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Smart Wheelchair using Fuzzy Inference System

Vishal Tyagi
Department of Electrical & Electronics Engg., Krishna Institute of Engg. & Technology, Ghaziabad (U.P.)- 201206, India

Neeraj Kumar Gupta
Department of Electrical & Electronics Engg., Krishna Institute of Engg. & Technology, Ghaziabad (U.P.)- 201206, India,

Praveen Kumar Tyagi
Department of Electrical & Electronics Engg., Krishna Institute of Engg. & Technology, Ghaziabad (U.P.)- 201206, India

ABSTRACT- In this paper “Smart Wheelchair using Fuzzy Inference System” has been presented, which has a user friendly guidance system and has ability to avoid obstacles. For guiding the wheelchair Finger Tip Control is used and for obstacle avoidance Ultrasonic Sensors have been used. The fuzzy If-Then rules have been defined which govern the functioning of the wheelchair in different conditions. The system is simulated on fuzzy tool box and results have been generated. The use of fuzzy control allows the use of inexpensive and imprecise sensors, which will keep the overall system cost and complexity low. Using fuzzy logic control makes the implementation of the system much more practical which is the number one goal. Keywords: Flex sensors; ultrasonic sensor; fingertip control; Fuzzy logic control; direction control; motion control; FIS(Fuzzy Inference System).

precise sensors which in turn increase the cost of the entire system. Some Wheelchairs also require additional equipment like GPS, Path Propagation Software etc. which increases the cost. 4) Navigation Restrictions: Some of the smart wheelchairs require prior information about the area they have to travel which restricts its use only to a known location and disadvantage is that they are limited to modelled and planned environments and cannot operate in unmodified environments. C. Solution Proposed in this Paper Solution to these problems is a semi-autonomous wheelchair [5] which is proposed in this paper. i.e., “Finger Tip Controlled Smart Wheelchair using Fuzzy Inference System”. Technologies utilized in the Smart Wheelchair: 1) Finger Tip Control: This will enable the controlling of the wheelchair through movement of the fingers. This system will remove the complexity and efforts required to control the wheelchair. For this purpose flex sensors will be utilized. 2) Fuzzy Logic Based System: It will act as the brain of the wheelchair. It will perform the different functions such as:  Learning (based on programming input)  Execution of input commands ( from user or sensors) 3) Ultrasonic Sensors: These sensors will guide the wheelchair through different passages (paths) and thus help in obstacle avoidance. Thus the paper presents a semi-autonomous wheelchair in which the chair will be guided by the user through Finger Tip Control [16] while the ultrasonic sensors [14], [15] will protect the wheelchair from any unwanted collision with the obstacles. D. Advantages over other systems Fuzzy logic control [13] is very flexible in terms adaptability. Thus because of the use of fuzzy logic based system expensive and precise sensors are not required and sensors with low precision and cost can be implemented, which will keep the overall system cost and complexity low. Thus use of fuzzy logic

I. INTRODUCTION A. Present Scenario In today’s world there are a large number of people suffering from motor disabilities of various degrees. For their help, there are a number of tools and equipments in the market and the most famous is the “Wheelchair”. Wheelchairs provide mobility to the disable people. The wheelchairs have developed in terms of technology used, over time. Wheelchairs with various technologies are:  Joystick controlled wheelchairs  Gesture controlled wheelchairs (Hand or Face)  Voice recognition based wheelchair  Eye ball tracking base wheelchairs, so on and so forth. B. Problems with Conventional Wheelchairs Problems faced in Conventional Wheelchairs are: 1) Difficult to control: These wheelchairs require a considerable amount of user input which makes their operation more complex & require a lot of practice. 2) High chances of accidents: Because of functional complexity these wheelchairs are highly prone to accidents such as collision with walls, passer-by, or other objects. 3) High Cost: Requirement of exact information about the environment requires very advanced and

