at 2008C tend to be
slightly higher, but due to the undetermined imperfections, a proper measurement of
this effect is impossible. The influence of different loading rates on the monotonic be
15 Experimental and Numerical Analysis of the Inelastic Postbuckling Behaviour
356
Figure 15.18: Load vs. angle of shear for 1.6 mm panels at different temperatures.
haviour of the panels is up to now examined between 0.17 kN/s and 0.01 kN/s. All
loading rates lead to no significant changes in the monotonic behaviour regarding buck
ling load and postbuckling stiffness within the normal scatter of the test data.
Figure 15.19 depicts results of creep tests. The theoretical creep rates in the global
stationary creep regime are in good correlation with the measurements. The creep rates
in the primary phase are underestimated by the numerical model, especially at lower
load levels since there is no smooth transition between loading and creep phase. This is
not only a problem of the description of the primary and secondary creep behaviour of
the material since there is a second more geometric nonlinear effect. In this first creep
phase, a more rapid relaxation of the bending stresses due to the buckling must take
place. In the case of spontaneous plasticity, the increase of the load reduces the share
of bending within the whole loadcarrying mechanism and the tension component
along the diagonal increases. During a creep process, this loadcarrying state is reached
due to the permanent generation of inelastic strains. The used numerical model gives
better results for the first creep phase if this tension loadcarrying state is already
reached during the loading phase by applying higher creep loads (Figure 15.19). The
development of the central deflection indicates only small changes in the deformation
of the panel during creep. The creep test at a load of 65 kN shown in Figure 15.19
yields to an increase of the central deflection of 0.7 mm within the first 360 min. Tests
at lower creep rates yield even lower increases of the central deflection.
15.3 Experimental and Numerical Results
357
Figure 15.19: Angle of shear vs. time for different creep tests, thickness 1.6 mm.
Figure 15.20 illustrates the influence of creep load and panel thickness on the
creep rates. In this figure, the creepshear angle is defined as the difference between the
shear angle at the start of the creep process and the value after 360 min giving an inte
gral measure for the occurring creep rates.
Finally, Figure 15.21 shows the computed development of the effective inelastic
strain for a creep test at 35 kN. The distributions at the start of the creep process on the
lefthand side are scaled by factor 10
4
, and those at the end of the creep process on the
righthand side of Figure 15.21 by factor 10
3
. In general, the distributions are again
similar to those of the rateindependent problem. During the creep process, the highest
increases of the inelastic strain can be found at the corners on the lower side and along
the edges on the upper side in the vicinity of the tension diagonal.
15.4 Conclusion
The combination of numerous experimental results and a wellestablished numerical model
give a good insight of the behaviour of shearbuckled aluminium panels as far as the be
haviour at monotonic, cyclic and creep loading is concerned. In case of the rateindepen
dent problem, the TsengLee material model is best suited to simulate the inelastic behav
iour of the material under consideration since this model describes the effect of nonpro
15 Experimental and Numerical Analysis of the Inelastic Postbuckling Behaviour
358
Figure 15.20: Increase of the angle of shear after 360 min.
portional loading very accurately. The viscoplastic problem is treated with the Chaboche
material model. To describe the material behaviour at higher load levels, an additional rate
independent term is added to the Chaboche model. Very high amplitudes of the external
shear loads in cyclic tests require a FiniteElement method with an algorithmaccounting for
dynamic effects to describe the complex snapthrough behaviour. The simulation of the
behaviour of panels with different geometries was performed successfully. The accuracy
of the developed method is proved by the fact that very good results are achieved for dur
ability analyses using the output of the numerical simulations as input.
