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with care.




ur Connecticut Storrs

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(395 A.D.

TO 800














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Eoman Empire
of that period so often

'"« 312J2K* r




It is

than one might at


misrepreserrirr the history of those centnrief r ^h mto the modern

constantlvtT n

£ be ^ed t '?mt ? *"*



the period of the later

— *— ™

the old




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fa °t that

im Port


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101 the




the line

&nd the histo ™n T™'' «"* the historian n & SU ^ ^ °h liMS ar No B y anZT the Eoman V he«an to «** ™ Empire did nof 1 ™ d UOtil 1453
adopts a differ^ Purely arbitrary. «


gantine the Great, Great, sometimes at the rei™ of Knlay) at the aeeession of Leo the who adopts one line of diviZ „

TTT ? Empire-endsLTre/Cn^eEm -^"^ *" E ma wS ?? ^^ *""***
sistent or very precise

nse the phrase

^£^7 w"-***


or the

Historia »s

are not very con-





at the

^^ ^^T^SSTg^ W &* U
S ° metimeS

is it






to££?£ not ?




that the




in the days of Constantine VII,



reigned in the

tenth century, was completely different from what
the days of Constantine L,

was in


reigned in the fourth century

and having in view

this great difference in character, is it not

permissible for historians, as a mere matter of convenience, to
distinguish the later period
like "


" or "

by some confessedly appropriate word Graeco-Roman " ? Such a use may be of

course convenient and harmless in conversation
are fully aware that
it is

among those who

only a phrase of convenience

no objection

to "

Byzantine art

or "

and there Graeco-Boman law."


in writing or lecturing, such

expressions as

Greek, or Romaic Empire are highly objectionable, because they

tend to obscure an important fact and perpetuate a serious


as the title of a book,

seems especially unfortunate to adopt one of these names and thus help to stereotype as a separate

unity what

really a part






from the preceding and from the succeeding, but the development was continuous the Empire was still the Roman Empire, and I am not aware that
century of the
it is

Roman Empire

usual to give a



new name when he

new decade of life. We and so we may speak

designate a



enters upon a young and old

of the earlier and later ages of a kingdom or an empire. But Byzantine is a proper adjective, and is too apparently precise not to be misleading. Gibbon perhaps is almost the only modern historian who, in treating











by the

title of his


but unfortunately in reading

the later chapters one

apt to forget what that

Moved by

these considerations, I have avoided speaking of

a Byzantine, a Greek, or a Graeco-Roman Empire, and have
carefully restricted myself to the only correct appellation.


the sake




word "later" has been added


on the title-page; and no further distinction is required, at till the year 800, which marks the termination of my
This brings us to another unfortunate use of words, which


an erroneous impression. A rival Roman Empire was founded in the West by the coronation of Charles the Great in 800 and it is evidently very convenient
similarly tends to perpetuate


sanction of high name a further confeioT^n






Roman Empire was on

though the/e were never two Ernci™

S wTg^




mP Zt^lTlT, ""f f
erois <*an one, there


T° ?


th ° Ugh



has the

leads to

in°° rre0t

Handing »H that Mr. Freemm P





Bolw *>"-



r«™ J LYJ




l0 °

g "~ ** b *'« "» '"<"'"» -






unavoidably leads to the idea that a state Eoman Empire came into being after the death of Theodosius the Great, in 3 9 5 A.D., and continued until
this identification

called the Eastern




simplicity of history is thus obscured. Nothing can be than to apprehend that the Eoman Empire endured, one

and undivided, however changed and dismembered, from the century B.C. to the fifteenth century a.d. and that from the year 800 forward we distinguish it as Eastern, on account of the foundation of a rival Empire, which also called itself Eoman, in the West. I have now explained my title, and I may add that by discarding the word Byzantine an additional advantage has been gained. So many prejudicial associations have grown up round this inauspicious word that it almost involves a petitio prineipii, like the phrase Bas-Empire in Erench. This is due to the unhistorical manner in which many eminent authors have treated the later Eoman Empire. These writers knew very little about it, and they regarded it as a safe subject for

" as

Voltaire, for instance, speaks of Byzantine history

a worthless repertory of declamation and miracles, disto


With this remark," says Finlay, " the records of an empire, which witnessed the rise




and Carlovingians, are dismissed by one aux nations le bandeau de Terreiir.' Gibbon hurried over the history of the Emperors later than the seventh century with contemptuous celerity, and his great authority has much to answer for. The remarks of Hegel in his Philosophie cler Geschichte amount to much the same as the remark of Voltaire. The sins of M. Guizot are of omission rather than of commission. His well-known Histoire de la civilisation en Europe is open to two criticisms. In the first place, it is not what it professes to be, a history of European civilisation, for it only deals with western Europe. But, waiving this, the author entirely ignores one of the most important and essential factors in the development of civilisation in western Europe the influence of the later Eoman Empire and New Eome.


of the Caliphs











reader to the concluding

chapter of


second volume


here because M.



extraordinary omission was clearly due to the inveterate prejudice that the "Byzantine Empire/' and all things

may be safely neglected. In his History of European Morals (ii. p. 13) Mr. Lecky " Of that Byzantine Empire writes the universal verdict

appertaining thereto,


with scarcely an exception the most thoroughly base and despicable form that civilisation has yet assumed." I am not sure what Mr. Lecky means by " the





Younger Eome has found some staunch and eminent champions But I am sure that the statement fairly
generally prevalent on the subject.
it is

universal verdict of history"; in recent years, certainly, the
represents the notions

All this shows that Byzantine used in a political sense. It

is is

a dangerous word, when convenient and harmless

to talk about Byzantine art or even " la vie byzantine," but it is dangerous to talk about a Byzantine Empire; for if' we do so we run the risk of provoking universal

verdicts of history.

might therefore be advisable, even if this were the only ground for doing so, to abandon the name and elude hard sentences by leading the accused forth under a different appellation. But it is not the only or the most important ground as we have already seen, the name is improper, and it is therefore


not only advisable but necessary to discard it. I have been obliged to dwell at some length on a matter of nomenclature. I must add a few words on the scope of these two volumes, which, I venture to hope, may have some value as a very modest contribution to the study of a period which is too little known. They cover the four centuries during which the transition from the ancient world to the medieval world may be said to have taken place. Ancient and medieval
are vague terms, but, whatever latitude we give them, we can hardly apply the term medieval to the fourth century or the term ancient to the eighth. In the year 395 a.d. the Empire was intact, but with the fifth century its dismemberment began; and 395 a.d. is consequently a convenient date to adopt as a starting-point. I propose
to trace briefly the

dismemberment by the Germans, then more fully its recovery under Justinian, its decline after Justinian, and its redintegration in the eighth century; making the fall of

history of






point of termination, because





to be conveniently close in time to the foundation of the rival

Eoman Empire
Great marks a



The coronation

of Charles the


departure in European history, and


forms, as Arnold recognised, a suitable end as well as a

suitable beginning.

After 800 there are two Eoman Empires; and the history of the successors of Irene would naturally occupy a separate book, entitled A History of the Eastern



The history of the fifth century is better known, and has been more thoroughly worked up than that of its successors. I have therefore treated it with comparative brevity, and omitted many of the details, which the reader may find in the In fact, I originally works of Gibbon and Mr. Hoclgkin. intended to treat the dismemberment of the Empire by the Germans and the fortunes of the houses of Theodosius and Leo I. as a mere introduction to a history of the subsequent But I was carried further than I intended, and the period. result considerably exceeds the limits of an introduction, while The it is something less than a co-ordinate part of the work. dismemberment of the Empire by the Germans brings us into contact with the nations who dismembered it, and tempts a writer to stray into the domains which have been so fully I have been surveyed by Dahn in his Konige cler Germanen.
careful not to yield to this temptation

and digressions


I have avoided episodes and have not concerned myself with tracing

the doubtful antecedents of the various nations


settled in






have tried

to trespass as

little as

possible on the field occupied by Dahn in Germany and by Mr. Hodgkin in England.

of Italy

Coming by

to the sixth century,


account of the reconquest



JSTarses is



while I have

narrated fully the


wars on

Euphrates and in

latter has ever

am aware, no complete account of the been published in an English form, Gibbon's treatment being nothing more than a sketch while as to the former, after the brilliant fourth volume of Mr. Hodgkin's Italy and her Invaders, one could not think of rewriting all
far as I



But, notwithstanding, a





with want of proportion, and ask why I occupy considerable space with the details of wars, which, even for special historians,

leave the It details seemed to me that the real want of proportion would have been to reproduce at length the Gothica of Procopius and neglect his Italian affairs to the special historian of Italy. of . . while the events in Italy were. but it was outlying — Of course its loss !) Italy was a part of the or recovery affected the Roman Eepublic (strange to say in a far less degree than other losses or gains. and consequently.PREFACE xi have been almost buried in oblivion. for it. Empire . only secondary importance. at the end of the sixth century. of a historian's attention. church affairs claim a larger measure . As time went on. Hence to find earlier. My reply is that I am concerned with the history of the Eoman Empire. Persica. On the same principle I have given a detailed narrative (I first believe for the time) of the somewhat tedious wars in the Balkan peninsula Theophylactus. repelled equally by an ancient language and an affected style. details in bald English. may applaud a predecessor for having reproduced most of the cerning the invasions . which could not be conveniently introduced into the narrative. the fifth century. and not with and the events on the the history of Italy or of the West Persian frontier were of vital consequence for the very existence of the Eoman Empire. The Church was are not ecclesiastical this so closely connected with the State that the ecclesiastical element cannot be ignored in histories that but I have endeavoured to encroach on ground as little as possible. in the latter part of this ecclesi- work the reader may expect astical matters more information on than in the The short chapters on life and manners consist of jottings. the influence of the Greek Church became stronger. Maurice the learned and patient . And so just as the historian of modern England may leave the historian of details of Indian affairs to the special India. with each succeeding century. after a general historian of the Eoman of Empire may. described by Eanke deplored the want of of an essay con- Avars and Slaves in the reign of Hopf went hopelessly astray over the curious sentences of an " Attic " euphuist and these facts induce me to hope that some future historian. and at the same time content myself with only a general account of the famous Italian campaigns of Belisarius.

the Latin forms. Eoman Empire is the key to European In conclusion. Ehodes. such as Constantine. and special difficulties arise in the case of Eoman names of Greek-speaking individuals. I determined finally to be consistently Eoman rather than either consistently or in- and use. wife.xii PREFACE . BUEY. J. . contributes a chapter on "Byzantine Art" (vol. proof-sheets and for valuable suggestions and B. by Mr. Speaking of Mr. Y. E. one would have to speak not only of Athenai. I am impelled to add that his brilliant and stimulating essays first taught me in all its bearadopted ings the truth that the history. "Freeman's way of spelling Slave (for Slav). or Eome. Both historians and classical scholars are divided on the question of the transliteration of Greek names. 24th June 1889. would be pedantic not to use forms which are neither Greek nor Latin. Such apparitions on the pages of a book are intolerable to plain readers. Freeman but an admirable article in the FortnightlyReview for January 1 8 8 8. On the other hand. it more familiar to the eye. except in a few cases. of course. I have consistently Greek. I have to record my thanks to my ii. I confess that I was at first tempted to adopt the plausible compromise of Mr. but of Konstantinupolis and Ehodos. To be thoroughly consistent in the "new" spelling. who sqq). justified by the custom of many centuries. and were too characteristic to be omitted they do not aim at any standard of completeness. confirmed me in the course which I have pursued. which. . Freeman. are In some obvious cases. p. 40 and to Professor Mahaffy for his assistance in revising the corrections. Tyrrell. Mr.

EEEATA TO 'age 52. I. from top. line 27 VOL. . read south-western course.



Lycia. 4. under a vicarius. under a consularis. „ „ „ „ „ . XI. Pisidia.xvi CHRONOLOGICAL AND GENEALOGICAL TABLES III. praeses. VI. Lycaonia. Phrygia Pacatiana. praeses. VII. IV. Caria. 1 proconsul. p-aeses. Asia. praeses. Phrygia Salutaris.. X. . IX. praeses. Insulae. Diocesis Provincia I. VIII. V.. Lydia. Provincia „ . — Pontica.

under a „ consularis. . . xvii Creta. Moesia Prima. II..CHRONOLOGICAL AND GENEALOGICAL TABLES Provincia III. consularis. — Dacia. Macedonia Salutaris. Dacia Eipensis. . praeses. Praevalitana. VII. Thessalia. — Italia. I. (Praefectus Praetorio Italiae. Dacia Mediterranea. praeses. praeses. Dardania. under the vicarius Italiae. III. IV. Epirus Nova. IV. V.. under a „ . „ praeses. V. 1 praeses. VI. Diocesis Provincia „ „ 2. . . Epirus Vetus. praeses.) Diocesis Provincia 1. . Ill PREFECTURE OF ITALY.

Provincia .

. . „ „ „ . IV. V. under a „ . under a vicarius. Caesariensis. praeses. Maxima Valentia. Narbonensis Lugdunensis Lugdunensis Lugdunensis Secunda. XV. praeses. Secunda.CHRONOLOGICAL AND GENEALOGICAL TABLES Provincia XIII.. praeses. XVI. pn Diocesis Provincia I. xix under a .. . praeses. — Britanniae. Tertia. praeses. Flavia Caesariensis.. 5 II. Senonia. „ „ praeses. . XIV. . Britannia Prima. p> meses ' III. praeses. XVII. Narbonensis Prima. 3. . praeses. Britannia Secunda.

5 GO S3 m i— —S H O Q o W H Ph o o w rjH *pi OS O— II o •So -3 3 O . vo t» CO •ri - U O CO ON Ttf II — ^ ^2 CO H H^ 5^ ^2 o as — < rO O .i £ O 02^3 .

eg To m o q o W W H Ph O Hi PQ Hi o HI o I 3 ii .






— . . CHAPTER Christianity and the Teutons II INFLUENCE OF CHRISTIANITY ON SOCIETY — Position of women Altruism— Sin . . life — Attractions of Christianity—Anchorets and monks — Value of human — Fraternity of mankind 17-24 CHAPTER III ELEMENTS OF DISINTEGRATION IN THE ROMAN EMPIRE Depopulation Slave system— Fiscal and curial systems Serfdom and colonatus Reforms of Majorian Germans in the Empire Semibarbari Christianity ... . .25-36 as a disintegrating force Survey — — — — — ..— — TABLE OF CONTENTS BOOK I INTRODUCTION CHAPTER Transitional period of history cal I CHRISTIANITY AND PAGANISM — Greek destiny and christian consolation— Histori— Stoicism — Epicureanism Decay of paganism — Attitude of christians to pagans — Legends of Cyprian and Macarius — Neoplatonism — Proclus Pages 1-16 connection of Christianity with the past ... ..

CHAPTER II THE GERMANS IN THE EAST Three parties at Constantinople Aurelian "Typhos" Synesius Tribigild Gainas Fall of Eutropius Danger from the Goths — — — — — — —Revolt .. . . ..xxviii CONTENTS CHAPTER System of Diocletian IV THE ADMINISTRATION OF THE EMPIRE — The senate and senators— — Change in nomen—Taxes — Grades of society — Praetorian prefects Pages 37-49 — Other ministers — Civil service — Education —Army Official titles clature in the fourth century . Nilus Byzantine Patriarchs Relations of Old and New Rome— Death of Arcadius 91-106 — — — — — — — . . II 50-58 BOOK THE HOUSE OF THEODOSIUS CHAPTER Death I. CHAPTER V CONSTANTINOPLE Choice of Constantine — Description .. . Sophia Chrysostom banished St. .. of 79-90 CHAPTER Court of Eudoxia III JOHN CHRTSOSTOM Chrysostom and his friends His visit to Asia Minor Theophilus— Monks of ISTitria— Epiphanius— Synod of the Oak— Conflagration of St. I RUFINUS AND EDTROPIUS of Theodosius —Arcadius — Rufinus —Stilicho — The Visigoths — Claudian — Huns in Syria— Eutropius—Revolt of Gildo 61-78 .

— CONTENTS — — xxix CHAPTER STILICHO Relations of Germans to the Empire IV AND ALARIC —Visigoths in Italy — Battle of Pollentia — Radagaisus — Relations of Stilicho and Alaric —Movements in Gaul— Death of Stilicho — Visigoths again in Italy — Alaric at Rome — Attalus — Death of Alaric ..... . ..... CHAPTER VII INVASIONS OF THE HUNS . CHAPTER Barbarians in Gaul Gerontius VI BEGINNINGS OF THE DISMEMBERMENT OF THE EMPIRE — Tyrants in Gaul — Constantine at Arelate — He wins Spain —Fall of the tyrants—Jovinus and Athaulf— Revolt of Heraclian Visigoths in Gaul — Wallia — Constantius — Vandals and Suevians in Spain — Lands assigned to Visigoths and Burgundians— Local government in southern Gaul — Death of Constantius III — Placidia — Boniface — Death of Honorius — John Aetius .. the tyrant suppressed and Valentinian III proclaimed 137-160 Rise of the Asemus Hun power— Relations with Vandals — Attila invades the Empire — Peace of Anatolius — The Hun empire 161-166 CHAPTER Africa VIII THE PATRICIAN AETIUS — Boniface and Aetius —The Vandals— Burgundians and Alemanni —Theo—Aetius — Honoria—Attila— Battle of the Catalaunian Field — Huns take Aquileia — Death of Attila — Deaths of Aetius and Valendoric the Visigoth tinian .. 167-183 .......... CHAPTER V THEODOSIUS II Pages 107-122 AND MARCIAN Anthemius — Pulcheria—Athenais — Significance of reign of the younger Theodosius — Cyrus the prefect—University of Constantinople Codex Theodosianus— Eudocia in Palestine — Her — Chrysaphius — Reign of Marcian 123-136 fall ..

.. . . . a typical educated Byzantine Alexandria — Hypatia— Antioch . Pages 184-196 — — — — — — — — — CHAPTER X LIFE AND MANNERS IN THE FIFTH CENTURY classes Luxury of court and higher phyrius of Gaza to Byzantium Paganism at Gaza Birth and baptism of Theodosius II Anthemius.. CHAPTER Maximus II RICIMER THE PATRICIAN — Gaiseric in Italy—Avitus— Ricimer— Majorian — Severus— Count Mar—Claims of Gaiseric— Anthemius — Great expedition of Leo against 234-249 Vandals— Fall of Anthemius — Olybrius — Death of Ricimer cellinus . .— xxx CONTENTS CHAPTER Relations of Church and State IX THE CHURCH IX THE FIFTH CENTURY Arian controversy Christological problems Nestorianism Monoph/ysitism Councils of Ephesus and Chalcedon Henotikon Great schism Donatism Pelagianism St. Augustine. . as related his friend Priscus.. 213-223 BOOK III THE HOUSE OF LEO THE GREAT CHAPTER LEO I I Theory of imperial succession Aspar Isaurians in army Fall of Aspar Policy and character of Leo Loss of Jotaba Great fire in Constantinople Pagan227-233 ism—Death of Leo — . .. — — — — — — . CHAPTER XI A GLIMPSE OF HUN LIFE by —Amusements —Relation of the — — — visit of Por- 197-212 Embassy of Maximin to court of Attila..




—Reign of Basiliscus —Restoration of Zeno —Great in Constantinople — Character and policy of Zeno — Harmatius — Illus —Verina —Revolt of Leontius and — Pamprepius —Zeno's son — Death of Zeno, Pages 250-260


Battle of Netad



ance of Zeno with son of Theodemir

—Theodoric, son of Theodemir—Theodoric, son of Triarius —Alli— Alliance of two Theodorics — Alliance of Zeno and son of Triarius — Son of Theodemir in Epirus—Adamantius





—Julius Nepos — Euric —Orestes — Romulus Augustulus — Odovacar— So"Fall of Western Empire " — Odovacar, the successor of Merobaudes Fall of Odovacar's kingdom and Theodoric in Italy — The Franks — Chlodwig —European geography in 500 a.d. — Severinus 274-289




— Isaurian war— Bulgarian invasions—The Long Wall —Recovery of — Unpopularity of Anastasius — Revolt of Vitalian —Character of Anastasius — Chrysargyron — Marinus — Death of Anastasius 290-303

The Sassanid dynasty





breaks out 502 A.

— Isdigerd and Arcadius —War in 420-421 a.d.— Ephthal— Perozes— Kobad—Mazdak, the communist— The war d. — Siege of Amida — Amida recovered — Peace — Founda-

tion of Anastasiopolis (Daras)








Decadence of literature— Influence of Christianity— Want of ideas and originality— Julian— Synesius— Proclus—Athens— Alexandria— Hypatia— Nonnus —Christus Patiens Egyptian school of poetry— The romance— Daphnis and

— — Heliodorus — Achilles Tatius — Xenophon of Ephesus — History Eunapius — Zosimus — Olympiodorus —Priscus — Malchus — Candidus — Latin literature — Claudian — Sidonius — Christian poetry Pages 310-330







the reign of justin


and the earlier years of

Justinian's reign


— Reaction against Anastasius —Accession of Justinian — John —Theodora— The Blues and Greens — Sedition of Nika—Fall of John of Cappadocia — Absolutism of Justinian Praetores plebis — Quaestor
sixth century

of Cappadocia





Historical position of Justinian

his connection with the past
Secret History

and with the future

— His




— Character of Justinian


—Johannes Lydus —The Empress
. .


Appendix on the

Secret History attributed to Procopius









— Digest — Institutes — Pytliagoreanism —Roman law modified by history
Pages 365-371





of Daras

Kobad and Justin Outbreak The endless peace



— Battle

— Battle

of Callinicum



— Theodoric — Amalasuntha — Vandalic war — Events in — Gothic war— Conquest of Sicily and Dalmatia— Siege of Naples — Siege of Rome by the Goths — Siege and of Ariminum — Conquest of Milan and Liguria — Surrender of Faesulae and Auximum — Fall of Ravenna — Attitude of the Franks — Benedict, 381-398
Africa after the Imperial Restoration


Significance of plagues



— The account of Procopius








— The logothetes — Totila — Gothic power revives — Belisarius arrives in — John, the nephew of Vitalian — Second siege of Rome — Belisarius at Portus — Policy of Totila — Recall of Belisarius — Third siege of Rome — Germanus — Narses — Defeat of Totila — Teias —Alemanni in Italy — Imperial conquest in south-eastern Spain — Reconquest by Visigoths 404-417






Saracens of Hirali and Ghassan



— Causes of

war and

fears of Chosroes

invades Syria (540 a.d.) He invades Colchis (541 a.d.) Invades Commagene (542 a. d. ) Romans invade Persarmenia Chosroes invades Mesopotamia Pages 418-440 Siege of Edessa Peace of 545 a.d.


— Chosroes





THE LAZIC WAR (549-556

Gobazes seeks protection of Justinian Dagisthaeus besieges Petra Revolt of the Persian siege of Apsilia Bessas besieges and takes Petra Abasgians Archaeopolis The Island Assassination of Gobazes Trial of his assassins Wiscard Siege of Phasis Expedition against the Misimiani Peace of 441-468 562 a.d.








Justinian's imperial policy
of the reign

— Homerites — Heruls —Tetraxite Goths — Second period —Decay of the army — Silkworms brought to Europe — Buildings — Earthquakes — Conspiracy of Artabanes — Cotrigur and Utrigur Huns Invasion of Zabergan — Last days of Belisarius — Death of Justinian, 469-482







In the fourth and
broken up.


centuries a.d. a great change


over the face of Europe; This

the political order of things was
in the

movement ushered

Middle Ages, and

presents a noteworthy parallel to that other great European

movement which ushered out the Middle Ages, the movement
and sixteenth centuries by which the spiritual The atmosphere of the age in which the Empire of Eome was dismembered was the christian religion the atmosphere of the age in which the Church of Eome was ruptured was the Eenaissance of culture. The formation of independent Teutonic kingdoms in the earlier
of the fifteenth

order of things was broken up.


period corresponds to the Eeformation in the later
cases the


in both



produced a mighty revolution, and in
lived on in south-

both cases the result was a compromise or division between
the old and the new.

The Eoman Empire

eastern Europe, even as the Catholic Church lived on, confined
to a limited extent of territory;

revival of strength, or reaction, in the fifth

and there was a remarkable and sixth centuries

at Constantinople, which, following out the parallel,

we may

compare to the Counter-reformation. And this analogy is not a mere superficial or fanciful resemblance the same historical principle is involved. Christianity and the Eenaissance performed the same functions each meant the transformation of the spirit of the European world, and such a

transformation was a necessary precursor of the disintegration

European unity, whether
of ancient

political or ecclesiastical.

In the



lay the











Christianity was the solvent of these ideas, and so

dissolved also the political unity of Europe.
of medieval ideas lay the strength of the

In the strength

Eoman Church


of the Eenaissance

was the solvent of medieval


and therefore it dissolved the ecclesiastical unity of western and northern Europe. For the philosopher who looks upon the march of ideas over the heads of men the view of history is calm, unlike that of the troubled waters of events below, in which the mystic For him the spirit of procession is often but dimly discerned. old paganism departs before the approach of Christianity as quietly as the sun sinks before the sweeping train of night and the dark glimmerings of the medieval world yield to the approach of the modern spirit as the stars "touched to death by diviner eyes" pass away before the rising sun. But to
the historian





of the process a

and For both the great periods, of which we have been speaking, were long the evening twilight and the morning seasons of twilight during which light and darkness mingled, and twilight, thus each period may be viewed in two aspects, as the end of an old, or as the beginning of a new, world. Now this doublesidedness produces a variety of contrasts, which lends to the study of such a period a peculiar interest, or we might say an aesthetic pleasure. We see a number of heterogeneous
a peculiar

presented of contrast, struggle, and confusion

elements struggling to adjust themselves into a




perfumes and colours turning swiftly

round and blending in the cup of the disturbed spirit. The grand contrast of the old and the new in the fourth and fifth
centuries stands out vividly

old and


nations as well as


and new



brought face to




Greeks and Eomans, semi-civilised or wholly civilised Germans, Germans uncivilised but possessing potentialities for


Huns and Alans






with one another.

beyond the pale, moving In the lives of

individuals too


see the

multiplicity of colours curiously

Helena, the mother of an Emperor, makes a

pilgrimage to Jerusalem, since Hadrian's time usually called Aelia Capitolina, and finds the relics of the true cross with a






thrill of

overpowering delight, something like the delight that

was felt by Eenaissance scholars when an old Eoman corpse Or we see Julian, a pagan philosopher, a was disentombed. noble man and an enlightened Emperor, trying to dislodge Christianity from the position it had won, and yet unable to
avoid borrowing hints from

for his

own system


just as












an unconscious echo





While the pagan


lecturing in the


at Alexandria, her semi-pagan pupil



a bishop at Cyrene.

At Athens, now

a fossilised

provincial town, but

the headquarters of learning, paganism

and even from this camp of heathenhas its last stronghold ism the most christian Emperor, Theodosius II, obtains the daughter of a philosopher as his consort, and she, after her conversion to Christianity, writes religious poems composed of

Homeric lines. St. Augustine, the poet Sidonius and the poet Nonnus were, like Synesius, remarkable examples of persons who, born and reared pagans, turned in later life to the new faith and the writings of these men
scraps of

illustrate the contrasts of the age.




itself, it


be added, was



contrasts just then

for the


doctrine had not yet

sunk, or risen, to the monotony of a formula.

many open


There were even for orthodox Athanasians room for the play of individuality. It has

been noticed how heterogeneous in spirit were the writings of the Greek Church we have " the zelotic dogmatism of

Epiphanius, the poetic speculation of Synesius, the philosophy
of religion of

Aeneas of Gaza and Nemesius, the sobriety of

Theodoret, the mysticism of Pseudodionysios." Basil and Gregory

Nazianzus had been fellow-students of the pagan Julian Athens Chrysostom was a pupil of Libanius. Thus the general impression we receive is one of contrast, and it is in the battle of conflicting elements that the keenness and quickness of life consist. But the conflict was carried on, and the quick life breathed in a gray, often murky, atmosphere, different from the brightness that lit up those other conflicts in Athens during the fifth century B.C., and in Italy during the fifteenth century a.d. There







was a general feeling of misfortune the world-sadness pressed on the souls of all and books were written to account for the woes that had come upon the human race. Nature too seemed to have prepared a dark background for the enactment of the miseries involved in the break-up of society and the incursions of the barbarians plagues and earthquakes seemed


be signs of the times



the tempest in

a suitable setting for the tragedy.

King Lear, The pagans of course were



misfortunes of the time to
cast "



and the

" pale

of the spirit to the victory of

the " pale Galilean."

But in history what men

connect as cause and effect are really both effects of some

The world had grown gray independently of and if it had not grown gray, Christianity would hardly have been possible would not have had much meaning it met the need of the world at the time. For there are two ways in which we may intuite the world and avoid quarrelling with life. We can regard our experience fortune and misfortune as alike determined for us as destiny by conditions beyond our control. It was in this objective way that the old Greeks regarded their experience, and in this way they were content for it never occurred to them to
deeper cause.



exalt subjective wishes of their


in opposition to the course



and grieve


such wishes





we may feel our own subjective aims more and be unable to see them sacrificed without exIn this case we shall periencing sorrow or even despair. need something in their stead to make us contented with life,




a consolation.

If circumstances

render a


and hopeless,

becomes endurable


through the belief that another existence awaits him

thereby rendered less unintelligible, or there


hope of understanding it in due time the heavy and weary his belief is a weight seems less weary and heavy to bear The old Greeks needed no repentance and no consolation. The centuries from Alexander the Great to consolation. Aurelius were the time in which the thorns were Marcus The ancient Greek spirit could indeed exclaim, penetrating. " Oh, how full of briars is the working-day world " but they

11. 2 find (piXoaocpQ used in this sense in Theophylactus Simocatta e. philosophy was personal.. and then. not to understand the universe. to dvo-TvxvP. We may religion then first consider its the connection of the new and with the past. We are hereby reminded that if in one respect Christianity forms a new start in history. burs spirit 5 were only burs thrown upon it in holiday The the coat that could be shaken off. and points of resemblance contrast with the last form of pagan philosophy. he a " I him to be immortal not. i CHRISTIANITY AND PAGANISM foolery." The had a compensation the death which the heathen did consolation.Aristotelian individualistic philosophies of Zeno. and clearly the fact that the its philosophical doctrines are the logical end of the ancient Greek philosophy and the direct continuation of Stoicism and Epicureanism. the freedom from affections which therein reflected on external things. post. on was informed that posed his son had " died.. . opcram dare." When said. glance at the new departure made by Christianity and its most obvious influences on society. all Epicurus. who ancient Greeks. viii. from another aspect it stands in close historical connection with the old Greek and Eoman worlds must apprehend not existed. heart. 1 not require. 3. in another chapter. ages said. where no waves wash and no sound is heard. but christian receiving similar messenger. with the metriopathy of the general spirit of the make us dependent Aristotle. christian " news Blaspheme in regard to his father.It has also another sense in the same author. chap. rebuked the my for father is immortal. We . Epicurus placed the highest good in a deep haven of rest. " These burs are in upon of the later my . Christianity provided needed But we need had at one time also the fact that it had come into existence in the regular course of the spiritual development of man. his ideal too was 1 The word irapaxpvxh had for the ancient Greeks nothing of the emotional import which Greek Christians placed in the word irap&K\7)Tos. colloquial English are used in a degraded sense pain like a philosopher." 2 we talk of " bearing We may contrast the apathy of Zeno. similar cause that philosopher It is from a and philosophical in . but summum bonum .g. The motive. no longer objective. and the Sceptics were to secure for the individual the characterised by the same the end of Their object was. Anaxagoras never suphermit.

nature. The philosophical attitude of the Stoics. A need was felt for mediation for a place or mansion as it were for the soul to be near God. And in Christianity. which set in as old Greek life was falling asunder. to Christianity. something above the world and not over against it. repose itself in the Absolute or the the One. 6 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE book i mainly negative. Schelling. up to the middle of the second century at least. hand of Eoman which assorted well with the cold Stoic idea of fyvcns. and after the reign of Marcus Aurelius. This was the positive idea that animated the age of the Eoman Empire and tended to supersede Stoicism it was soul .. and the negative tendency. life. heaviness was hanging over the spirit and canker was beginning to gnaw. just as in the necessitated eighteenth century system of Kant the absolute philosophies of Fichte. freedom from bodily pain and mental trouble. and we may admit that in some respects it did approach more than other ages to the ideal of utilitarians but for thinkers it was not an age of felicity or brightness. and Hegel. the note of them was dissatisfaction with life and estrangement from the world. Or. approach to the to common God seemed a sort of refuge. especially. to put it from a religious point of view. Eor it disparaged the world and isolated the soul but the world thus disparaged was a fact which had to be explained. could not be final it naturally led to an absolute philosophy. increased and became universal under the cold rule. whose tenets were more widely spread than those of any other school. was a golden age of felicity. to Gnosticism. The heavy cloud soon burst. And so the spirit endeavoured to grasp itself anew. was very and found its expression in monastic ideals. It has been said that the early Empire. Europe was a scene of general misfortune. The new idea was the Logos the new world was the kingdom of the Son. to flee from the environments of strong. Thus these philosophies of the Infinite were the sphere to . and to ISTeoplatonism. the individual's was not found a sufficiently strong refuge. These philosophies were over against the world rather than above it. . system of Philo. derived from the apathy of the Stoics and the unsociability of the Cynics. Some stronger and surer resting-place was needed. and reason was constrained to complete its dialectic by advancing to . This spirit. own — .

which is so cardinal in Christianity. by its positive pantheistic theory and the surrender of the individual to the pulse of the universe. by their own inherent defect. in a manner which reminds us of the christian apostles meeting to commemorate their master. But we must now turn to the and see how these late Greek thinkers prepared and spread of Christianity. and transformed the meaning of the phrase jus gentium. Epicureanism and Scepticism were atheistic and tended to discredit the popular beliefs in the pagan gods. Friendship was a feature among the Epicureans as it was . as well a stoical it had an epicurean of. and so. In the first place. combined with the Stoic theory of the law of nature. which many points so striking. side. the Stoic cosmopolitanism. Epicurean. And in the fourth place. Stoicism. who collected around himself a friendly society. The fact that this Stoic theory affected the theory and practice of the Eoman lawyers. Now friendship and comradeship were regarded as most important elements in life by the Epicureans.chap. made the ground ready for the theory of universal brotherhood. In the second place. and once a year in commemoration of his birth. is sometimes unduly dwelt on. It may be pointed out in a few words. beginning with the founder of the sect. In the third place. by uprooting patriotism. was an advance of the greatest importance in the same direchistorical side the way for the reception tion. supplemented the non-patriotic sentiments of the Epicureans. made a step towards the dependence of man on God's will or the doctrine of obedience. while his disciples used to meet solemnly every month. if some men are naturally in stoical and others naturally epicurean. is The resemblance between Christianity and Stoicism. and thus anticipated the christian embrace of all humanity. and the second side should not be lost sight the weight For one of the most important elements in Christianity was it gave to the tender affections. and one of the most attractive incidents in a christian life was the formation of a spiritual friendship or brotherhood. For if the Stoic and the Epicurean systems correspond to two different types of human nature. Christianity contained elements which attracted as men of both these natures. and Pyrrhonic systems naturally led. Epicureanism discredited devotion to one's country. i CHRISTIANITY AND PAGANISM 7 which the Stoic.

not indeed with the optimism which holds that there is more pleasure than pain in the world. in the western lands of the Empire. designed and directed by the Deity. but with an optimistic belief in human progress. and care little to look forward their pantheism did ing. . It was believed indeed that at any time the end of the world might come. in general. speaks of gradual progress. but. and sometimes degenerating into the life of Cynics. it also involved the theory that the course had been one of progress. . gradually freeing itself . which. the side that naturally loves pleasure 1 This idea underlies St. On the other hand. 1 just as the teaching of Epicurus was hailed by followers like Lucretius as ushering in a new age. even of the later and milder Stoics. The human race is represented as progress- from the fetters of superstition and opening its eyes to a clearer view of truth. not lead them to an idea of progress. on the other hand. The great poem of Lucretius is permeated with optimism. we cannot help perceiving that in the idea of the world's progress Christianity approaches more nigh to Epicureanism than to Stoicism. while the solitary life of from their fellows and mortified their bodies was derived from the spirit of Stoicism. was not a christian virtue and man's dignity. And. which for Christians depended on his having a soul. Now Christianity involved optimism in two ways. ultimately acquired in many cases a certain brightness and cheerfulness. allowing for all differences. A noteworthy difference between the two philosophies was fled who that the Stoics looked back. and that the revelation of Christ had introduced a new era of advance for the world. tinctured with oriental asceticism. light coming out of darkness. of history It not only involved happiness for be- lievers in another life. and that a great change might take place . in his letters to Valentinian II. And then we may say that the joint life of brethren in a monastery. the heroism of the Stoics. Ambrose. Augustine's de civitate Dei. Christianity exalted the feminine un-Eoman side of man's nature. but not so in the system of the indepen- dent and lonely Stoics. who were a sort of caricature of the Stoics. was reduced by the feeling of his abasement before God. The Stoics. corresponded to the Epicurean spirit hermits . prefer to dwell on the glories and the heroes of the past.8 I HISTOR Y OF THE LA TER ROMAN EMPIRE book i among the Christians. while the Epicureans looked forward.