2013 IEEE Global Humanitarian Technology Conference: South Asia Satellite (GHTC-SAS) | 23-24 August 2013

A wheelchair called OMNI [1] can provide hierarchy of functionality such as simple obstacle avoidance. It follows lines and on collision with an obstacle it comes back. specific operation mode and autonomous navigation [17]. In the system proposed in the paper two right hand fingers (forefinger and middle finger) and one left hand finger (fore-finger) have been used for controlling.2.. we have provided a new concept of controlling a wheelchair with a capability of avoiding the obstacles. II. [12] has functional capabilities such as path planning and execution. III. CPWNS [11] is also one of the smart wheelchairs [3] developed. Thus. Infrared and Bump sensors. The information provided by these sensors is compared with the values obtained during training and this comparison is done by the system. Moreover. The other invention in the field of smart wheelchairs is Mister Ed [5]. The last category of smart wheelchairs has properties of both 1) and 2) (e..1. In the concept following technologies are proposed:  Finger Tip Control [16] (using flex sensors)  Obstacle Avoidance [14]. It lacks obstacle avoidance capability. The finger movements will control the wheelchair. Then there is an intelligent wheelchair that uses a Rule-Base control system. It is a wheelchair with robot base and utilizes subsumption architecture for control.g. which has exploring vision-based navigation assistance based on TinMan [9]. From control point of view. But these wheelchairs can only be used by users who are able to effectively plan and navigate the wheelchair to a particular location. NavChair [1]. only three flex sensors are utilized.000 ohms for a bending angle of 0 to 90 degree respectively. It provides obstacle avoidance capability and can be utilized for different brand wheelchairs and does not require any modifications. Semi-Autonomous.g. DESIGN ASPECT OF SMART WHEELCHAIR In this paper. Use of flex sensors does not require any predetermined or fixed gestures as in case of gesture control. Then there is a very compatible smart wheelchair system in the form of Hephaestus [7] that uses Sonar and Bump sensors. TinMan [9]). The disadvantage is that they can’t avoid unplanned obstacles or navigate in unmapped environments. A system called CALL [4] has also been developed which is used as mobility training aid. The variation of resistance is from 10. [8]. It is based on NavChair [1] navigation system. The sensors used include Sonar. flex sensor have more functional 2013 IEEE Global Humanitarian Technology Conference: South Asia Satellite (GHTC-SAS) | 23-24 August 2013 . They require either some information about the area such as its complete map or some adjustments to their environment. Infrared and Dead Reckoning sensors and it can work in autonomous (for navigation) as well as semiautonomous (for obstacle avoidance) mode of operation. Autonomous and Semi-Autonomous mode. The second group [5] of smart wheelchairs are only capable of avoiding the obstacles while the planning and navigation activities are performed by the user (e. which could be fastened at the tips of a glove as shown in Fig. The flex sensors have a property that they change their resistance when they are bent. The main advantage of such wheelchairs over autonomous systems is that there use is not limited to the modelled and planned environments and has a capability of operating in unmodified environments. Infrared and Sonar sensors are utilized in this system. INRO [1] is another autonomous wheelchair which is capable of travelling from one location to another by using GPS. The first group [4]. This system can be utilized by different brands of wheelchairs and does not require any modifications. ii. Now a number of smart wheelchair systems have been discussed below for providing a brief knowledge of how these systems have been developed over a period. use of flex sensors for guidance of the wheelchair makes the controlling very easy and user friendly. VAHM [6]). There is another work in this field called Wheelesly [10]. Sonar and Drop-Off Detector. These sensors provide obstacle avoidance capability. VAHM [6] is a smart wheelchair that utilizes Sonar. It can avoid obstacles and navigate autonomously. It has Sonar. It is named as SWCS [2]. For this purpose Bump sensors are used in the system. The characteristic of a flex sensor is shown in Fig. RELATED WORK Several researchers have used different methods and technologies to provide a collision-free journey for the users.000 ohms to 35. iii. which is send to the actuator and the chair is moved accordingly. Vision. Autonomous.control makes the implementation of the system much more practical which is the number one goal. After the comparison a command is generated. [15] (using ultrasonic sensors)  Fuzzy Logic Based System [13] (main working) A. Thus. The movement of the fingers will be tracked by the flex sensors. we can divide smart wheelchairs to three groups: i. Infrared and Bump sensors. Finger Tip Control This system will be utilized for the guidance of the wheelchair by the handicapped person. It uses Vision and Dead Reckoning sensors. The use of flex sensors makes the direction as well as motion control of the wheelchair very easy and effective. This system utilizes sensors similar to VAHM [6] but in addition it utilizes a Bump sensor. which has the ability to learn the environment through a guided tour of an unknown location.