List of Symbols
C matrix of inplane, coupling and bending stiffness
D yield tensor
F area of the plate midsurface
p discrete force vector
v vector of the midplane displacements
r vector of membrane forces and bending moments, properties
of the 2. PiolaKirchhoff stress tensor
c* vector of the inplane and bending strain with GreenLagrange properties
List of Symbols
359
Figure 15.21: Effective inelastic strain distributions for a creep test at 35 kN; lefthandside: factor
10
4
, t =5 min; righthand side: factor 10
3
, t =360 min.
a, A
i
, V
i
, N, parameters of the material models
K, Q, C, c
e
in
uniaxial inelastic strain
r uniaxial stress
[. . .]
t
state t
References
[1] K. Wolf: Untersuchungen zum Beul und Nachbeulverhalten schubbeanspruchter Teilscha
len aus kohlenstoffaserversta¨rktem Kunststoff. Inst. f. Flugzeugbau u. Leichtbau, Technische
Universita¨t Braunschweig, 1989.
[2] P. Horst: Zum Beulverhalten du¨nner, bis in den plastischen Bereich zyklisch durch Schub
belasteter Aluminiumplatten. ZLRForschungsbericht 9101, ISBN 3980207358, Inst. f.
Flugzeugbau u. Leichtbau, Technische Universita¨t Braunschweig, 1991.
[3] J. L. Chaboche: A Review of Computational Methods for Cyclic Plasticity and Viscoplastici
ty. Proc. of Int. Conference: Computational Plasticity – Models, Software and Applications,
Barcelona, 1987, pp. 379–411.
[4] J. Knippers: Eine gemischthybride FE Methode fu¨r viskoplastische Fla¨chentragwerke unter
dynamischen Einwirkungen. Berichte aus dem Konstruktiven Ingenieurbau, Heft 18, ISBN
3798315485, Technische Universita¨t Berlin, 1993.
[5] H. Kossira, P. Horst: Cyclic Shear Loading of Aluminium Panels with Regard to Buckling
and Plasticity. ThinWalled Structures 11 (1991) 65–84.
[6] P. Horst, H. Kossira, G. Arnst: On the Performance of Different ElastoPlastic Material
Models Applied to Cyclic ShearBuckling. Proc. of the Int. ECCSColloquim: On the Buck
ling of Shell Structures on Land, in the Sea and in the Air, Lyon, France, 1991.
[7] A. Phillips: A Review of Quasistatic Experimental Plasticity and Viscoplasticity. Int. J. Plas
ticity 2 (1986) 315–328.
[8] N. T. Tseng, G. C. Lee: Simple Plasticity Model of TwoSurfaceType. J. Engg. Mech. 109
(1983) 795–810.
[9] W. Gieseke, K. R. Hillert, G. Lange: Material State after Uni and Biaxial Cyclic Deforma
tion. This book (Chapter 2).
[10] H. Schlums, E. Steck: Description of Cyclic Deformation Processes with a Stochastic Mod
el for Inelastic Behaviour of Metals. Int. Jour. Plasticity 8 (1992) 147.
[11] J. L. Chaboche, G. Rousselier: On the Plastic and Viscoplastic Constitutive Equations –
Part I: Rules Developed with Internal Variable Concept. J. Pressure Vessel Technology
(ASME) 105 (1983) 153–158.
[12] K.T. Rie, H. Wittke, J. Olfe: Plasticity of Metals and Life Prediction in the Range of Low
Cycle Fatigue: Description of Deformation Behaviour and CreepFatigue Interaction. This
book (Chapter 3).
[13] E. R. Tirpitz, M. Schwesig: A Unified Model Approach Combining RateDependent and
RateIndependent Plasticity. Low Cycle Fatigue and ElastoPlastic Behaviour of Materials –
3, Berlin, 1992, pp. 411–417.
[14] E.R. Tirpitz: Elastoplastische Erweiterung von viskoplastischen Stoffmodellen fu¨r Metalle –
Theorie, Numerik und Anwendung. Report 9270, Inst. of Structural Mechanics, Techn.
Univ. Braunschweig, 1992.
[15] R. Ritter, H. Friebe: Experimental Determination of Deformation and Strain Fields by Op
tical Measuring Methods. This book (Chapter 13).