But the schools at Athens still flourished in the fifth century. le laisser-aller de l'epicureisme au plaisir et les orgueilleuses indiffer- ' et Blanceflor. and thus Mr. or rather a refined Cyrenaic. on earth has fallen the glorious dwelling " dying fall . attempt to oppose the new faith. House at Eome was affecting removed. moiide. M. c. as some thought. but even in the sixth century it was not yet dead. p. and the the last oracle of Apollo became to The effort of the benighted faith. After the victory of Christianity. of classical antiquity. Plutarch the philosopher. the altar of Victory in the Senate the Olympic games silent. the spring. the evil glamour.) . lured the exiled gods of Greece back verses for a moment their ancient habitations. and the pagans who taught there as Leontius. turn by the force of that very nature. paganism was dying out. with all its ornaments. of side of Christianity shall had another. though Symmachus appeal to spare it . — the laurel. Proclus were in no danger of suffering the fate They were quietistic they did not of Hypatia at Alexandria. a natural Epicurean. Edelestand du Meril says of " Non seulement il minait par la base les deux grands empechements de l'amour dans l'aneien 1 Christianity : ite ences du stoicisme il initiait 1' Humantout entiere a cette vie de Fame que quelques sages avaient seuls encore soupconnee. which I have to speak hereafter. and the emblems of paganism. the Epicurean side. But the etc. expressed the consciousness that the old things had passed away.— chap. — anima naturaliter Christiana in Tertullian's words. The pagan rhetoric. an inhuman. — in which the Hellenic spirit uttered its latest breath. to the new religion. side. or. in fact. was not dispensed with by the most learned christian divines. effort of Julian. — " Tell the words have a and with the song of Greece the gods of Greece also retreated down the vast and dreary edges of the world." (Introduction to Floire . and to most men attractive. elirare tg3 ftaaikrjL ^a/xal irecre Sai&aXos avka. and the government wisely left them in peace. which was no longer a meet habitation for the deities of Olympus. the king. and the senators made an were abolished. This x . i CHRISTIANITY AND PAGANISM 9 and shrinks from pain and feels quick sympathy. The Christians themselves were not quite emancipated from the charm. It was as dear to the heart of Chrysostom as to that of — — . Towards the end of the fourth century Gratian gave up the title of Pontifex Maximus . is it the human. Walter Pater makes Marius.

unable to win her affections which were given to Christ. There were not many like Synesius who could be both a Platonist and There were not many even like Tertullian. now to be replaced felt by the thrill. remarkable both in itself and as having been by the Empress Eudocia. and is also interesting as presenting us with a prototype of Justina was a beautiful christian maiden of Antioch. Faust. passionately loved by a pagan youth Aglaides. For this purpose he engaged the services of Cyprian. historian of Constantine. by embracing the new religion. Similarly. the old heroes and heroines would pass into his soul.— 10 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE and Eusebius. would admit that the best of the ancients possessed " a soul naturally christian. who. of temptation that the wizard's art raised against Justina were versified Justina." And yet in spite of themselves they could not put away a hankering after the classical art whose subject- matter was pagan myth and pagan thrill history. learned in all the wisdom of the But the demons Egyptians and in the magic of the Chaldeans. placed in a The new religion created a repugnance to the old fabulous mythology. . determined to move Acheron. a powerful magician. There is a legend which made its appearance about the fourth century. resist the fascination of Cicero. Augustine a and deemed the infelix wicked. had to confess with many tears that often. truths of the Old Testament. Latin divines like Augustine despise the science of style. the legend of Cyprian and It illustrates the thaumaturgy and the asceticism of the age as well as the conflict of Christianity and paganism. spiritual difficulty. suc- ceeded by means in producing some effective passages. and the remembrance of the ancient gods disarrange Such asceticism as this was more common his thoughts of God. and Salvian did not ancients had Christians who had really art of the a taste for art were. One Germanus. as a sort of emanation from Tartarean powers. It may be added that pagan symbols and mottoes were used on christian tombs. and to the old philosophies and modes of thought. St. in the West than among the Greek-speaking Christians. the its book i Libanius. But the more than this external influence. while he was engaged in prayer. Jerome could not a friend of Cassian. at such lines as simulacrum atque ipsius umbra Creusae. and pagan ideas adapted in christian art. who a Christian.

magicians who had lived in the time of Pharaoh. " What want you. and Jambros. x As there were two sides to the old Greek religion — the ridiculous side 1 which Lucian brought out so humorously. i CHRISTIANITY AND PAGANISM 11 Whereupon Cyprian. and powers of evil. and opposed to the Another point in the contrast is the conception of a purified spiritual love opposed to the love of the carnal man which enlists the powers of darkness. shouting and gesticulating. a curious He conceived the tale is told of St. like a mariner at sea. Macarius ? why have you come to us ? " He replied that he merely wished to see the garden and would leave it when he home. idea of visiting the garden and sepulchre (kepotcqrfiion) of Jannes associated with magic light of Christianity. leaping. and surrounded it with a wall of square stones they had built a tomb in it. Macarius of Alexandria. it . by the guidance of the stars. that he might meet and make inquiries of the demons who had They had been lodged there by the art of the magicians. and as it was night when he reached the garden. ed. Eegarding the dealings of holy men with demons. abjured his magic arts. he and Justina suffered martyrdom in the persecution of Diocletian. Macarius returned to his cell. — stuck reeds in the ground at certain intervals to mark the way For nine days he crossed the desert. moved by the firmness and power of her faith. and Palladius. and as he traversed the desert he .chap. wherein they placed rich treasure of gold. and had dug a great well in hopes that after death they might luxuriate in this paradise. . planted the garden with all sorts of trees. see a bronze cask hung in the well by an iron Having chain worn by time. and when the saint awoke he found them lying in a bundle at his head. Meursius. p. But meanwhile the " wild demon " collected all the reeds. became enamoured of Both her. 44 sqq. and gnashing with their teeth flying like crows in his face they asked him. Macarius made his way. and was baptized a Christian. he lay down and slept. little to . The vanity of all his arts and lore is described by Cyprian in a manner which reminds us of the opening lines Pagan learning is of Faust's soliloquy in Goethe's drama. 1616. repulsed by the sign of the cross. and a few dry pomegranates. : had seen there was In the garden whereupon the demons vanished. As he approached the garden seventy demons met him. 'laropia AavaiaK-rj. satisfied his curiosity.

and the pagan ritual en- At this period the worship deavoured to seduce men's senses and maintain itself by brilliant forms of (cf. they were really as much children of the gray time they lived in as the . and a new theory of at first life. who studied Plato and Pythagoras and Aristotle and old Orphic mysteries. the practical taught a high aim being to purify the the thraldom of matter by an ascending series of cleansing pro- might finally. Reich. and Athenais. and therefore must logically lead to the same cast of inhumanity. Olympias. lovely there were There was the ugly. by a sort of henosis or at-one-ment. But in spite of the dismalness. at that time almost weary of living. be constructed ? jSTeoplatonism might seem something of this kind. the opposition of soul and body. Das icestromischc . It might be asked. Christian women with gracious faces move before us. soul and body were two cesses. so that it And terms in a descending series. the hopes which it offered to mankind. side. but practically they were opposed. we can see traces of cheerfulness and traits of human feeling in the Church. 550). Theoretically. With it a theology soul from generically similar to the christian theology. although the new philosophers. indeed. Christians.12 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE human side book i the ideal but which made it two sides also to the christian religion. when men even looked forward to a very speedy end of a universe which seemed a theatre of misery. combining the requisite consolation with the antique grace. Hypatia. so. ideal of ethics. inhuman the attractions of paganism 1 be combined with the attractions of Christianity. might invest their doctrine with an antique borrowed charm. Bichter. which had now outgrown the hopeful freshness that gave it such a charm in the first and second centuries. Melania. of the Christianity of the time. — from which the humanism of the fourteenth and extreme and grotesque asceticism. Eudocia. p. as far as the world is concerned. But it is clear that Neoplatonism involved the same essential opposition which was involved in Christianity. a sort of war with the instincts of humanity and there was the consolatory side. become conscious of the Absolute. spirit 1 But they were recognised opponents in such a Augustine speaks of Plotinus and Porphyrins. manifested in . was no middle course open? could not fifteenth century revolted. tinctured with cynicism. though a lighter atmosphere seems to linger round the pagan ladies. Asclepigeneia.

and determine even events like a war or a revolution. The men who have only to act in history. . So in reading a philosophy and learning the itself at we are getting manner in which Plato at the secret of the age. the spirit contemplated the time. the last original Greek philosopher. under the guidance of the old philosopher Plutarchus and his daughter Asclepigeneia. where. 96. as to mystics. presents us with a thoroughly articulated system. in . i CHRISTIANITY AND PAGANISM 13 massacre of Hypatia at Alexandria was a manifestation of the antagonism. the wine is strained and clarified . Proclus. the philosopher has not to do with this and that. See Hegel. the men who "make history. Proclus is its Hegel. order to understand the real forces that underlie the history of a time. a sediment as it was an unreduced surd in Plotinus and a certain cloudiness in were in the bottom of the cup The sediment which clouded the liquid to a certain degree. We must he was initiated in the mysteries of Platonism. There the Schelling of Neoplatonism. that bears a distinct resemblance in its 1 method to Hegel's Logic. or this kingdom. whose work is full of interesting incidents and traits) that one who was to lead all sciences should be reared and educated under He studied rhetoric at Alexthe god who leads the Muses. xv. it Born in Lycia. for behoved (as we are told by his biographer Marinus. his system. but has to become a witness of the processes of the spirit in which and that are nothing more than this and that. andria and philosophy at Athens.chap. or this woman this 2 . whom If Plotinus is he made a marked advance in many respects. Proclus understood more thoroughly and worked on more in his spirit than his great predecessor Plotinus. go into its difficult details. glance at the system of Proclus. p. but we must take note of its for a historian of any particular state of the leading features world is concerned with the way in which a thinker placed It might even be therein approaches metaphysical problems. the last term in the history In a general history we cannot or chain of Greek philosophy. he disappears in Proclus. said that we must go to the philosophers." do with this treasure. Wcrke. he was dedicated by his parents to Apollo. lived at Athens throughout the greater part of the fifth century (410-485).

it is improper be would and yet it Now from the cause. numerous categories It is this triadic arrangement. when in the study of philosophy it turns to the intellect from which it came forth. so the Nous or Spirit proceeds not from the One directly. whereby alone there can be participation The doctrine of the henads is the philosophical in the One. Next to them. according to which towards the One from it turning and in the act of which This is point at Thought. of the " musical " or cultured soul to retrace the world-process in which it is involved. started with One or the Ab- solute. but from the One and the company of henads.— 14 HISTOR Y OF THE LA TER ROMAN EMPIRE the book i Proclus. low a category to assert of it. civil. like Plotinus. the emanates. but from the Father and Son. that reminds From the intellectual world emanus of the Hegelian system. . the Nous from the One rests on a confusion. of which we find the origin in Plato. not a cause and yet through emanates an image which. In the hymns of Proclus. descending line. that which cannot be called Being. back and this process is performed by the soul. which he wrote under the inspiration of older Orphic hymns. analogue of the famous filioque clause in the Latin creed as the holy Spirit proceeds not from the Father alone. Plotinus. This process of development is one of descent from higher There is a reverse process. and in whose nature it shares. a middle term is required. human. differentiated into arranged in triads. and here he repeats his triple assuming three kinds of souls. Soul. Thus it is the aim division. . divine. and ecclesiastical organisations. comes the sphere of Nous. and in which he celebrated all for he used to say that a philosopher kinds of strange deities — should not confine himself to the religious ideas of one people. avcuriob? clItiov. and third in the . as well as in Neoplatonism. for it is beyond Being. he emits some of that but be "a hierophant of the world. The henads he terms Gods. and Proclus interposed the lienacls between them a plurality of ones." — 1 Hierarchical scales were a feature of the period. and 1 Fifth and last in the scale comes Matter. demonic. ates the fourth term. for intelligence is too It is the source of all things. and cannot be called intelligent. is Nous or The immediate procession of Proclus makes a new departure. the epistrophe or turningto lower. to assert cause of it. One. they meet us in the military.

There is a certain contrast and there is also a certain analogy between the course of development of Christianity and that of Neoplatonisra. theorising is differed — — valuable only as a means to right conduct. shall we say. but of which we can find little in his own severe treatises. And it. Out of the world. or shadowed." Thus they from both Stoics and Christians. position. and there were the wilder mystical speculators like Iamblichus and the writer on Egyptian Mysteries. herein agreeing with practical Stoics. commentaries on Plato. like that of the freedom from disturbance and this they thought was obtained by contemplation. no thinker with native enthusiasm could fail to be drawn into the vortex of the contending theories of the world. . Stoicism had perhaps a larger number of the elements of a religion. by his enthusiasm as a combatant against the new In his time. end of the Neoplatonists was. often seems which attends undisturbed contemplation was lighted up. The ataraxia." Proclus was able to develop the timeless and spaceless triads. but for the Neoplatonist the practice of the ethical subsidiary to the contemplation of the metaphysical is virtues is truth which the end. a sort of canonic for ethics . among whom Hypatia may be mentioned. . Thus the divergency from orthodox Neoplatonism was into the realm of the imagination the divergency from orthodox Christianity was .chap. like Empedocles or Spinoza. " a solitary worker in the vast loneliness of the Absolute. But in the fifth century the only thing left for non-christian philosophers was quietism. i CHRISTIANITY AND PAGANISM 15 mystic emotion with which the philosophical writings of Plotinus are suffused. As Christians had been divided into Athanasians and Arians. and yet it too was only for the sage. There were the soberer and truer followers of Plotinus. before Christianity attained its dominant religion. For the Stoic and the study of pure metaphysics the Christian. so Neoplatonism may be said to have fallen asunder into two divergent schools. although it had an atmoNeoplatonism was and could be than a philosophy. in a sort of divine intoxication. and study the works of Plato with a leisure and severity that Plotinus could Most of his works assume the modest form of hardly realise. sphere of religion about strictly no more and no less thus. the Aristotelian ideal of the " theoretic life. and the severity For Plotinus.

and few will with Eousseau and Gibbon that the cost to was greater than the gain. Thought was rendered sterile and unproductive for centuries under the withering pressure of an omnipresent obtains a deliverer . that the human mind was cabined by the Infinite. last stage in christological controversy . and the paradox it unto itself. just as the minute determination of the higher categories by Proclus was the final stage of the development of Neoplatonic thought. 1 The monotheletic dispute in the seventh century. freed the human mind from the bonds of the finite. through the Nestorian and Eutychian con1 troversies.16 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE Among the . the path from ancient be disposed to assert But through this selva oscura lay modern civilisation. the minute determination of the nature of Christ in the fifth century. whether to an individual or a race. Again. precise analysis of ideas. set at rest by the sixth Ecumenical Council. was almost the last period in the development of christian doctrine. were more inclined to creed of Mcaea embrace the modified form of Christianity than any form of the new pagan philosophy. enslaves we may say. was the historical new philosophy and the new result for religion ? manThe . was actually the but it was really only a corollary to the monophysitic question. and men were able to reason things out more calmly and realise the subtler there were no rationalists like the Arians difficulties. and monotonous idea. or rather did not think of. presence of the Infinite. having and a tyrant. The first great inspiration. had passed away. book i into the realm of the understanding. What. Humanity seeks a deliverer it bought at a great cost. which in its ardour could not tolerate. on that men of a sure heavy laid too a burden. . For the Infinite. new Platonists and we may be logical whose faith the cold temper. like a true tyrant is only apparent. kind is it of the may be asked.

vol. in which appears new departure. in wild state. fulfilled. i c . when he heard !" the story of Christ's pas- "If I had been there with my Franks. we see that they were historically adapted to one another. From the very first German princesses often embraced Christianity and adorned it. The connection character was essentially subjective. but at this time in the external events of history. I would have revenged his injuries its we feel the presence of this heart. and it was to the needs of the heart that Christianity possessed endless potentialities of adaptation. which Christianity was destined to tame. on a psychological basis the The Teutons were gifted with that susceptibility which we call heart. It has been said that the function of the German nations was to be the bearers of Christianity. it we other historical aspect. whose beliefs superseded. sion. Yet even in the exclamation of the rude barbarian Chlodwig. It is long afterwards that rests we see the mission .CHAPTEE II INFLUENCE OF CHRISTIANITY ON SOCIETY Having seen how must glance as a at its closely Christianity was connected with the it past ages of civilised Europe. Christianity and Teutonism were both solvents of the ancient world. Christianity identified with the Eoman German Empire. The growth of the new religion was indeed contemporary with the spread of the new races in the Empire. but it required its many centuries for those nations to be regener- ated by influence. like Aurelian or Constantine. so far from being closely is attached to the Germans. To an old Eoman. and as the German nations became afterwards entirely christian. such an exclamation would have been impossible.

" " In the direction where I had set my face. casta dignitas continentiae.— 18 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE it book i This aspect of Christianity as the religion of the future has brought us to consider exhibited as a religion rather than as a theology. and yet was not wrapped in such an envelope of mystic theosophy as to preclude it from acceptance by European minds. and whither I was hastening to cross over. Stoicism was indeed practical. the leading changes which Christianity produced in society. Stoicism aimed at stifling the emotions and repressing the affections Christianity cherished the amiable affections." 2 1 2 viii. and was bound to displace Stoicism and Neoplatonism. there was exposed to my view a chaste and dignified temper of self-restraint. I think. . 11. We must now point out some society adopted to it. and Christianity was the best they found. while Christianity descended to the dull and the uneducated. Aristotle. as it . and a passage in the Confessions of Augustine seems worthy of special remark. was not from conviction after careful men believed it it was rather because they wanted to believe something. the cheerful virtue of the christian life that exercised a fascination on the cultured. he says "Aperiebatur enim ab ea parte qua intenderam faciem et : quo transire trepidabam. serene and cheerful but never dissolute. serena et non dissolute hilaris. full of good examples. according to . 1 Having stated that the christian life attracted him. honourably enticing me to come without hesitation. and holding out to embrace and receive me affectionate hands. honeste blandiens ut venirem neque dubitarem et extendens ad me suscipiendum et amplectendum pias manus plenas gregibus bonorum exemplorum. But it us that sifting of evidence that . to Christianity a question that naturally suggests it Mr. in which light its connection with the past naturally it. as opposed to men who are of capable of living by reason. As a religion it was a complete novelty. are creatures of passion. was. having first considered why Koman civilised What Lecky tells induced is the world be converted itself. but it could only be accepted by a man of more than average intellect. It was consoling it had an oriental flavour. and was particularly suited to be understood and embraced by women and children who. above all. Empire might have attained of to this gentleness itself It might seem that the Roman of manners.

Pachomius In the same way among women the horror of unchastity which of desecration of the body. in the first place. stricken with a passion for the desert. of strongly-developed physical passions. i. from the world. there were three great checks on such a tendency (History of European Morals. 3 I do not propose to illustrate at length this subject. who attained to the highest political offices. Ecc. where he lived as a saint of no ordinary sanctity In the reign of Theodosius the Great. and this may explain how they could live so long under privations and endurances which seem man to a speedy end. a beautiful and power. 2 The coenobitic monks who lived together in cells in the desert were practically hermits. that the great value set by the life must have conduced and in the second place. 3 When we regard the effects of these habits. that the refusal of the most spiritually -minded in the community to assist in triumphant Church on the unmarried to depopulation . we observe. . which exercised a sort of maddening fascination over countless men of high faculties. — . of which long accounts and numerous anecdotes may be — .chap. and even children were dedicated in their infancy with a cruel kindness to a life of sufficient to bring the life of an ordinary far A rage for the spiritual life. seized with a profound conviction of the deadliness of impurity. But. long peace and enjoyed a did tend in that direction. men there . Elesbaa. Antony and 2 they meet us at every page of history. civilisation and it monks of Palestine succeeded so well in their endeavours to mortify the flesh that they became unconscious of the differences of the sexes (Hist. — — monasticism. young man. The object of the hermit was to free 1 and thus the men himself from temptations to sensuality who embraced such a life were probably. . suddenly bade good-bye to his family and departed to Mount But we need Sinai. ii INFLUENCE OF CHRISTIANITY ON SOCIETY 19 But beside this ideal of a calm and cheerful social life was the ideal of the ascetic and unsocial life of the hermit. in most cases. St. 21). the temple of the soul had taken possession of the age with a sort of morbid excess. In the sixth century an Ethiopian king. i. not enumerate here the countless disciples of St. as Lecky points out. found in any ecclesiastical history. abdicated his throne to retire to fast and pray in the desert. as we can see by the mild character of later Stoicism. 1 Evagrius describes how certain advanced in . led to vows of perpetual virginity. They were therefore generally men of robust frame. seized on individuals of all classes. 287) (1) the imperial system itself the cruelty of emperors worshipped as gods (2) the institution of slavery (3) thecontinuance of the gladiatorial shows.

parents of average notions have been often natural tendencies. the race must decline. This part was that of the consoler and " ministering union of human society. St. to have a " mission. . respect marriage filled with despair when a divine longing for the lonely life considerably changed by immortal souls equalised them with the other sex. those Christians who did not approve unreservedly of Christianity." And thus. Jerome had a spiritual circle of See women p. of course. And after Christianity had prevailed. the present saints the admiration enthusiastic women 1 and was unbounded. but that the christian life extended woman's sphere. was a lady day. and must have caused a considerable amount of suffering. This unsocial passion invaded family life. In fact. by the recognition that they had functions beyond those of maternity and housewifery. the best refuse to have children. to insist too much on the distant effects of celibacy. The position of women was Their possession of celibacy considered that the chief end of marriage was not production of children. 81. and gave her a part to play in the struggles of the 2 Church. La siecle. came upon their children. and an emancipation began. Among the most pathetic incidents in the history of the growth of Christianity were those of the great gulf fixed between husbands and wives by the conversion of the latter. about him in Old Rome.20 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE book i reproduction must have contributed to a decrease in really If It spiritually-minded persons. he did not see that the observation was really a retort upon his own position. but it cannot be overlooked that these were When Jerome remarked that in one was laudable." Olympias. but rather to be a type of the primitive This theory set women and men on an equal footing. In a letter to a Eoman lady he said that nature had assigned domestic duties to women and external duties to men. would be an its error. Ozanam. and Chryau 2 Tertullian wrote a book on the duties of a christian woman. to woman was admitted As in for use a cant phrase of the present day. the of friend of Chrysostom. Chrysostom expressed himself strongly on this subject. 1 angel. which has since indeed progressed but slowly. priests of the new type. on the principle of heredity. because it brought virgins into the world. civilisation cinquieme part ii.

which the pagans. fur die Plotinus forbade suicide on the ground that it entailed a disturbance which infected the purity of the_ soul." 2 nur zu Atrnosphare Roms mit einem Ansteckungsstoff. really " fast " That many of these religious sisters did become in dress and behaviour we know from the letters of Chrysostom. or even abortion. chap. or ear-picker. of life was the uncompromising reprobation of all forms of removing unwelcome children by exposition. Along with this negatively working idea of the sanctity of life was the other idea which succeeded and elevated Stoic cosmopolitanism. they recommend it. infanticide. This place. have tended to make them more independent. though it were the only means of preserving them from disAnother corollary from the respect for inviolability honour. was given who was noted for his successes in making such The new view of women's position must spiritual conquests. they became gradually discredited and were put down before the end of the fourth century. As these amusements were one of the chief obstacles to the refining and softening influences of Eoman advanced civilisation. the attitude towards suicide. in the first not quite novel to them. 279. p. just as does nowaEome. the idea that all men are brothers bound by 1 Friedlander. idea. . ii INFLUENCE OF CHRISTIANITY ON SOCIETY 21 sostom was the centre of similar attentions from ladies in New to a priest The name aurisccdpius. an idea distinctly opposed if actual practice of the pagans. altered the attitude to the gladiatorial shows. days the spread of more liberal theories on women's education and old-fashioned people probably looked with horror on the life of deaconesses as implying an immodest surrender of female retirement. we can hardly did not rate too highly the importance of this step. 2 at least considered venal. of One life the most far - reaching life changes introduced by Christianity into the conduct of as was the idea that human to the such was sacred . ii. dessen Einflusse selbst hohe Bildung und bevorzugte Lebensstellung nicht zu brechen verniochten. which was hardly condoned even to heroic christian maidens. and became a heinous crime. and although they were not immediately abolished on the triumph of Christianity. Stoics looked upon the possibility of self-destruction as a gauge of their in- dependence. was quite changed by the new feeling. Sittcngeschichte. says of the deleterious effects of the games : " Sie erfiillten die geistige auch das andre Geschlecht empfanglich war.. if 1 Again.

There were abundant instances of self- sacrifice for others. vation of the amiable side of human nature. The idea that God's . Yet we can hardly say that there was much altruism in early christian society. Many people in modern England come far nearer to the realisation of the idea than they did. leaving make the dread a side r and morbid. by the desire The impossible "of ennobling and benefiting one's own soul. undesirable aim of loving and. enforced by an elaborate legislature regulating degrees of sin and the corresponding penances. tortures of hell gave a dark tint to the new religion. black as evil acts. as Herbert Spencer of altruism selfishness . in the literal sense of the words. The to . in spite of the altruistic tendencies of Christ's teaching. just because they happened to be poor. which natures of melancholy cast made it a sort of haunting terror while the claims of Christianity to dominate the most of sin constant trifling almost no margin for neutral actions. tended to deed and smallest thought. Empire itself on the who men and members of the christian Church were the brothers of their masters and on an equality This both improved the condition of slaves and promoted to some degree a decrease of slavery and an increase Beyond this.22 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE common humanity. and quickened all the emotions of life and furthered the cultiwith them. Alms. has shown. between the book i a Besides softening to some extent the relation Eoman as world and the barbarians. but they were not dictated by the motive they were dictated by the motive of a transfigured which looked to a reward hereafter. one's neighbour as oneself. The ideas of sin and future punishment. for example. w ere supposed to be not far from the kingdom of heaven. raising as it were the elaborate ritual of pagan ceremonies of purification into the spiritual sphere. this idea had a considerable effect within the position of slaves. And here we have touched on of Christianity which was distinctly unreasonable and w ould have revolted the clear intellect of a healthy Greek. were another great novelty of Christianity. where evil thoughts were wellnigh as were given T for the benefit of the giver's soul. were not given : merely out of pure and heartfelt sympathy for the poor they and to obtain the prayers of the recipients who. it penetrated in the frequency of emancipation. was not attained or even approached by the saints.

between a dread of God's wrath and a consciousness of his approval which produced the opposing virtues of christian pride and christian humility. and keeps. who put forward the " man of great spirit presence. to . They were ever contending or consorting with the demons or angels of imagination. that other idea of extreme asceticism the true lovers of to God " run into strange capers. ii "." as bringing And while many this idea was welcome. equally repugnant to Hellenic reason.) as a man of virtue. it was carried to excess by the Christians. like man which led to a solitary life. we must not forget that the believers of those days realised far more vividly than the believers of our days the realities of their religion. The " humble man " of the Christians would have been considered a vicious and contemptible person by Aristotle. as it were. It is an idea that cannot well he accepted by the reason of the natural and. For like all true lovers. the field of divine or automatous intimations. them into close making them feel his — (o fjbeyaXoyjrv^o^. INFLUENCE OF CHRISTIANITY ON SOCIETY 23 omniscience takes account of the smallest and meanest details of our lives. This chapter may It be concluded with the remark that a considerable change had first appearance. a written record of such nugatory sins against us. was all the more spacious. And the Church was able to enforce its moral laws by fear of the ultimate and dreaded penalty of excommunication which made the criminal an outcast from society. as some Christians the divine supervision of trifles must have been felt as an oppressive tyranny.— chap. avoided and abhorred. to an old Greek possessed of the most elementary culture. now uplifted and rejoicing in the radiant raptures of heaven. would have appeared utterly absurd. was alien to the Hellenic instinct which clung to the mean (to fjueaov). In forming an idea of the christian society and sentiments of the early ages. come over Christianity itself since its had lost the charm that attended the . now labouring and heavyladen in the lurid horrors This variation between two extreme poles of hell. their imaginations had a wider range and a greater intensity. While the conceptions of the saints were confined to a smaller sphere of observed facts. as well as a degradation of the Deity. and constant relation with the Deity. The realm of scientific knowledge was limited and therefore the field of fancy which they inherited.

and although the religious consolation novelty of the revelation. the flower of faded. The christian cheerfulness even under which contrasted pleasantly with the weary pagan society were no longer there. the persecution — and early cheerfulness freshness — the . remained.24 HISTOR Y OF THE LA TER first ROMAN EMPIRE book i its youth had temperament could not be unaffected by the cold winter waves that washed over the world in the fourth and fifth centuries.

though in a "curial lesser degree . the wars of the third century. until the time of Constantine. which ruined the middle class of small proprietors and created a proletariat. Moreover. This was the introduction of barbarians as soldiers or agriculturists (coloni) into the Eoman provinces. and the importation of barbarians." itself. effectually Thus to the social cause which had operated for a long time was added in the fourth century a political cause. which maintained oppressive taxation by means of the system. In the reign of Aurelius the great plague inflicted a blow which the Empire was never able to recover. A similar tendency manifested itself in the East under Eoman rule. the second soon became indispopulation from recovering pensable to the Eoman administration. who was obliged to make special laws to encourage reproduction. the only remedy which the government could apply to meet the evil was itself an active element of disintegration. as it was involved in a continuous series of evils. the causes of depopulation. The original cause of depopulation in Italy was the slave system. Thus slavery and oppressive taxation. pends ultimately on the people. and the financial hindered the policy of the later Empire. and just as the first was an indispensable element of Eoman society. may be looked on as three main elements of . to the time of Marcus Aurelius the population steadily The most obvious element decreased. and from the time of Augustus.CHAPTEE III ELEMENTS OF DISINTEGRATION IN THE ROMAN EMPIRE of weakness in the Eoman Empire The vitality of a state dewas the increasing depopulation. the remedy of depopulation.

which tended to keep up the practice of exposing infants. was that the ranks of the small farmers were decimated. in This when wars were Another frequent. it A was fourth element was the christian religion which. ii. p. prices descended so low that he was unable even to reimburse himself. and poor were obliged to take the field but while the land of the it. Under the Empire even the number of the slaves decreased. 1 Besides destroying the middle class. if the harvest of the following year turned out very successful. a direct check on population. since the produce of the West did not readily find a sale in the East. tended directly to reduce the petty proprietors to beggary and add to the wealth of the rich capitalists. and. according to an ancient writer. and also increased its psychological concomitant. while the numbers of the slaves. ruined Italy were formed. In time of war free proprietors. as is proved 1 I have availed myself here of the acute remarks of von Jhcring on the Quellen des Paupcrismus in his Geistdes rbmischen Eechts. For to purchase slaves in the markets of the East the precious metals were requisite. the slave system facilitated and encouraged the unproductive unions of concubinage. who this staff employed slaves to cultivate was not affected by circumstance. multiplied. and these to the self-indulgent were more agreeable than marriage. cruelty or indifference. 237 sqq. It We may was a consequence of the slave system that those great estates which. It is important to note precisely all how this effect took place. rich. vol. remained uncultivated during their absence. alike. nevertheless Empire and the imperial take these four points in order administration.: 26 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE in book i disintegration the Empire. This convenient system naturally confirmed and increased the spirit of self-indulgence. in the army. now quite enormous so that the small farmer was obliged to buy corn at an exorbitant price. especially after the time of Caracalla. effect of wars. and swallowed up the small proprietors. fact. . while entirely opposed to the Roman was not (1) spirit which it theoretically opposed to the was destined to dissolve. who did not serve We must also remember that a bad harvest raised prices then to an extent that appears . rich . which entails duties as well as pleasures. a time who had no of slaves. which conduced to the same result. the lands of the small farmers. and the supply of gold and silver was declining.

d. Pliny is cited (Hist. viii. 41. the so-called indiction. of which Juvenal. History of the Romans tender the Empire. The first indietion began on 1st September 312 a. 1 This diminution in the number of slaves led to the rehabilitation of free labour but the freemen were soon involved in the meshes of the caste system which reduced them not to slavery. The first was that a revision of taxes took place every 3 fifteen years. which it was their business to collect from all the proprietors in the district. 41). in DISINTEGRATION OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE 27 by the great depreciations of coinage. V. vi.chap. See Finlay. It followed that if one proprietor became bankrupt the load on all the others was increased. 55. 4) : scilicet ut imprimis parentis vicem plebi exhibeas he is to act as a parent to the populace. etc. as Einlay noticed. 3 The indictio (einv4fir]<TLs) was properly the first year of the period of fifteen years. gives us a picture but this oppression was at least mitigated by the fact that it was not legal. (2) It was in the times of Diocletian and Constantine that the municipal institutions of the Empire were impressed with the fiscal stamp which characterised them henceforward. This office of clemency was afterwards closely connected with the christian Church. the interests of the curia were not . Nor was extortion always countenanced by the Emperors it is recorded that Tiberius found fault with the prefect of Egypt for transmitting to Eome an unduly large amount. and thus there was a prospect that an excessive burden might be reduced. xii. On the other hand we must remember that. Tozer). 1 Compare Merivale. Afterwards it was used of any year of this period. Tib. i. The second consisted in the institution of the defensores. i. History of Greece (ed. 2 But at the beginning of the fourth century the old municipal curia or senate was metamorphosed into a machine for grinding down the provincial proprietors by a most unmerciful and injudicious system of taxation. 32. Suetonius." to — prevent the exaction of anything beyond the amount due. but to serfdom. for example. 26 . The provincials had two alleviations. Just. to protect both rustici and urbani from oppression. For the drain of specie to 351. . The curia of a town consisted of a certain number of the richest landowners who were responsible to the treasury for a definite sum. and it was always open to the provincials to take legal proceedings. Valentinian. p. to withstand " the insolence of office. Nat. vol. vol. . and Theodosius (Cod. persons nominated to watch over the interests of the provincials and interfere in behalf of their rights against 4 illegal oppression. 2 4 The duties of a defensor civitatis are enumerated in a rescript of Gratian. 352. pp. which became a measure of time. Asia. During the three preceding centuries the provinces had gone through much tribulation. .