Flex Sensors fastened to a glove The main concept is described in the table given below: TABLE III.e. input from flex sensors will control the motion of the wheelchair) Preference will be given to the obstacle avoidance system. TABLE II. Characteristics of a flex sensor TABLE I. input from ultrasonic sensors will control the motion of the wheelchair) If any of the obstacles is in the close range Fig. Obstacle Avoidance A set of ultrasonic sensors [14].. RFBL Right Middle Finger RMF RMSR RMBR Left Forefinger LFF LFM LFS 2013 IEEE Global Humanitarian Technology Conference: South Asia Satellite (GHTC-SAS) | 23-24 August 2013 .e. [15] are placed in the front as well as at the left and right sides of the wheelchair for the purpose of avoiding and maintaining a safe distance from the obstacles. 1) Input Variables a) From Flex Sensors TABLE IV. Table II describe the different positions of the ultrasonic sensors on the wheelchair. The distance between the obstacle and the wheelchair can be measured by using the following formula: (1) D = (v* t)/2 Where..2. v is the velocity of sound (340 m/s) and t is the time for sending and receiving an ultrasonic pulse.(i. Control through fingers Finger Used Right hand forefinger Right hand middle finger Left hand forefinger Control Direction Control (Left or Right rotation) Motion Control (Stop or Move) For the working and controlling of the wheelchair a fuzzy logic based system will be utilized. These sensors will measure the distance of the wheelchair from the obstacles and moving objects like other people continuously and this information is send to the system. (i.flexibility and thus are more user friendly as compared to gesture control. D is the distance between the wheelchair and the obstacle. Input variables from flex sensors Finger Right Forefinger Input Variable RFF Membership Functions RFSL Description Right Forefinger Small Left Right Forefinger Big Left Right Middle Finger Small Right Right Middle Finger Big Right Left Forefinger Move Left Forefinger Stop B. Ultrasonic sensors are chosen because they are not light sensitive as infrared sensors. The system then act according to the rules defined in fuzzy until the obstacle disappears from its path or even if a safe distance is reached. Position of ultrasonic sensors Ultrasonic sensors Front sensor Right sensor Left sensor Obstacle avoidance For avoiding front obstacles For avoiding right obstacles For avoiding left obstacles C. The rules are defined such that they follow the principle given in table III. Fuzzy Logic Based System (Main working concept) Fig. Working Principle Obstacle location If obstacles are far Preference Preference will be given to fingertip control. A set of rules defined on fuzzy logic will cause the controlling of the wheelchair through different inputs.1.