15 Experimental and Numerical Analysis of the Inelastic Postbuckling Behaviour
360
16 Consideration of Inhomogeneities in the Application
of Deformation Models, Describing the Inelastic
Behaviour of Welded Joints
Helmut Wohlfahrt * and Dirk Brinkmann**
16.1 Introduction
The local loads and deformations in welded joints have rarely been investigated under
the aspect that the mechanical behaviour is influenced by different kinds of microstruc
ture [1]. These different kinds of microstructure lead to multiaxial states of stresses and
strains, and some investigations [2–4] have shown that for the determination of the to
tal state of deformation of a welded joint, the locally different deformation behaviour
has to be taken into account. It is also published that different mechanical properties in
the heataffected zone (HAZ) [5] as well as a weld metal with a lower strength as the
base metal [6] can be the reason or the starting point of a fracture in welded joints. A
new investigation demonstrates [7] that in TIGwelded joints of the high strength steel
StE 690, a finegrained area in the heataffected zone with a lower strength than that of
the base metal is exclusively the starting zone of fracture under cyclic loading in the
fully compressive range. These investigations support the approach described here that
the mechanical behaviour of the different kinds of microstructure in the heataffected
zone of welded joints has to be taken into account in the deformation analysis. The in
fluences of these inhomogeneities on the local deformation behaviour of welded joints
were determined by experiments and numerical calculations over a wide range of tem
perature and loading. The numerical deformation analysis was performed with the
method of Finite Elements, in which recently developed deformation models simulate
the mechanical behaviour of materials over the tested range of temperature and loading
conditions.
The starting point of these investigations was the question if such deformation
models are able to describe the deformation behaviour of welded joints sufficiently.
361
* Technische Universita¨t Braunschweig, Institut fu¨r Schweißtechnik und Werkstofftechnologie,
Langer Kamp 8, D38106 Braunschweig, Germany
** Volkswagen AG, D38436 Wolfsburg, Germany
Plasticity of Metals: Experiments, Models, Computation. Collaborative Research Centres.
Edited by E. Steck, R. Ritter, U. Peil, A. Ziegenbein
Copyright © 2001 WileyVCH Verlag GmbH
ISBNs: 3527277285 (Softcover); 3527600116 (Electronic)
16.2 Materials and Numerical Methods
16.2.1 Materials and welded joints
The investigations were carried out with the microalloyed steel StE 460, of which the
microstructure in the normalized state consists of ferrite and minor amounts of bainite
and pearlite. The hardness has a value of 220 HV. The chemical composition is listed
in Table 16.1.
For the deformation analysis, manual arc weldings were manufactured with two
different widths of the weld seam (24 mm and 16 mm) using the same welding param
eters – with the exception of the number of layers – and the same welding electrodes.
The different joints were welded by varying the distance between the two welded
plates. The chemical composition of the electrodes is also given in Table 16.1 and the
welding parameters (U
w
=22.5 V, I
w
=170 A, v
w
=0.2 cm/s) lead to a heat input per
unit length of 20 kJ/cm, which is on the upper limit for the use of these electrodes.
Microsections and hardness distributions of the welded joints show clearly the
three different sections of the joints base metal, heataffected zone and weld metal
(Figures 16.1 and 16.2).
The microsections and the hardness distributions were not only used to identify these
different zones, but also to establish FiniteElement models for the calculations. Detailed
experimental and numerical investigations indicated that the heataffected zone must also
be divided into zones because the mechanical properties are not constant over its width.
On the basis of the microsections, four significantly different kinds of microstructure
could be identified. The differences between these kinds of microstructure are caused
by the peak temperature and the number of weld cycles. To gain the mechanical proper
ties of each microstructure, it must be identified and then prepared in specimens with a
large diameter and a large measurement length by using the socalled weld simulation.
During the weld simulation, various specimens of the base metal were conduc
tively heated up to different peak temperatures and then cooled under nitrogen with dif
ferent t
8,5
cooling times. The simulation parameters for each structure can be deter
mined first of all numerically by using the thermal conduction equation and subse
quently optimized experimentally by comparison with microsections. The specimens
with homogeneously simulated microstructures over a measurement length of 25 up to
30 mm were used in tensile tests, creep tests and tensioncompression tests. Micro
graphs of all four kinds of microstructure are shown in Figure 16.3. The various micro
structures are listed in Table 16.2 together with their hardness values.