" by Dr. The slave proprietors were called ascripticii ." 1 1 Article on "Slavery. The law for a long time took no notice of these customary tenures. and then stereotyped was recognised and by law. J. loses sight of the " The be conveniently quoted have been composed partly of tenants by contract who had incurred large arrears of rent and were detained on the estates as debtors (dbaerati). It was indeed the requirements of the fiscus and the conscription which impelled the imperial government to regulate the system. An account of the colonatus which. to enter the church. as the curiales were only a select number of the most wealthy. Fustel de recent volume of points out clearly how the fermiers }xir contrat became gradu- Coulanges in his Rechcrches. " Ce n'est . The best work on the subject of the colonatus is the essay by M. They paid a fixed proportion of the produce (pars agraria) to the owner of the estate. has been given by Dr. or go to the They were not allowed discouraged. while the free farmers were naturally known as coloni. and travelling was in every way Moreover. and partly of small proprietors and other poor men who voluntarily adopted the status as an improvement in their position. dividual life must have been often a hopeless monotony of misery. This system tended to reduce the free provincial gentlemen to the state of serfs. They were enclosed exit. Economic necessities it brought about this state of things. K. slaves were elevated and freemen were degraded to the condition of labourers attached to the soil. He ally transformed to colons.28 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE book i identical with those of the municipality. and gave a determinate amount of labour (operae) on the portion of the domain which he kept in his own hands (mansus dominicus). Ingram in his essay on " Slavery. the obligations of the decurionate were hereditary. for in a cage from winch there was almost no laws were passed which forbade to quit their municipality with- them bar. The kindred institutions of serfdom and the colonatus gradually arose by a double process of levelling up and levelling down. out permission from the governor. and did following passage may : class of coloni appears to not systematically constitute them until the fourth century. to enlist in the army. partly of foreign captives or immigrants who were settled in this condition on the land. in which the inenforced. and exclusion from all other careers rigidly Thus a caste system was instituted. no essential fact." from which while it is concise. Ingram in the Encydojjcedia Britannica.

confirmed by Diocletian. ed. especially in distant provinces. The class of ascripticii. The idle populaces of the great cities were supplied with corn the drones fed on the labours of the bees. or principle of this system was to transfer to the imperial treasury as much as Want of possible of the wealth circulating in the capital in the provinces to repair the result. ici ou la. p. resulting from a different history. to secure the land tax. von Lingen- thai. As Hallam said. introduced tion is wastefulness. The distribution of property was less uneven in the East. i. which consumed a vast quantity of money. 4. but in professions . 9. But this was only the unavoidable all trades landed proprietors. was kept up in the seventh century. 24 . save by an application to the central which entailed delay and uncertainty. A was the system of court ceremonial and by Aurelian. pas le colonat qui s'est substitue en bloc au fermage c'est. Le fermage et le colonat ont longtemps vecu cote a cote " (p. de Coulanges is wrong in attributing the treatise at powai to the eighth century. 24). Cod. The distinction between ascripticii 1). Gfriechisch-rdmisches Recht. p. was probably composed in see von Lingen. Just. but disappeared in the eighth at least there is no mention of adscrijrticii in the still .chap.d. (Cod. a tax on receipts which fell very heavily on poor people. there fire. M. in DISINTEGRATION OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE caste system 29 The was carried out not only in the class of and whose members were liable to the capitation tax. and was ever increasing in luxury and unnecessary extravagance. and thereby a decrease in the population. un colon qui s'est substitue a un ferniier. were no means was a necessary damages of time. and was afterwards abolished by Anastasius amidst and a class tax on senators. see Zach. general rejoicings The uses to which a large part of the fiscal income was put gave the system an additional sting. the chrysargyron. and coloni. The western suffered more than the eastern provinces." The Empire. cvii. 224 a. ib. .g. who arose through the practice of tenures serviles. chaque jour. — consequence of the economical relations of the ancient world. " the sting of taxareal grievance aulic more splendour. 51. a fact which we must attribute primarily to a different economic condition. A decrease in the means of life was soon produced. vo/xos yecopyacos. and the social earthquakes authority. and elaborated by Constantine. which led necessarily to pauperism on a tremendous scale. Zacharia). . clearly marked in several laws of Justinian {e. Nov. viii. in speaking of the oppression under Charles VI of France. 241. it the reign of Heraclius thai. Two other taxes were introduced at the same period. are recognised in a law of Alexander Severus.

impresses us with a peculiar melancholy. After the division of the Empire. 1 : "Praesnmitejustitiam nostris vigere temporibus et sub irmo- centiae merito proficere posse virtutes. . which should be regarded as the " sinews of the republic. the state of the West seems to have become rapidly worse. 395 A. and how impracticable any reformation was when the decay had advanced so far. The language used in Majorian's constitutions of the state of the provincial subjects is very strong.. 1 Nov.D. the West was held by the cold hand of Borne. disuse. Majorian bids them return. He further discharged the accumulated arrears and re-established the office of defensor provinciae. Nemo delationes nietuat. a feeling of ineffectuality." etc. which was falling into . Their fortunes are described as " wearied out by the exaction of diverse and manifold taxes. stitutions of the faint reflection of the spirit of ancient Borne. Maj. guaranteeing that such abuses will be suppressed. while the East gradually Of the misery to which the Occident was reduced by the middle of the fifth revived under a government inclined to reform.30 HISTOR Y OF THE LA TER ROMAN EMPIRE book i character of the people was different. For while the East was under the more genial and enlightened rule of Alexander's successors. It is particularly to be noted that he abolished the arrangement by which the corporation was responsible for the whole amount of the land tax fixed at the last indiction henceforward the curia was to be responsible only for what it was able to collect from the tax-payers. and desired to alleviate the miseries that were produced by He was perhaps animated by some the curial institutions. who seems to have been by the example of the government of Constantinople." The municipal bodies of decurions. if we may judge from the enunciation of his policy in the letter which he 1 His short reign addressed to the senate on his accession. and brings home to us perhaps more than anything else in the fifth century how fruitless it was to struggle against the doom which was implied in the circumstances of the Empire and therefore impended inevitably over it." have been reduced to such a condition by " the injustice of judges and venality of tax-collectors " that they have taken refuge in obscure hidingplaces. century inspired we have a piece of incontestable evidence in the con- Emperor Majorian.

Moesia. as the offender was also misery run over. while in the East it was partially cancelled by the operation of other tendencies of an opposite kind. Gallienus settled Germans in Pannonia. the life of the curials is nothing but injustice." cries Salvian. iv. 21). the the governors of the provinces. a paucis emitur. Even in the time of the Eepublic there had been instances of hiring barbarian mercenaries under the Empire it became a common practice. 72. 2 It is probable that the barbarisation of the army progressed surely and continuously. . . that of the administrative officials (officialium) is devoted to col- " Quid aliud. 11. was a most serious element of disintegration. recruited his troops with the flower of the Gothic youth but Probus introduced multitudes of Franks. nothing but a tissue of fraud and perjury. a divine of the fifth century. "The " is lusion.. Marcus Aurelius made settlements of barbarians in Pannonia and . 1 It follows from this that the interests of the government and the governed were in direct opposition and it is evident that the sad condition of the provinces. ad hoc enim honor." he says. 50. after his Gothic victory. Thus there was no protection against an unjust governor. . the vicars of the praetorian prefects which made the cup of It is enough to call attention to a flagrant the fact that the adminidefect in the Eoman imperial system stration of justice was in the hands of the government officials By a constitution the civil governors were also the judges. Salvian is severe on all classes of the community. Bastarnae 1 . Vandals. depopulated and miserable. ed. while the career of soldiers is a career of rapine " (iii. .chap. ut cunctorum vastatione solvatur unius honor urbis excidium est" {de Gubernatione Dei. "quorundam quos taceo praefectura quam praeda ? . . They were admitted to replenish the declining population. Pauly). 2 Cassius Dio. the policy of settling barbarians on life of all merchants. and Claudius. the full effects of which were produced in the West. but this plan of settling barbarians as coloni within Eoman territory was not carried out on a large scale until the latter half of the third century. — — the judge. of Constantine there was no appeal to the Emperor from the sentence of the praetorian prefect. (3) The introduction of barbarians from Central Europe into the Empire was due to two general causes. . or they were admitted from the policy that they would be less dangerous as subjects within than as strangers without. . in DISINTEGRATION OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE 31 We the need not dwell on the extortions and oppressions of officials — dioceses.. Alans. in fact.

owing to the avarice and rapacity of the Eoman officials. 4 Ammian." Magnentius himself was an " unfortunate 3 relic of booty won from the Germans. 1. and painted in black colours by Ammianus. 8: "Eum aperte incusans. " in the flourished Franks multitude of days of Constantius a 4 Alemanni he sent the subdued I." Maximin. were transported in masses to Pannonia. xxi. Marcel. quod barbaros omnium primus adusque fasces auxerat et trabeas con- Trepiaiofofjievov. especially sulares. 5: "Carporum quosantiquisexcitossedibus Diocletianus transtulit in Pannoniam. where they Valens followed the same prinon the Po as tributarii. so that they have been called Carpi 1 " the pioneers of the German nations. 42." and his standard was joined by the Franks and Saxons." fruitful farms received all the captives to Italy. Hertlein rrjs cbrd YepfxavCiv Xet'as Xelxpavov dvarvx^s : stock of the Carpi on his father's side. ciple in The favour shown to Germans.32 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE book i Eoman ground was the most important feature of Probus' reign.000 men." to the influential 1 Ammian. p. an act which. . 3 Julian.000 Bastarnae. he compelled the conquered nations to supply the army with 16." The (perhaps Slaves). and he seems to have adopted a policy. 5. which Julian regarded as a " sacred war in behalf of the laws and constitution. for example. did himself what he censured Constantine for doing. stantine the importance of the It rapidly. and conferred the consulship on Nevitta. 11. xv. when he admitted the fugitive bands of West Goths into Thrace. of treating Ammianus says that the barbarians with great consideration. as Ammianus remarks. whom he judiciously dispersed in small companies among Eoman regiments. xxviii. Moreover. xxxiii. for these colonists succeeded in Germanising the north of France. For settlement of the Alemanni. Constantine is said to have allotted lands to 300. Constantius allocations Chlorus continued the policy of Probus his of Franks in the neighbourhood of Troyes and in the neighbourhood of Amiens deserve special notice. The marklands of the Ehine and Danube were systematically settled with Teutons. Thrace. "who were most zealous In the allies on account of kindred race " (Kara to gvyyeves). i. 10. Or.000 Sarmatae. . subdued by Diocletian and Galerius. Germans in the Empire increased became apparent in the revolt of Magnentius. had such disastrous consequences. the prefect of Italy in the days of Valentinian. When Theodosius palace. Julian reproached his memory for having been the first to 2 From the time of Conadvance barbarians to the consulate. 376. 5. 15. 2 lb. ed. perhaps received from his father. was of the But Julian. ib. received 100.

as we have already mentioned. especially in For. he is always quite at a friendly leaning to the . was gradually fusing itself in the fourth century throughout the the West. of the individual Christ died for each man. the opposition between . of whom the first was a Vandal and the last a Sueve Aetius was of barbarian descent. The rising of Magnentius exhibits this relation and we shall see it repeated in the fifth century in the careers of Stilicho. I was thus D . It VOL. Germans without. growing less fixed. although a Eoman environment for some generations back had served to identify him more thoroughly with Eoman interests. chap. which was a movement of old Eoman discontent against the advances which the Germans were making. and Eicimer. Jerome uses the word semibarbarus of Stilicho. Throughout the is fifth century we can observe. led to the revolt of Maximus. in the dealings of Eomans and Teutons in the West. at the court of Gratian. The facts instanced are sufficient to show that a new element. and. them the Teutonic spirit of individual freedom. the wall of partition be- tween the Empire and the external nations was lowered it made Eome and the barbarians somewhat less sharp in particular. We may and remark the who reigned as a sort of king and spoke German perfectly. was plainly an element of disintegration. . the German nationality. home with the barbarians. for the invaders who dismembered the Empire not being attached by hereditary tradition to Eoman ideas and the Eoman name. Eoman partook of (4) its superior civilisation. and fears . hopes. by the incorporation of barbarian elements. Christianity emphasised the privileges. The significance of these semi-barbarians is that they smoothed the way. that the line of demarcation case of the Patrician Syagrius. in DISINTEGRATION OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE 33 Merobaudes.. the bonds of a common nationality did not fail to assert themselves between the Germans in Eoman service and the independent tribes the Germans within had . It Eoman world. but having within . and we may conveniently adopt the word semi-barbarian to denote the whole class of Germans in Eoman service. in northern Gaul. Aetius. directly opposed to the they were not prejudiced sufficiently strongly in favour of the Eoman Empire to preserve it. although they admired and spirit of tyrannical universal law. the process of assimilation advancing.

and individual1 had in of life. there . this respect a point of community with the istic instinct of the Germans —the attachment to personal freedom which always struck the Eomans as the peculiar German In two ways especially the opposition of Christianity to the Eoman Empire manifested itself by the doctrine of a divine law independent of and superior to temporal law. the more it increases the waves are dissipated. and that this union survived for many centuries. Empire. undergoing a change concerned.34 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE little book i opposed to the universality of the Eornan world. 3 But thereby it tended to confirm the growing feeling of indifference the political and social . and this environment seemed an alien. 59. was as fatal in its effects as the actual risings of peasants. But in the process of the dissolution of the Empire in the West the Church supported the falling State against the barbarians. For the spirit of Christianity was really alien to the spirit of Eome. Christianity ing misery and oppression more tolerable made the prevailby holding out the hopes of a future world.constituted body existing within the Empire. 8). 55. we must conclude that Christianity did not contribute to produce what is loosely called the Fall of the Western Empire. unhomelike world indifference. but the rock stands immovable. In . 2 — . Just i. And when we remember that in the East the Church allied itself closely with the imperial constitution. 3 In the present world the christian relieved distress. 1 The individual soul was considered of more importance than a city. self . indeed. "and the more the world takes counsel against it. There was also a firm belief in the stability of the Church independency of the State "The Church is immovable. a nation. who were Christians. but yet. though it appeared to blend with it for a while and this alien nature was manifested in the position of the Church as an independent." compare Guizot. reacted on the administration. Its spirit revolutionised the condition of the whole Eoman world the Eoman spirit was characteristic. in which the individual and his personal interests were of account. but tainted with Arian heresy. L'histoire de la Civilisation en Europe. . " says John Chrysostom. as is shown by the rescript of Honorius in 409 {Cod. a natural outcome of the senility of the Empire. . or an empire. and by the dissociation of spiritual from secular authority. p." This standpoint involved a limit on the universality of the : 2 For the " dominant sentiment of the barbarian state. Church and this fact . as far as Christianity itself is seems no reason why the Eoman Empire it should not have continued to exist in the West just as continued to exist in the East. by which the bishop and clergy are to take part in the nomination of the defensores civitatum.

Christianity contributed to depopulation in the fourth set and fifth centuries. which was Eoman in its spirit. partly by impairing its life Eoman world. engaged in the process of producing a new world and these were therefore the fundamental political forces of the The first of these was the civil service which was organage. there was the Eoman army. by the high value on personal chastity and the ascetic spirit of monasticism. such as the depreciation of coinage and elsewhere we shall have to notice the dislocating effects of geographical separation and national difference on the Empire. descending by successive grades from the highest ministers to the lowest clerks. We see at the glance that there coexisted in it three separate organisations. . which discouraged marriage and caused large numbers to die without progeny. And it was this coalition of Eoman and German elements in the army which made the dismemberment of the Empire in the West less violent than it might have been.. And yet on looking deeper we see that these facts have a causal connection it was just the fresh German spirit which was able to give some new life to the old forms and throw some enthusiasm into the task of maintaining the Eoman name of which they were really proud. and was the depository the system of the great product of the Eoman Secondly. . but the in was the chief opening by which Germans were able to gain influence and political power the Empire. namely. ised by Diocletian and Constantine in the form of a staircase or hierarchy. Other less might be mentioned. too. at this time it really represented the semi- barbarians. chap. a result of observation which at first sight might seem to be curiously at variance with the most obvious fact that the army was recruited with Germans. organisation and traditions. in DISINTEGRATION OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE 35 a certain direct way. by weakening These four elements undermined the it. partly Eoman character and changing the view of which determined the atmosphere of capital elements of disintegration . closely bound up. representing the three ideas which were mixing and striving with each other. With it it the idea of the Eoman of Imperium was law. spirit It has been often remarked that the old Eoman seemed to preserve itself best in the army. Eoman society. of the first We may close this chapter by considering the political situation Empire in the fourth and fifth centuries.

and the crack enlarged by degrees and the pieces fell apart The separation of the eastern and western worlds gently. held together so by the mere brute strength of tyrannical Eoman into universality. and the christian Church. christian Church. interacted and produced a new world was conditioned by two essential facts (1) the presence of the it German nations outside the Empire . different the Eoman world was long a complex of nations For and languages. was in a different position. But the globe was not burst asunder suddenly. broke the artificial globe of the Eoman universe.: 36 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE book i The army and the civil service were institutions produced by Eome herself. is that the name and traditions of Eome clung to the Greek more closely than to the Eoman part of the Empire and that the work of fusion wrought there by Alexander and his successors may be said truly to have contributed as much to division constitute . but in the fourth and fifth centuries closely connected with it. Eoman Imperium as the work of the . pressing on as its strength declined and (2) the heteroge- neity of the parts of which the Eoman world consisted. within the Empire and yet not of it. The manner in which these three forces. and it fell a merely external union. the Greek (once the dominion of Alexander) and the Eoman and this natural division finally asserted itself and . without a really deep-reaching unity. (gemini orbes) took place gradually. and the actual territorial between the sons of Theodosius did not theoretically The remarkable circumstance two Eoman Empires. the Eoman system. one one Emperor — official language. it cracked. the semi-barbarians. subject to the Emperor as the supreme head The third organisation. the long duration of the Caesars themselves. the expressing the unity of the State. expressed in one law. Naturally two worlds.

but from the time of Constantine there was always a prefect of the Gauls. which consisted of a group of a province was accordingly under the control of the governor of the diocese to and in his turn the governor of was under the control of that praetorian prefect A hierunder whose jurisdiction the diocese happened to be. It was mainly an of independ- aggregate of cities which were originally independent states. and which still were allowed to retain enough . each of instituted by Diocletian and developed by Constantine divided the Empire into a of number adjacent provinces. and find certain in its origin the secret of its essence. and each diocese of a certain number of provinces.CHAPTER IV THE ADMINISTRATION OF THE EMPIRE The reader will remember that the new system of dioceses. and the extent of the jurisdiction of each varied during the fourth century with the various partitions that were made by which his province belonged the diocese 'co-regent sovereigns . while Italy and the Balkan lands were sometimes united under one prefect. including Spain and Britain. The number of the prefects archy of officials was thus formed. two in the East and two in the West that date we may consider the Empire as definitely . and sometimes severed under two. and always a prefect of the East. But to understand what the Boman Empire really was. divided into four prefectures. The governor . of Theodosius in praetorian that after But the final partition between the sons 395 determined that there were to be four so prefects. each prefecture consisting of a number of dioceses. we must penetrate behind these administrative divisions.

the citizens of different provincial relation to one another to the . On the other hand. governed by an emperor and senate. The Empire has been therefore compared to a federation of Swiss cantons. namely. he duties which devolved on in the privileges example. The senatorial world was thus the undiluted atmosphere of pure Eoman imperialism. and the mass of Eoman citizens. a citizen of Corinth was an alien in Patras. whereas in the Koman Empire a citizen of Thessalonica was an alien in Dyrrh- achium. that social rank ultimately depended upon . but implied no political action as a senator. In England a and has judicially the same position as a citizen of Manchester. and herein they were united but they were also severally citizens of some particular city. The personages of senatorial position formed a homogeneous society which. may be looked on as a mean between the unity of the imperial person and the heterogeneity of the general body of citizens. subject same central authority. From this point of view we may regard the Empire as consisting of three parts. the sphere of senatorial rank. But there was one important sphere from which this double- sidedness was excluded. When the member of a municipality. the fifth century was an aristocracy of to This is a fact be borne in mind. and herein they were politically severed from the rest of the Roman world. To be a senator in the first sense meant merely a distinction of social rank which involved certain taxes and burdens. in the political structure. It is of great importance to understand what the senate and the senatorial rank really meant. We must carefully distinguish who actually sat in the conclaves which were held in the " senate house of Julian " at senators in general from those senators Constantinople. and the aristocracy of the Eoman Empire in officials. this social distinction was determined by political position. resident of Leeds is at home in Manchester. for elevated to the senate. in which the unity of the Empire is reflected. Thus towns stood in a double they were all Eoman citizens. the senators. became was thereby withdrawn from the in his native place to participate him and obligations of a senator. the Emperor. 38 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE book i ence and of their municipal government to stand in their old relation of exclusiveness towards one another..

" chap. namely the illustres and the spectahiles." cedence at court. correctores. which were instituted by their successors. iii. p. gave to such personages precedence over lesser dignitaries. It seems probable that Constantine granted new privileges to the municipal rests it is extremely probable that Constantine did not go so far in his imitation of the city of the Tiber. were members of the senate. for it would have been plainly incongruous to give to the governor of Helenopontus or Palestine the same title of honour as to the praetorian prefect of the East. elevation of the perfcdissimi and egregii into the class of the The new forms of court ceremony. ii. Officers of lower rank were grouped into two classes. and resting on an exactly similar basis. or prefects. senate of Byzantium and increased its numbers by noble Roman emigrants . consuls. by Aurelian and Diocletian and elaborated "most renowned. these included the governors of dioceses and provinces. attribute it . but in spite of the authority on which this idea 1 The Rome as a But the fact that no to Constantine. Or. . dukes. 633. and it should be noted especially that there was no prefect of the city to preside over meetings of the senate as in Rome. Pasch. . prefect of Constantinople was appointed until 359 (by Constantius) shows that Constantinople was not made in all respects in the image of Rome . Thus. and to render necessary to explain the constitution of the senate. i. 1 In the time of Constantine only those who had held the highest official rank. "most renowned. and precedence at court depended on official position. under Constantine and his immediate successors. 11 Libanius. who were not members of the senate. and others. proconsuls. clarissimi and senators denoted the same class of persons. who certainly built the senate house. has been generally attributed to Constantine . and that the historian Zosimus may be right in ascribing the foundation of the senate of Constantinople to Julian. and they were distinguished by the title of Social rank depended on preclarissimi." And this elevation necessitated a further change. Johannes Lydus calls the senate house " that of Julian" Sozomen. But in the course of time the senatorial rank was extended beyond these narrower limits and conferred upon the provincial This involved the governors and many subordinate officials. 529. and Chron. institution of a senate at New twin sister to the senate of Old Rome. though regarded under different aspects. 3. and that as the duties of the Roman senate were gradually becoming less than imperial. 15. class of " the Accordingly. the perfcctissimi and the egregii. iv ADMINISTRA TION OF THE EMPIRE it intelligible it is 39 a public career." two new ranks of higher honour than the " most renowned " were Those who had created. those of the Byzantine senate were becoming more than municipal. while the most perfect " and the class of " the excellent fell away because their members had become " most renowned. See Zosimus.

to be. took place between the reigns of Constantine and military . then. provincial governors whose duty compelled them to do but also a large of in number honorati. instead of three grades of official rank of which the highest alone was senatorial (3) the highest class. Thus in the reign of Constantine and at the beginning of titles. the vicars of the dioceses and others were known as " respectable. officials were (1) The great mass in of the civil senatorial incorporated the aristocracy (2) as a consequence of this. became larger than that of the clarissimi used .40 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE book i been before clarissimi or perfectissimi were raised to a higher degree. were addressed as "illustrious". the master of offices. namely the quaestor. All. an . Die Stddte unci biirgcrlicJie Ver- fassung cles romischen Reichs. We probably lived in the provinces. the quaestors. . — not only the so. by the elevation of a number of officers to an equality with the prefects and consuls. a regular tax." while the provincial governors 1 were "most renowned. excej)t those who were known by the name who were specially excused consideration of past services. of the senatorial rank was probably made in have already remarked that this rank did not imply a seat in the senate house of New Eome or of Old Eome. there were formed three grades of senatorial rank. and Arcadius. the count of the exchequer and the privy purse. The majority of the senatorial classes The extension the interests of the treasury." Three important changes. the illustres. earlier times sometimes added in a general sense of honour to the technical On the subject of title clarissimus. the fifth century there were different sets of simus. Like all others. were obliged by their nobility to heavy burdens and expenses. the prefects of Old Eome and New the count of was The praetorian prefects. they were liable to the property tax and to the burden of supplying recruits for the army and relays of horses in the imperial service besides this they had three other sources of expense. 1 The word clarissimus might be still applied in a loose sense to a member of either of the two higher classes. betokening that he was a member of the senate and aristocracy just in the same way that illustris itself had been in . and the comes rei pHvatae. the least title at the later period. the masters of foot all and horse. the comes sacrarum largitionum. of retired officials. these titles my chief guide has been Kuhn. which Claris- was the greatest title at the earlier period. the masters of offices. Eome.

Just. a tax on property. tenth. as in comes sacr. and such anniversaries of The indirect his accession. but gradually reached the number of eight. such as court physicians and public professors and teachers licensed by the government. 194. 4 Leo I. This explanation of the position of the senators or aristocrats of the later Eoman Empire German will a celebrated taxes. 6 The word count. iv ADMINISTRATION OF THE EMPIRE or gleba. show how utterly mistaken was when he characterised the aris- tocracy as resting on the principle of hereditary immunity from word immunitas. Only a certain number were admitted to the privileges and condoned the obligations of the class. p. in combination with an office was still retained. 2 as a senator. 195. but as the games and spectacles did not call the fortunes of all into requisition. which the Emperor himself. Constantin. largitionum (3) it was used as an additional title of honour for persons whose office was regular. some of them were compelled to contribute Erom this burden it was to the erection of public buildings. became (1) a title of general application to those nondescript senators who had held no civil or military office. 2 This must be distinguished from the aurum coronarium. and expend large sums on the exhibition of games and shows and thus a man of senatorial standing. comes. curials who. 6 for . and means merely freedom from municipal taxes. See Kuhn. 1. chap.. which senators were obliged to present to the Emperor on the fifth. 3 were at first two. namely the retired civil misinterpreted the servants . and this exemption was called allectio. The irregular tax was the aurum oblaticium. The same Emperor abolished the follis. follis l The regular tax was the and an indirect burden. or on occasion of a victory. cit. . paid. 41 irregular tax. and included in the Notitia Dignitatum. reduced the number to three been clearly pointed out by Kuhn. 39). 453. compelled to reside temporarily in the capital in order to disThe praetors in Constantinople charge this unwelcome duty. and had thus no special designation (2) its original use . a tax which fell only on decurions. having discharged their municipal burdens years. burden consisted in the fact that any senator might be compelled to discharge the functions of a praetor. 5 historian. (Cod. were in advanced age raised to senatorial standand professional men. which is applied to the senators. pp. op. an offering in money. 3 One of the measures that rendered Marcian's reign (450-457) popular was the release of all senators who did not reside in the capital from this burden. He many ing 1 Not to be confounded with the coin The error is often repeated. living in the provinces. and has follis. Burckhardt. 5 ii. 4 customary to exempt retired civil servants. was sometimes .

— Pontus. of Boman system " the illustrious. . the bishops and archbishops may perhaps be considered peers of the aristocracy. such as in England might be honoured by knight- by a peerage. The Patriarch of Constantinople was a peer of the Emperor. Turning now from the consider in the we may the position of the most important officers of administration. Highest in the first class of the aristocracy. This dominion was divided into five dioceses Asia. Under the praetorian prefect of the East were all the Asiatic provinces. the East. who might look forward to winning a high position in the aristocracy. In it were included some who would nowadays belong to the middle classes. and who in social position may be roughly compared to " county people " in England rich merchants young lawyers beginning their political career. statesmen. Hovering between this middle class and the lower strata were probably the physicians not patronised by the Emperor. to his office gave the humblest monk or deacon in those early days of piety an honourable position such as is hardly enjoyed by a curate of the English Church at present. while the mass of the clergy briefly may be reckoned in the middle social to the official side. physicians of distinction. and their social position although it would correspond to their place in the hierarchy must not be forgotten that the sanctity attaching . based on public service and consisting of three grades of nobility. as well as six European provinces in Thrace. They formed a hierarchy by themselves. or exceptionally . and Egypt . professors. class. who depended on the hood. Between the Emperor and the mass of the subjects there existed an aristocracy. and the lower aristocracy. Between the aristocracy and the lower class of artisans and peasants may be reckoned a sort of middle class. patronage of the rich. Thrace. the middle. . and unlicensed teachers and rhetoricians." stood the four praetorian pre- whom each exercised authority over about a quarter of the Empire. including the decurions or provincial magnates who might look forward to elevation to the aristocracy if they lived long enough.42 HISTOR Y OF THE LA TER From all this ROMAN EMPIRE in book i we may deduce with that existed tolerable clearness the general social relations the fifth century. confining ourselves to the eastern half of the Empire. fects. the governor of Egypt. the higher. In this conspectus of society nothing has been said of the clergy.

. In the third place. Dacia and Macedonia. silver inkstand." the office of praetorian prefect other offices. him for With him their actions. a supreme judge of appeal. In the fourth place. The exalted position of these ministers was marked by their purple robe. An appeal from the decision of a vicar or a dux might be addressed either to the praetorian prefect or to the Emperor. and completely under his . judicial. which differed from that of the sovereign only in being shorter. like all and ministering to all . The functions of the praetorian prefect embraced a wide sphere they were administrative. encircling their needs. concerned only smaller matters of administration or judicial detail. the vicars of the dioceses were responsible to control. is this minister illustrated The importance of by Eusebius.. iv ADMINISTRA TION OF THE EMPIRE Under the prefect of Illyricum. a survival of the fact that his was originally not civil but military. except These lands were Thrace and the islands of the Aegean. his pencase of gold weighofficial 100 his lofty chariot. was practically independent of the prefect of the East. and the revenue accruing to the treasury from his prefecture passed through his hands it was through him that the Emperor made known and carried into execution his financial measures. who resided at Thes- were all the lands of the Balkan peninsula. divided into two dioceses. he was. as well as the Emperor himself. but they probably . In the first place. and even salonica. financial. he had an exchequer of his own. His large lbs. who compares the the Father with that of the relation of God the Son to to " God praetorian prefect the Emperor. mentioned as three symbols of his office On his entry all military officers were expected to bend the knee. he was empowered to issue praetorian edicts. and it rested perhaps more with the prefect than with the Emperor whether the subjects were oppressed by taxation. and by the remark of is Johannes Lydus that the ocean. reaching to the knees instead of to the ing feet. rested their deposition. but if it were addressed to the former there was no further appeal to the latter. posts. or manclye. 43 however. are office. legislative. as well as the and it was at his deposition of the provincial governors recommendation that the Emperor appointed men to fill these In the second place.chap.

magister 1 Under his control were a large number of officers the prefect of the watch {i. . i. was a functionary rendered necessary by the oriental tincture given 2 He to the imperial surroundings by the policy of Diocletian. nopl ej in caseg of incest or spoliation of a curious arrangement. including the count of the wardrobe (comes sacrae vestis). 1 The grand chamberlain. We now come to the ministers of finance. . He was the supreme judge in the metropolitan courts.e. 5 privatae represented the The duties of the illustrious master of the offices. the count of the sacred bounties (sacrarum largitionum). pracpositus sacri cubiculi.. especially if the Emperor happened. .44 HISTOR Y OF THE LA TER ROMAN EMPIRE A. and also to the officers of the palace bodyguard.). — Severus. the control of the metropolitan police. has been often exaggerated.D. . the officer of the bedroom (primicerius cubiculorum). . It treasury. with which Constantine is credited.. the responsibility of supplying the city with provisions. called silentiarii. graves ° — See 0. His constant attendance on the person of the Emperor gave this minister an opportunity of exercising a vast influence for good or evil. the care of the aqueducts. 4 Thus in the fifth century the " sacred bounties " correor chancellor of the exchequer. 5 (1876). 3 The aerarium finally disappeared (as a state treasury) in the third century. to be of a weak and pliable disposition. about the time of Alexander J . book i There was no prefect of the city of Constantinople until the close of the reign of Constantius (359 alone shows that the equalisation of New Eome and this fact and Old Borne. the police) the praefectusannonae or prefect of the market. the supervision of the markets. On of the illustrious prefect of the city devolved the superintendall ence of matters connected with the the maintenance order. while the res fisc. and the count of the private estates (rerum privatarum). like Arcadius. the census. . Verwaltungsgeschichte. Untcrsuchungen auf clem Gebicte cler r'om. the count of the residence (comes clomorum). sponded to the aerarium of the early Empire. Hirschfeld. The count imperial fisc of the sacred bounties was the lord treasurer and the had come to be identical 3 while the count of the private estates managed the imperial demesnes and the privy purse. city.inRomeandConstantiJ „* Aurelian originated this system. issued commands to all the officers connected with the palace and the Emperor's person. became a municipal Roman 4 iyate estates The cmmts of the hadju ri s diction. who looked after the supplies of corn from Egypt. for the public treasury . . .

mag. who bore the title of praeses. the magister memoriae. The chief officials in the bureau of the offices count of the sacred bounties or of the master of to transmit to their children. Ta£euTcu was Primipilares another general name. The second rank of the spcctabiles. comes dispositionum. while apparitores was used of the higher officia. the count of in- of the augustal prefect of Egypt. 2 Cohortes. 2 as the staffs of the provincial governors were called. Imperial messengers were called agentes in rebus — also magistriani. the vicars It also Asiana. or consularis. Arcadius transferred to him the control of the imperial post He superintended court publicus. who had the privilege any vicar or prefect. which and if had been it a function of the peror to diminish the sphere of of offices were the policy of an Emthe prefects. turn from the ministers and Governors themselves we find that there was a great difference between colior- the palatini. were cohortaJini who had the rank of a princeps in their bureau. over the soldiers on guard at the palace. 1 over messengers despatched on imperial orders. He had control over the bureaux of imperial correspondence. to the imperial presence. ADMINISTRA TION OF THE EMPIRE 45 were somewhat nondescript. or servants of the higher bureaux.chap. Pontica. all the governors of dioceses. the proconsuls of Asia and Achaia. 1 Namely. He introduced foreign ambassadors for their entertainment. To the third degree of the " most renowned " belonged all the governors of provinces the imperial bureaux. and arranged ceremonies (officium ammissionum). or cursus praetorian prefects. epistolaricm. On the other hand. regarded the honours of their rank as privileges which they were glad and the same remark applies to the subordinates of the praetorian prefect or of the master of soldiers. as well as a large number of subordinate officers in When we to their staffs. . and the talini. originally used of all officiates. it was the master who was ready to take upon him new duties." embraced titles . and of not being subject to Macedonia. over manufactories of arms. this of the name being one many survivals of the military origin of the civil service. The military counts and dukes were all of "respectable" rank. " respectables. as well as some high officers in the cluded the governors of two provinces palace. although they were not palatine. became by use restricted to provincial officia. mag. corrector. libellorum. whatever their the East. the Thraces. iv officiorum.

strictly regular . Just. whose very nature excluded the possibility of always consulting the Emperor. who had not the advantage of a good general education. officials compare the following details (collected by Kuhn). superintendent or chief. . had 224 statuti or regular officials. presided over the criminal jurisdiction. Theod. Die Stadte und Mrgerliche Verfassung des romischen Reichs. . who presided over the civil department. it was as high as 1248 but in Justinian's time the number was reduced. the chiefs of special divisions. that of the vicarius Asianae 200. the commentariensis. under whom came . and no one could reach the highest posts until he had filled in order all the inferior This excluded the interference of influential friends to a considerable extent. whose duties were of a general character and in the second grade the abactis. 157. in the reign of Justinian. the princeps* the cornicularius. 4 The princeps had a unique position. 2 Except in the case of the cursus publicus. 3 For the pay of . from Kuhn. education. augustalis £1800. For these data I obtained references to the Cod. that of the comes orientis 600. The officium of a governor in lllyricum numbered 100. The comes sacr. and the adjutor. often more than one. in whose hands all appointments though in the majority of cases he was of course rested 2 determined by the recommendation of the heads of the bureaux. 610 supernumeraries. and Cod. They were not civil service. offices. . The proconsul of Cappadocia had £900 a year . At the same time every promotion depended on the Emperor. He seems to have acted as a sort of auditor to oversee the provincial . as a sort of chief of police or under -home -secretary. Thus. The support of higher education by the State deserves to be 1 As to the size of the offices. In many departments the officials were able to increase the fixed income which they received from the State by fees which were paid them for supplying copies of documents or signing 3 The highest official in a department was a general bills. allowed to obtain promotion into the higher Promotion was grades.46 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE it 1 book i the cohortalini considered a great hardship that they were obliged to follow their fathers' profession. The regular number of the schola of agentes in rebus was 1174 in the in the time of Theodosius II time of Leo I. who. but there were subordinate offices of a mechanical nature which could be filled by persons who had received only a primary . larg. the praefectus praetorio of Africa (an office instituted in Justinian's reign) £4500 the duke of Libya £4635 the praef. i. who was a chief No one could hope for promotion to higher posts accountant. and the numerarius. in the office of the prae- torian prefect there were three chiefs. some idea will be obtained from the following numbers.