therefore preference will be given to the Fig. Input variables from ultrasonic sensors Input Variable Xf Membership functions Near & Far Description Distance between wheelchair and front obstacle (m) Distance between wheelchair and right obstacle (m) Distance between wheelchair and left obstacle (m) obstacle avoidance system and not to the inputs from the flex sensors. SMART WHEELCHAIR SIMULATION RESULTS The simulation work is done on the MATLAB fuzzy toolbox. the system will generate a command to stop the wheelchair. the motor in the left axis wheel will generate more torque than in the right axis wheel. Now the user can take a left or right turn with wheelchair not moving. 3) How rules are created The rules have been created for different position of the obstacles around the wheelchair. The rotation will take place because of the different torques produced by the two motors rotating the back wheels. The amount of torque difference makes the turning faster or slower. The rule base comprises of a set of 126 rules. IV. The rule base is defined on Sugeno with the information of input and output parameters. right and left obstacles are far and the user is providing the move command through the flex sensors. The angle of rotation will be defined with respect to the line of the wheelchair and here it is divided into two parts: Big rotation & small rotation. 4) Rotation of the wheelchair (direction control) The direction of motion of the wheelchair will be controlled by the movement of the fingers (through flex sensors) or on the basis of the distance of the wheelchair from the obstacles. Output Variables Output variables Outputa Membership functions RZ RRS RRB RLS RLB Outputb Move Stop Description Rotate Zero (degree) Rotate Right Small (degree) Rotate Right Big (degree) Rotate Left Small (degree) Rotate Left Big (degree) --------- The concept of rotation can be easily understood from fig.3. In order to turn right. which shows the geometry of the wheelchair with respect to the Cartesian plane. Here a small demonstration is provided to show that how the rules will control the wheelchair:  If (Xf is near) and (Xr is far) and (Xl is far) and (LFF is LFM) then (Outputa is RZ) (Outputb is Stop). Then to avoid the collision. The above rule states that if the front obstacle is close.Geometry of wheelchair . 2013 IEEE Global Humanitarian Technology Conference: South Asia Satellite (GHTC-SAS) | 23-24 August 2013 . This will happen because as the obstacle is close to the wheelchair. θ represent the angle of rotation of the wheelchair with respect to the line of wheelchair. this will cause the left wheel to roll faster and the wheelchair will turn to the right. These rules will control the motion of the wheelchair according to the different positions of the wheelchair and the obstacles around it. Similarly. Here. Information about the distance of the obstacles from the wheelchair will be provided by ultrasonic sensors. irrespective of the input provided by the user.b) From ultrasonic sensors TABLE V.3. the other rules have been created for different situations. XB& YB: Coordinates of the wheelchair body frame. which will be provided from the ultrasonic sensors. Big rotation Up to 45 degree Up to 90 degree Xr Near & Far Xl Near & Far 2) Output variables TABLE VI. Small rotation. X & Y: Cartesian coordinates.

the wheelchair can be made fully autonomous by utilizing Neuro-fuzzy Inference System. The variation in output will occur according to the rules defined on the fuzzy rule-base.4. Thus the rule base defined in the paper can be utilized for proper controlling of the wheelchair.5. 2) Second stage: Defining the rules Fig. Membership Functions of Input & Output Parameters V. The use of fuzzy control has made the system more effective in terms of adaptability. CONCLUSION Thus the paper proposes a user friendly smart wheelchair. Various Stages in Simulation In the simulation process there are various stages:  First the input & output parameters are defined.6. Rules on FIS 2013 IEEE Global Humanitarian Technology Conference: South Asia Satellite (GHTC-SAS) | 23-24 August 2013 . Program Simulation Results Fig. In future. Fig. Fig. functional complexity and cost.5. Here various input & output parameters are defined with their membership functions on FIS. 1) First stage: Defining input and output parameters First stage of simulation is shown in Fig. The wheelchair can be controlled by Finger Tip Control and has an ability to avoid obstacles because of the use of Ultrasonic Sensors. relation between input and output variables according to the defined rules is checked using the rule viewer.8.  In second step rules are defined on the Sugeno system.  Obtaining variation in output values by variation in inputs on the basis of rules defined. Input and Output Parameters on FIS Fig.A. Fig. the above results show that it is possible to implement the finger tip control and obstacle avoidance technologies using the fuzzy control for designing a smart wheelchair. 3) Third stage: Variation of output variables with respect to variation in inputs In this stage. This wheelchair has very wide future scope because of its flexibility in terms of technologies utilized.6 shows the rule base defined on the FIS. Use of Neuro-fuzzy Inference System will enable the training of the wheelchair similar to human beings and hence the user efforts can be reduced.4 & Fig. Therefore.7 and Fig.7. A set of 126 rules are defined in fuzzy rule base so as to enable proper controlling of the wheelchair. Surface values Fig.8 shows the variation of the output parameters with respect to the input parameters.

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