16 Consideration of Inhomogeneities in the Application of Deformation Models
362
Table 16.1: Chemical composition of the base metal StE 460 and the weld electrodes.
C Si Mn P N Cu Ni
StE 460 0.14% 0.45% 1.62% 0.012% 0.006% 0.021% 0.56% Nb, V, S
Tenacito 70 0.06% 0.5% 1.6% – – – 0.9%
In addition to the investigations with the four kinds of microstructure of the heataf
fected zone, the same mechanical tests were carried out with the base metal and the
weld metal. The specimens containing the weld metal were taken from welded joints
vertical to the weld seam. They were machined in that way that in the mechanical tests,
the deformation is concentrated in the weld metal.
16.2 Materials and Numerical Methods
363
Figure 16.1: Microsections of manual arcwelded joints of the steel StE 460; up: width of the
weld metal: 24 mm; down: width of the weld metal: 16 mm.
Figure 16.2: Areas of the welded joints with hardness values below 230 HV (grey: base metal,
weld metal) and above 230 HV (black: HAZ).
16 Consideration of Inhomogeneities in the Application of Deformation Models
364
Figure 16.3: Microstructure of the base metal and microstructures N, F, C and M in the heataf
fected zone (from left to right).
Table 16.2: Kinds of investigated microstructures and Vickers hardness.
State of material Microstructure Hardness Notice
Base metal Ferrite (bainite, pearlite) 220 HV
Microstructure N Ferrite (bainite, pearlite) 230 HV finegrained as base metal
Microstructure F Ferrite (bainite, pearlite) 270 HV finegrained as base metal
Microstructure C Bainite, martensite 280 HV
Microstructure M Martensite (bainite) 375 HV
Weld metal – 220 HV
16.2.2 Deformation models and numerical methods
16.2.2.1 Deformation model of Gerdes
In these investigations, the hightemperature formulation of the deformation model of
Gerdes [8] was used:
e_
in
C
1
exp À
F
h
RT
jr À r
kin
j
r
0
n
1
sinh
bA
Ã
h
r À r
kin
RT
;
1
r_
kin
H
1
E exp À
d
1
bA
Ã
h
r
kin
sign
r
eff
RT
e_
in
À R
1
exp À
F
h
RT
sinh
bA
Ã
h
r
kin
RT
;
2
A
_
Ã
h
dV
1
je_
in
j dV
2
jrj dV
3
:
3
The model parameter r
0
, which is used for the stress standardization, was substituted
by the Young’s modulus. The timedependency of the activation volume is described
by a threeparametric function and is only used for the simulation of cyclic tests.
16.2.2.2 Fitting calculations
The fitting calculations were carried out in cooperation with project number B1 with an
evolution algorithm to gain the model parameters for the calculations. The parameter
calculations were performed here only phenomenologically for each temperature and
each kind of microstructure. Additionally, the different types of tests were simulated
separately because the qualities of the model parameters became much better then, and
the fitting calculations needed even less time than the parameter estimations made for
common tensile and creep tests.
16.3 Investigations with Homogeneous Structures
All investigations were carried out to prove whether deformation models are able to de
scribe the mechanical behaviour of the steel StE 460, of four significant kinds of micro
structure of this steel and of the weld metal of manual arc weldings. Tensile, creep and
tensioncompression tests were performed over a wide range of temperatures (room
temperature up to 7008C) and loading conditions in order to characterize the mechani
cal behaviour of each state of the base metal.