of medium size (where there were ayopal Sl/cwv. in all provinthat there were licensed teachers publicly paid cial towns of any size there were a certain number of such schoolIn small towns there were three sophists in towns masters. It is to be remarked that during the fifth century the study of rhetoric was probably declining. Das Leben to consult on this subject is des Libanius. which was originally applied to the men who guarded the Danube or the Ehine. iv ADMINISTRATION OF THE EMPIRE 47 mentioned here. the sophists. while in other towns they did not participate in the privileges of the rhetoricians and philologists. The book Sievers. but because the schools of the sophists and rhetors were the nurseries of the Hadrian had established an academy at Eome. in capital cities there were five rhetors and five grammarians. . A distinction between sophists and rhetors is also to be observed while both taught the art of style and oratory. Alexandria and Athens were in many ways privileged. for example. Eoman army in the fourth century. the philosophers (metaphysicians. 1 There were two great divisions of the service. It is to be observed that the grammarians were not merely they were rather what we call philoloteachers of grammar gists they read and interpreted ancient authors. endowed with salaries paid by the State. was afterwards used in as general a sense as limitanei. while the rhetors also practised publicly in law courts. and Marcus Aurelius founded chairs (political and sophistic) But it at Athens. and that the law schools of Eome and Berytus were far more fully attended than the lecture-rooms of . in imitation of the Museum at Alexandria.chap. on the best 1 Libanius makes this complaint at the end of the fourth century. " borderers. not to be confounded with sophists) in those cities were exempted from public burdens." or riparienses. statesmen. our county court towns) there were four sophists and four grammarians. corresponding to two different kinds of military There were the soldiers who continually kept guard frontiers. (1) The former were called limitanei. called the Athenaeum. not only because some of the chief teachers were admitted to the ranks of the aristocracy. . "soldiers of the river bank." The latter term. was not only in large towns like Eome. interior and the soldiers who were stationed in the and were transported to the frontiers in case of a war. Athens. . the sophists only taught. — . or Alexandria.

general. . which they were allowed to cultivate for their own support and bound to defend. and also directly from the barbarians. in contrast with the auxilia. . The position of the latter in respect to the comitatenses and palatini of the auxilia in respect to may be compared to the position the legions of the early Empire. fwm cdm< of We may were of Teutonic race. .four years. but care was taken that they should really cultivate their farms. . castra. of the line {numeri). 3 This sort Veteran soldiers of life is an anticipation of the Middle Ages. The troops located in the East were commanded by the magister militum per orientem. if they chose. . who were supplied by the rest of the Empire. used to receive lands. pseuclocomitatenses also applied to the borderers. The palatini were properly those regiments which protected the imperial palace. whereas the These soldiers were obliged to serve for twenty years. who were settled soldiers they were on the limes or frontier . as old soldiers were likely to bully their neighbours after. on the limes . a term derived from the retinue (comitatus) of a . until the edict of Caracalla cast down the wall of comitatenses of privilege - that encompassed Italy and to thereby admitted non Italian citizens the legions. In all these armies the barbarian element was large during the fourth century and was continually increasing. 1 The separation and the civil from the military power by add here that the numher of men in the legion was greatly reduced and that given to cavalry was the new name * Recr its were drawn chiefly mxillatio . among „ . tillers of territory. and those in militum per Illyricum. restriction of the praetorian prefect's func- There were also some comitatenses the soldiers of this commander. by the magister Illyricum by the magister The limitanei were not only the soil. tions of this system. . 2 The warfare against the barbarians chiefly consisted in defending the forts. 3 The name was ^ number . c r Alexander Severus laid the founda. and were under the command of the illustrious magister militum in 'praesenti 1 while other regiments were called comitatenses. who were drawn altogether from Italy. whence they received the name castriani. 48 (2) HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE The latter were the soldiers and palatini. and levy black- mail if they were not looked of the Diocletian.. less favoured border troops were obliged to serve for twenty. those in Thrace militum per Thracias. ^ a kr^ . which were built along the limes. book i and consisted They correspond to the legionary soldiers of early times.

after- wards to 10. They were entitled to receive sell. he was commander of the guards. 1 the line. magister officiorum. troops of the scholarians in the fourth and centuries They received higher pay than the of course. annonae civicae. VOL. and had. 24) and 24). of certain corps were called protedores. Arcan. which they could naturally attached to guardsmen.chap. were attended by the disappearance of new body of who were under the supervision of the fact This indicates that the magister officiorum corresponds to a considerable degree to the praetorian prefect of the third century .000 (Lydus. whom have and these appear to been superior in rank to the scholarians. I . 1 Justinian increased them to 5500 (Procop. cap. and the substitution of a guards called scholares. ii. the prestige that is The number of was 3500. bequeath or There were also other guardsmen named domestici. Hist. iv ADMINISTRATION OF THE EMPIRE 49 tions to civil matters the praetorian guards. fifth and combined civil with military functions. dc Mag.

was in a few years to receive a new name and become the rival of Eome. whether christian or pagan. Sardica or his favourite Naissus but.CHAPTEE V CONSTANTINOPLE it would have entered dream of no Eoman. 1 The idea seems to have flashed across the mind of Constantine of choosing some Illyrian town. it was the victim of constant earth- . At the beginning of the fourth century into the Constantine thought of other sites for his fixed new city before he on the idea of enlarging and enriching Byzantium. The great objection to both of those cities was that they were not sufficiently central another grave objection was that the temper of the inhabitants of those once royal capitals would not easily endure the moulding and remodelling which the founder of a new imperial residence must wish to carry out. their situation not readily approachable. notwithstanding the prepossessions which as a native he naturally felt for those regions. 1 To Antioch there were special objections quakes. . . Their distance from the sea. and was not maritime. Both Antioch and Alexandria were eminently and obviously unsuitable for his purpose. which he chiefly associated with the commerce of the Euxine. even with good roads. and that two centuries and a half thence the city on the Tiber would be desolate and the city on the Bosphorus the mistress of Europe and Asia. put . he could hardly entertain the idea seriously. that the city of Byzantium. Still less could one have imagined that the city. was soon to overshadow Eome also. which was almost immediately to overshadow Alexandria and Antioch.

v CONSTANTINOPLE but it is 51 Sardica and Naissus at once capitals . The same objection that told against allowing Eome to remain the sole centre of the whole Empire. and in 1 The advantages which Byzantium enjoyed from the nature of the tides of the Bosphorus are dwelt on by Poly- bius (iv. This. . or Corinth on the other hand. seems to have hesitated for a time between Byzantium. it must be on the borders of the Illyrian peninsula and Asia Minor. But Constantine did not desire a centre for the whole Emhe rather desired a centre for the eastern half. however. and the city site of ancient Ilium. interesting that there away from the number of possible was just a chance that the capital of modern Bulgaria — Sofia is the old Sardica might have been made the capital of the Eoman Empire. 44). Therefore neither Antioch nor Alexandria on the one hand. As a pire centre for the whole Empire. it must be geographically central for the eastern half of the Empire in other words. the honour were Thessalonica and Corinth the city of the Isthmus especially would have been an excellent centre between East and West. Thessalonica. . told equally against choosing any city in Illyricum or Greece as the new capital. . and compared with the disadvantages of Chalcedon. nor Sardica. Constantine. the residence of Diocletian when he But the idea of Nicomedia could not be entertained long when its situation was compared with the city which dominates the Bosphorus. for Constantine to choose some city close to the Propontis. Chalcedon. the dignity of Old Eome his New Eome was to occupy the same position in the East as Old Eome occupied in the West. It remained. and Other places that might have claimed called Constantinople. If there was any reason for a new capital at all. itself was Mcomedia. 1 But it is obvious spite of that Chalcedon could never have been a serious rival of the on the hills which looked down upon it . and even to Sardica neither they nor Corinth nor Thessalonica were close enough to Asia. If the situation of Old Eome had been more central. administered the eastern provinces. too. . the most suitable city would But he did not desire to depress obviously have been Aquileia. then.— chap. . could become Constantinople. formed a vital objection to Naissus. it is probable that New Eome would never have been founded. The first name that would naturally offer . Naissus.

There. 153 private baths. Sophia. he exhausted on it almost all the treasures and royal resources. as if with great adornment. associated with the example of Alexander the Great. especially. formed by the Golden Horn and the land wall. 1 2 Anonymus Falesii.— 52 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE book i Homeric memories. he lavished great riches. it is bounded The shape of Constantinople is triangular At the east on two sides by water and on one side by land. the idea of a new Mysian city was soon abandoned for the place which commands the entrance to the Euxine and seems adapted by nature to be the key of Europe and the And so it came to pass that the city mistress of Asia Minor." respects. For the word BXaxepvcu various explanations have . and there was no new city praefectus urbis. r\ (3a<n\is. or r? /xeyaXSTroXis. Komae Constantine. having sought it should be made equal to Eome citizens for it from all parts. than to . 1 " decorated it it. apparently. protecting the enlarged city. the hippodrome. too. he established a senate of second rank. and the church of St. the two It capitals became politically peers before the death of Julian. In two was not co-ordinate with the the senate had not equal rights. See Notitia urbis Con14 churches. 120 private bakeries . the city is constantly called 07 paatXevovaa. which looks down upon the Chalcedonian sands became the rival of Eome urbs etiam magnae quae dicitur aemula et Chalcedonias contra despectat arenas. which flows at first almost from rmrth to south and then takes a south 'oafifeerif course f^on fhe norm by the inlet of the Bosand on the west phorus. corner and on the south side it is washed by the Bosphorus. 3 At Blachernae was a great church of the Virgin. in the words of a chronicler. which was called the Golden Horn by the wall of Constantine. so that were his native city. on whose summit were situated the palace of the Emperors. and desired that and then. was dominated by the acropolis. still extant. The number of houses in Constanti. though ecclesiastically was more. . 6. . 30. The northern angle. 2 The eastern angle formed by the Golden Horn and the Bosphorus. Old Eome maintained the primacy. the old city . By Greek writers stantinopolitanae. to have been the city of the Caesars. was marked by the church and In the south -Western corner was the 2ate of Blachernae. 3 Peter. 20 public. nople in the fifth century was 4388 there were 8 thermae. but these differences were soon obliterated. have been called the city of St.

by which triumphal processions used enter If the Constantinople. church is very much revered \eyercu yap ire pear 6\ca r V s irapderov Capias h. loca been given. had become the capital all roads tended thither the most recent explorers in Asia Minor are struck that. . a V K V xpvaoiraffripairoreewai evravda. The city was divided into fourteen . v CONSTANTINOPLE 1 53 to Golden Gate. by Brundusium and Dyrrhachium. Codinus.) from Old Eome. Constant inopolis Christiana. 1 Built by Theodosius I. and. Le palais imp6H(d de Constantinople et ses abords tels qiCils cxistaient aic dixieme that t a^y.— chap. sieclc (1861). " If all his resultg &n not certai he has disc0V e re{l t new landmarks wMeh will serve as a in Bvzantine topobasis for new can hardly be hoped discovery wi n be made left Constantile> I iiaV e also consulted Ducange. but a passage in Theophylactus Siniocatta (viii. In the same way the change of an old yovareiov mto the $opov tov Kwo-ravrlvov might have led to the place being . . 1) deserves eira irpos tov ttjs especial attention Geo^ropos ve&v irapeytuovro 6> Aatfp: Theudosius gerit decorat post fata J^s^la auro.D. This s<x tne Notitia urbis Constantino- . in a due easterly direction to the great Milion. the region of Blachernae. 1. regions. 5. as was in that region that the political life of Constantinople was carried on. would lead him For since Conand . by . and M. Jules La barte's work. 3 This ch ter ig mah)1 based ou the valuable researches of the Greek scholar M A G Paspatis who embodied them Ta Bv ^dvTLJ/a ApdK _ in a book _ ^a. . and hard by was the Julian Harbour.Byzantine ^m ^ But it > Palaces. cf. and. the milestone from which stantinople all distances were measured. a qui portam construit waTOKaXovaLTtfiuwsBviavTioi. on the natural principle^ of Lewis Carroll s frumious (from fuming—furious). It is the great square on the acropolis. Antiq. p 95 Rrause (die Byzantmer des Mittelalters. 735 . . passing through the towns of Heraclea and Selymbria on the Propontis.the fact whereas in the early Empire all haec the roads led to Ephesus. with the surrounding buildings. which was erected by A traveller to Rome New Theodosius the Great. would enter Constantinople by the Golden Gate. . with covered colonnades suggesting an eastern town —on either side. would proceed overland along the Via Egnatia. Cp. Constant. which demands it our attention. iii. and the imperial palace are remembered. . . po i itanae published along with the fo. for Eome. p 21) decides for the derivation from If the region were originally called f)*X>a the foundation of a church called from \a.^ Biqnitatum in Seed's edition. was a city of seven hills but it is unnecessary us here. as far as it concerns 2 general history.Kepvai might produce /3\<wa. as we are not concerned with the topography for its own sake. Corpus Inscrijrtionum Latinarum. J wk imtil the Turks have popularly called Xvyovaretov. . 3 coming (let us suppose about 600 A. . to take account of these divisions. relative positions of the Golden Gate. it is easy to find one's way like in the topography of Constantinople. — A long street.

those of Arabia. however. Constantine—probably its Topographers {e.54 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE tended to the book i at the time of Constantine this all new capital. and within were to be seen the statues of Constantine the Great and his mother St. Walking from it 1 See Professor Ramsay. 3 " vegetable market. Sophia. p. he would see stretching before him southward a long rectangular place. vol.. 1 system was revolutionised and But before he saw the Milion the traveller would be struck by the imposing mass and great dome of St. p. near St. and Codinus. those of Justin the Younger and his wife Sophia.. ." Hellenic Journal. It was also called the forum of ' ' of Constantine. xv. Labarte. p. cit. Paspatis. was a roofed building. the eternal monument of Justinian and his architect Anthemius. p. . Journal of Royal Asiatic Society. > < *. Then passing on a few steps farther and standing with his back to the south side of St.. 5 Codinus. and of another Helena of less renown." 4 while the northern part. Bonn. place was called the Augusteum or Augustaion. Sophia. supported by seven . Cf. z 3. 100 sqq. As he stood in front of the west entrance of the great church. placffco former inn. ed. To MapfXapUTOV OY -n\ Porphyr. which the traveller. with marble. 102- 104. iii. to crevdrov. official name. pp. " the It is not Place of Augustus " or " the Imperial Place. was called Milion. 5 The Milion was an important station in the public processions of the Emperors. sub AVyovaros. 84. bounded on one side by the eastern wall of the hippodrome and on This the other by the western wall of the imperial palace. p. would see on his right hand." the place having been used for that purpose in old Byzantium. a niece of Justin. as in the forum W W Dances AV hich were celebrated on certain occasions in the Au£usteum lov an T 07ra. n Const. whether the name was chosen as a sort of renovation of Ghcsteon. 52 note Cf. looking southward. 660 ed. o]d p re -Constantinopolitan usage. Cf. Justin's daughter. close to the wall of the hippodrome. but a ing passage in Cedrenus is decisive (i. and the southern part was distinguished as the " Marble Place. or whether Gusteon was a corruption of Augiisteon." 2 clear. Paspatis. Bonn). the northern side of the hippodrome would be on his right hand. The Tale of Saint Abercius. See above. p> 2 32. * m 4 IIXaKUTOV. and this gave rise to the The magnificence of Justinian had paved this piazza derivation. The Milion was not a mere pillar open at the sides. 28. 32) generally distinguish the forum of Constantine from the Augusteum. p. pillars. h ^ . op. Suidas.\eiw seem to have kept up . Paspatis. 65.the fnrmpr farther farfW west. 345..g. Helena. i. from the building of that name. when he speaks of the senate house. 72. that is. Sophia.

. A visitor Byzantium. But it too did not escape fire like St. Of these buildings. still Having passed some mansions of private individuals. tom's arrest. which probably faced the Milion on the opposite side. p. Our imaginary traveller. 2 Mentioned by the poet Christodorus. these baths were enriched with splendid statues. which was many public buildings. Demosthenes and Aeschines. Paspatis. so called rf? re from the Bath of Achilles. Sophia. 1 *?9 to. which are separated from the walls of the l palace by a long portico called the " Passage of Achilles. 4 The Patriarch's house contained a splendid called the Thomaites. This visitor was the Kussian Antonius. and afterwards in the fatal to so Mka on the occasion of Chrysos3 sedition. having now reached the north side of the Augusteum^ again will notice a small church between the palace wall and the south-east corner of St. first in the reign of Arcadius. v still CONSTANTINOPLE 55 the south. North of the originally built Zeuxippus was the senate house (Buleuterion) by Julian and adorned with even more precious monuments of Hellenic sculpture than the baths of Severus. hall. and also halls of justice for the to hearing of ecclesiastical cases. Jusof but he could not restore the labours antiquity. probably faced the pillar of Justinian. which is occupied with more important edifices. Homer and Hesiod. Julius Caesar. and perhaps it lay between the house itself and the senate house. 5ta/3arifca rod 'AxiXX^ws. 5 at the beginning of the thirteenth century. who lived in the reign of Anastasius. 76. and the other great pillar surmounted by the statue of the Empress Eudoxia. by Severus. 5 monk . 4 rpiKXivos. which was somewhere close to St. rebuilt. irdaTj Kpeirrov Tro\vTe\ela /cat rrj KaracrKevy ttj It 'lovaTivtavov epyov. Sophia it had to be twice . these valuable works perished in the flames which consumed the whole building in the great tinian rebuilt it. 2 chiefly of great men. mentions that an excellent garden was attached to the patriarchal palace. p. After the senate house he comes to the residence of the Patriarch (Patriarcheion). Virgil. Mka revolt of 532. of which the stylobate exists. CHAi-. 83. Sec Paspatis. our traveller would have seen the great pillar surmounted by the statue of Justinian. he reaches the southern limit of the Augusteum and returns along the eastern side." the Originally built most southerly was the baths of Zeuxippus. Plato and ArisBut totle. and keeping to the west side of the Augusteum.

its breadth about 158. Leo III built the new St. 43 iq. The hippodrome 6 had at least four gates one on the right of the cathisma. 5 Its southern end was of crescent shape. p. in which horses and chariots were kept. and the Emperor beheld the games from a box or cathisma. through which the Blue faction was wont to enter a second corresponding on the left. which was appropriated to the Greens a third. It is conjectured by Paspatis (p. Irene. 85 sq. 5 iwlirpaffKWTd. which he entered through the palace by a winding stair (cochlias). like a sigma. with the Emperor's co-operation. Gylle and ^carlatus Byzantius (see p. and a square bronze pillar. 67) that it was done away with in the thirteenth century to make room for the new wall of Michael Palaiologos. . After the fire Justinian erected it with greater splendour. 2 North of hospice of of St. . called the "Dead 1 Codinus.aou r V s Oeorfropos av^pe. 4 Both churches. KaTQKovjs xal Irene. crKeiraarv <ricaXa. a hospice for the sick and poor. so called because originally this region was a quarter of Jewish bronzesmiths." by a private covered staircase. 1 Hard by a gate will be observed in the wall of the palace. called the "Mangana. The hippodrome." The same name was applied to the great storehouse of arms at Constantinople. was the scene of many important political movements and transactions at Constantinople.) The hi li 6 ^ drora / is now t ] ie Atmeidan. the gate of Meletius. called the which spanned the distance between the two Sophia stood two important buildings. xakK^ara- fxu<pbs eeodoaioseZeuwauTovsKaiTovTOTrovavaKadapcaas . According ° to the measurements of M> Paspatis which differ from the mea surements of P. Under the palace were porticoes (like the Eoman carceres). the 3 and the church of St." close to the second. entering the church of the Chalkoprateia. Its length from north to south was 639 cubits. the three -headed serpent. a fourth. — which stood in a line (lengthways) in the centre. i-rrl p. Sampson was a man who had attended Justinian when he was ill. improved and adorned by Constantine. 83 : els 5e ra XoKkoP^P' ft irpareia 'lovdcuoi rod Mey&Xov Kuv Gravr Lvov xpbvovs 6 4 The second Ecumenical Council was held there. . the church of our (y (deorofcos) of the Chalkoprateia. the northern end was occupied by a small two-storied palace. Sampson these were burned down in the Nika revolt. 2 Paspatis. " the Gate of .56 HISTOR Y OF THE LA TER This is ROMAN EMPIRE Lady book i Sophia. The hippodrome was divided into two parts by three monuments. and newly erected. which have survived to the present day the Egyptian obelisk. He built. Decimus. from which the Emperor used into the great church " to issue when he visited St. constructed by Septimius Severus. Sophia. he used to proceed Wooden Scala.

Sophia. Paspatis. Sycae had two regions. the building of the Thracian railways having opened up the ground . v CONSTANTINOPLE 57 through which the corpses of the slain were carried There was probably another gate away. not necessary for us to enter here. In the first place. It was erected by Justinian on the old palace of Hormisdas.. and in the second place. with the help of some Into this from his studies on the spot. in the east wall. both of which names are still in use. I conjecture. As been for the interior of the imperial palace. we could not afford to neglect the reconstruction of M. to 800 a. new light has thrown upon the intricate which puzzle the student of Constantine Porphyrogenitus. jJr 1 Now the little St.C. with the history of the Eastern Empire. he was able to determine the direction of the old walls of the palace. e. Galata and 2 Pera. for when the opposite to the Dead Gate. is a very old name. when it was usual for kings and towns to hire the . Gate in the west wall. trouble us with perplexing details about the palace. members of the demes who lived on the north side of the Golden Horn " across the water" seem to have been meant but when we read of the peratic themes. the troops quartered in Asia Minor are meant. the district on the Rhodians called the opposite mainland Peraea. and there was the suburb of Sycae on the other side of the Golden Horn. Constantinople had two suburbs over the water. the identification of the Pharos provided a starting point for tracing the situation of the buildings and chambers of the palace mentioned other data derived reconstruction it is by historians.d.g. but seldom . for the internal arrangement of the palace concerns the history with which we have now If we were dealing to do very slightly. where he used to live when he was a private person.d.. on the other side of the Bosphorus. dating from the third century B.chap. . details." Emperors visited the church of Sergius and Bacchus. and had to tell of the court of Theophilus or the court of Constantine VII. 1 which lay south-west of the hippodrome. who has discovered new topographical marks for its reconstruction. suburb of Chalccacfe^c/w Scutari. When we read of the peratic clemes in Byzantine historians. to both of There was the which the word peratic might be applied. they passed through the hippodrome. by the researches of M. Paspatis the historians of the period from 395 a. Galata. 2 So.

pp. 300. and. . Celts.58 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE book i Celts as mercenaries. afraid of admitting The Byzantines probably hired bands of them into the city. 157. and the name Galata clung 1 Galatae had been long forgotten. 1 the place when the Compare Professor Maliaffy. Greek Life and Thought. allotted them to a Celtic or " Galatian" quarter on the other side of the Golden Horn. 348.



p. him. p. But he was not willing was only eighteen) without and the most natural protector was one bound to them by ties of relationship. then a boy of ten West.D. . Sievers. who had stamped One of the few men in history I. should reign in the 395 A. Theodosius called 1 He was brought their work to completion. not as a general. 5. de obitu Theod. whom he had raised for his military and other talents to the rank of commander-in-chief. Ambrosius. where he had already installed whom he had left as regent at Constantinople when he set out against Eugenius. and deeming him worthy of an alliance with his own family. husband of was in this capacity. liberos praesenti commendabat parenti. Kaiser. 338. 511). 2 and that his eldest son Arcadius. We the friend of the however. It was. as the and a trusted friend. remarks (Gesch. who had confirmed the triumph of Athanasian over Arian Christianity. to leave his youthful heirs (Arcadius a protector. at once friendly and firm. 2 Goths. 3 After his victory at Milan. as Richter des westromischen Reichs. who had fry his policy. should continue to reign in the East. died on the 17th of January years. pacified the Goths. had united it to his favourite niece Serena. 1 the Emperor Theodosius out the last flames of refractory paganism represented by the tyrant Eugenius. His wishes were that his younger son Honorius. Accordingly on his deathbed he commended them to the care of the Vandal Stilicho.. Compare der rom. Studien zur Gesch.CHAPTEE I KUFINUS AND EUTROPIUS who have won the title of great. that Stilicho received Theodosius' dying wishes 3 it was as an elder member of the same family that the husband of their cousin can hardly doubt that his niece . Bauto and Arbogast who really deserved the credit of having pacified the Goths.

somewhat more than usually unscrupulous. at Constantinople . in the when we find Marcellinus unable to contend with Eicimer. 1 about 377 vented Stilicho from taking vengeance on the Bastarnae who had slain Promotus. tall He was and manly. with whom we are especially concerned. 51). and the restless movements of his keen eyes and the readiness of his speech signified his intellectual powers. iv. His smallness of intellect and his weakness of character made it inevitable that he should come under the influence. finally by the pagan For his personal appearThemistius. and Proclus (id. this fifth century. a native of Aquitaine. Their hostility was of older date. of dark complexion. Theodosius. Stilicho. ance. January . pre- time as at a later date. fr. whom Eufinus had caused to be de laud. would directly into contact with come more him than with 1 Arcadius. and cherished the hope of becoming joint Emperor with Arcadius. : avv-qpira^ov ev difievoi. however. good or bad. Stil. 62. i. He was a strong worldly man. Claudian. the committed latter. i. xi. the influence of Eufinus a law was passed depriving all Lycians of civic rights see Cod. . This ambition of Eufinus placed him at once in an attitude of opposition to Stilicho.62 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE whom. with which he might be Such a potent personality was the praebrought in contact. see Philostorgius. being magister militum of the armies of Italy. but we cannot 2 he was justly assume that in the overthrow of certain rivals entirely guilty. 94-115. thin and inactive. in Ruf. macula in Lycios. 384. Flavius Arcadius Pius Felix. Claudian. 232. TatiThrough anus. who in almost every respect presented a contrast to his sovereign. and they entirely innocent. at Eufinus' instance. ix. 9. because he was not so rich. 63 dfupu r& iravra exiled. but because his brother. mother Aelia Flaccilla. . 2 Promotus (Zosimus. too. and the dulness of his wit was betrayed by his speech. as is sometimes It is almost certain that he formed the scheme represented. and by his eyes. torian prefect Eufinus. H. See Eunapius. of would appear. was of about eighteen at the time of his father's death. Theod. and suffiavaricious. In the first . which always seemed as if they were about to close in sleep. it book ii could claim to exert an influence over Arcadius and Honorius. like most ministers of the ciently unprincipled He had made many enemies by acts which were perhaps age. chapter of his fifth book Zosimus represents Stilicho and but Eufinus as ethically on a level his tone towards Stilicho afterwards changes when his source is no longer Eunapius but Olympiodorus. not only as the younger. E. 16. consul He was educated first by his 386. then by a certain deacon Arsenius. 38. He was short stature. was more especi- ally to his care. ambitious of power. 3 who was himself not above the . r$ TrXoirip to Kpdros tlPower depended on wealth at nomen 3 gentis delete laborat. born created Augustus. 52). of commanding personalities. 3.

It was the cherished project of Eufinus to unite Arcadius . had a high reputation for Zosimus calls him Baudon. who was connected by marriage with the imperial family. sub anno. gave him an advantage over Eufinus. but for his son Eucherius. 3 Lucian. probity.chap. 1 who had offended liim and during his absence from Byzantium an adversary stole a march on him. man 1 in the East. beauty. once the Emperor's father-in-law he might hope to become speedily an Emperor himself. but herself of Bauto 2 was dead. a girl of singular . and engaged his affections for her the nuptials were arranged by the time Eufinus returned to Constantinople. But he imprudently made a journey to Antioch. He . i RUFINUS AND EUTROPIUS own person. the daughter of a distinguished Frank. which was strengthened by the generally known fact that Theodosius had given him his last instructions. . Pasch. began and concluded in an extremely curious way but we must first relate how a certain scheme of Eufinus had been checkmated by an obscurer but wilier rival nearer at hand. This adversary was the eunuch Eutropius. Chroii. between the ambitious minister who had the ear of Arcadius. v. 3 This was a blow to Eufinus. a bald old man. 2. per Orientem. who with oriental craftiness had won his way up from the meanest services and employments. Stilicho. 2 Magister mil. the lord chamberlain doraepositus sacri cubiculi). comes orientis. and were speedily celebrated (27th April 395). moreover. and for the present the great bulk of the forces of the Empire was at his disposal for the regiments united to suppress Eugenius had not yet been sent Thus a struggle was imminent back to their various stations. Eoman Her father . whom he caused to be beaten to death with whips loaded with lead Zosimus. was popular with the army. with his only daughter. Eutropius showed a picture of the Frank maiden to the Emperor. Determining that the future Empress should be bound to himself and not to Eufinus. in order to execute vengeance personally on the count of the East. he chose Eudoxia. and she lived in the house of the widow and sons of one of the victims of Eufinus. but he was still the most powerful education. and the strong general who held the command and enjoyed the Before the end of the year this struggle favour of the army. . 63 suspicion of entertaining similar schemes. not however in the interest of his The position of the Vandal.

Alaric may have wished not to render Eufinus suspected but to policy does conciliate his friendship terms. ' nec pudet A uson io S currus et jura regentem sumere deformes ritus vestemque Getarum. as the eastern armies Arcadius therefore was were still with Stilicho in the West. Under the leadership of Alaric they raised the ensign of the and spread desolation in the fields and homesteads of Macedonia. magister militum. they probably expected that favour clear . and consequently determined to make themTo this must be added that their most selves heard and felt. that an is. belonging to the prefect Eufinus revolt. desired to be made a commander-in-chief. Moesia. It was impossible to take the field Goths because there were no forces available. the historical essence of the matter immense body of restless uncivilised Germans could not abide permanently in the centre of Eoman provinces in a semi-dependent. ii. but it would wane and influence decrease. and had Eugenius. Alaric. ill-defined relation to the Eoman government West Goths had not yet found their permanent home. dressed as against the a Goth. who had been settled by Theodosius in Moesia and Thrace. in Rufin. Italy against to Emperor accompanied the returned to their habitations sooner than the rest of the army. now that the " friend of the Goths " was dead. book of reference. . and obtain thereby more favourable Eufinus actually went to Alaric's camp. and were bound in return They had for their lands to serve in the army as foeclerati. a work whose carefulness and completeness make it an extremely convenient 1 2 Claudian.: 64 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE book ii The event which at length brought him into contact with Stilicho was the rising of the Visigoths. 1 and. 2 but the interview led to nothing. but this outside the city. Giildenpenning. and Thrace. in his Geschichte ostromischen Reichs unter den Kaisern Arcadius und Theodosius II. However this may be. 78— des Ipse inter medios ne qua de parte relinquat barbariem revocat fidvas in pectora pelles. The causes of discontent which led to their revolt are not quite seems that Arcadius refused to give them certain grants of money which had been allowed them by his father. and was offended that he had been passed over. as has been suggested. called Baltha (" the bold "). even advancing close to the They carefully spared certain estates walls of Constantinople. . influential chieftain. not seem to have been adopted with the same motive that caused Archidamus to spare the lands of Pericles.

the Emperor resented. with energetic celerity. v. to protect his throne. x uP e ^v Socrates. certain odium upon Eufinus. supposition. For such a we might find support in the circumstance that the estates of Eufinus were spared it by the soldiers of Alaric. cui bono fuerit. chap. arranged matters frontier. Alaric had experi2 . 10. 1 If we adopted the Cassian maxim. This summons gave the desired opportunity to stantinople . and it is hard to interpret this long delay in sending back the troops. We are told. i RUFINUS AND EUTROPIUS summon Stilicho to send or bring 65 obliged to them back immedithat general ately. t6 5e koX airo^KrjTOV 2 eyav i\<piei. It appears that Stilicho's behaviour is quite as open to the charges of ambition and artfulness as the behaviour of Eufinus. Stilicho's march to Thessaly can scarcely have taken place before October.1 iroXefUK&TaTou fy tovto Kareax^. other circumstances. such a supposition would at least be far more charging plausible than the calumny which was circulated Eufinus with having stirred up the Visigoths. and confronted Alaric in Thessaly. the presence of his aireaKk^Khs tt\v an 1 Zosimus. over which he had no rightful authority. too. To such a conjecture. F ^ VOL. he marched overland through Illyricum. would be intelligible that Stilicho suggested the plan in order to bring finally. we should be eastern regiments and enrolled inclined to accuse Stilicho of having been privy to the revolt of Alaric . enced a defeat at the hands of garrison soldiers in Thessaly at all events he shut himself up in a fortified camp and declined to engage with the Eoman general. too. 4 el' tl Zvvarbv avrou ko. I .. pretended to : resent. that he selected the best soldiers from the of the forces. which ought them in the western corps. In the mean- time Eufinus induced Arcadius to send a peremptory order to Stilicho to despatch the eastern troops to Constantinople and cousin as depart himself whence he had come or . vii. interfere in the politics of Con- on the Gallic and having. whither the Goth had traced his devastating path from the Propontis. if it were not dictated by a wish to implicate the government of New Eome in difficulties and render his own intervention necessary. It seems that before Stilicho arrived. point but it remains nothing more than a suspicion. do not perceive for I how we can to strictly justify his detention have been sent back to defend the provinces of Arcadius at the very beginning of the year. soon to be related.