16.3 Investigations with Homogeneous Structures
365
16.3.1 Experimental and numerical investigations
16.3.1.1 Tensile tests
The results of the tensile tests made at room temperature are registered in Figure 16.4. The
base metal and the weld metal show a clearly visible yield strength, which is highly pro
nounced in the basemetal deformation, whereas a proof strength has to be attributed to the
various kinds of microstructure produced through weld simulation. The arrangement of
the stressstrain curves in Figure 16.4 corresponds with the hardness values. The micro
structure M with the highest hardness values has the highest flow stresses. For the param
eter estimation, the stressstrain curve of the base metal has to be filtered so that the yield
strength is transformed into a proof strength. The fitting calculations with the deformation
model of Gerdes indicate that the mechanical behaviour of the various kinds of micro
structure and the weld metal can be described sufficiently well, but differences arise in
the simulation of the stressstrain curve of the base metal and its yield strength cannot
be simulated by the deformation model. The largest differences occur in the yield
strength range, where the stress values are underestimated. At large strains (≥3%), the
experimental and the calculated values differ less. The calculated stressstrain curve of
the high strength microstructure M shows a stress state of saturation, whereas a steady
strain hardening is observed in the experiments with this kind of microstructure.
The tensile tests carried out at 3008C show very similar results as the tests at
room temperature (Figure 16.5). The arrangement of the stressstrain curves has the
same order and corresponds also to hardness values. The mechanical behaviour of the
base metal differs from that at room temperature because the yield strength of the base
16 Consideration of Inhomogeneities in the Application of Deformation Models
366
Figure 16.4: Stressstrain curves of the investigated microstructures at room temperature; sym
bols: experimental curve; lines: fitted curve.
metal is not as pronounced as at room temperature. Comparing Figure 16.4 and Figure
16.5, one sees that at strains above 3%, the strength values of all microstructures are
higher at 3008C than at room temperature. The Young’s modulus of all microstructures
decreased to a value of 170000 MPa. The mechanical behaviour of all kinds of micro
structure can be described again sufficiently by the fitting calculations and here, the
yield strength of the base metal is also adequately simulated. Only the calculated
stressstrain curve of the microstructure M includes a stress state of saturation at large
strains although the real stressstrain curve exhibits a strainhardening behaviour.
The stressstrain curves at 5008C (Figure 16.6) are again arranged in the same order
as at room temperature. At this temperature, the base metal shows no yieldstrength effects
and its stressstrain curve is nearly the same as the curve of the microstructure N. The
stressstrain curve of the microstructure M reveals a softening behaviour at large
strains, and the differences between the curves of the structures M and C decreased.
The fitting calculations carried out by using a Young’s modulus of 150000 MPa simulate
the mechanical behaviour of all kinds of microstructure very well, only the softening of the
microstructure M is unsuitably modelled with a stress state of saturation.
It can be seen in Figure 16.7 that the stressstrain curves taken at 7008C are not
arranged in the same order as at room temperature. At 7008C, the base metal has a
higher strength than the microstructures N and F because the especially low grain size
of these two microstructures favours plastic deformation at high temperatures. The two
high strength microstructures M and C show a softening behaviour caused by a trans
formation of the microstructure. The fitting calculations (Young’s modu
lus=130000 MPa) correspond relatively well with the experimental results although the
softening behaviour is unsuitably modelled by horizontal lines.
16.3 Investigations with Homogeneous Structures
367
Figure 16.5: Stressstrain curves of the investigated microstructures at 3008C; symbols: experi
mental curve; lines: fitted curve.
16 Consideration of Inhomogeneities in the Application of Deformation Models
368
Figure 16.6: Stressstrain curves of the investigated microstructures at 5008C; symbols: experi
mental curve; lines: fitted curve.
Figure 16.7: Stressstrain curves of the investigated microstructures at 7008C; symbols: experi
mental curve; lines: fitted curve.
16.3.1.2 Creep tests
The creep tests were carried out at 5008C and 7008C. Already at 5008C (loading:
275 MPa), all kinds of microstructure show a remarkable creep (Figure 16.8). The or
der of all creep curves agrees within the range of reproducibility with the results of the
tensile tests. The differences between the base metal and the microstructure N and the
differences between the microstructures M and C are very small. The fitting calcula
tions show a very good applicability of the deformation model of Gerdes to the creep
behaviour of all microstructures. Differences between the experiments and the calcula
tions are not noticeable in Figure 16.8.
The analysis of the creep behaviour at 7008C (loading: 50 MPa) reveals results
analogous to those of the tensile tests. The highest creep strains occur in the micro
structures F and N (Figure 16.9), whereas the smallest creep strains occur in the micro
structures C and M. The base metal takes a middle position of all creep curves. The be
haviour of the microstructures F and N is highly influenced by the finegrained micro
structure, which favours the plastic deformation. The fitting calculations simulate the
creep behaviour sufficiently well. The softening behaviour of the two microstructures
M and C caused by a transformation of the microstructure is modelled as steadystate
creep. It must be stated that it cannot be anticipated to find the consequences of the
transformation in the results because this behaviour has not been implemented in the
model equations.
16.3 Investigations with Homogeneous Structures
369
Figure 16.8: Creep curves of the investigated microstructures at 5008C, loading: 275MPa; sym
bols: experimental curve; lines: fitted curve.
16.3.1.3 Cyclic tensioncompression tests
Straincontrolled cyclic tensioncompression tests were performed with varying strain
amplitudes at room temperature (±0.6%) and at 5008C (±0.4%). The strain rates of the
tests lie between 1 · 10
–4
1/s and 5· 10
–4
1/s. The fitting calculations were made in two
steps because of the hardening or softening behaviour found in the different kinds of
microstructure. In the first step, the first five cycles of the tensioncompression tests
were used to estimate the first model parameters. If necessary, these model parameters
were utilized in the second step as the starting set of parameters for new parameter esti
mations to simulate the behaviour during the whole tensioncompression tests.
Figure 16.10 shows the results of the first five cycles of all microstructures at
room temperature (strain rate: e_ 5 Á 10
À4
l/s). The order of all curves is the same as
that of the stressstrain curves achieved from tensile tests. The base metal exhibits a
pronounced yield strength, which has to be filtered for the fitting calculations. The
mathematical simulations describe the mechanical behaviour of all microstructures suf
ficiently although the yield strength cannot be modelled by the deformation model. The
cyclic hardening of all microstructures can be described by the model.
Figure 16.11 contains the stresstime curves of all microstructures over the com
plete testing time. The printed symbols are the points of return in the fully tension
range. It can be seen that all microstructures with the exception of the base metal soft
en after the first hardening cycles. The hardening period lasts about 5 cycles and the
softening leads very fast (10 to 20 cycles) to a state of cyclic saturation. Only the base
metal already softens from the beginning of the test, and the cyclic state of saturation
is reached after less cycles.
16 Consideration of Inhomogeneities in the Application of Deformation Models
370
Figure 16.9: Creep curves of the investigated microstructures at 7008C, loading: 50 MPa; sym
bols: experimental curve; lines: fitted curve.
16.3 Investigations with Homogeneous Structures
371
Figure 16.10: Stresstime curves of the investigated microstructures at room temperature, first five
cycles, strain amplitude: ±0.6%; symbols: experimental curve; lines: fitted curve.
Figure 16.11: Stresstime curves of the investigated microstructures at room temperature, 200 cy
cles, strain amplitude: ±0.6%; symbols: experimental curve; lines: fitted curve.
In Figure 16.12, a photo taken with the transmission electron microscope shows
the saturated state of the base metal. The state of saturation can be identified through
the array of dislocations in a cell structure. The fitting calculations made in the second
step indicate that the deformation model of Gerdes is not able to simulate the cyclic
softening behaviour of all microstructures. Figure 16.11 demonstrates that the stresses
in the initial hardening range were underestimated and in the following softening range
overestimated. The model describes the state of saturation by a horizontal line for all
microstructures.
The results of cyclic tensioncompression tests carried out at 5008C are repre
sented in the following figures (strain rate: e_ 5 Á 10
À4
l/s). Figure 16.13 contains the
first five cycles of the tensioncompression tests of all microstructures. The curves are
arranged in the same order as the curves of the tensile tests.