3 or was a plan hatched Eufinus occasion. Stilicho yielded so readily that his will. 2 the Emperor and his court should come forth from the city to meet the army in the Campus Martins. 7. 5 tovs aTparnbras 'i\eye : deseritur RhodopeThracumque perardua avvrjdes elvcu. 1 Claudian. Gainas and his soldiers marched by the Via Egnatia to 1 and it was arranged that. vi. . by through the streets. ingness seems almost suspicious we shall probably never know whether he was lowed... TifJ. carried pierced with wounds. but just as he felt himself very nigh to supreme success. was " insatiable houses with the request Give to the We can hardly suppose that the lynching of Eufinus was the fatal inspiration of a moment. 14. and his right mocked the people. 3 Zosimus attributes the plan to . and talked. when the panied Arcadius to meet the army. the result between Stilicho and the party in Byzantium. . v. percurritur Hebrus ii. and his body. ! among the soldiers on their way to Constantinople. the ancient Perinthus. and led by the eunuch Eutropius but there is no evidence. 291 2 Zosimus. tendunt donee ad Herculei perventura nommis urbem. allowing Alaric to proceed on his wasting of Hellas.— 66 " HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE but book ii officious interference.. On the Stilicho and Gainas. _. the swords of the nearest were drawn. way into the lands Constantinople. is One might even conjecture that the whole affair was of a prearrangement uncertain.r)s 7}^tQa6ai Taijrrjs yap ttjs 7. We cannot trust the statement of a hostile writer that actually expected to be created Augustus on this and appeared at the Emperor's side prouder and more sumptuously arrayed than ever we only know that he accomIt is said that. confiscation of Rufinus' property. and himself departed to Salona. according to a usual custom. . fell to the ground. Heraclea.. 3. . which was adverse to Eufinus. Gainas. severed from the trunk. in Rufin. responsible for the events that fol- He consigned the eastern soldiers to the command of a Gothic captain. The is city of Herculean name. Symmachus. Eufinus advanced and displayed a studied affability and solicitude to please towards even They closed in round him as he smiled individual soldiers. which extended on the west side of the city near the Golden Gate. anxious to secure their goodwill for his elevation to the throne. Epist. Emperor had saluted the troops. cf. but whether it was proposed or approved of by Stilicho. was presented at the doors of hand. His head.* lb.

and poems " Against Bufinus. have been unconsciously prejudiced in favour of Stilicho and against authorities confirm his statements. offered no resistance. i. and Sparta. . 1 Tartareus . but he means the Piraeus. at Eleusis. to stay but Athens itself . only accidental accept. by way of Salona. We must return to the movements of Alaric. the principles of Bufinus is the terrible Pytho. 29). p. Gerontius.chap. of the world . the scourge Stilicho is the radiant Apollo. Argos. of diabolical linus. fell then Corinth. Studien. and the West Goths entered Boeotia. 347. where Thebes alone escaped their devastation. Stilicho had returned from Italy. was spared. references and allusions that we can unless other Yet even modern writers. 10. The legend was that he saw Athene Promachus stand ing on the walls and Achilles in front which story Zosimus. for which he showed scant respect. War " are a glorification of his patron's splendid Stilicho and Bufinus he paints as two opposite evil." relates seriously (v. the Latin equivalent Ammianus Marcel- i." and " On the Gothic virtues. we can hardly expect to find much fair historical truth . the commander of the garrison at Thermopylae. Bufinus. In the works of a poet whose Stilicho is an angel of light. i RUFINUS AND EUTROPIUS and untrustworthy writer. He enjoyed the patronage of Stilicho. it is. See Sievers. the of them zealous "hellen. the proconsul of Achaia. They occupied the Piraeus. the deliverer of Bufinus is a power of darkness. the force of good and the force of the Manichaeans. who had entered the regions of classical Greece. of the mystic goddesses Demeter and Persephone. Philostorgius (xii. which he reached by sea. But when they reached Elis they were confronted by an unexpected opponent. . 6). 2 and Alaric was entertained But the great temple as a guest in the city of Athene. and the of the siege made Alaric amenable to terms. wrote in verse the poet Claudian. whose tartarean 1 mankind. as a rule. like forces. is cf. moreover. xxviii." cl\eu 'Adfyas. wickedness surpasses even the wickedness of the Furies of hell. and Antiochus." " Against Eutropius. 2) says that Alaric "took Athens. was burnt down by the irreverent barbarians Megara. the next place on their southward route. 67 Our knowledge partial of this scene unfortunately depends on a — his who. . who know well how cautiously Claudian must be used. 2 The walls of Athens had been restored in the time of the Emperor Valerian difficulty (Zosimus. leading idea was so extravagant.

by a complete extermination of the Goths. to enable Arcadius to dispense with his help in In that case. and that this arrangement was conducive ever to the interests of Stilicho. G. if he wished Arcadius to ponnesus at all ? summon his assistance from year to year. de Cf. society of prostitutes. and at the same time not contrary to the interests of Alaric. Dr. Italy and her Invaders. 54. militum per Illyricum} No one will suppose that Stilicho went all the way from Italy to the Peloponnesus. 257. 2. 537 sq. where he made terms with the government of New Borne. blockaded him in the plain of Pholoe. but for some reason. . which conditioned Stilicho's departure. but that 1 by a secret agreement he secured Alaric's assistance for 2 Zosimus says that at Pholoe Stilicho gave himself up to luxury and the See Giildenpenning. to Illyricum and Thrace. who was in the position of advantage. 2 deliver the distressed countries And it is difficult to see that his conduct is explained by assuming that he was not willing. retreated. above all. he would not have acted in this ineffectual manner. not easily comprehensible. cit. and set free the hordes of the Visigothic land-pirates to resume their career of devastation. himself for vigorous action. he did not press his advantage. and incapacitated v. plundering as he went. Hodgkin. 1. although he had Alaric practically at his mercy. If he without some excellent reason. what did he gain by going to the Pelofuture. to had genuinely wished and assist the Emperor Arcadius. what pleasure would have been to the general to look forward to being called upon again and again to take the field against the Visigoths ? seems evident that Stilicho and Alaric made at It Pholoe some secret and definite arrangement. op. 7. for otherwise Stilicho could not have been sure out. the question occurs. this secret I would compact was can only be a matter of conjecture suggest that Stilicho had already formed the plan of creating his son Eucherius Emperor. He and Alaric returned. and that he designed the Balkan peninsula to be the dominion over which Eucherius should hold His conduct becomes perfectly explicable if we assume sway. and then.68 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE He book ii the hand of the invader. leaving matters just as they were. B. that the agreement would be carried What . i. Or we might ask. p. The decisive passage is Claudian. and received the desired title of magister went back to Italy. is it likely that he would have adopted the method of rendering no assistance whatit ? But.

fain to break off from the dry land. Antioch was enduring a blockade. flying hither and thither. and. army was at that time absent in consequence of the civil wars May Jesus protect the Eoman world in future They were everywhere. sought its ancient island.. were repaired. to fear a shipwreck provision not for our less enemy. Babes. rushing southwards through the provinces of Mesopotamia. and the whole East trembles with the news. In the same year hordes of trans-Caucasian Huns poured It that were ravaged. to be related in another chapter. The Eoman were scattering slaughter and terror everywhere." * In another speaking of these wolves of Epist. . Jerusalem was the goal of the foes. and. It is subsequent events. where the strong works of Alexander on the Caucasian cliffs keep back the wild nations. that from the far Maeotis. were forced to die and. yet begun to evil that live. walls. to take precautions against the arrival of the were wild. Tyre. . suddenly messengers rush hither and thither. desolation into Syria. lady (Fabiola. as they were held in the hands and threatened by the swords of the enemy. which the preponderance of Gothic power in Illyricum and Thrace wonld facilitate. behold. from the land of the ice-bound Don and the savage Massagetae. lxxvii. his friend). as for the chastity of " our virgins. was not only the European parts of Arcadius' dominions by the fire and sword of barbarians. there was a smile upon There was a consistent and universal report that their lips. chap. St. and in two of his letters we have the account of an eye"As I was searching for an abode worthy of such a witness. swarms of Huns had burst forth. Then we too were con. through the Caspian gates (per Caspia claustra). . i RUFINUS AND EUTROPIUS 69 execution of this scheme. and their speed outstripped the rumour of their approach they spared neither religion nor dignity nor age they showed no pity to the cry of infancy. much 8. neglected by the carelessness of peace. when they were from such beasts least expected. carried Jerome was in Palestine at this time. ignorant of the was upon them. . to stay on the seashore. and that on account of their The insatiable lust for gold they were hastening to this city. ! . that the suggest this theory. who had not in Italy. in 395. strained to provide ships. though the winds making than the barbarians — own 1 safety so letter. and.

four and Meanwhile 1 after the death of Eufinus. on Epist. Palestine. had been assigned to Pompeius but. An officer named Arbacazius was entrusted by Arcadius with an office similar in object to that a half centuries ago. whose ravages were constant. There were other enemies within. Arabia. or southwards to Syria and Palestine . These enemies were the freebooters who dwelled in the Isaurian mountains. which. the Euphrates flow. in the same way as Pompeius had succeeded in exterminating the piracy which in his day infested the same regions. . xiv. wild and untamed in their secure fastnesses. human 3 See the letters exile. though he quelled the spirits of the freebooters for a moment. who made a practice of putting in at the safer ports of Cyprus. 3 . in 396. where in hidden ways and glens they lurked till the fall of night. however. Egypt were led captive by fear. and the whole range of the Taurus as far as the confines of Syria seems to have been their spacious habitation. which he also illustrates by the ravages of Alaric in Europe. were not the only depredators at whose hands the provinces of Asia Minor and Syria suffered. the miseries of Jerome is dwelling Abundantius. past which the Halys. written by Chry- sostom in his . the Cydnus. and the fate of Rufinus.D. 2. lx. and in the light of the crescent moon. Herds of captives were dragged away. Thus the coast of Isauria was like a deadly shore of Sciron it was avoided by sailors. their land expeditions . and Timasius.70 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE : book ii the north/' he says the waters of " How many rivers how many monasteries were captured were stained with human gore ? ? Antioch was besieged and the other cities. In the years 404 and 405 Cappadocia was overrun by the robber bands. while the expedition of the Huns from without occurred only once. watched until the mariners riding at anchor slept then they boarded the vessels. Phoenicia. Arbacazius did not succeed in eradicating the lawless element. 16. the Orontes. the was written 2 weak Emperor The letter society (ternporum nostrorum ruinas). Am- mianus Marcellinus sturdy robbers." 1 The Huns. 2 describes picturesquely the habits of these They used to descend from the difficult mountain slopes like a whirlwind to places on the seashore. The Isaurians did not always confine to the surrounding provinces of Cilicia penetrated in 403 A. . and Pamphylia they northwards to Cappadocia and Pontus. killed and plundered the crews. 1.

said by his enemies of Eufinus . Both these innova- The general historical import of the position of Eutropius. like Eufinus. or office of postmaster general. has been painted far blacker than he really was. we are probably justified in ascribing two The adminisinnovations which were made by Arcadius. On the other hand. as dangerous rivals. iwaepositus sacri tions were afterwards altered. fluence. . between which it had to steer. and the same transference was made in regard to the manufactories of arms. the grand chamberlain. was made an illustris. and which was finally elaborated by Diocletian. and which it had been ever trying We may say that there were two dangers which to avoid. the other was a military despotism. 40. Eutropius naturally looked on the praetorian prefects. then. was his interest to reduce their power and to raise the dignity To his inof his own office to an equality with theirs. is Empire was falling into a danger. who in unscrupulous greed of money resembled Eufinus and many other officials of the time. the most powerful men in the administration next to the EmIt peror. equal in rank to the praetorian prefects. who preponderated in it and the institution of court ceremonial tended to create a cabinet of chamberlains and imperial dependants. and. to which Hadrian perhaps made the most important contributions. constantly impended over the Eoman Empire from its inaugua Scylla ration by Augustus to its redintegration by Diocletian The one was a and Charybdis. who at the same time averted the other danger by separating the military and civil administrations. All the evil things that were were said of Eutropius by his enemies but in reading of the enormities of the latter we must make great allowance for the general prejudice existing against a person with Eutropius' physical disqualifications.chap. was transferred from the praetorian prefects to the master of offices. iii. that the — . the creation of a civil service system. by which it had been threatened from the outset. i RUFINUS AND EUTROPIUS 71 Arcadius passed under the influence of the eunuch Eutropius. The danger from the army became danger from the Germans. tration of the cursus puMicus. 1 See Johannes Lydus. The former danger called forth. and was counteracted by. cabinet of imperial freedmen. But both dangers revived in a new form. de Mag. with jealousy and suspicion. 1 ciibiculi.

tried to avoid the dangers of a dynasty by his cannot artificial system. by its very nature. After the death of Kufinus. who." involved. but the fact that the edict of emancipation expressly enjoins " that no one henceforward venture to wound a Lycian citizen with a name of scorn " shows what a serious misfortune their degradation was. . all the provincials were excluded from public offices. monarchy. 1. The strong measures that a determined minister was ready to take for the mere sake of vengeance. we may use the word ministry). inexperienced in public affairs. . On account of a single individual. so marked a feature of late " Byzantinism. The greatest blot on the ministry of Eutropius (for. whose political insight and ingenuity were remarkable. that stained other men of those days as well as Eutropius. and we must view it rather as a feature of the times than as a personal enormity. as one of its principles. was the sale of offices. know the truth. and saw too little Diocletian appreciated this disadvantage him- and remarked that the sovereign. living in the retirement of his palace. but artifice could not contend with success against nature. then. who had offended that minister. 1 In Eutrop. the Lycians were relieved from these disabilities . for absolute monarchy naturally tends to a dynasty. tends in this direction. but must rely on what his attendants We may also remark that absolute and officers tell him. 197 : Institor imperii caupo famosus lionorum. as he was the most trusted adviser of the Emperor. and a dynasty implies that there must sooner or later come to the throne weak men. etc. self. easily guided by intriguing chamberlains and eunuchs. however. Tatian. informers of all sorts were encouraged and rewarded. shut up in his palace. the eunuch's spies were ubiquitous of course. Diocletian. This was a blot. difficulty of access to the Emperor. may be exemplified by the treatment which the whole Lycian province received at the hands of Kufinus. Of course. was tempted to trust of public affairs. aulic cabals and chamber cabinets are sure to become dominant sometimes. Under such conditions.72 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE book ii This oriental ceremonial. reared up in an atmosphere of flattery and illusion. of which Claudian gives a 1 vivid and exaggerated account. less to his eyes than his ears. All the usual stratagems for grasping and plundering were put into practice.

3 a soldier. p. who. suborned his wife to lodge very serious charges against her husband. a man of great body and little mind.) . abundans corporis.. . . was so great that the Emperor gave 2 f. 70). and fond of women. etc. ii. a man of the highest character. condemned. to whose patronage he owed his rise in tinction the world. . fond of eating. had insinuated himself into his good graces. foreseeing that the continued existence of Bargus might at some time compromise himself. 8. in con- sequence of which he was put to death. linguae jactator. v. who had risen from the post of a cook to be count of the sacred largesses. On the other hand. supporting the charge by forgeries. The prying omniscience of Eutropius discovered that. quoted above. and compelled him to accuse his benefactor Timasius of a treasonable conspiracy. proves that quondam lanificae. . of Among the adherents Eutropius. with considerable cleverness. and Timasius. fond of drinking. 2 of more. Abundantius and Timasius were ex- Leo was once employed in the wool and Claudian puts into his mouth. which was written in 396. who had been the commander-general in the East. and obtained a subordinate command in the army.-u' up his . Eomans of the stamp of Timasius Zosimus. . The general feeling in favour of Timasius. Eutropius had many enemies. with native address. sed in that vear. and committed its conduct to Procopius and Saturninus. i RUFINUS AND EUTROPIUS 73 The eunuch won considerable odium in the first year of power (396) by bringing about the fall of two men of disAbundantius. who was known by the sobriquet of Ajax. An account of the manner in which the ruin of the latter was wrought will illustrate the sort of intrigues that his — were spun at the Byzantine court. first ? c intention of presiding at *. 1 Timasius had brought with him from Sardis a Syrian sausage . The accused was oasis. expressions redolent of wool-making. who were numerous and insincere. 376 sq.. — equally 1 3 Claudian describes Leo in lines almost worthy of Juvenal (in Eutrop. years before. and banished to the Libyan a punishment equivalent to death he was never heard tried. named Bargus. corpulent and good-humoured. — trade. . two were of especial importance Osius. „. Eutropius. this same Bargus had been forbidden to enter Constantinople for some misdemeanour. and Leo. and by means of this knowledge he gained an ascendency over the Syrian. The letter of Jerome (lx. Whether Eutropius then got rid of the wife we are not informed. fond of boasting. and enemies in two different quarters. . exiguusqueanimi.seller.- •*• Acer „„ in absentes. 4. the trial..chap.doctissimusartis . and finally master of the offices.

it seems an inevitable from law {Cod. who patronised and paid him. he gives an absolutely false and misleading account of Stilicho's expedition . lains recognised that this law was an express palladium for chamber- but surely it must have been suggested by some actually formed conspiracy.laureate to Honorius. who afterwards brought about the fall of Eutropius. by any writer. the Vandal Stilicho was enjoying an uninterrupted course of prosperity in the somewhat less stifling air of Italy. aiming at the overthrow of Eutropius. and we may suspect that Gainas. spirit of concord between East and West. represented by Gainas. as we shall see subsequently. and not only did his It is generally individual concerned incur capital punishment. In the panegyric in honour of the fourth consulate of Honorius (398). . before While the eunuch was sailing in the full current of sueat Byzantium. such a conspiracy being considered equivalent to treason. the writer calls upon Stilicho " to hand the two brothers " (geminos dextra Such lines as this are written to put a certain significance on Stilicho's policy. which. also inimical. 14. 3) which was passed Though this is not stated autumn of that year. who acted as a sort of poet . The poet Claudian. and we cannot but suspect that many of his utterances were direct manifestoes suggested by his patron. it was carried out. conclusion the Theod. Almost every public cess poem he produced is an extravagant panegyric on that general. ix. Intent was the to be regarded as equivalent to crime. breathes a protect with his right tu protege fratres). In the panegyric in honour of the third consulate of Honorius (396). was really an apologist for Stilicho. had some connection with it. German element It in the Empire. was seems certain that a serious confederacy was formed in the year 397. com- posed soon after the death of Eufinus. inin the cluding barbarians. the supremacy of an while. of which Eutropius discovered the threads." or other senators." against the lives " of illustrcs who belong to our consistory or assist at our counsels. assessing the penalty of death to any one who had conspired " with soldiers or private persons. The particular mention of soldiers and barbarians points to a particular danger.74 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE to book ii and Aurelian were naturally opposed emasculated chamberlain the . but descendants were visited with disfranchisement.

solicitously concerned for the welfare of his wife's young cousin. it led him to exceed the acts of a strictly private friendship. making out the boy of fourteen to be greater than his father and grandfather. is This action of the senate not generally per- very remarkable. Zosimus. Great. 1 Stilicho and Eutropius had shaken hands over the death of Eufinus. of Arcadius could regard with goodwill or indifference the desire of Stilicho to interfere in the affairs of New Borne for this desire cannot be denied. Greece two years before. when the news arrived that Stilicho purposed to visit Constantinople to set things in order and arrange matters for Arcadius. Cons. and that the trea- sury is not replenished by extortion. Claudian at his finest in his eulogies of Theodosius avus. but the good understanding was not destined to last longer than the song of triumph. due to Eutropius. Italy gave him no power in other parts of the . but probably also by men of a quite different faction. the hero of Africa and 1 Britain. . not only by Eutropius. and overwhelms him with the most extravagant adulations. and If the act its signification is had been altogether would surely have taken the form of Eutropius would not have resorted to the of bribing or threatening the whole senate ceived. felt We can then well understand the indignation at New Rome. we should say that he was a most outrageous liar. and it was plain that the strongest protest must be made against it. 11. when as early a date as 396. in obedience to the wishes of that cousin's father. 2 Such officiousness was intolerable. If Claudian were not a poet. to i RUFINUS AND EUTROPIUS 75 poetical exaggeration can defend. v. The senate accordingly passed a resolution declaring Stilicho a public enemy. was untenable. an account which no allowance for At the same time he extols Honorius with the most absurd eulogiums. We are therefore unable to accord him the smallest credit when he boasts that the subjects in the western provinces are not oppressed by heavy taxes. troublesome method even if he had been the is In Hon. 495 sq.chap. No minister . Bk. it an imperial decree. even if one do not accept the theory that the scheme of detaching Illyricum from Arcadius' dominion was entertained by him at His position as master of soldiers in Empire and the attitude which he assumed as an elderly relative. 2 and Theodosius pater. We cannot justly blame Eutropius for this.

and that Sym- machus the was one of the ambassadors. although he did not take the field himself. It also appears that embassies subject passed between Italy and Constantinople. 2 3 Salvina was afterwards a friend of Orosius. feeling against Stilicho strong. . then. Historiae adv. which did not escape his notice. death he prepared to take a more revolt. He was finally ap- pointed military commander. and we must confess naturally The situation was now complicated by a revolt in Africa. vii.76 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE so. that the general was strong. and the comparatively slight and moderate references which the hostile Claudian makes to the hesitating attitude of New Eome indicate that the government of Arcadius did not behave very badly after all. and he engaged numerous African nomad tribes to support him in his The strained relations between Old and New Eome. Gildo refused to send aid to TheoAfter Theodosius' positive attitude. He knew that if he were dependent only on New Eome. Sec the Bellum Gildonicum of Claudian.D. the brother and of Firmus. book ii able to do We must conclude. and he certainly took possession of it. or count. But it is certain that Arcadius did not in any way assist Gildo. It appears that Gildo the came demanded on the that Libya should be consigned to his rule. But the faith of the Moors was as the faith of Carthaginians. 3 through which Stilicho won well-deserved laurels. John Chrysostom. which eventually proved highly fortunate for the glory and influence of Stilicho. he would be practically independent.). and 1 daughter Salvina was united in marriage to a nephew of the Empress Aelia Flaccilla. but to nothing. of Africa. 2 He entered accordingly into communication negotiations with the government of Arcadius. who received important assistance from Gildo. to create a A. Paganos. the Moor Firmus had made an attempt kingdom for himself in the African provinces (379 and had been quelled by the arms of Theodosius. suggested to him that his rebellion might assume the form of a transition from the sovereignty of Honorius to the sovereignty of Arcadius. 36. orator need not go into the details of the Gildonic war. dosius in his expedition against Eugenius. enemy his Gildo was duly rewarded. Eighteen years before. 1 We What made the revolt of the Nebridms.

The large property which Gildo had amassed required a special official to administrate it. L. n.— chap. and the year 400. whose hideous cruelties and oppressions were worthy of his Moorish blood and it is a curious fact that this fleet was under the command of Mascezel. celebrate the career of Stilicho. on marble bases. a work which was 1731). who. we need hardly remark. 1188-1190) before the invasion of Alaric in 402. I. vi. for which an epithalamium was written by Claudian. Several inscriptions found on Roman gates commemorate the restoration of the "walls. Two inscriptions found at Rome (C. prevented catastrophe . a grateful material for his favourite theme. honori augusti Africa consiliis ejus provisione et liberata. appeared in the Tiber. was peace and prosperity. 1 This subjugation of the man whom the senate of Old Borne had pronounced a public enemy redounded far and wide to the glory of the man whom the senate of New Borne had proclaimed a public enemy. vi. L. entitled comes Gildoniaci patrimonii. . and Africa was delivered from the Moor's reign of ruin and terror. The undisciplined nomadic army was scattered without labour at Ardalio. and towers" of the city by Honorius. lasted for many years. to which Boman rule. celebrates the father-in-law as expressly as the bridal pair. with all its fiscal sternness. and Borne was supplied during the winter months. as we might expect. who was now playing the same part towards Gildo that Gildo had played efficient . And in the meantime Stilicho's position had become still more splendid and secure by the marriage of his daughter Maria with the Emperor Honorius (Spring 398). however. of the rebel 1 The complications which resulted issimae militiae ad columen in Africa and the attempts from the despotism of Gildo. xi. to right wrongs and restore property. One of them (1730) is as follows flavio stilichoni inlustrissimo viro magistro equitum peditumque comiti domesticorum tribuno praetoriano et ab ineunte aetate per gradds clar- undertaken at Stilicho's suggestion. laden with corn. 2 and Notit. 8. Early in 3 9 8 a fleet sailed against the tyrant. 1730 and gloriae sempiternae et regiae adfinitatis evecto progenero divi theodosi comiti divi theodosi augusti in omnibus bellis adque victoriis et ab eo in adfinitatem regiam cooptato itemque socero d. i RUFINUS AND EUTROPIUS 77 count of Africa of such great moment was the fact that the African provinces were the granary of Old Borne. Gildo might hope to starve out Italy. The Gildonic war also supplied. Gildo's brother. The prompt action any from Gaul and from Spain. (see C. inspired an enthusiastic effusion. I. the granary of New Eome. 2 towards his brother Firmus. to which Stilicho gave his name as consul. Theod. and management for ships of Stilicho. 7. See Cod. as Egypt was By stopping the supplies of corn. Occ. gates. vii.

almost at the zenith of his of the fame. These facts indicate that the two dangers to which I already foreigner. Stilicho himself may help to explain this.). and — and — whose gravity has not always been sufficiently accentuated. the father-in-law of the Gildonic war did not eastern provinces. he was half. their natural protector and friend.78 It HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE may seem Emperor and the hero to book ii strange that now. was not the man of indomitable will who forms a project and he was a man rather of that ambitious but carries it through hesitating character which Mommsen attributes to Pompey. inactive policy of the next few years must not be taken to indicate that he cherished no ambitious projects. His intentions were unscrupulous. there was a large as Boman faction opposed to him as a was not strong enough It is remarkable that his fall was finally to overpower him. was brought about by the compulsion of a German general. which occurred far sooner (399 A. make some attempt carry out his favourite project of interference with the government of the But there are two considerations which In the first place. by which He had no Stilicho hoped to profit and execute his designs. that he was in constant communication with Gainas. His excuse for interference. . it is sufficiently probable dosian house. Besides this. .D. He was half a Boman and half a barbarian he was halfstrong and half -weak. his wife Serena probably endeavoured to check his policy of discord and maintain unity in the TheoIn the second place.). the and chief representative and that Gainas was awaiting his time for an outbreak. The Germans looked up to Stilicho as the most important German in the Empire.patriotic and half -selfish. But yet this faction called attention — the preponderating influence of German sol- diers and the preponderating influence of chamberlains were mutually checks on each other. while of the German general German of the eastern armies interests in the realm of Arcadius. I must reserve eunuchs for the next chapter an account of the danger from the Germans which threatened New Borne. brought about by the influence of a palace official (408 A. but was fortunately weathered a danger whose aversion was of really critical importance for the maintenance of the Boman Empire in the East. them. and he was willing to wait.D. but he was almost afraid of . while the fall of his rival Eutropius.

There was a third party. consisting entirely of time-serving hangers-on. there was the party of Eutropius. Alaric in of eunuchs is The Roman sentiment against the power Claudian's poem against Eutropius. and it is possible that the it Frankish Empress Eudoxia certain may have But bond looked upon with a amount of favour. clustering round the eunuch to receive his favours as long as he was in favour himself. of which the chief commander of the Eastern army. These two factions. representative was Gainas. Secondly. consisting of those senators and ministers who entertained a Eoman religion — abhorrence of the increase of German influence in the Empire. and strongly expressed in were Germans 1 in Italy. because she was an orthodox Catholic and they were It must never be forgotten that the difference in which marked off the German nations was an important element in the situation. the munication with Stilicho in the West. bound together by no principle or common purpose an ephemeral clique. fact that three commanders-in-chief in (Stilicho the Eoman Empire Illyricum. close between her and the Goths.CHAPTEE II THE GERMANS IN THE EAST There were nople. the faction of Eutropius and the faction of Gainas. and which counted not only barbarians but Eomans among its It is probable that this party was in constant commembers. and a strong Eoman detestation of the bedchamber administration of eunuchs 1 men who were equally scandalised by the . were opposed. I think we must reject the assumption of any very Arians. at this time three political parties at Constanti- There was the German party. opposed to both of these. .

torian prefect offices of most important and filled He was the son of a distinguished praethe named Taurus. Eoman of good family life with the German party. Omnia cesserunt eunucho consule monstra. ^p^dro^. as a supporter. was an enigmatical figure. but in character diaThis shadowy person. by Synesius. after the imperial. as the climax of indecency. Sievers. quaestor and prefect of the have said that the Germans had friends among the The most distinguished of their Eoman supporters Eomans. tells stories to illustrate his indecent and frivolous He mentions. . as if it were marvellously 1 ytypairrai fikv iirl tols Tavpov -kolkjIv Compare (Upodeupia of the klytiirTioi). and performed its duties are told that We Typhos at equally badly. is one of the riddles of history. Osiris and Typhos. entitled Concerning Providence. which. gross and this be most convenient to unknown person by his allegorical name.80 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE book ii Gainas in the East). bishop of Cyrene. 387 sqq. I like the Man of the Iron Mask. ignorant. He then obtained some other office. Osiris. who played metrically opposed to him. an important is In private he represented as a profligate. It will is " left-handed " and perverse. or the Egyptians. 1217. p. Its subject is the contest for the 1 Egyptian kingdom between the two sons of Taurus. for Aurelian was respected member. one time held a financial post. and Synesius habits. Migne. 2 rafxias ed. He allied himself closely in him. a leading part at this period. We its may call this party the party of Aurelian. that Typhos used to snore on purpose when awake. and by the appointment of Eutropius to the consulship in the year 399. a sort of everything that is good and laudable . by whom is meant Aurelian. and take delight in hearing others producing the same noise. written in the form of an allegory. differing from Osiris as Edmund call differed from Edgar in King Lear. nature's byblow. 2 but was soon obliged to abdicate it on account of malversation. was the highest title in the State. and he had himself city. an honour which was soon followed by his elevation to the rank of Patrician. Studien. whose real name we shall probably never know. the brother of Aurelian. The expression usually means comes sacrarum largitionum. p. who saw and position. Synes. We derive all that we know about him from a historical sketch. is the type of while Typhos.

an is ambitious and fashionable\ri<jTos. k. Synesius contrasts with her the wife of Aurelian. It took the form of a contest between successful in obtaining the the two brothers. which was a great triumph for the anti." allegations of 1 We an opponent.chap.\. dedrpov Kal ayopas We 8. was almost obsolete it . Dio Chrysostom finds fault motion of indecency. be considerably overdrawn. closed against professional courtesans. might imagine from this account that Typhos was the leading with the people of Tarsus eavrijs Ko/jL/xurpia. of contemporary society. The great struggle between the alien and the native element in the East. her own tirewoman.t. for the office of prae- The former was nomination. and if Synesius really believed in this is a he cannot have approved of the behaviour of his friend and teacher Hypatia. place and thinking that the eyes of were turned towards her. VOL. valuable and interesting. 2 for their habit of snoring. from being too nice in her choice of society she liked to have her house and drawing-room filled. and constantly showed herself in the marketthe theatre. The sketch which Synesius even if it gives of the wife of Typhos. 81 music and he used to praise and honour him who uttered most tunefully the licentious sound. however.German party. that select Byzantine society refused to Such an extreme idea. This desire of notoriety prevented her . Aurelian and Typhos. began at the T end of the year 398. and her doors were not It may be supposed know her.evos. She liked all be seen. as the picture of a type She was. and evolved the finest and "roundest snort. who never left the house. I G . torian prefect. 2 a reproach which seems to imply that she was inordinately attentive to the details of her to toilet. fine ii THE GERMANS IN THE EAST . which was to decide that the eastern provinces w ere not to be dismembered by the Teutonic nations. Synesius was at this time at Constantinople. and asserts the great virtue of a woman to be that neither her body nor her name should ever cross the threshold. in imitation of the celebrated dictum of Thucydides. so that 1 fAovaucqu Tiva 6avfxaaTT]v to irados spirit of a sort of society for the pro- 7]yovfj. and lived on very intimate terms with Aurelian and his friends. But I believe mere rhetorical flourish. but must remember that these are the at the same time it is just to observe that the prose allegory of Synesius has a truer ring than the poetical histories of Claudian. in the first place.

or colons. had established in the fertile regions of Phrygia in 386. 99. ii. . he arranged the whole plan of campaign with Gainas before he left the That their complicity began capital. He constructed a large pond friends for their made artificial islands. On the chronology of these events. provided (KoXvfxfiyjOpa). who on that occasion offended him by It seems very probable that neglect. is only after Gainas had taken the field hard to believe. paying his respects to the new consul Eutropius. and this drove him which it . the same as Gurth ? . bore a personal grudge against Eutropius. in which he with warm baths and in these islands he and his friends. though we have no distinct 1 evidence to show that it was instigated by Gainas or Typhos. especially Platonism. see Guldenpenning. consisting of Ostrogoths and Gruthungi. p. in the company of women. in Eutrop. a man of culture and learning. Galatia and Pisidia and Bithynia. 2 whom Theodosius. 1 Tribigild was in Constantinople at the beginning of 399. The revolt broke out in spring. was a great blow to Typhos and His wife had been looking forward eagerly to the prefecture for the sake of the social advantages Synesius gives a curious account of would confer. summer on account of its pleasant and The barbarians. used to indulge in licentious pleasures. who commanded the troops in Phrygia. The success of Aurelian his wife and his friends. recruited by runaway slaves. was a movement on the part of Ostrogoths. 2 Claudian. The Count Tribigild. who had been settled in Phrygia by Theodosius. spread destruction throughout many provinces. Typhos took to console himself and his which the measures disappointment. the friend of the Goths. that brought on the main and this movement was hardly independent of the struggle German faction in the capital. Penetrated with the spirit of old Hellenedom. as Arcadius and his court were preparing to start for Ancyra in Galatia. and was surrounded with men of letters. OstrogothiscoliturmistisqucGruthungisPhryx first the part of Crruthungus Is ager. It But this was only the prologue to the drama proper.82 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE book ii he had an excellent opportunity of observing all that went on. 153. to excite to revolt the Teutonic laeti. such as Troilus the poet and Polyaemon the rhetor. whither the Emperor was fond salubrious of resorting in climate. he sympathised fully with the aspirations and purposes of the Aurelian seems to have been Pionian party at Byzantium. and feeling a Hellenic antagonism to barbarians.

our homes are full of German servants. 2 3 Giildenpenning has brought out this point. and there was no means of escape. The German soldiers are a stone of Tantalus suspended over the State. but our armies are of wolves in the guise of dogs . ii THE GERMANS IN THE EAST this 83 At moment Synesius the presented a crown to Arcaclius on of behalf of his native town.Germans.— chap. the Falstaff of that age. a land proprietor of the town of Selge. and thus succeeded in effecting his escape. who held the pass. named Valentinus. as Plato says. where they met with a brave and unexpected resistance. Sec the narrative in Zosinius. and that manifesto of the policy of Eoman party of Aurelian. imposing disabilities therefore their union is unnatural. and thereby eradicating the German element in the State. The soldiers of a state full should be like watchdogs. to take energetic measures against his fellow.German It urged the on barbarians. 16. The areument depends on the by no means christian assumption that the Eoman and the barbarian are different in kind. 3 While Gainas was purposely inactive. 379. and delivered his celebrated speech. " Concerning Office King. — 1 Compare Sievers. But he had no sooner escaped than he was shut in between two rivers. Both were sent with armies against Tribigild. The only salvation is to remove the alien element liacpZvai Be Bel This speech was not calculated to induce Gainas ToXkorpLov. . the Goth. v. The advancing enemy was surprised by showers of stones from the heights above them. and Leo. as has been well pointed the anti." out. formed a corps of peasants and slaves and laid an ambush hard by a winding narrow pass in the mountains leading from Pisidia to Pamphylia. For there seem to have been only two generals of any account at this time Gainas. p. whom he was sent to reduce. seeking to avoid an engagement with Leo. Tribigild bribed the commander. turned their steps to Pisidia and thence proceeded to Pamphylia. After a great loss of life. . and writing in his letters to Constantinople that Tribigild was very formidable. The lawgiver cannot wisely give arms to any who are not born and reared in his laws the shepherd cannot expect to tame wolves' cubs. moreover. as they were hemmed in by a treacherous marsh. Florentius. Studien. Cyrene. 2 * This may be regarded. The rebels.

and they suddenly attacked the minority of Eoman soldiers. stand by him in his extremity. 7 . misrepresenting the defeat of Leo. but might expect that the Patriarch of Constantinople. 18. leading her two little daughters. H. was He valuit pro vulthe poet. Eor it Johannes Chrysostomus. noonday 1 friends. but that Gainas secretly replenished the forces Thus Leo of Tribigild with detachments from his own army. had really two enemies in the field against him. H. but fled to the refuge 2 of the sanctuary of St. he did not disguise from himself his extreme peril. by fright — appropriate intended . H. would when he was abandoned by his was through his influence that Johannere terror (in Eutrop.) 2 For the fall of Eutropius. one in the He found Tribigild at the head of a large disguise of a friend. The Empress Eudoxia. E. vi. by the hand. army. in addition to the pressure of the Germans. for he was probably attached to his chamberlain. dwelling the superiority on yield to his demands — of the rebel. according to age. 1 so that Gainas and Tribigild were masters of the situation. Gainas. When Eutropius heard of the demand of Gainas. Sophia. xi. who had owed her position to the machinations of Eutropius. There he might not only trust in the protection of the holy place. another influence was brought to bear which secured the fall of the eunuch. and the insurrection might have been utterly and easily crushed. . Leo meanwhile was advancing. with which he could not attempt to cope but this was . The German regiments in his own army preponderated. demand being that Eutropius The Emperor hesitated. v.— 84 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE book ii the of those regions. attempting to escape. is Claudian's account of Leo's death to be a little comical to the Falstaff of the killed. see Socrates. 5 . but. Elaccilla and Pulcheria. became jealous of his power with her husband dissension and antagonism were born between them and one day Eudoxia appeared in the presence of the Emperor. Melas and the Eurymedon. Leo lost his life in not all. and easily overpowered them. left who still posed as a loyal general foiled by the superior ability and power of Tribigild. bitterly of the eunuch's insulting behaviour. viii. Sozomen. despatched a message to the Emperor. Philostorgius. Zosimus. 240 sq. by the warlike inhabitants who were well used to warfare from their experience of Isaurian freebooters. ii. and complained . 6 . and urging Arcadius to the chief should be surrendered. E. E.

may not groan over . vol. and deserves to be quoted. XIV. Praeto- rian Prefect.) The edict concerning Eutropius which was issued by Arcadius is a curious document. whose will had been almost supreme a few days before." 1 In this discourse he dwelled without mercy on the frivolity and irreligion of the party of Eutropius but at the same time he . all is vanity. to Aurelian. Eutropius allowed himself to be taken away. charges. and on the following day. August!. having stripped him of his splendour. We the funeral oration on Louis " Dieu seul est grand. Saturday. less Gainas.d. the service must have been curiously impressive. When by the church had been again surrounded and entered soldiers. and shame. ' The Emperors Arcadius and Honorius. 6fu\la et's EurpoTrioj' are reminded of Massillon's words in ewovxov irarplKLov Kai virarov. It will serve also as a specimen of imperial edicts in general. and from the recollection of his name and the base filth thereof so that. ed." beginning with the words. . where he was condemned on trivial. and that those who by their valour and wounds extend the Eoman borders or guard the same by equity in the maintenance of law. on condition that his life should be spared. ii THE GERMANS IN THE EAST had been nominated 85 to the nes. and Johannes had again personally interposed. episcopal chair (398 a. who was formerly the Praepositus Sacri Cubiculi.) And ." . . and executed (autumn 399 A. lay the old chamberlain. " Vanity of vanities. 1 See Chrysostom's Works.D. " We have added to our treasury all the property of Eutropius. sought to excite the sympathy of the audience. however. a Syrian presbyter of Antioch. overwhelmed with fear tion strange. Sunday. Montfaucon. Arcadius caused him to be brought back and tried at Chalcedon. and delivered the consulate from the foul stain of his tenure. iii. all time may be dumb concerning him and that the blot of our age may not appear by the mention of him . the personal interference of Johannes was actually necessary he had to stand between the cowering eunuch and those who would have dragged him from This incident seems to have taken place on beneath the altar. He was banished to Cyprus. chap. probably false. was not content with anything than his death and availing himself of the quibble that security of life had been granted to him only in Constantinople. . and the feelings of the congregaHidden under the altar. all his acts having been repealed. and in the pulpit the eloquent archbishop delivered a sermon " on the fallen eunuch.