The cyclic behaviour agrees with the results found at room temperature. It can be
seen that all microstructures with exception of the base metal firstly harden and then
soften during the cyclic loading (Figure 16.14). The amounts of hardening and soften
ing are not as high as at room temperature. The fitting calculations simulated the first
five cycles of the stressstrain behaviour sufficiently (Figure 16.13). Because of the re
latively weak softening behaviour, the model parameters achieved from the first five
cycles could also be used to describe the behaviour during all following cycles. A sec
ond fitting improves the quality of the parameters only insignificantly.
It can be seen from Figure 16.14 that all curves lead after few cycles to states of
cyclic saturation. The cyclic stresstime curves of all microstructures can be simulated
sufficiently well by the deformation model. But, as to be seen, the cyclic softening
after the cyclic hardening cannot be described by the model. The stresses are underesti
mated in the range of hardening and overestimated in the range of softening, but the
differences between the experiments and calculations remain relatively small.
16.3.2 Discussion
All results indicate that recently developed deformation models can be successfully ap
plied to describe the mechanical behaviour of a microalloyed steel and of the different
microstructures identified in the heataffected zone of its weldings. But, in view of ac
curacy and calculation time, it is useful for all fitting calculations to estimate the pa
rameters separately for each microstructure, each temperature and each testing se
quence. The fitting calculations are carried out phenomenologically as it was not possi
ble to find relations between model parameters and microstructural parameters. Some
special aspects of the mechanical behaviour of the microalloyed steel and its various
kinds of microstructure cannot be modelled by the deformation model of Gerdes.
Firstly, the simulation of the yield strength is not successful because the stresses in this
range are underestimated and the model calculates only a proof strength. Secondly, the
softening behaviour of some kinds of microstructure at high temperatures cannot be de
scribed with the deformation model. The model simulates the softening behaviour
through a steadystate behaviour. This behaviour is also detectable in the simulation of
cyclic tensioncompression tests. In this case, the hardening and softening behaviour is
16 Consideration of Inhomogeneities in the Application of Deformation Models
372
16.3 Investigations with Homogeneous Structures
373
Figure 16.12: TEMphoto of the state of saturation due to cyclic loading, base metal at room tem
perature after 200 cycles.
Figure 16.13: Stresstime curves of the investigated microstructures at 5008C, first five cycles,
strain amplitude: ±0.4%; symbols: experimental curve; lines: fitted curve.
also modelled by a steadystate or saturation behaviour. The experimentally observed
saturation behaviour of all microstructures is modelled sufficiently well.
From these results, a simplification for the FiniteElement calculations of the de
formation behaviour of welded joints can be derived. In order to lower the calculation
time, the number of zones in the heataffected zone can be reduced if the mechanical
behaviour of the microstructures is nearly the same.
16.4 Investigations with Welded Joints
The deformation behaviour of welded joints was investigated with the two kinds of
welded specimens, which differ in the width of the weld seam (see Section 16.2.1).
Tensile tests at room temperature were made to find the strain distributions during load
ing, and calculations were performed with the FiniteElement code ABAQUS with the
same control of the strain rate as in the experiments.
16 Consideration of Inhomogeneities in the Application of Deformation Models
374
Figure 16.14: Stresstime curves of the investigated microstructures at 5008C, 200 cycles, strain
amplitude: ±0.4%; symbols: experimental curve; lines: fitted curve.
16.4.1 Deformation behaviour of welded joints
16.4.1.1 Experimental investigations
The experiments to gain the strain distributions were performed in cooperation with the
project C2. In these experiments, flat specimens taken from the welded joints vertical
to the weld seam were tested in tensile tests with the same strain control as in the tests
with the homogeneous structures. The strain distributions were determined with the
grating method [9]. For reasons of symmetry and of the grating size, only less than one
half of the welded specimens was observed during the tests. The inspected regions
were the heataffected zone, the weld metal and small parts of the base metal. The
welded specimens show relatively large rigid body motions during the tests so that ref
erence objects had to be fixed to the specimens. These reference objects are subject to
the same rigid body motions as the welded specimens, but they are not deformed dur
ing the tests. With these object motions, the fictitious strains can be detected and thus,
the real strains can be determined.