Kal. Synesius attributes the combination against Aurelian to a drawing-room cabal a plot brewed for his destruction by the wife of Typhos and the wife of Gainas. the friend . whither let your sublimity know that he has been banished so that therein guarded with most watchful diligence he may be unable to work confusion with his and public places. Synes. 2 It is evident at least that both city and camp were — 1 xvi. bamainino: for terms. and it this document did not spare seems strange that Arcadius should have allowed an edict to go forth which reflects so seriously on himself. rvpe^erai dy to kclkqv h i. who appears to have succeeded him in the prefecture. . and acted no longer as a mediator for Tribigild. that may pollute the gaze of beholders. Gainas demanded and obtained an interview with Arcadius. At Chalcedon. one of the chief men of Aurelian's party and Johannes. or of used in art — we command they any other mate- to be abolished in all cities. 8vo 71/vcu15. (MSS. . KtovLreai. As a security. The surrender of Aurelian as a hostage to the German general was a triumph for his brother Typhos. the praetorian prefect Saturninus. Aurelian. all the images of bronze or marble. The weakness of the Emperor was proportional to the force of the language. Theocl. towns. Accordingly under the conduct of faithful guards let him be taken to the island of Cyprus.. 2 found in Cod. three hostages were to be handed over to Gainas namely.. x at Constantinople in the Consulship of Theodoras. but as an adversarv. The edict will be 17.) Fcbr. vir The quaestor in drawing up vigorous language. or painted in colours. Aegypt. the patriciate and all lower dignities that he stained with the perversity of his character —whether rial (morum yolluit That all the statues.. or Novembr. by provoking immediately the question why the Emperor countenanced the " filth " so long. He and Tribigild had met at Thyatira and proceeded to the Hellespont. and an agreement was made that Gainas should continue to hold the post of magister militum per oricntem. ix. seems to be an error for Octobr. though the order of laws in the Codex seems to forbid this. (report said the lover) of Eudoxia.— 86 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE filthy monster. . 40. and that he and Tribigild might cross over with impunity to Europe. It was after the fall of Eutropius that Gainas seems to have declared his real colours openly. book ii the fact that the divine guerdon of consulship has been befouled and defiled by a Let him learn that he has been deprived of the rank of scaevitate). " Dated clarissimusP . Febr. as a brand of infamy on our age. private not. mad designs. plundering as they went.

87 full of intrigues at this time. the year in the Empire. Above all. . no more his historical importance is that he was a tool in What events took place during the next the hands of Gainas. It certainly seems that there were somewhere in the vicinity Eoman of troops (over and above the bodyguard of the Emperor). which he and Typhos together had kept in a ferment for six months. This conjecture that originally was their common religious belief that united the interests of Typhos and the policy. who opposed Gainas face to face.d. Gainas to sacrifice the three hostages underwent a sham execution. — other questions.conduct to Europe. what were the all these. was defeated by the firmness and courage of The Emperor the Patriarch.d. for (1) Eravitta had troops at his command to oppose Gainas when he left the city and (2) what is the meaning of Gainas' bargain with the Emperor for a safe.000. if he had not some . we know what circumstances checked and almost para- lysed the action of Gainas and his Goths in Constantinople. who crossed over to Chalcedon in order to plead for them. About midsummer Gainas formed the resolve to leave the city. ii THE GERMANS IN THE EAST 400 a. however. refused to yield to the demands of the Goths. 1 Of Tribigild we hear and took up his quarters in the capital. We may probably attriand were banished for a short time. Typhos and Gainas and establish the We might almost Germans. desire to history leaves unanswered. what were the designs of Gainas. hostile force to fear ? (3) All that we hear of the conduct of Gainas in the city demands such a supposition. This event took place towards the end of 399 a.. and that during the first half of Typhos was the most important minister He did not however prevail upon the cautious his brother Aurelian . 119) reckons their number about 30. and soon afterwards Gainas crossed the Bosphorus with his Goths.chap. and here we may suspect that the influence of Eudoxia was also operative. one to seize the In two clandestine attempts — 1 Giildenpenning (p. the sword grazing their necks. One was full great object of the combination of to relieve the Arians of their disabilities freedom of Arian worship in the it city. which our authorities have left no record. and many details of the administration of Typhos . bute this unexpected clemency partly to the intercession of the Patriarch Johannes. six months.

and as he was about to cut her down. They fled to their church. We know not what his wishes or designs were. a Eoman intervened and slew him. and we may admit that he had no clearly defined plan. but of the minor details are gathered from the Egyptians of Synesius. 19. and the detested barbarians were crushed under showers of stones and burning 2 brands [12th July 400]. The roof of the building was removed. and combining this with his resolution to quit the capital with his large army. Then the gates were closed. At able. It so happened that a beggar-woman standing at the gate of the city early in the morning to receive alms. which was near the imperial palace. if it 1 Constantinople was as entirely unprotected by military forces as historians generally represent to have been. pius) many . feeling that his position in the city it. length. ties. thought the end of the world was coming. the other to sack the bureaux of the money- changers —he had been frustrated . The preparations made by the foreigners for departure frightened the citizens. 4 . Her prayer offended a Goth who had just approached. in their This occurrence brought about a general tumult. v. vi. who did not understand their and the city was in such a state of excitement that any accident might lead to serious consequences. and more than seven thousand remained. about seven miles distant. Socrates. viii. Gainas resolved to leave was not agreeMaking an excuse of illness. and gave full vent to Goths from the city. also Sozomen. intentions. and seeing the Goths depart. and he ordered the Gothic forces to follow him in relays. This historian gives a sufficiently full account (taken doubtless from Euna- of the revolt of Gainas. we must conclude that some material danger threatened or checked him. 1 Giildenpenning thinks he had none. The Eomans obtained permission from the Emperor to resort to extremi- and the Gothic soldiers suffered a fate similar to that which befell the oligarchs at Corcyra during the Peloponnesian war. unable to communicate with their friends without. 6 . John. and prayed aloud. hardly see why but we can he could not have carried them through. he went to perform devotions in a church of St. Zosimus.88 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE book ii imperial palace. at the mercy of the infuriated mob. 10. 8. but of the fled rancour against the barbarians. Philostorgius. citizens which the proved superior. 2 £tf\a ireirvpuixeva. Many the sanctity of the building was not respected. xi. Cf.

1 But his expedition was disappointing. and it was decided that it was not in the east that the Empire was to be dismembered by the Germans. ii THE GERMANS IN THE EAST 89 Soon afterwards the conduct of Typhos was subjected to an inwith Gainas was abundantly exposed. But when he arrived at the he marched to the Hellespont. 1 The neutral attitude of Alaric during these events is presumably to be explained by jealousy of Gainas. who cut off his head and sent it as a grateful offering to vestigation. and the christian Emperor granted old pagan the only favour he requested — to the to be allowed to worship God after the fashion of his fathers. from 2 his own countrymen. his treasonable collusion Arcadius. who had returned from banishment Gainas meanbut what further befell him we do not hear.: chap. he found that the opposite shore was occupied by an army. 3 . " from Cilicia to Syria and Palestine. and Gainas. v. proceeded through Thrace. 2. who remained on shore and saw his troops exterminated before his eyes. Gainas tarried on the shore until his provisions were exhausted. constrained to essay the passage for which he was unprovided with ships. beyond Mount Haemus. even beyond the Ister. In February 401 the head arrived The sea fight took at Constantinople. place about 23d December 400. to perform a similar service for Arcadius. who had once rescued Theodosius I. but he fell into the hands of Uldes. 20. hastened northward through Thrace. ready to dispute his passage. and he was unable to take No resource remained but to pass over into Asia. 3 The Gothic discomflter of the Goths enjoyed a triumph for his decisive success. and he was condemned preliminarily to imprisonment. coast near Abydos. under the loyal pagan Goth Fravitta." Zosimus. 4 Thus the great danger which was hanging over the Empire was warded off from the eastern provinces at the very beginniDg of the fifth century. seeking what he and his Goths might plunder. 2 Fravitta had also cleared the east. him. and then. expecting to be Fravitta made no attempt to capture pursued by the victor. while. He was afterwards rescued from the vengeance of the mob by his brother Aurelian. of pirates. as a declared enemy. and them. Fravitta' s ships easily sank these unwieldy contrivances. 4 Fravitta was made consul in 401. which he committed to the current. and was now. constructed rude rafts. king of the Huns. for the inhabitants had in good time retreated into the strong places. in advanced years.

. the chamberlains in the palace and the Germans in the camp the representatives of the Orientalising and Germanising tendencies that were eating into the Eoman spirit were each a check upon the other and the antagonism between these forces of corrosion was a With the Eoman temporary safeguard for the Eoman party. party. Eight later it was the machinations of the palace official Olympius that brought about the fall of the German Stilicho. Thus. years — — 1 The Gainea of Eusebius (a pupil of Troilus. for a defeat of the Germans was equivalent to a defeat of Arianism. of observation that it worthy that brought about the fall of the was this German movement eunuch Eutropius. the Church was thoroughly in sympathy. . his commander-in-chief in Illyricum. Guldenpenning is the first historian who has insisted duly on the importance of this German movement. and a poem by Ammonius (recited in 437). as I remarked before. "but few years the Illyrian lands were to be delivered for ever from the Visigoths. It was indeed an important episode in Eoman history. and within a the myth It is of Synesius of Cyrene. the friend of Aurelian). and was celebrated in two epic poems l as well as in eyes were bent westward. and this per- haps is the most valuable part of his work. moreover. 90 HISTOR Y OF THE LA TER was still ROMAN EMPIRE book ii Alaric. it attracted appropriate attention in the fifth century. indeed. and although modern writers have often treated it more casually than it deserves.

Hitherto the Emperors had been military commanders. and she drew him into collision with the bishop. With the exception of Valens. no Emperor had resided for any collision A length of time in the capital until Arcadius. and a man thoroughly independent and . But he died. and in this case. But he had a worldly queen. equally strange. Hence in the reign of Arcadius was inevitable that a mutual adjustment of the relations between the court and the patriarchal palace should take place. to its drama German subjects in the East. if the mild old Nectarius had lived ten years longer. of the temper of his father. Patriarch of Constantinople appeared in conflict with the imperial authority. who was pious and weak. who exerted great influence over him. there would hardly have been room for discord. the struggle perhaps would not have come to pass so soon. too. On the other hand. wherein the power of the strange of Gainas. the adjustment would have been reserved for the advent of a more decided and independent hierarch. to the first had not attained it Moreover.CHAPTEE III JOHN CHRYSOSTOM The Empire which decided the relation of the was followed by another drama. had not taken place before. If it had depended solely on Arcadius. who never left it except to take a to frontier summer holiday at Ancyra. To this adjustment the characters of the persons concerned gave a peculiar complexion. the see of Constantinople rank in the eastern half of the Em- pire until the council of 381. but would have been reserved for a stronger Emperor. who flew from frontier and city to city to direct campaigns or arrange administrative innovations.

on whose worldliness and we have dwelt. by John Chrysostom. if perfectly ready for the fray. a furious . there is a monograph (St. the Dictionary of Christian Biography. W. 1 ranged against a superb court led by the Empress Eudoxia. the Dialogue on his life written by Palladius (the author of the Historia Lausiaca). throne. not above the father of her son Theodosius . was was appointed to the episcopal more than usual interest. first become acquainted with some of the actors in this drama. his own letters and sermons. 2 For the events connected with Chrysostom's career. Chrys. 1883) . And on the other hand. it really decided that in future the Patriarch of Constantinople it was to be We must dependent on the Emperor. abuses that grew rank within the Church the real import of this Side issues years . he did not desire to fight.92 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE afraid to hear his book ii thoroughly in earnest. Ludwig {Der hi. W. E. Venables presbyter in 386 . has been written on Chrysostom by F. Neander has written an elaborate study. Joh. but unfortunately with a view to be edifying there is a book on the Life and Times of by Mr. believe is A monograph. succeeded Nectarius as Patriarch of Constantinople 26th February 398. Stephens (1872) . and who. which began in social circles before it acquired a political significance. war of four but though appeared merely to concern Chrysostom personally. notice of the fall of Chrysostom is characteristic (Bk. Jean Chrysostome et V imperatrice Eucloxie) by Amedee Thierry and there is a full . in seinem Verhaltniss zum byzantinischen Hofe. was born at Antioch in 351 or 352 ordained deacon in 381 and . the disguised enmities. fact and to the more frivolous portion of the gentleWhether she was guilty of adultery or not.) 3 One of the causes of Eudoxia's dislike to Chrysostom is said to have been that he was reported to [have pointed out Count John's hiding-place when he was pursued by mob. the unscrupulousness. of rough and uncourtly ways. who made herself. as it were. naturally gave the tone to the ladies of her court. represented out the worldliness. the champion and example of the pride of life and the pomps and vanities of the world. and the accounts given by Socrates and Sozomen. one who was not own voice crying in a wilderness of worldliness. men. v. are the Zosimus' most important sources. 2 The Empress Eudoxia ambition herself. the mere 3 was the of the rumour prevailing that Count John is evidence as to the character imagine what the society was like over she bore and we can which this ambitious and beautiful woman. R. 1 Johannes. which I good. and careful in article by Mr. called Chrysostomns ("golden-mouthed") from his eloquent preaching. the course of the conflict brings thus a spectacle of And we have the asceticism of the Church. the itself. .

in his monograph on Chrysostom. He not only preached publicly on the subject in St. tricious life Women of merewere distinguished by the way they wore their combed over adopt this their brows. in JOHN CHR YSOSTOM of criminal intrigues. not from the apse. and was hated as the mother of Herodias hated John the Baptist. and had such fashion from the courtesans. so as to conceal their hair.chap. His unbending austerity and uncompromising candour made him an unwelcome visitor. Sophia. Am. Such a court was revolting to the austere and earnest spirit of Chrysostom. and which Chrysostom condemned especially on the ground that it was a waste of money which should be the of Promotus. Chrysostom from the . 2 ambo. . But his campaign against luxury and worldliness did not cease here. 2 that he gave great umbrage. and if they were not young in years they made themselves young in appearance. He used. who had also lost her husband. In Empress and Eugraphia. to pay pastoral visits to these great ladies. which he could make the more pointed by turning his eyes towards the Empress and her ladies. The bad ladies of Eudoxia's court taste. Thierry. as to were so immodest. who sat in a prominent place in the gallery. the widow of Saturninus — given to the poor. One curious trait manners indicates clearly enough the tone of the court. to tell them unpleasant truths and urge them to amend their ways. just like hair cut and modern fringes. is mentioned by Palpreached ladius (cap. as a matter of duty. The climax came when he preached a sermon in which Eudoxia was openly called Jezebel. this fast aristocratic society three ladies were prominent — Marsa. brings out this point very well. It was the custom of christian ladies to wear veils or bands on their foreheads. and it was partly from this allusion that the unfounded tale got abroad that 1 This trait 8). widow Castricia. who was far too sincere to make any compromise with Mammon. a distant relation of the . 1 The of the court influenced next step probably was that the example respectable christian matrons to wear the obnoxious fringe. but made such open and unmistakable allusions. and we may be sure that he did not hesitate. These widows were all rich. Eugraphia used rouge and white lead to maintain her complexion a habit which was a serious scandal to pious Christians. through any scruples of politeness. 93 suspicion of presided.

48) partly from this xiii. determined to work the ruin of Chrysostom. ." _ 3 Sozomen. viii. 2 See Giildenpenning. their of the clergy and monks. he had a priests. who had revolted against the strict discipline of their Patriarch. or shared the houses of priests a " snare. and all probably knew in their hearts that Chrysostom was a single-hearted man. thoroughly in earnest and austerely moral. even if it were often innocent. and formed a league against him." . 9. xiv. 394 (Cod.: 94 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE book ii Eudoxia had actually robbed a widow of her vineyard. was evident enough. arranged their coarse dresses with an immodest coquetry 2 which made them more piquant than Another class of religious persons an ordinary courtesan. but against the corruption Their sensuality. p. in the words of Palladius. actresses and public prostitutes used to imitate the dress of consecrated virgins. But the Patriarch was also the centre of a society of admirers. and John's austerity avarice. and eagerly embraced the opportunity to place themselves at the service of the great persons who wished to undo For it was not only against the corruption of the court him. i. and this was always conduct of the deaconesses. i. the most attached and most distinguished was Olympias. yet it was easy to find pretexts against him and his ascetic mode of life and certain peculiar theories which he held made it all the easier. Just. if they could not adopt the meretricious apparel that had become the mode. and this abuse had to be suppressed by legisSee the constitution of Theolation. 4) " Mimae et quae ludibrio corporis sui publice habitu quaestum faciunt earum virginum quae deo dicatae sunt non utantur. 142. — . Although it of which the centre was the house of Eugraphia. their gluttony. seems to have arisen and partly from a passage in Marcus' Life of Porphyrius of Gaza. teries. 4. 3 the daughter of a woman who had been behostile to 14. On the other hand. and great many enemies within the Church nuns." as spiritual sisters. drones whom he had endeavoured to suppress. were matters of public scandal was to them. The aristocratic ladies. Of these. indignant at being insulted and outraged. as Aliab 1 robbed JSTaboth. as they considered it. the But still more scandalous was who. Nicephorus Callistus. monks. "as a lamp burning Women were introduced into the monasbefore sore eyes. Moreover. before the rnob.7](ra<Ta d<pr]pira- aev. Chrysostom were the begging tramps. dosius I. that the reformer had to contend. where Chrysostom is represented as saying that Eudoxia was angry with him diori iyK&Xeaa (eveK&Xecra ?) avrfj tale (see X<xpii/ KT-rj/xaros 1 The od iiridv/ji.

her delicacy and unselfishhave earned for her a high place among the " good. might but seem that such a theory. would necessarily . daughter of Gildo. was in Byzantium at this period and a warm friend of Chrysostom. but one whose influence was exerted in the wrong way. given in marriage to Nebridius. It is interesting to note that Cassian. who afterwards founded the monastery of St." It was easy for his enemies to fasten on such utterances as . But Chrysostom's spirit attracted the lower classes. Her bounty to the poor. and his tirades against the rich delighted the poor. the end of the Empire would have seemed to them the Deluge. her untiring devotion Chrysostom in his misfortunes. respecter of persons a sort of Ebionistic socialism he actually held theories of socialism which might have been very — dangerous to the established order of things if he had carried It them to any length. or even that he was no . ity. of But the great strength of John's position lay in his popularIt was not merely that he possessed the christian virtues charity and sympathy with the poor." as distinguished from the great. whom Theodosius had taken as a hostage and to ness. and the prayers of the poor had averted the worst consequences. ." Chrysostom contrasts this peaceful happiness with the turbulent and unrestful life of her father. She led a and in a " letter to a young calm life in Constantinople widow. and after his death married a Eoman noble. and instead of trying to calm the hot temper of the bishop. in JOHN CHRYSOSTOM 95 trothed in her youth to the Emperor Constans. his wife's nephew. had afterwards married a king of Armenia. The idea of the Empire was almost a necessity of thought to the Eomans of that time it would not have been possible for them to conceive the world without the Empire. He was a man without judgment or moderation. Another friend of Chrysostom was the Moorish princess Salvina. there if it gained ground. Victor at Marseilles. . in fact he held a sort of social socialism. The deacon Serapion must also be mentioned here as a person devoted to John. women who appear in history.— chap. He rejected not political but social inequality. an overthrow of the Empire was no danger of such a catastrophe. with thoroughly honest intentions. lead to a political revolution. On the occasion of an earthquake he said publicly that " the vices of the rich had caused it. he used to incite him to rash acts.

their machinations against him. he preached a sermon in which he made allusion to the timeSeverian. and the Emperor and Empress begged the Patriarch to allow him to return to the fold. said "I'll season his soup for him. bishop of Ephesus. he had to exert all his powers of 2 1 Acacius of Beroea. etc. to restrict himself to the . of which the deacon Serapion had no few complaints to make. coma practice of never dining out 1 bined with the reception of women alone in his house." and joined the party opposed to Cf. but furnished another ground of accusation. himself sure of support in high quarters. not only going beyond his supplied matter for another charge. would not yield. Having a weak digestion. but neglecting to give a cases. feeling serving relations of Severian to the Empress. Eusebius Chrysostom. his church disorganised by the unbecoming conduct of Severian. He seems to have acted here with more zeal than wariness he deposed and appointed bishops like an autocrat. wishing to oust and succeed Chrysostom. he made and this anchoretic habit. whom he used and obliged receive alone. HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE and accuse Chrysostom of relations " book ii seducing the people. Sozomen. excommunicated the ambitious Syrian. flattered the court and joined the When Chrysostom returned and found league of his enemies. 6. fair hearing to the On some occasions. he had been himself and judge. proper jurisdiction. most lenten fare. of simony. witness. Their intervention prevailed. it is said. displeased with the entertainment of the patriarchal palace. and Chrysostom was appealed to. with the people on his side. Severian of Gabala.. but the accuser. and the man whom he had left at Byzantium to fill his place. He deposed and replaced several bishops. and in order to quiet them and remove peaceably the ban of excommunication. . was converted into the charge that he used to celebrate Cyclopean orgies under the cover of unsocial habits. where abuses had crept in.96 these. and Chrysostom. viii." His other intimate of friendship to with Olympias and women. . He fled to Chalcedon. of Valentinopolis accused Antoninus. The expedition which he made in the year 400 to regulate the affairs of the Ephesian and other churches 2 in Asia Minor. perhaps unwisely. enthusiasm of the populace for their beloved bishop was not satisfied. not only made many new enemies. In another way also this visit to Asia Minor was disadvanHis enemies had time and room to arrange tageous to him.

and the ven- geance of the Patriarch pursued them. and he lodged them in the cloisters of the church of Anastasia. Sozomen. Socrates. After a short the storm burst louder than ever over the Patriarch. It lull. for the following events. where their wants were ministered to by religious women. This sermon is preserved in a Latin translation. was crying peace where there was no peace. It was he who had excited the people to dismantle Nectarius. to place themselves under the protection of John Chrysostom. in JOHN CHRYSOSTOM 1 97 " eloquence in a pacific sermon.chap. accusing them of the bishops of those parts to refuse shelter. on the death of painted in the blackest colours. but came from a new quarter. in the Theodosius. 13. they concealed themselves. days of Now at Nitria in Upper Egypt ment over which the there was a monastic settle2 four so-called " Tall Brothers " presided. Theophilus. the Patriarch of Alexandria. and he wrote to Arcadius in regard to the Tall Brothers. was a worldly man. In their journey through Syria they had no rest of Origenism. although he promised them his protection. Theophilus desired to gain over the monks to his interests and make them bishops. them the charge augustal prefect to arrest them. the great temple of Serapis in Alexandria. which ended with the words." Severian preached a sermon. His power in Egypt was very great. but they refused positively. He would not communicate with them. 12. I H . The astuteness and unscrupulousness of Theophilus made him a dangerous foe. so that he willingly seized an opportunity to assist in compassing his ruin. of which the note was likewise peace. and he exercised considerable influence in Syria and Palestine. as the authority of Theophilus induced Chrysostom was rightly wary in his dealings with the suppliants. to place a candidate of his chair of Constantinople. 2 Charles Kingsley has given a sketch 1 them Sec of life at Nitria in his Hypatia. VOL. vi. whose ambition and avidity have been He had hoped. and they made their way slowly and with great difficulty to Constantinople. but their monastery was sacked. viii. for the soles of their feet. The next day Eeceive our brother Severian the bishop. He brought against and obtained troops from the "Warned in time. de recipiendo Severiano. own on the pontifical and he owed Chrysostom a grudge for his disappointment. 9. 11.

and it became a matter for Theophilus was cited to appear and fashionable interest. but he sent one to prepare the way before In the selection of an ally he manifested his craft for him. . questions of doctrine. He 1 in Cyprus. the aged bishop of Salamis and. whom he sent to Constantinople spread such calumnious reports about the Tall Brothers that they were unable to stir from their lodgings. contrary to the wishes of Chrysostom. single-hearted old man. and he discovered that the questions of doctrine were a mere pretext to cloak unworthy He became acquainted with the Tall Brothers. so that Chrysostom its recoiled in horror. Epiphanius was like an old war-horse. and that Chrysostom also shared them. 14. Chrysostom's disavowal was fortunate for the Tall Brothers and unfortunate for himself. curious. but he soon found himself out of place amid the intrigues. trading on a reputation acquired in the prime of their manhood. the calumnies and violences which filled that city. accusing Theophilus as well as the envoys. We have examples of old men. and motives. and thought his own ipse dixit of paramount importance. in all ages and all departments. eager for battle. but extremely vain of his theological He fancied himself a sort of infallible oracle on learning. wrote to Epiphanius. flattery. the enmities.98 HISTORY OF THE LA TEH ROMAN EMPIRE The envoys book n practising magic. A reaction set in in their favour. of the grossest iniquities. as they would appear quite incredible. for This document must have been extremely Palladius declines to give a full account of contents. answer for his conduct. asked him to proceed to Constantinople as the champion philus of knew how much orthodoxy and the accuser of the Patriarch. Eudoxia espoused their cause. It was some time before the bishop of Alexandria arrived on the scene himself. viii. without any reserve. Theoprestige the high character of the how veteran churchman would lend to his cause. and he also knew Epiphanius was an upright and to touch his weak side. bishop with 1 Sozomen. intrigue. representing to him that the Tall Brothers held the heretical opinions of Origen. Theophilus judiciously anointed the old and made him harbour the agreeable fancy that a vital crisis in the Church depended on his interference. a manifesto. and at length in despair they drew up. he sailed to Constantinople.

it was in church matters that the spirit of the people revealed itself. it was . adherents of Chrysostom and the Alexandrians. . who did not cease his ex cathedra attacks upon her. iii. melancholy in this visit of Epiphanius something to Conis stantinople before his death.chap.) . but so far was he from being intimidated that in the few days which intervened between the condemnation and the execution of the sentence he preached a sermon. relations — . appeared. where Theophilus had taken up his quarters. Condi. and was called the Synod of the Oak Three different points were discussed at this (ad quercum). 1 1 Mansi. the third volume of Montfaucon's ed. At this period of history. but the fatigue and excitement had overThere taxed his failing strength and he died on the voyage. (3) various charges preferred against The Patriarch refused to appear at this synod or to acknowledge it he and his party held a counter-synod in the reception room (triclinium) of the patriarchal palace. council: (1) the affair of the Tall Brothers. So high ran the popular feeling that the opposition party were afraid to hold the council. Brothers was now meantime the . the uproar and excitement. (2) the complaints of Asiatic ecclesiastics against Chrysostom for his proa secondary consideration to him. which was to decide on Chrysostom's conduct. he set sail for home. sqq. in JOHN CHRYSOSTOM 99 saw that there was no guile in them. refusing to accept The city was a scene of of Chrysostom's proffered hospitality. one notices. ceedings in 400 . The affair of In the between Eudoxia and Chrysostom. and the somewhat humorous conceit of the old man enhances the pathos. But the matter could not rest here the people would not lightly submit to the removal of their idol. At length Theophilus with the unconcealed the Tall object of deposing John Chrysostom. Chrysostom. within the precincts of Constantinople it was held on the other side of the Bosphorus at Chalcedon. using the word adoxia. 2 6/xiXia irpb ttjs i^opias (in 1152. among the rest that of fornication. were as hostile as ever so that on Theophilus' arrival there were two hostile camps the camp of aristocrats in the house of Eugraphia. Disgusted and dejected. 2 in which he played with pointed sarcasm on the name of the Empress. and the camp of the Alexandrian party in the palace of Placidia. It was divided into two parts. He was condemned in his absence and formally deposed.

p. and there was a revolt in Constantinople. Loud clamours were The condemnation of a small packed assembly like that of the Oak would not be accepted. hexameters Kiova irop<pvpe7)v Kal dpyvperjv fiacriXeiav Sipneo. Giildenpen- and others that the discourse beginning "Herodias is furiously ragning. Aeliae Eudoxiae semper Augustae vir clarissimus Simplicius Prf. uproar. dedicavit. church matters chiefly that they cared. D. %vQa iroXrjL de/xLo-Tevovatv aj/a/cres.— 100 for HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE book ii raised for a general council. if she had few Chrysostom. the prefect The erection of public statues usually took place of the city. 3 I agree with Ludwig. like formulae which have lost their meaning. See Paspatis. and was accompanied by certain old pagan customs which lingered on. viii. as we have no reliable testimony. Sophia. very superstitious. 97. or even adopted a policy of quietism and abstained from open attacks on the Empress. overlooked and even countenanced in the christian world. The city was in an uproar. 20. 34. we cannot but yield respect to the unswerving man who chose the difficult road and followed it to . N. In September 403 a silver statue on a porphyry column was erected to Eudoxia in the Augusteum by Simplicius. we cannot say. probably innocent enough. distracted with scenes of riot and violence between the small but united body of the Alexandrians. was on one side of the stylobate ." attributed to Chrysostom. v. who had gone to Bithynia. an earthquake 1 took place. on the other Greek 2 1 The stylobate was discovered in 1848. who. and Sozomen quote the words. scruples. . Theophilus fled to Egypt. ovvofia 5' d irodeeis Eu56|ia rls 8' due# Com. ad ann. the duties of his If he was allowed to return and resume had at this time assumed a more conciliatory tone towards the court. see Sozomen. who had come to support their bishop. 2 on Sunday. But Socrates is a malicious forgery. U. and the followers of the man of the people. office. he might have continued to hold the episcopal chair till his death. when the ground was dug up for the erection of the University. In addition to all this. drjKev. like her husband. For the Bvfavriva 'Avanropa. Zc/xttXiklos fieyakuv iiraTuv ywos. were so loud that they interrupted the What course was taken by Chrysostom services of St. ing again. which frightened the Empress. was. for after this event Theodoret. The dances and merriment of the festivity. But he was not the man to compromise or to turn back on and if we consider him often obstinate and devoid his way of ordinary tact. Marcell. the end. eadXbs iirapxos. 3 but he must have manifested his disapproval and indignation in some way which outraged the pride of the Empress.

but allowed to escape. he sent a corps of great church. . expecting Chrysostom. rejoiced because the episcopal treasury was found intact in the sacristy. But on the 20 th of June the final blow was struck. Late in the evening the people had crowded into the church. who showed little reverence for the sanctity of the place. new synod was summoned early in 404. in which at that moment male . The statues of the nine Muses were burnt. Theophilus did not venture to be present. On the same night a memorable event took place. Meanwhile Johannes had not been arrested. and as they were leaving it the fire broke out. who perhaps felt some compunction. and the flames were blown southwards in the direction of the senate house. On the following day the people would not attend the services in St. The destruction of the senate house was a greater misfortune than that of the church. 1 owing to the timorous indecision of the Emperor. and here the pagan historian Zosimus observes that the it conflagration betokened " estrangement from the Muses " was some consolation to him. He did not It come.. on soldiers into the and female cate- chumens of riper years were receiving the rite of baptism. A tence. and flaming upwards caught the roof and twined round the building "like a serpent. began at the episcopal chair. for the former was a museum of the most precious antique works of art. _ life by assassins who were tried. as a sign of the providence of the Olympians. which the Patriarch declined to obey the night of Easter Eve. The congregation was scattered by the soldiers. and Chrysostom. the conflagration of St. quietly allowed himself to be conducted stealthily to the shore and conveyed in a boat to the Asiatic coast. and the seceders were called Johannites. which was involved in the conflagration. but Chrysostom was again con- Arcadius hesitated until Easter to demned. Sophia. and. Sophia. in JOHN CHRYSOSTOM 101 the breach became so wide that the mild Emperor Arcadius refused to communicate with the Patriarch. celebrated Easter under trees in the country it was a sort of church secession. however. that the Zeus of Dodona and the Athene of Lindus escaped. enforce the sen- but at length. submitting to the inevitable. and things continued as they were until Whitsuntide. leaving the city. chap. 2 x 2 Attempts were made on Johannes' On the other hand the Christians ." A short time previously a high wind had arisen.

p. 70. the new Partaking of the communion with him was made Patriarch. 24. Among those who antici- was an old maid named Mcarete. book n investigation. 102 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE The cause . and we hear of all friends the persecuting for excuse of this misfortune Some actually attributed . 3 a sort of test for discovering who was a Johannite. that had a flavour of distrust in God. to exile. Meanwhile John was being transported to Cucusus. of Chrysostom to prevent her from feeling scandalised at the 1 2 3 Zosimus. seized by a deep melancholy. as well as many others. self miraculous while the bigoted. sec Sozomen. Giildenpenning. woman . see Socrates. have a craze for homoeopathy.. She reminds us of charitable ladies of modern times who distribute tracts. For the Johannites. viii. and which pious rumour said were always effectual. hardly consoling himself with the reflection that Barabbas was flight preferred to Christ. "pure as a virgin. 163. with a chest charity." who Olympias was condemned had been a lector of the Patriarch. for example. and Many were hang on the lips of some favourite clergyman. of the various projects he entered into with Jerome. of cannot follow out the details of his all the hardships he understill went. and always went about she used to dispense gratis. of tortures inflicted on a young lad named Eutropius. Such details are for the biographer note here a refined trait of the spiritual But we may in Olympias she did not mention in her letter to Chrysostom the persecuBut she was tion which she had undergone for his sake. exiled for refusing to communicate with Arsacius. v. in spite of her own convictions and all the arguments or the ecclesiastical historian. above. 23. of John. a as who deserves mention of works means her to devoted was a philanthropist who which of drugs. that some fanatical admirer of Chrysostom wished to light a 2 It was at all events made an farewell bonfire in his honour. of his correspondence with Olympias. We 4 experiences in that cold climate. was made a matter of judicial it to Chrysostom him1 The superstitious said it was others to his followers. a place where the mountain chains of Cappaclocia and Armenia meet. For the Isaurian depreciations. p. 18. . pated the sentence by She curious figure of the time. A modern writer suggests said it was the work of a pagan. 4 For Mcarete. who had infidelity on the brain. sorts of cruelties perpetrated . see vi.

Patr. in JOHN CHRYSOSTOM 103 triumph of the unjust cause seem to have hardly consoled her. At Cucusus he had kept up a large correHis enemies spondence. The sea voyages of sainted bodies were a favourite subject of christian legend. and he had two sons. the praetorian prehe had contracted a happy marriage with fecture of the East Quite suda woman whom he loved. a desolate place on the south-eastern coast of the Euxine. and his life. whom he called " the lamp of truth and the trumpet of God. hardened his heart. that it had been carried to Constantinople and thence to Brochthi. after John's exile earthquakes took place. 3 Besides the fact that they decided the relation of the patriarchate to the imperial power in Constantinople. was fixed on as his future abode. But on the way thither he died it In 407 from exhaustion (14th September). a sudden craving for the spiritual life. Nilus. like Pharaoh.) 2 It should be noticed that anchorets were in the christian world what oracles had been in the Greek world. he had attained to the highest political office. He enjoyed a great and widespread reputation for sanctity. the events narrated in this chapter present other points worthy of remark. then Arcadius. A legend was current in later times that her encomned body had. 2 In answer to Arcadius' queries he replied by blaming him for the exile of John. by her own directions. About a year which sent Sinai. . vi. 279 (Migne. 3 Socrates. and reappear in the legends of the Bound Table. was tolerable. . chap. and a ." But the oracle had no effect the earthquake ceased. terrified the superstitious nature of the Emperor. with whom he departed and took up his abode on Mount Sinai. was determined to change the place of Chrysostom's exile. and was consulted as a sort of oracle." saying that when he heard of what had happened he was " lightning struck with the fire of grief. Epist. except one of his sons. been cast into the sea at Mcomedia. iii. if dreary. 1 He to consult a certain St. 1 See Nilus. denly he said goodbye to them all. lxxix. where it was placed in the church of St. who lived on Mount Mlus had been once a brilliant figure in the world handsome and elegant man at the court of Theodosius. 21. A sudden desire had come upon him to save his soul. Gr. Thomas. wished that he should be quite out of the world.. and Pityus.

a great protest was raised against it. or rather to an exacerbation of an estrangement that already existed. was an ethical optimist contrasts with the idealistic tendency of Gregory of Nyssa. either austere quietists like John the Easter under Maurice. It was as if the — which was now extinct smothered by its contact with empire and the things of this world were. i. der christEthik. through Chrysostom. that he cared more for religion and less for theology. The treatment Two important elements enter into these transactions as to a court of appeal. Chrysostom have we the spectacle of a Byzantine Patriarch standing out against the corruption or frivolity of the and inveighing against those who are arrayed in purple linen and fare sumptuously every day. first now triumphant. especially the oriental style of the court. John had been deposed from from John himself and his Byzantine clergy. probably convinced the pontiff that the condemnation of Chrysostom office letters Gass. as Gass lichen 1 Compare — remarks. Gesch. if not mere theologians. delivered three days afterwards by four " Johannite" bishops. and none who would have had the boldness or ill-breeding to criticise the dress or censure the habits of the Empress and her ladies. — . as distinct from the theology of Christianity. where some of the leading traits of Byzantinism. Theophilus. his apprised Innocent that . — — the new christian Empire. and the lusts of spirit of early Christianity. The practical tendency of Chrysostom who. We meet many Patriarchs ready to defy the Emperor and endure persecution for a comparatively nugatory tittle of doctrine. at the very beginning of the long period of the queenship of New Eome. raising its voice from the grave and protesting against the worldliness.104 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE after book ii Never court. 201. The Patriarchs after Chrysostom were. It was the distinguishing mark of John Chrysostom. it the voice of one crying in the midst of denouncing the luxury and the pomp. the Patriarch of Alexandria. or ambitious men of the world. but few who threw all their soul into the spirit of the religion. — the reference of ecclesiastical affairs in the East to the bishop of Eome and the influence exercised by the bishop of Eome on the Emperor Honorius. 1 It and fine is further interesting to reflect that. the splendour. of John Chrysostom led to an estrangement between the courts of Constantinople and Eavenna. had already been fully developed.

held in Italy. including Aemilius of Beneventum. 3). See Gulden- . wrote a severe letter of admonition brother. 2 exemplo per provincias circumlata diffusa per universuni et Ad illos enim divinaruni rerum ad nos religionis in- mundum aliis obtrec- terpretatio. and took no steps towards summoning a general council. to a general council. the observation of religion concerns us (the Emperors) " 2 — a principle directly opposed to that tendency of the princes who ruled at New Eome. under the influence Innocent. declared the condemnation of Chrysostom invalid.) penning {op. caps. and demanded that a general council should be held at Thessalonica.d. it had been practised by an oriental despot. that " the interhead pretation of divine things concerns churchmen. which was to result in the Caesaropapism of Justinian. when he received a copy of the acts of the synod ad quercum. whom he indited a letter of A preliminary synod. 167). 1 of to his elder deploring the tumults and conflagrations that had disaffair. were sent They had reason from Italy with imperial letters to Arcadius. and then hardly per- mitted to return to Italy (406 1 Honorius refers in his letter to the criticisms which the imperial honours of Eudoxia had evoked in the West " quamvis super imagine muliebri novo a. chap. cit. At length four bishops.. and two priests. was confirmed. whose account Palladius of this affair is very good. it would have been Escorted by soldiers considered outrageous and exceptional. graced and disfigured Constantinople in the recent censuring the against the of the and inconvenient haste with which the sentence condemned had been carried out. from Athens to Constantinople. Meanwhile the Emperor Honorius. The important and striking point in this letter of Honorius is that it contains the declaration by an Emperor of a principle which had before been asserted by a Bishop. but were thrown into a Thracian fortress. p. Their treatment was such that if to repent of their expedition. in JOHN CHRYSOSTOM this conviction 105 was unjust. before the decision of the Church had been ascertained. 2. for which his signature He determined that Patriarch. forcibly deprived of the letters which they bore. Arcadius vouchsafed not to notice his brother's communications. spectat tantium fama uerim" (Mansi. and was required. gives the details of these transactions (de vita Chrys. 1122). common- obsequium. they were not allowed to land in that city. and in the it was necessary to summon meantime refused to desist from communion with the consolation. whose candid censure offended him. 1. litteris iii.

23 . after which event friendly relations " the twin worlds " which constituted were renewed between the Empire. Chron. ad ami. continued until the death of 1 Arcadius on 1st May 408. Prosper Aquit. vi. in consequence of this imbecile barbarity on the part of the eastern government.106 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE book ii The estrangement which ensued between the two halves of the Empire. . 1 Socrates.

All three classes of Germans contri- . The idea of the "wandering of the nations " and unproven speculations as to its connection with tremendous movements in the heart of Asia an hypothesis which is as superfluous as it is indemonstrable have led to unhistorical notions as to the nature of the breakit — up the of the Empire. . I. We may perhaps began with Alaric's invasion of Greece. the battle of Haclrianople. was brewing that was to change the face of The usurpation of Magnentius. but with German sympathies. Three kinds of Germans must be distinguished (1) the nations and tribes outside the — Empire . the consulate of Merobaudes were foresigns of the storm that was to come. half or wholly Eomanised. whom we already named semi-barbarians. (2) those settled within the Empire. We must understand clearly the form which the danger from the Germanic nations assumed. an atmosphere which hangs over the pages of Ammianus the storm Europe. The facts do not warrant us in looking at German movements in the fourth and fifth centuries as anything more than a continuation of the old war on the frontiers (limitcs). and (3) the the Ostrogoths settled in Phrygia Germans throughout the Empire as soldiers or serfs. But we must not exaggerate the storm and conceive it as greater than it really was.— . but it did not actually come until after the death of Theodosius say that the Great. such as the distributed Visigoths settled by Theodosius in Illyricum and Thrace. CHAPTEE STILICHO IV AND ALARIC The fourth century has a dull and murky atmosphere about it.

p.d. as we have seen. On The career of Stilicho first and Alaric's invasions of Italy pre- sent themselves Stilicho was absent in Ehaetia in the latter months of 401 a. 108 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE book ii buted to the dislocation of the Empire and the Germanisation and there is no greater mistake than to imagine that the Empire was suddenly overwhelmed by foreign of occidental Europe. like Stilicho. able.. and it was again harassed in the fourth century. Aetius. suddenly advanced with a large army to the to Julian Alps and entered Italy. The causes which led him date was 18th November 401. In the third century it had been in imminent danger from the nations who bordered on the Ehine and the Danube. the eastern half of the Empire was safely steered on the other hand.) It has been remarked that the battle of Mursa. but an outline of the chief facts is indispensable. same time the dangers Eoman army became apparent in the revolt of Magnentius (350 a. who invade and take possession on the other hand. especially in the reign of Constantius. is a sort of anticipation of the battles of arising the of fifth century. Through the all these facts a double process are is observ- from the Empire by Germans from without. It is not tained the integrity of the Empire during his my purpose to go into all the details of this process of dis- memberment or of the history of the Emperors who reigned at Eavenna and Eome. mainhis death. when Alaric.. in which Constantius the latent in the position of At Germans in the quelled that revolt. immediately appeared. who was called the friend of the Goths. and developed into German kingdoms. hordes. the provinces of the western dynasty were dismembered. The danger from the settlements German foederati displayed itself in a manner still more unequivocal by the disaster of Hadrianople in 378.d. 133) the . 1 1 By the pass ad Pyrum near Hrudschizza (Guldenpenning. provinces cut off . who occupied the double position characteristic of this ambiguous of king of the West Goths and master of the soldiers epoch to our view. and Eicimer. the dangers own reign. one hand. the Empire is undermined within by the influence of half-Eoman Germans or half-German Eomans. Through these dangers.. for there can be no doubt that von Wietersheim . — — in Illyricum. but on which were only averted by his personal ability. The policy of Theodosius I.

. but Prosper gives the date 400. 2 Serena's influence in this direction is expressly stated in respect to a later period (Zosimus. Cuspin. another element in the situation If — the relation of Alaric to Stilicho. who did not approve of his projects 2 he marched into Italy. so long (five yt. throne and kingdom of Honorius Britain were the legions of Gaul and The Emperor. that Alaric waited execution of his design. 4 But as he to defend Italy. 4 O celebranda mihi cunctis Pollentia seclis writes Claudian {cle Bell. Get. Alaric was continually expecting Stilicho to carry out the 1 revolt of Gildo while Stilicho was prevented by the and other affairs which demanded his attention. though they are not cateHis relations to the government of New Borne. however. are to irapa avfyeve 2/re\ix wi/os crvud7]fxa Toibvde 7r£s 8v.D. 3 The passage of Alaric into Italy is placed by Anon. and Alaric. There was. who was not sufficiently imbued with the illness that should have attended his ambition. in a land exhausted by plunder. With the Teutonic instinct to turn the face westwards. and indignant at the delays of Stilicho. 26) who. were not of an agreeable kind to attempt to make himself an independent king of the Balkan peninsula would have been impracticable. Stilicho hastened to protect the . how. at Milan. who was on Alaric's approach. iv STILICHO AND ALARIC 109 gorically asserted. The words of Prosper are.chap. v. my conjectures were right respecting an understanding between the two generals at Pholoe in 396 A. and Alaric followed him into Liguria. we only know that he was to be made magister utriusque militiae. with the help of Alaric. a battle was fought on Easter Day (6th April 402). 3 and thus placed himself in a position — of hostility to his confederate. summoned and others are right in following here the Ravenna Chronicle and rejecting the date of Prosper (400). he determined to invade Italy. in November 401. vehementer utriusque partis clade pugnatum est. thought it prudent to make a truce and retire. This will explain what may seem surprising. destitute of enterprise. At length — will- ing to wait no longer. take this step are sufficiently clear. The avvd-q^a was rri 'Ouoopiov [iaaikda ra eu 'IWvpiocs edvr] wavTa irpoadelvaL. 635). and was probably also influenced by his wife Serena. 29). for he could not have maintained such a position in the heart of the Eoman Empire and he became weary of a monotonous life. on the river Tanarus. proceeded. ever. Of the advantages which Alaric : was to gain. I believe. to Asti. lately elated with having subdued a Germanic revolt. although perhaps he did not experience an absolute defeat.ars) inactive in Illyricum. At Pollentia. it ! . and passes from 396 to 405 as though Alaric had stayed all His words that time quiet in Epirus. 1 This is expressly stated by Zosiinus (v.. As far as I understand. omits the invasion of 402.

Augustine. but for the choice of Honorius. Dei. of Italy to the ships of Arcadius' and breaking off all intercourse Stilicho and Alaric between the two halves of the Empire. 1196. 50 . See Codex Theodosianus. 104). and was entirely at Stilicho's mercy. like Attila. cap. Stilicho seized the favourable moment and enclosed him in an inextricable position at Fiesole. making a compact with Alaric and allowing him to withdraw to his Illyric provinces. but in 405 Stilicho was called upon to defend Italy against a vast invasion of German hordes. 2 number East Goths. influenced perhaps by the invasion of Alaric. I. established his home and court at Eaverma. (de Bell. ready pretext for a hostile movement. which had combined to plunder The invaders.110 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE book n returned he attempted to surprise Verona. 106) offered a An edict was issued. Plain was a victory for Aetius. closing the ports subjects. of which one under Eaclagaisus besieged Florence. It is strange that we are not told what became of the other two companies. in the strict sense. Alans. would probably never have been the capital of the Ostrogothic sovereigns or the seat of the Exarchs. at the instance of Stilicho. the history of Eavenna. which. Vita Ambros. but his plans were dehe was disabled from proceedfeated ing further. where the Eomans were able — — to massacre the barbarians at their pleasure. Get. and discarded the former imperial This step was decisive for residences of Eome and Milan. companies. In 407 Stilicho at length made up his mind to strike the The unfriendly feeling which had blow and occupy Illyricum. . was not defeated. v. 3 formed a plan to seize Illyricum and transfer it from the rule but it is hinted that the of Arcadius to that of Honorius . who were perhaps half a million in the land. vii. 3 civ. 1. saying that care of Rome influenced him : tua extra coegit inclusis aperire fugam ne pejor in arto saeviret rabies venturae nuntia mortis. decimated by a noxious disease. de vi. The years 403 and 404 passed peacefully enough away. and Quacli overran After some time they divided into three northern Italy. Vandals. 1 Claudian apologises for Stilicho . 1 It was in the course of the year 402 that Honorius. arisen between the eastern and western courts on the subject of the treatment of John Chrysostom (see p. but he acted as he had acted before in the Peloponnesus. was a victory for Stilicho in the same sense that the battle of the Catalannian Alaric. and Stilicho was The army of the Goths was obliged to attack him again. 23 . 16. 2 Paulinus. C. L.

Cod. eas interim ripas quatcre et 1 The words of Orosius deserve (vii. iv. one naturally asks. proving incompetent. He thought that once the It free for to gentes Alanorum Suevorum Vandalorum uliro in arma sollicitans. but we must observe here that this rebellion of the Britannic army signified an opposition to the influence of the foreigner Stilicho. but both. ix. the general of Britain. — primiquamcommoverivalercnt. cause. and was specially directed against him. Eucherius. were slain time. The edict which condemned Stilicho after his death confirms the charge opes quibus ille est ad omnem ditandam inquietandamque barbariem. enterprise that had been so long deferred. which state that Stilicho solicited a mixed host of barbarians to cross the Ehine and enter Gaul at the end of the year 40 6. when a letter arrived from Honorius that Constantine. chap. Stilicho was at Bavenna makino- preparations to join Alaric on the other side of the Adriatic. had crossed over to Gaul and raised the was was thwarted when it seemed on He was obliged to desist from the the point of fulfilment. Thcod.— . 42. Of the tyrant Constantine I shall have more to say in another chapter. but that can hardly have been the direct. though may have been the indirect. and that he called the barbarians into Gaul that they might oppose the progress of the Britannic legions. 253. 254). The answer seems to be contained in a notice of Orosius and a notice of Prosper Tiro. and their significance apprehended long before the passage of Constantine across the English Channel. 1. Eanke. just as the revolt of Maximus had been aimed against During the year 406 two tyrants had been Merobaudes. filium et in harbarae gentes tarn facile composset imperium genero usus 22. these writers affirm as his motive that he wished to force the Emperor to bestow imperial rank upon his son Eucherius it . iv real STILICHO to AND ALARIC a separate 111 purpose was establish dominion under Stilicho's son. What measures in the meanwas Stilicho taking against these movements in Britain. L. be quoted 38) : pulsate Gallias voluit sperans quod extorquere et I think. which must soon spread to Gaul? They must have been known to him. 1 Both Constantine was their successor. have his hands seems probable that Stilicho wished to operations in Illyricum. and Stilicho's design to be standard of rebellion. von . has set these transactions in their true light ( Weltgeschichtc. elevated in Britain. A report also spread that Alaric taken against the tyrant Constantine. and to repair to the presence of the Emperor at Eome to consult as to the measures dead.

in a church. was the peace it is a compact of thraldom. the prophet was Justinianus. was deeply disappointed. 2 Zosimus. which assembled to decide the matter (408 A. v. 30. the There was a strong though secret opposiGaul had accepted. He advanced to the frontiers of Italy at the Julian Alps. But Alaric. on which Even among the an ugly interpretation might be placed. to agree to Alaric's demand. or to win the Emperor whom glory of suppressing the new Constantine.000. and pay compensation money to the amount of £180. we can gather this at least. who was not dead. The marriage of Honorius and Maria had been celebrated in 398. when the news reached him of his brother's death (May 40 8). as he had crushed the army of Eadagaisus. . and loudly demanded compensation for the time he had wasted by Stilicho's waiting in Epirus and for the expenses of his march." almost imperial power of the Emperor's father-in-law. who . Claudian had written a wanton epithalamium but the wife is said to have died a virgin. and one senator bolder than the rest exclaimed.D. and disdained to wait meekly for the convenience of Stilicho. Honorius married .112 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE book n them to accomhe would easily be able to crush them and drive them out. — — the spirit of the soldiers stationed at Ticinum. on his way from Eavenna to Ticinum. that a forensic friend of even while he and Honorius were yet at Eome in the early months of 408. 1. influence induced the Eoman senate. 31. was not destined against the Balkan provinces Stilicho either to carry out his designs New Eome might be seized to poison the ears or enlighten the eyes of Honorius respecting the designs of his father-in-law. however. that the rash speaker after the dissolution of the assembly deemed it prudent to seek refuge barbarians had accomplished what he wished plish. 2 Honorius was at Bononia. . " That is not a Such. soldiers Stilicho's popularity was by no means so established Erom an obscure passage in one of our as to be secure.). and connected it authorities Stilicho. at any time a favourable moment tion to Stilicho in Italy of . 3 1 He entertained the idea of proceeding himself her sister Thermantia died in 415. 4 in 408. foresaw the danger that awaited the with rightly as the event proved general. 1 and such the awe in which he was held. but many were dissatisfied with Stilicho's Germanising policy. 3 lb.

who ruled in Gaul. I 2 think. Vincen. v. 4). I . while he proposed to employ Alaric against the usurper Constantine. 4 . ^ Orosius.. v. Herachan. 3. 4.Yii. 32. 7. magister equitum pracsentalis. and undertook to proceed himself to New Borne. were weaving a web of destruction for the Vandal father-inlaw of the Emperor they accused him of treason and on 23d August Stilicho was put to death at Ravenna. Zosimus. His son Eucherius was slain soon afterwards. iv STILICHO AND ALARIC affairs 113 of the . ix. which now devolved on a child of seven years and he summoned Stilicho from Eavenna for consultation. by order of the Roman senate. 2 It was stated definitely by Stilicho's opponents that he aimed at winning the imperial purple for his son Eucherius. ^ 32. to Constantinople to set in order the realm. 38: Zosimus. . the wife of the Emperor. as members 1 of his party and privy to his treasonable designs.. this charge I have already stated my opinion that was in the main true. of to Italy before the tyrant Constantine) Vincentius. I VOL. marriage between the Emperor's half-sister Galla Placidia and the son of Stilicho. was appointed count of Africa. praet. or. n- . But meanwhile a minister named Olympius was winning the The Eomans who hated Germans and Arians ear of Honorius. nor does it seem confuted by the mere fact which may have been actually intended to disarm suspicion that Eucherius was entrusted with insignificant posts by his father. The death of Arcadius seemed to present to Stilicho an opportunity for accomplishing his purposes without Alaric's aid. 3 lb. we should rather say Zosimus. • oc >7v«„-™. while Alaric was besieging Rome. Stilicho tt i t l\ orv by V aranes. 35.. Stilicho himself was magister utriusque mil itiae. rr> i j i -v OJ. • ffist. £ee note of Mendelssohn on the cited passage of Zosimus. while his wife Serena but she was destined to be strangled a year was spared later. n .. for pagan impiety. executioners had been a he would have fallen into Alaric's hands and been saved (ib. .-V i tius was succeeded bv lurpilio. master of soldiers in Gaul (both of them had fled pref. Stilicho dissuaded him from this purpose. 1 4 QO n . . was approaching Rome. chap. Gaul Chariobaudes. 3 and the poet Claudian had hinted at a possible . 4 The relations between the eastern half and the western half of the Empire had been strained and often positively hostile — — during the reign of Arcadius 1 . c bozomen. v. Eucherius very nearly fate for when he was . who slew Stilicho. Limenius. escaped his slain Alaric and if the little slower 37. . was put away because she was the daughter of Stilicho. 34. Thermantia. Many ministers were executed at the same time.

the German interest predominated as long as Stilicho lived. It is a mistake to attribute this to the death of Arcadius. was removed. and the law which excluded eastern commerce from western ports. he whose private ambition threatened an integral portion of the provinces ruled from New Eome. How was Alaric. to 2 oppose the entry of the latter into Italy. actions the obstinacy of Honorius was a vital element. 2 lb. ally one. and a cause of rejoicing for the court of Byzantium he who was the obstacle to unity. But the fall of Stilicho was a triumph for the Eoman party in Italy. were beaten to death. the death of Stilicho would have been followed by the same result. book ii during the lifetime of Stilicho. 36. to be dealt with ? to and what measures were be taken in regard to Constantine. who was appointed master of offices. but if they were determined to defy the Goth they should have taken steps to resist him. passed by the influence of the " public enemy" Stilicho. The king of the West Goths invaded Italy for the second 1 Zosimus. because they refused to make any revelations about the deceased general. After Stilicho's death. of the great general changed the relations of the courts concord and friendly co-operation succeeded coldness and enmity.114 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE The death . and as yet only partly paid. It would have been best to pay the money. still threatening in JSToricum. . With an unwise audacity the Emperor's new advisers refused the proposal. and (as a historian the Emperor or tyrant of Gaul of that century suggested) named Sarus. and the Empire was again for a time really as well as nomin. If Arcadius had lived many years longer. In the realm of Arcadius the Eoman spirit had triumphed and won the upper hand by the suppression of Gainas and Tribigild. Zosimus (after Olympi- odorus) insists on the desire of Alaric In these transto come to terms. In the realm of Honorius. 1 had two problems to face. were delivered to him. friends of Stilicho. 35. v. This is evident if we reflect on the elements of the situation. Hence the two courts were discordant. they might have enlisted a Goth an excellent warrior and a rival of Alaric. was rescinded. the new government. led by Olympius. and at the same time took no measures for defence. The chamberlain Deuterius and the scribe Peter. on the contrary. ? Alaric promised to withdraw from JSTorieum to Pannonia if the balance of the sum of money promised by the senate.

. Cremona (?). Hellebich succeeded Vigilantius. and that a certain annual supply of corn and money should be granted by the Emperor. . mentioned that Laeta. v. and was ready to make reasonable concessions and for this purpose he appointed an interview with the Gothic king at Ariminum. and in the following year (410) was elevated to the rank of magister utriusque militiae . the mag. ConcorAltinum. 47. v. Jovius was anxious to bring about a peace with Alaric. once more. who was a victim Sec of the same sedition as mag.. and Allobich (or Hellebich) succeeded Vigilantius as comes months of Olympius fledto Dalmatia (Zosimus. and Tisamene her mother. not by his own will but by a divine impulse 2 and the story is suitable to the solemnity The German kin^ laid siesre to the eternal of the moment. 5 Other changes in the civil service and the military commands were made about the same time after the death of Stilicho ministers rose and fell in 6 rapid succession. the count of the domestics. and Dalmatia r should be ceded to himself and his people as a permanent abode. (Olympiodorus. 4 6 Varanes. where there was still a strong pagan element. . had succeeded him. Honorius and Olympius. It is vii. eq. dia. 3 and even plague. His route by Aquileia. the widow of the Emperor Gratian. 1). 10. 5 He obtained power. 8. 2. . 4 and the praetorian prefect and Batrician. Beverias a\x($>w koX Nw/5t/coi)s koX AeX/xariav. Jovius. In his letter to Honorius Jovius suggested that Alaric might relax the severity of these demands. inhabitants of Borne. had been deposed some time before. alleviated the want by their distributions (ib. .) chap. and Valens. a monk warned the invader not to turn arms against the capital of the world. 4). 48. 1 37. 46. the husband of Placidia. Bononia. while Vigilantius. 39. The siege took place in the last 408. the magister peditum. however. succeeded to his influence. Ariminum is described by Zosimus. where Honorius resided sufficiently secure. 7 Ib. fr. still persisted in adopting the strange policy of defying the invader and not resisting him. and was once more disgraced Constantius. Ib. and Turpilio. essayed the efficacy of heathen sacrifices but they were at length compelled to make a hard peace with Alaric. stepped into the place of Turpilio.. Mendelssohn's note on Zosimus. But Olympius soon fell. the other comes clom. 1 without turning aside to besiege Bavenna. equit. Turpilio was now banished on account of a military sedition. Olympiodorus calls him Jovian. 2 3 Socrates. Eeduced to extremities by famine. v. domesticorum. Noricum. succeeded him. iv STILICHO AND ALARIC 115 time and marched straight to Borne. and that Alaric replied that he was irresistibly led thither. if the rank of magister It is related that his . cut off his ears and beat him to death. 47. however. through the hostility of a cabal of eunuchs. the city. Alaric demanded that the provinces of Venetia.

as the main elements of and the remarkable circumstance is that Alaric the situation did not desire war. 2 sent as an envoy to Eavenna. and imposed upon the Dalmatians the burden of supplying them with corn. and that. rius called in But of these Huns we hear nothing more. instead of adwhich he had desired before. with other bishops. . he decidedly refused either to confer the title or to grant the lands. and that Honorius had no adequate forces . manifested by the German to win a place and recognition in the Empire.000 Huns. ordered his barbarians to march to Eome to avenge the insult which was offered to himself and all his kin. to the north-east. were conferred on him. 2 Zosimus uses the plural tovs Kara oxen. now was the province of Noricum on the Danube. fearing for .116 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE rise book ii utriusque militiae. which the Goths once more threatened. advised a firm refusal. Let Honorius assign the Goths Nbricum. 1 Once more Alaric attempted to induce the Emperor to accept his proposals. instead Jovius opened the answer of Honorius in the presence of Alaric and read of the military it aloud. were moderate vising peace. and grant them a certain sum of money and supplies of corn annually Italy would then be delivered from . which Stilicho had held. he did not ask for Venetia nor yet for Dalmatia. But Honorius could not to the idea of granting to the barbarian Visigoth the post which had been held by the semibarbarian Vandal. considering the situation. to support his resistance. that there was for a moment the possibility that a West Gothic kingdom might have been established of to the west of Italy. irtikiv iwLaKOTrovs. It is hard to see why Honorius and his ministers declined to accept these terms. The German looked upon the as a refusal " rising command contumely to himself. and 1 Zosimus (v. but on this occasion Jovius. was. It is interesting to note. the invader. The bishop of Eome. sheep. It appears that Honorius had taken him to task for his disposition to yield to Alaric at Ariminum. which. if even yet the Emperor might pause ere he exposed the city which had ruled over the world for more than four hundred years to the ravages of barbarians. and up in anger. 50) states that Hono10. and the ambition of the Here we have the Eoman exclusiveness. however. and allowed the magnificent edifices All that Alaric asked to be consumed by the fire of the foe. and even offered more moderate terms." son of Theodosius.

it merely to the Goths that a new Emperor was 3 and the Arians. refused. he seized the port and blockaded the eternal city for the second time. 7." Alaric citizens to marched side to the walls of Borne. In fact the coalition of Alaric and Attalus was a repetition in a new form of the coalition of Arbogast and Eugenius. Eoman It is to Teuton. The corn stores of the city lay in the harbour. v. iv STILICHO lie AND ALARIC to the 117 his personal safety. and made others swear. Alaric's purpose was to elect a new Emperor who should He had selected the prefect be more pliable than Honorius. and. and had suffered from the severe laws of the orthodox Honorius. which the legitimate Emperor had disdained to bestow on him. chap. One might he was also welcome to the pagans in the city on the Tiber who were numerous say that the elevation of Attalus involved a twofold reaction against the established order of things hand against a reaction on the one an opposition on the other hand of the Teutonic to the Eoman spirit. self Sozomen. Catholicism. because they too were divided by the opposition of . to play this somewhat undignified part and Attalus was invested with the purple and crowned with the diadem. What saved the throne of Honorius was that the two factors of the coalition fell asunder.. with the fear of famine before their eyes. Sozomen. 3 Attalus had been once a pagan liim. yielded. 2 Nor was acceptable . and Alaric threatened that if the Eomans did not comply with his demand he would use them for his own army. 9. 1 Having met with this new refusal. Alaric received the post of master of soldiers. but these elements were — — See Zosimus. to sworn. by the head war to the death with Alaric. ix. ix. and Athaulf. his brother-in-law. Attalus. 51. and called upon the When this invitation was with him against the Emperor. . and perceiving that it was a hopeless aim to extort anything from the obstinacy and prejudice of the son of him who " pacified the Goths. and of Honorius. The senate met. was created count of the domestics. of the city. had rushed other extreme. worthy of be described in another chapter three elements as 1 2 remark that the situation in Gaul which will was determined by the same the situation in Italy.

had originally been in opposition. of the Anicii was vexed at the new order of things. Vandals. in Italy it . . high in spirits. as consul for the year We are told that the inhabitants 410. 1 Zosimus. and that Borne had given her He made ready ships in Classis. was created 2 lb. and Alans. was the Emperor against whom the tyrant prepared to contend. which. Attalus was the successor of Eugenius. In Gaul the tyrant and the barbarians. Alaric advised that troops should be sent to seize the power in Africa by force but Attalus would not consent. if it came to adhesion.118 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE book n not adjusted in the same relations. and sent him thither with a small company of guards. confident that he could win Carthage without fighting a battle. which left them independent of each other tyrant was the creation of the barbarian. which was held by Count Heraclian. usurpers In both countries the imperial authority was represented. and T . whom and in both countries there were barbarians hostile to But in Gaul it was the tyrant against the legitimate Emperor prepared to contend. who had been general in Dalmatia. . while he prepared himself to march against Bavenna. He appointed a certain Constans commander of the soldiers in Libya. because the new officers were of Borne were well versed in the art of administration only the rich house . vi. 7. 4. who came from Britain had been opposition to German influence the watchword of the new Augustus who arose at Eome Constantine was the was opposition to catholic intolerance. magister militum. might bear him to the shelter of New Borne. on which Borne depended for her supplies of corn. praetorian prefect of Italy. successor of Maximus Attalus created Lampadius. Valens. the worst. and a certain Marcian prefect of the city Tertullus was elected . Honorius was overwhelmed with terror at the tidings that a usurper had arisen in Italy. 7. 1 probably the same senator who had once exclaimed bravely in the senate house against the " compact of servitude " with Alaric. . an officer loyal to Honorius. 2 The first problem which presented itself to Attalus and Alaric was how they w ere to act in regard to Africa. . and had come to in Italy the terms. Suevians. and an opposition deThe watchword of the new Augustus veloped itself afterwards. They were not safe as long as they did not possess the African provinces. in both countries there were tyrants or the imperial government.

when he adopted a new P ro P osal of ^otenasm to Attalus ' . utr. to the position of refusing to make even small concessions and now. 8. and so bright the prospects of his rival. u„+ but 4-i that ^~„4post i. mil. according to the text of Zosimus he created him praet. Pnilostor- the se ' 3 . 1) 'I6/3ios 6 rrjs avXrjs inrapxos [iraTplKios] irapa 'Att&\ov Kadeara/xevos. and here I suspect a slight omission in the text has produced the confusion the word . But Attalus had such high hopes that he would not consent to a compromise he agreed to allow the legitimate Caesar to retire So to an island and end his days as a private individual. probable did it seem that the tottering throne of Honorius would fall. Zosimus. and recommended that the Emperor. went over to the camp or the palace of the usurper. Zosimus drew his facts from Olympiodorus. e n™™^ i^r q^ by Sozfollowed So • n 4- -i attributes g " J ''. „ " side. it seemed probable that Honorius would the eastern flee. Between the somewhat similar letters wapxos and irapa on either easily have been omitted. Besides Jovius. . If Heraclian maintained the province loyally against the usurper. he went further than Attalus in hostility to Honorius. had already given to Lampadms. slain. the praetorian prefect of the East. he i. if. chap. 3 The news soon arrived that Constans had been iraTp'uaos (vi. Attalus and his master of soldiers advanced upon Eavenna. Attalus' emissary in Africa. when he was dethroned. it might i a Olympiodorus.. Attalus knew not then that it was own and fate hereafter.. and await the result of the operations of Constans. fr. Attalus created Jovius patrician (ib. Africa accepted a change of rule. With these sent about four thousand soldiers to Eavenna. Valens mag. should be deformed by bodily mutilation. Honorius was able to secure the city of the marshes against the hostile army. „^r i i pref. were employed as envoys. wishing to make large concessions to Alaric. who had sworn eternal enmity to Alaric. and Anthemius. on the other hand. and Julian primicerius notariorum. From to carry it to a further extreme than any one else. \ f A f+ Q i. that the praetorian prefect Jovius or Jovian. when he joined the side of Attalus. But at this juncture came to the assistance of the western government. the war might be pro- secuted in Italy against Alaric and Attalus . proposing a division of the Empire. 10 himl-. 8. 13). has probably fallen out. Potanius the quaestor. (ix. iv STILICHO AND ALARIC 119 1 sent messages to Attalus. omen S 8) and Zosimus. The policy of Jovius was ever. Honorius determined to abandon the position. 2 But for this proposal Attalus is said to to be his have chidden him . he had rebounded . vi.) . At Read 1 Several embassies passed between Attalus and Honorius (Olympiodorus.

but the new strength which Honorius had obtained from Byzantium seems to have convinced him that it would be futile to conHe marched through the Aemilia. Accordingly Alaric determined to pull down the tyrant whom he had found that in Attalus. Alaric wished to send an army to Africa and Jovius supported the policy in a speech to the Eoman senate. which he found in a Count Heraclian had stopped the transport of corn and oil from the granary of Italy. lb. 1 . {lb. to force that province also to accept the tyrant. away from his league with the Emperor whom he had created. — account of the failure in Africa. persist in the blockade of Eavenna until he had taken it. that some one cried in the circus. 11." The senate was now desirous to carry out the plan which it had rejected with Eoman dignity before. the latent opposition between the ideas of Attalus and the ideas of Alaric began to assert itself. seems to have decided. . 9. 12). Zosimus. and Eome was reduced to such extremities of starvation. of barbarians to Africa. . of the but Alaric provided 3 and retained him in his own camp. But neither the senate nor Attalus were disposed to send an army of barbarians against a Eoman 1 unworthy of Eome. he had set up . " Set a price on human flesh. Near Ariminum Attalus was discrowned and divested purple robe with ceremonious solemnity for his safety. as well as in Honorius. but the Princeps again refused to consent to such a step. acpeh -n-pbs dirty 3 Along with his son Ampelius [the senate] airpeirri 2 tlvcl prj/xara. and failing to take Bononia. and that he too was keenly conscious that the Visigoths were only barbarians. But Alaric would not yet He had said that he was resolved to throw off his allegiance. to desert his allegiance to and he Attalus. the shifty Patrician. province such a course seemed indecent Jovius. on .120 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE book ii this point. receiving tinue the siege. the Eoman temper was firm. and return to his allegiance to Honorius . which held out for attempted to turn Alaric Honorius. 2 Pretium impone cami humanae. vi. or extorting from the cities acknowledgment of the Empire of Attalus. and send an army sad plight. Attalus meanwhile returned to Eome. passed on to Liguria. as he had formerly refused when it was proposed by Alaric.

Dei. 1 and the Goths ix. It 3 was in August 410 that Alaric marched upon Eome for the third time. vii. vi. xii. . w i ien h e attempted to cross to Sicily. Alaric died in Bruttii. Augustine. because he wished to prevent the conclusion of peace 2 according to another writer.chap. Cf. appears upon the scene. ca p. his accession attacked. 3. Lib. " quod autem more novo factum est. cap. hoc Christi UD i nemo feriretur. . when they are unsupported. laid his body in the bed of the 4 river Sozomen. etc. 9. to the side of the Emperor seems to have induced Honorius to . and relieving Italy from the . at ConIf Alaric and returned to Italy. The eternal city was surrendered to but it was confessed that respect the pillage of the soldiers was shown for churches. a brave warrior. and contrasts the invasions f the Gauls. de civ. 9) and this may lead us to question his other statements about Sarus. Zosinius. . says that Alaric's proposals were rejected through the influence of Sarus. vi. m 43^ . and held aloof from the two contending parties. makes the wrong statement that Sarus succeeded Stilicho as magister utriusque militiae (cf. 5 Orosius states that ships of Alaric. Olympiodorus. almost a hundred years But before it became the seat of an East Gothic kingdom. i). 5 before the year was over. 3. but is now he occupied it without resistance. Philostorgius. but the Whichever of the two accounts be true. i. rovrov 6rc P WA «w« ipLpUraPTo dt' i x dpas 'A\apl X u> 6vra UttovSov i X 6p6v * 'AMpcxov i* m%ra»To. pressure of famine. ut amplissimae basill cae explendae populo cm 7 : ™ however. had succeeded in this enterprise might have been the seat of a West Gothic kingdom. three hundred men he had stationed himself in the Picentine Acterritory. He comes back to the subject [u 29. It occupation was due to an unfriendly events may have intervened attitude on the part of Honorius not clear how far this . between the battle with Sarus and the march on Eome of which we are ignorant. 121 It now seemed better that Alaric might approach Honorius again of with chance a satisfactory and he marched in the direction of Eavenna. that peninsula sentia. we re wrecked in the Straits {Hist. iv STILICHO AND ALARIC adjustment. Men delssohn'snote on Zosimus. he now attacked the Goths of Alaric or Athaulf. Philostorgius. 3 St. 13. n0 mini. Alaric then proceeded to southern Italy with the purpose of crossing to Africa. continue in his implacable hostility to Alaric. and that the " immanity " of the barbarians was softened by the veneration which christian things 4 inspired. 1 parceretur eligerentur et decernerentur. . At this juncture the With Goth Sarus. he was not the attacker. 9™ d musitata reram facie immamtas barbara ta mitls apparuit. 1 cording to one writer. fr.hoc Christiano tempori tribuend um quisquis non videt caecus " (cf.