16.4.1.2 Numerical investigations
For the numerical investigations, the FiniteElement code ABAQUS has been used in
cooperation with the project B1.
16.4.1.3 FiniteElement models of welded joints
The FiniteElement meshes of the welded joints have been derived from hardness distri
butions and microsections. It turned out during the investigations that only those points
had to be determined describing the transition from the base metal to the heataffected
zone and from the heataffected zone to the weld seam (see Figure 16.2). Then, the
mesh for the heataffected zone was modelled with four equidistant zones containing
the information of the mechanical behaviour of the affiliated microstructures. The Fi
niteElement calculations were performed with the model parameters gained from the
roomtemperature fittings. After the first experiments, it could be observed that the de
formations are concentrated in the weld metal so that it should be possible to model
the heataffected zone with one microstructure only. In some calculations, the heataf
fected zone was modelled only with the microstructure C. This procedure reduces the
calculation times for the tensile test simulation with ABAQUS. Therefore, the follow
ing sections include calculations for 6material models (weld metal, four regions of the
HAZ, base metal) and 3material models (weld metal, HAZ, base metal).
16.4.1.4 Calculation of the deformation behaviour of welded joints
For the FiniteElement calculations, the same control of the strain rate as in the real
tensile tests was used. The load was attached as a boundary condition on one side of
16.4 Investigations with Welded Joints
375
the FiniteElement mesh. The first calculations revealed that the calculation times are
very high in comparison to the real tests. The cputime to calculate a tensile test of 900
seconds was about 20000 cpuseconds with the 6material model (2300 elements) and
about 4000 cpuseconds with the 3material model (900 elements). A serious problem
for the FiniteElement calculations is the timestepping during the first part of the simu
lation (0 to 40 seconds). During this period, the timesteps for the numerical integration
of the model equations are reduced from 5 seconds to 0.05 seconds because the differ
ences between the material properties of the weld seam and the microstructures M or C
are too large for greater timesteps in order to calculate the equilibrium state.
16.4.2 Strain distributions of welded joints with broad weld seams
The first investigations with welded structures were carried out with tensile specimens
with a weld metal length of about 24 mm. The analysis of the measured strain distribu
tions during loading shows the following results. The first remarkable strains occur in
the weld metal possessing the lowest flow stresses of all microstructures. The deforma
tions in the heataffected zone and in the base metal are smaller. Figure 16.15 illus
trates the distributions of the longitudinal strains measured with the grating method at a
stage of 2.2% medium strain of the whole specimen. Only the strains in the weldmetal
zone and in the heataffected zone are visible because the grating was fixed only on
these zones. The longitudinal strains have maximum values of about 4.8% in the weld
metal and less than 1% in the heataffected zone. The curvature of the strain isolines in
dicates that the soft weld metal is backed up by the harder heataffected zone. The hin
dered vertical deformations in the transition zone between weldmetal and heataffected
zone influence not only the vertical strains (Figure 16.15 right) but also the distribution
of the longitudinal strains (Figure 16.15 left).
The strain calculations made with a 6material model show nearly the same re
sults (Figure 16.16) as the experiments, but there are also some differences. The first
remarkable strains occur in the heataffected zone in the region of the microstructures
N and F because they have a proof strength lower than the yield strength of the base
metal. But at a medium strain stage of 2.2%, the longitudinal strains in the weld metal
are much higher than the strains in the heataffected zone. The calculated values reach
3.4% in the weldmetal and less than 1% in the heataffected zone. The strains in the
base metal are already higher than in the heataffected zone but smaller than in the
weld metal. The backing up of the soft weld metal by the harder heataffected zone is
also determined. At the points, where the contact faces between weldmetal and heataf
fected zone break through the free surfaces, singularities appear in the calculated stress
and strain distributions. These singularities are caused by the sudden change of the ma
terial properties between two neig