122 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE book ii His work had been accomplished. himself entered in to possess. which was to arise. he had not Bucentus. where he had sojourned so long. them guided he Visigoths the of Moses the called might be . but he had prepared the way for a Visigothic kingdom. not in Italy. . not in Illyricum. nor yet in Africa. Alaric but in a country where Alaric had never trodden. on their wanderings until they came in sight of the promised land which he was not destined to enjoy himself.

The daughters of Eudoxia formed . Theodosius II was born 10th April 401. For the children of Arcadius. see the genealogical table of the house of Theodosius. pious practices. 1. The singing of hymns. and the Patriarch Atticus Pulcheria The court. due partly to the death of Arcadius and partly to that of Stilicho. and charitable works were the order of the day. inherited the religious temperament of their father. and the court of Theodosius I. the first wife of a Eoman Emperor who received the title Augusta. and apparently also as guardian of the young prince until 414. The keynote of this new departure was struck by Eudoxia. a great contrast to their mother. a better understanding subsisted between the court of Xew Eome and the court of Eavenna. As a result of the new mode of palatial life. the influence of women as well as the influence of eunuchs made itself felt. was very The princesses from that of Arcadius. vii. Arcadia. and Marina. with which different combined her grandfather's strength of character. a contemporary says. who was executed in the same year.CHAPTEE V THEODOSIUS II AND MARCIAX When eight years old. a novelty to which the court of Honorius objected and throughout the whole space of the fifth and sixth centuries we meet remarkable ladies of the imperial house playing a prominent part. Arcadius died in 408. assumed the character of a cloister. 1 and the measures which were passed during these six years exhibit an intelligent and sincere solicitude for the welfare of At the same time the people and the correction of abuses. his son Theodosius was only Anthemius acted as protector of the Empire. Pulcheria. . as 1 Socrates. and the young Emperor.

who afterwards became the wife of Valentinian III. Eudoxia (named after the late Empress). by degrees it was that there were two not necessarily united powers in the Pierre le Grand. won the patronage of Pulcheria. a philosopher and a pagan. and she wrote religious poetry. The story of the Athenian girl who became the Empress Eudocia is well known. . and was by him instructed in all pagan court learning. dedicated to Athene. who were less than kind. and assumed the who was two years younger than herself. and the beauty and learning of the girl. 1 may fied. when her influence began to assert itself. She superintended and assisted in his education she supported by her countenance the reforming spirit of the senate. The early undivided allegiance of Theodosius to his sister was gone felt . and from his skill in writing received the name of Kalliacted as a spiritual adviser.) Gregorovius has made Athenais the subject of a historical 1 The modern parallel is Sophia of Russia marrying her brother Ivan to a beautiful young Siberian named Solti- monograph. Histoirc de Russie sous . who chose her as The marriage was followed by the birth of a daughter. This was the import of Pulcheria's political position. After the death of her father she sought refuge in Constantinople (418) from her brothers. as both ladies had decided characters. but she always retained some pagan leanings. and in 423 Eudocia was proclaimed Augusta. to which his weak character would easily have rendered him a prey. and we a suitable bride for her brother.124 HISTOR Y OF THE LA TER ROMAN EMPIRE book ii But religion was accompanied with culture Theodosius was a student of natural science. She resolved to remain a virgin. . the monastic character of the court was considerably modi- and that breaches with Pulcheria were not infrequent. In 414 Pulcheria was created Augusta. regency in the name of her brother. strict be sure that. She was the daughter of Leontius. In 421 a new element was introduced into the monastic life by the marriage of the Emperor with Athenais. who is said to have written a book for them on the subject of virginity. and influenced her sisters to form the same determination. She had embraced Christianity before her marriage. v. graphos. kof (Voltaire. in which they were confirmed by their friend Atticus. cap. and protected her brother from falling under the influence of intriguing court officials.

The senate struggles with effect against irresponsible officialism.chap. and all the evils which Synesius actually pointed out. though set with curious was a period of few stories. while they are full of stories and interesting traits which attract the imagination. v THEODOSIUS . the martyrdom of Hypatia. But on further study we come to the conclusion that it was a period of capital importance. When we read we the chronicles of the reign of Theodosius II. At the end we find that while the western half . a period in which the Empire was passing a vital crisis. Theodosius was weak. and although we hear that there was venality and . disposed to alleviate the burdens of the subjects. of the same had been found wanting in the day of its trial. the monastic life of the imperial votaries Pulcheria and her sisters. One possessed of the insight of Synesius might have thought it impossible that it could last for eight hundred years more when he considered the threatening masses of barbarians who environed it. Now it the significance of the reign of Theodosius II is that was the it transition from the court of Arcadius to the court of the steady reforming Emperors in the latter half of the century. the eastern half had passed the crisis and all the dangers successfully we find strong and prudent Emperors ruling at New Eome. The invasions of Attila and the general council of Ephesus are the only facts which seem to stand out prominently in the chronicles. important events. but he was not so weak. II AND MARCIAN courtiers or 125 palace and of this feeling intriguing would not be slow to take advantage. the story of the waking of the seven the young saints who in the reign of Decius had sleepers fallen asleep in a cave. and partook of both characters. such as the life of Athenais. and he seems to have profited more by his educa- tion. the oppression of the subjects. This clouble-sidedness is its peculiarity. and in the court a different atmosphere from that of the days of Arcadius. To an unprejudiced observer in the reign of Arcadius it might have seemed that the Empire in its eastern parts was doomed to a speedy decline. fifth Eor with the beginning of the century century a critical time ap- proached for the whole Empire. like his father. itself clearly in churchmen The dissension showed the Nestorian controversy. the corruption and at first receive the impression that it — — divisions of the imperial court.

Ecc. in 405 he was prae- . Hist. everything attributed to Pulcheria or Theodosius but Emperor was much beloved " by " are significant. 4 Cod. fr. who was praet. vii. As has been already stated. Uldes boasted that he could subdue the whole earth or even the sun. senate. but as he advanced against Thrace he was deserted by a large multitude serious who had executed of his followers. 3 successor Attila. were given to large landowners to be employed as serfs (coloni) In order to prevent in Asia. 5. In 400 he held the office of comes sdcrarum largitionum. 1 (28th January 346. the ground gained by the senate was not lost the spirit of its administration and the lines of its policy were followed by the succeediug Emperors. future invasions of Huns or other barbarians. through this critical period following the death of Arcadius devolved upon the praetorian prefect Anthemius. 3 Sozomen. the words of Socrates that the although towards the close of the reign eunuchs had power. 2 and was successfully performed by him. 87. In words worthy of his but was successfully tided over. and it guided the State safely through a most momentous period which proved fatal to the integrity of the western provinces. not in Thrace or Illyricum. 1 a great improvement progress. An immense horde of Scyri were in Uldes' host. and there is no doubt the senate and people that the much-lauded wisdom of Pulcheria's regency consisted And in the wisdom of the senate which she supported. An invasion of Lower Moesia by Uldes. Guldenpenning gives an excellent and detailed account of his administration. the guidance of the State . in much about the . Persian A new treaty it secured peace on the frontier. Anthemius provided for the improvement of the fleet stationed on the Danube a large number of new ships were built to protect the borders 4 of Moesia and Scythia. was made which was agreed that Eoman merchants were and JSTisibis. not to travel farther east than Artaxata nor Persian merchants farther west than Callinicum. in 408 he was made a Patrician. . Anthemius was the grandson Philippus. ix. 2 of in torian prefect and consul. seemed at first Huns and menacing. He captured Castra Martis. the king of the Gainas. 1 Eunapius. and the old crafts were repaired.126 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE In the chronicles we do not hear is book is ii corruption in the days of Pulcheria. and so many were taken prisoners that the They government had some trouble in disposing of them. Thcocl. who joined the Eomans in driving their king beyond the Danube. pref. in 404 he Avas magiste?' offitiorum.

xii. 5 It strikes one as a very curious thing that an undisguised pagan should be not only compelled to take orders but appointed to a bishopric." circus. 1. which his mali- The Danube boats were called 412). whose recompense for their trouble was increased by the addition of a merccdula. men who held a distinguished position in this and was highly characteristic of the epoch in many ways. " Constantine built the city but Cyrus renewed This popularity made the prefect an object of suspicion. " the 4 first Greek Emperor. 2. which tended to stretch beyond the wall of Constantine. see Cod. island of Carpathus was the halfstation between Alexandria and Byzantium. which through the protracted presence of Alaric and his Visigoths had been reduced to a state of defencelessness and misery. 177. 51 (cf. his paganism furnishing a convenient ground for accusation. It is interesting to find a reference in an inscription {Corp. Socrates. 2 . or naval collegia. Ins. 2 He also took measures to revive the prostrate condition of the Illyrian provinces. 739) Portarum valido firmavit omine muros Pusaeus raagno non minor Anthemio. and his fall soon followed. 4. was Cyrus of Panopolis. by a new wall (41 3). Julian might also claim but although a Greek in sympathies. and thus the care of the corn supplies devolved conjointly on the prefect of the city. 3. for he built or restored many buildings and improved . so that the people enthusiastically cried on one occasion in the it. Ecc. as a sort The responsibility was transferred from the navicularii. and he used to issue decrees in Greek. His prefecture was very popular and long remembered at Constantinople. the prefect of The way Egypt. v THEODOSIUS II AND MARCIAN Anthemius " 127 Of the other acts of " the great we may men- tion that he strengthened the capital. 5 His first sermon. a student of art and architecture. 1 and that he made provision for the more efficient transportation of the corn supplies from Alexandria to Constantinople. He was prefect of the city for many years. vii. 3 of the One reign. By a sort of of irony he was compelled to take orders and made bishop Cotyaeum in Phrygia. Hist. he was i n many ways more Roman than Greek. lusoriae. a " Greek " in faith. an innovation for which a writer of the following century expressly blames him. and the 3 4 ])raeses insularum. 1). the illumination of the town.— chap. A poet. and was in fact the chief leader of the movement. this title. 1. For the Scyri. xv. Thcocl. Lat. v. of the novus murus are Theocl. Compare Cod. he was penetrated with thoroughly Hellenic instincts and when it is remarked that the Empire was beginning to assume in the East a Greek complexion in the reign of Theodosius II. to the summates of the fleets. iii. like his fellow-townsman Nonnus." it is often forgotten that Cyrus had a great deal to do with this. 1 The towers mentioned in Cod. Theod.

let the birth of God. Amen. and this fact may be cited as sophists . and shows the readiness man by : " Brethren. chairs than the Latin. delectable. . among whom was Apelles. but by five one chair of philosophy was endowed and Thus the Greek language had of jurisprudence. professor of law at the new university. and the execution of the work was entrusted to a commission of nine persons. and I suspect t<£ should be inserted before Xoycp. because he was conceived in the holy virgin through. and ourselves." The new code was to be drawn up on the model of the Gregorian and Hermogenian codes. tion of a university at Constantinople The two most important intended to supersede the university of Athens. In the year 429 Theodosius determined to form a collection of all the constitutions issued by the " renowned Constantine. however.— 128 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE him to is book n cious congregation forced preach against his will on of the Christmas Day. p. the head- quarters of paganism — with which. To the Word itself be glory for ever and ever.) This sermon is preserved by John Malalas. This negative effect was expected. the Greek likewise by ten grammarians. I have corrected the text by irapdevcp evia change of punctuation dently ends a period.d. university was an important measure for Byzantine life. see Lex 24 of this Cod. title is a law of toleration (423 a. rhetors or two chairs two more marking a stage in the Graecisation of the eastern half of the . the divine Emperors who succeeded him. xvi. The Latin language was sented by ten grammarians or philologists and three rhetors. May we attribute this to Eudocia's in- — fiuence 1 ? dem Rufe stand vier ihrer Bischofe um- gebracht zu haben" (Athenais. and It was indicates the enlightenment of Theodosius' reign. hearing only. In 438 the work was completed and published. 198). . the government preferred not to interfere directly —and thereby to further the repre- cause of Christianity. and did to a certain extent follow. our Saviour. Theod." acts of Theodosius l were the foundaand the compilation of The inauguration of the the code called after his name. For laws concerning the pagans. Jesus Christ be honoured silence. Gregorovius says that he Church. Eoman Empire. 10. was perhaps made bishop of Cotyaeum " weil die dortige Christen gemeinde in commanding Christians not to dare to attack Judaeis ac paganis in guide dcgentilms religionis audoritate abusi. and that such a meaof punishment sure was not considered an insult to the . but during the intervening years the members of the commission had changed .

at a meeting of the senate of Old Eome. " " The Emperors Theodosius and Valentinian. and further the huge fact. Antiochus and Theodoras. " When we consider the enormous multitude of books. were among the original workers. will be intro- more instructive to read the imperial constitution which duced the great code to the Eoman world. the diverse modes of process and the difficulty of legal cases. On 23d December of the same year. Our clemency has often been when so many rewards to Florentius. " Well (nove diserte. contextores. and (liberal) studies. mentions sixteen compilers. VOL. at a loss to understand the cause of the are held out for the maintenance of arts few are found who are endowed with a full knowledge of the Civil Law. our Lord Valentinian. spoke as follows " The felicity of the eternal Emperors proceeds so far as to adorn with Last year the ornaments of peace those whom it defends by warfare. was fain to add this dignity also to his world. the most sacred Prince. and when the marriage had been happily concluded.— — chap. our Lord Theodosius. The new codex was issued Valentinian. Anicius Glabrio Faustus. The visit of the younger Emperor to Constantinople on the occasion of his marriage with Eudoxia facilitated this co-operation. and an official account of the proceedings on that occasion gesta in senatu endo Codice Theodosiano prefect —may the : Urbis still be read. and a constitution of 435. that. and it conjointly by Theodosius and impressed a sort of seal on the unity of the Empire (15th February 438). v THEODOSIUS who II AND MARCIAN 129 of the eight are mentioned in the edict which accompanied the final publication only two. by his tion of a son. I K . and ordered the precepts of the laws to be collected and drawn up which he wished to be conmost sacred name. But instead of following it the course of the gesta in the Eoman senate house. Praetorian Prefect of the East. and even they so seldom we are astonished that amid so many whose faces have grown pale from late lucubrations hardly one or two have attained to sound and complete learning. Which thing the eternal Prince. approved with the loyalty of a colleague and the affecsecrated in a compendious form of sixteen books. the code which had been drawn up by the lawyers of New Eome was publicly recognised. which conferred full powers on the committee for the consummation of the work. Romae de recijpiThe praetorian Acilius and consul of year. so . vere diserte). when we loyally attended the celebration of the most fortunate of all cere- monies." And spoken ! all " the senators cried out in the usual form. Augusti.

. we feel that we have met a real need of our age. that we have unveiled the laws and redeemed the works of our ancestors from the injury flight of obscurity. we nevertheless deemed it more worthy of the imperial majesty (magis imperatorium) and more illustrious. These details. " It would be a long tale to relate all that has been contributed to the completion of this work by the labours of Antiochus. or possess . back Emperors). . or what is to be the weight of a donation. and allow no one after the first day of next January to use any authority in the practice of law except these books which bear None of the older Emour name and are kept in the sacred bureaux. "To this we add that henceforward no constitution can be passed in the West (in partibus occidentis) or in any other place. "Thus having wiped away the cloud of volumes. excepting special documents in the official bureaux. remains and will remain for ever nor has any brilliance passed thereby to our name except the light of . 1 Sub alto crassae demersa caliginis et obscuritatis vallo. perors however has been deprived of his eternity. " The same precaution is to be observed in the acts which are promuland those are to be condemned as gated by us in the East (per Orientem) spurious which are not recorded in the Theodosian Code. which hidden as it were under a veil l of gross mist and darkness precludes men's intellects from gaining a knowledge of them. when it is really quite plain what action is to be adopted in suing for an inheritance. The glory of the originators. " And though the undertaking of the whole work was due to our auspicious initiation. duly refined (filed). unveiled by the assiduity of the learned. eye rightly foresees the future. and dispelling the darkness have given light to the laws by a short compendium. lawyers of well-known learning and clearing the interpretation of all difficulties. tinian. on which many wasted their lives and explained nothing in the end. the everlasting Augustus. by the illustrious Maximin. so that men may no longer have to await formidable Responses from expert lawyers as from an inner shrine. compare below rcvclatis legibus. brevity (nisi lux sola brevitatis). we have published the constitutions of our predecessors (lit. we establish a compendious knowledge of the Imperial constitutions since the time of the divine Constantine. I read velo. their names will descend to posterity linked with ours. is enough and more than enough to satisfy our consciences. Valenany validity. " Nor let those to whom we have consigned the divine secrets of our For if our mind's heart imagine that they have obtained a poor reward. except the same by a divine pragmatica be communicated to us. . by the unconquerable Emperor. the name of no issuer nay rather they enjoy a borof a constitution has fallen to the ground rowed light in that their august decrees are associated with us. have been brought into open day under the radiant splendour of our name.130 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE book 11 mass of imperial constitutions. to put envy to It and allow the memory of the authors to survive perennially. the all-sublime exprefect and consul . ex-quaestor of our palace. the son of our clemency. We selected noble men of approved faith.

whither the bridegroom came for the occasion. whose delight and constant practice is to please Emperors. than as a pilgrim to the great christian shrine. Although there was a large element of theological bigotry both in Antioch and in Alexandria. Melana by name. taken up her abode at in the land of Egypt. . and then at Jerusalem. all respectable men and counts of our sacred consistory by the respectable Epigenes. in accordance with her In this decision husband's wishes. have already referred to the fact that a marriage was arranged between the young princess Eudoxia and the youthful Emperor. and she undertook. for your illustrious and magnificent authority. Valentinian III. and. her second cousin. she exercised considerable influence even over the Emperor and salem (in The journey of Eudocia to Jerumarked by her visit to Antioch. posing rather as one trained in Greek rhetoric and animated with Hellenic traditions and proud of his household. along with her husband. the faithful interpreter of our clemency by Sperantius. " I boast that I am of your race and blood. to cause the decrees of our August Majesty to come to the knowledge of all peoples and all provinces. and had afterwards. a Roman of noble family. count and quaestor. 131 eminent in all departments of literature by the illustrious Marty ri us. a pilgrimage to Jerusalem to return thanks to the Deity for the marriage of their daughter. . count and magister memoriae by the respectable Procopius. and Theodore. Florentius. . count. spring 438) was her Athenian descent. These men may be compared to any of the ancients. It was celebrated in We 437 at Constantinople. most dear and affectionate relation." The city that . formerly magister libellorum. they seem to have been confirmed by a saintly lady of high reputation. " It remains. who had been forced into a marriage repugnant to her. founded monastic houses. whom first she converted to Christianity. Apollodorus. where she created a great effect by the elegant Greek oration which she delivered. where she She had she con- whom verted before his death. "Date 15 February at Constantinople" (438).chap. v THEODOSIUS II AND MARCIAN . After the departure of her daughter the Empress probably felt lonely. moving in the most exalted society of the capital. The last words of Eudocia's oration brought down the house a quotation from Homer. visited Constantinople to see her uncle Volusian. yet in both these cities there was probably more appreciation of Hellenic style and polish than in Constantinople. — v/ji€T€pt]s yeverjs re koL alfxaros tvyojiai eiVcu.

where it is still preserved. 2 John^ Malalas. especially remarkable were the chains with which Herod gyved One of these she gave to her Peter. it must have been a strange and impressive experience for one whose youth was spent amid the heathen memories and philosophers' gardens of Athens. but is although a circumstantial story inclined to treat it told about it. Gregorovius brings out very well the psychological element in Eudocia's visit to Aelia. Bk. and called. daughter Eudoxia. ed. although Christianity had lost some of its freshness in the intervening period." We are told by an ecclesiastical writer of the age that it was more depraved than Gomorrah and the fact that it was a garrison town had . and who in New Eome. It is best to relate the story in the words 1 of the earliest chronicler relics who Of the which she received herself. who founded a and in later times St. and. . p. for she induced Theodosius to erect a new basilica. church in Rome (called originally after Bonn. something to do with this depravity. (the bishop of Jerusalem plied a trade in relics). a city whose monuments were the bones and relics It was probably only this ideal side that came of saints. with its museums of ancient art and its men of many creeds. one hundred years before. to visit. bestow other marks of favour on the city. restore the thermae (hot baths). 1 for Jerusalem at this period was a under Eudocia's notice strange mixture of idealism with gross realism it was double in character as it was double in name. — . a golden statue was erected to her in the curia and Her interest in Antioch took a one of bronze in the museum. like a tavern or a brothel than a graced palace.132 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE book ii hated and mocked the Emperor Julian and his pagan Hellenism loved and feted the Empress Eudocia with her christian Hel- lenism . a city whose memories were typically and diametrically opposed to Hellenism. and the matter seems shrouded records it. as Jerusalem was brings to the recollection the visit of Constantine's mother Helena. 2 in impenetrable obscurity. The all fall of Eudocia took place soon after her return. The christian reminiscences which affected Eudocia were the rich hangings in a more than homely house epicurism and lust made it " more . practical form. extend the walls. xiv. with all the solemnity of an exalted christian pilgrim. had not been entirely weaned from the ways and affections of her youth. 356. historians are as a legend. Eudocia's visit to Aelia Capitolina. Peter ad vincula).

for he was a very handsome young man. and denied it. And when the Emperor received it he recognised it and concealed it. Then he caused her to swear the truth by his salvation. the master of "It so happened that as the Emperor Theodosius was proceeding to offices. "Where is the apple that I sent you 1 said. Paulimis. it is almost certain that Evagrius would not have rejected it as untrue. But a certain poor man brought to Theodosius a Phrygiatic apple. and that both Evagrius and Malalas derived their information from him). Gregorovius remarks that Eudocia's apple of Phrygia eludes criticism as completely as Eve's apple of Eden. but perhaps both may be explicable as having arisen from the language of oriental metaphor. whose oriental colour it has a makes parallel in the Arabian Nights it seem suspicious.— chap. he And she questioned her. and the Emperor was surprised at it. took it and sent it to the Emperor Theodosius. v THEODOSIUS IT AND MARCIAN 133 the church in Sanctis theophaniis. being indisposed on account of an ailment in his foot. And he was indignant against her. of enormously large size. And she asked the Emperor that she might go to the holy places to pray and he allowed her.' whether she ate it or sent it to some one and she sware. and thought herself insulted. but sprang up or was invented at a later period probably before the end of the fifth century (one might conjecture that it was related by Johannes of Antioch. I ate it. for it was known everywhere that Paulinus was slain on account of her. so that it is generally rejected as a legend. And on this account Theodosius put Paulinus to death. And she went down from Constantinople to Jerusalem to pray. did Evagrius and Malalas derive their knowledge of it from Priscus (or a writer of that time) or from oral tradition % If Priscus related it. as being a friend of the Eniperor. 1 We know on good evidence that the 1 In regard to the famous story of the apple. And straightway the Emperor gave 150 nomismata to the man who brought the apple. it must be remarked that there is nothing intrinsically impossible or even improbable in it. I sent it unto no man but ate it. who flourished in the reigns of Anastasius and Justin. Remembering that the basis of the tale is the amorous intercourse of Paulinus and the Empress. Like the rose in the "Piomaunt ." . for Priscus' authority as to the events at Theodosius' court could not be reasonably impugned by him. ' ' ' ' . and sent it to Eudocia Augusta and the Augusta sent it to Paulinus. remained at home and made an excuse. It seems to me that its germ may have been simply an allegorical question is. symbolising thereby that she had surrendered her chastity. : mode of expression. the master of offices. suspecting that she was enamoured of Paulinus and sent him the apple. And the Empress Eudocia was grieved. And having called Augusta. as of fifth century historians only fragments remain to us. But Paulinus. . court (senate).' And the Emperor commanded the apple to be brought and showed it to her. we can conceive one accustomed to oriental allegory saying or writing that Eudocia had given her precious apple to Paulinus. not being aware that the Emperor had sent it to the Empress. and the fact that it is first related by a writer who at the earliest lived in the seventh century though it is plainly alluded is really no evidence to by Evagrius against it. in which (perhaps at Antioch) some one covertly told the story of the suspected intrigue. The — — — — that Priscus did not countenance the story. I have never seen any suggestion as to the way in which it might possibly have arisen. and all his. even as he entered the Palace. we should be bound to accept it but if Priscus had related it. The probability therefore is. saying. and that it is not true.

" says Gregorovius. Saturninus. Besides Marcellinus. though the figures are not exact. Chron. ad 444. followed her to Jerusalem. 443 Jan. the myth of the apple of Athe- him to be assassinated. scarcely very slippery ground. One might compare the Paulinus was brought up along with Theodosius. 10) when he was created The 42d year = Jan. But We must Gregorovius is mistaken. was ganz irrig ist. I would suggest.134 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE 1 book ii magister officiorum Paulinus was put to death by Theoclosius' command in conclusion that 440. have been. 3 4 "groom's man." Both Cedrenus and Zonaras place Marcellinus. It is possible that may have been forgotten. the Empress remained at Constantinople in what relation she stood to the Emperor. 10. These court intrigues. whether to draw the true or false. a messenger of Theodosius' dis" pleasure or jealousy. whose influence began about this time. 94. Chron. of Paulinus to we know not. would be unwarrantable to ascribe this affair to machinations eunuch Chrysaphius. and meant on the part of a woman who bestowed it on a man a declaration of love. of a criminal attachment to the beautiful Paulinus that led to the disgrace of the Empress and the execution of the minister. whether she was partially reconciled or . retired Pulcheria from court to Hebdomon at this period. Augustus. and history seems entitled it was probably a charge. See p. not from 408. e^aaiXevcre Al8e r& iravra %tt) v' koX /xrjvas f. 1 Marcellinus. origin of the tale (already told and explained) that Eudoxia robbed a widow of her vine. the metaphorical expression being taken literally. date. ad annum. and the deacon Johannes slew the priest Severus and who . "also 450. quite estranged. served the Empress Eudocia in the town of Aelia. It may also be remembered that in Hellenistic romances the apple was a conventional love gift. speak- . 10. 187. For two or three years after the death of Paulinus. and at his marriage acted as irapawixcpos or 2 Eudocia's visit to Jerusalem in the 42d year of Theodosius. This explanation is confirmed by Malalas' mode of reckoning he says of Theodosius. and who is said to have been in league with Eudocia to It of the bring about the decline of Pulcheria's influence. p. and that her 2 the affair retirement Jerusalem in 443 of intrigue some web However this may was either voluntary or the result of spun perhaps by the eunuch Chrysaphius. are we must beware of that tendency well as ancient historians to attribute on all occasions unprincipled acts to eunuchs. Priscus. 444. the count of the bodyguard. but from 402 (Jan. and among modern as more than hinted at by our authorities. and himself determines the date between the limits 441 and 444. Out of such a germ. reckon the 42d year. it is plain that he reckoned from the earlier — ." 3 Eudocia avenged this act by permitting the the words of the best authority would death of Saturninus lead us to suppose that she caused of the Rose " the fruit signified chastity or virginity. 4 naismay have grown up.

of a spinal injury caused by a fall from his horse. the wife of Valentinian III. and all the senators. some information below." Thus a capable successor was secured and the Theodosian The first act of the new reign 2 was the execution of Chrysaphius. whose influence with Theodosius had been on the decline for some time before his death. in the presence of Aspar. G. says. cap. the nominal wife of Marcian. See the discussion of Gregorovius. find cap. while at the same time the new reign was attended with a religious reaction against the monophysitic heresy. all when contrasted with the storms which pre- ceded the dismemberment of the Empire in the West. " It has been revealed to me that you will reign after We me. Then. The accident happened near river the Leucos. Bk. were a period of profound calm. the general. H. in assisting them from the imperial treasury when unwonted calamities befell. by her husband's command. the obnoxious eunuch. iv. and that Marcian patronised the Blues. which at the beginning of Theodosius' reign was led by Anthemius and we are told that his reign and that of his successor Leo dynasty formally preserved. The good policy of these sovereigns consisted in paying regard to the condition of their subjects and alleviating the pressure of taxes as far as Eoman fiscal principles would permit. a the more striking sort of golden interval. not far from the city. who became soldier. an able senator and read that on his deathbed Theodosius said to Marcian. and she remained at Aelia. the difficulty of the succession to the throne was solved by the Empress Pulcheria. 1 in 450 (28th July). . 3 Marcian belonged to the senatorial party of reform. As to the green and blue factions the reader will Arcadia had died in 444. 1 See John Malalas and Paschal Chronicle. 3 I have reserved the subject of the ing of the heiress of Saturninus. rbv 5e ILoLTopvihov dp7]prjK€L 'Advvals i] nal EvdoKia (Miiller.. 93). F. thenais. Eudoxia. It is significant that Chrysaphius had favoured the green faction of the circus. A religious controversies of the reigns of Theodosius and Marcian for the ninth chapter of this Book. v THEODOSIUS II AND MARCIAN 135 but it mob may have has been suggested that officious servants or an indignant too hastily anticipated her supposed wishes. in keeping the expenses of the court within reasonable 2 Marcian was raised to the throne 25th August. she was compelled to " disquantity " her train. where she was destined to die. leaving only one daughter. which Theodosius had been inclined to favour. Marina in 449. xxiii. chap. iv. When Theodosius died. i.

1 Leo. demanding the tribute which he had been wont to receive. — ChronologiSee below. and redounded to the dignity of the Attila sent an embassy Eoman name. p. if it had been made some years before. ceased to reign at New Eome. cap. The first Novel of Marcian aims at reforming the bad administration of justice which prevailed in the provinces due to a lack of " integrity and severity " in local Complaints and complainants judges. had flocked to the Emperor from all sides catervas acleuntium infinitas. vii. HISTORY OF THE LA TER ROMAN EMPIRE book ii Marcian in particular did away with the follis. . tude to repair these losses. as will be explained in due course. F. which he confined the burdensome office of the praetura to residents in the capital. and was interfering in the politics of the Franks. .136 limits. etc. est utilitati humani generis providere. 41. decided the orthodox christian doctrine as to the natures of Christ of this something will be said in another place. ad ann. 2 this reign The only event of striking importance in the East during was the council of Chalcedon (451). and Anastasius pursued more or less the same policy for the financial difficulties in which the Empire was involved during the last thirty years of the century were greatly due to the mismanagement of the expensive naval expedition of Leo against the Vandals. The Emperors always exhibited a laudable solicipressed heavily on the higher classes . R. Pul- cheria died in 453. Zeno. and made its burden lighter by compelling the consuls to share the expenses of building with the praetors. having earned by her pious and . cally the relations of the Huns to the Empire belong to the present chapter. See Clinton. and Marcian refused to pay it. as being the husband of Pulcheria. This refusal would have involved a war. of which he may be considered a representative. 427. Marcian was doubtless well informed of the state of Attila's affairs. . At this period of the world heaven was often wroth earthquakes were frequent and cities were constantly laid in ruins by these divine visitations (theomenia). but it is more convenient to treat of 2 — ideal of In the second Novel he an Emperor's duty : states the curae nobis them separately. 3 and with him the Theodosian house. charitable works the eulogies of the Church Marcian died in the first of 457. which finally . 3 Some time between 26th Januaiy and 7th February. month 1 See above. first One of Marcian's acts at once reduced the expenses of the treasury. and knew he could refuse with impunity. but Attila was already preparing to overwhelm the West.

the really defended. and Orosius. to some extent side by side and without clashing. 1 Jordanes says (cap. pire] ejjicacius terrerentur. Up races to the year 406 the Ehine was maintained against the as the frontier of the Eoman Empire that numerous barbarian in and tribes swarmed uneasily central Europe.CHAPTEE VI BEGINNINGS OF THE DISMEMBERMENT OF THE EMPIRE Alaric's brother-in-law Athaulf (Adolphus) succeeded liim longer. These two series of events are the rise of usurpers and the invasion of barbarians and it seems that the same conditions which favoured the dismemberment of the western provinces by the Teutons years. and the The noteworthy circumstance about the events of these which were decisive for the future of Gaul. From the Flavian Emperors until the time of Probus (282). remained in Italy for two years In 412 they came to an understanding with Honorius. favoured also the enterprise of illegitimate aspirants to the purple. Spain. . (410). spoiling the land. Honorium- que Augustum quamvis opibus exhaus- . but mutually conditioning and limiting one another. and Britain. and Athaulf engaged to suppress the tyrants who had risen up in Gaul. 1 This leads us to record the events which had agitated the Gallic provinces during the preceding Visigoths six years. great military line from Coblenz to had been Kehlheim on the Danube though often overstepped and always turn tamen quasi cognatum grato animo derelinquens Gallias tenclit. 31) that Athaulf captured Placidia and married her. quasi adunata Gothis republica [that is the Em- although he wrote in 417. Ut gentcs hae societate comperta. seems also to commit the error of placing the marriage in 411. was that two series of phenomena were going on at the same time.

Zosimus. Marcus and Gratian. 2. On the last day of December 406 a vast company of Vandals. and Alans crossed the Ehine. Stilicho. 138 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE book ii a strain on the Eomans. that it was by Stilicho's invitation that the barbarians invaded Gaul 1 See the monograph on "Tyrants of Britain. it was called. Now the revolt of the legions in Britain was evidently aimed against Stilicho. 406. were not without causal connection and it also seems certain that both events were connected with the general It sage of the . vi. and these movements may have agitated the inhabitants of Britain. the pasGermans across the Ehine and the rise of the tyrants in Britain. were slain. belonged to the Empire. but the third Augustus. and lights up the has been my Olympiodorus. which was jealous of the . 2 guide for the following events. but this migration seems to have been preceded by considerable movements on a large scale along the whole Ehine frontier. and it The tyrants were elevated in the course of the year was at the end of the same year that the Vandals crossed the Ehine. 2 seems almost certain that these two movements. . 1886). Suevians. 12. But in the fourth century it was as much as could be done to keep off the Alemanni and Franks who were threatening the provinces of Gaul. was destined to play a considerable part for a year or two on the stage of the western elected . and thus a tract of territory (including Baden and Wurtemberg) on the east shore of the Upper Ehine. fr.. The victories of Julian and Valentinian produced only temporary effects. It is written in Mr. and Spain " (English Historical Review. Franks who professed to guard it for the Eomans were easily swept aside. to which I have referred in a preceding chapter. and the invaders desolated Gaul at pleasure for the three following years. Freeman's most attractive style. Jan. who bore the auspicious name of Constantine. The frontier was not really defended a handful of the titheland as . which form the basis of the history of this period. 1 Three tyrants had been recently by the legions in rapid succession the first two. growth of German influence. as the revolt of Maximus had been aimed against Merobaucles there was a Eoman spirit alive in the northern island. Such is the bare fact which the chroniclers tell us. world. Gaul. which meagre statements of the chroniclers. There is direct contemporary evidence. and excited apprehensions there of approaching danger.

The first act of the tyrant Constantine was to cross with all his military forces into Gaul. which sorely needed a defender to expel the barbarians who were harrying it. he would pass into Gaul. vi lie DISMEMBERMENT OF EMPIRE BEGINS when they had done 139 thought that the work for which he designed them he would find no difficulty in crushing them or otherwise disposing of them. so far as Soman all troops and Soman administration were concerned. For two years." writes Mr. or Marcus. 514. which ends a. who- ever was tyrant then for it was quite certain that. chap. the praetorian prefect Limenius and the general Chariobaudes. 1876. he guarded the Shine more securely The reprethan it had been guarded since the reign of Julian. inmissu quam maxime Stilichonis indigna fcrentes filio suo regnum negatum.. . see an article by Holder-Egger in Neues Archiv. "they and he both carry on operations it And when mutual would seem. winking at the presence of the invaders was most likely only by and at their doings that Constantine obtained possession. without any interruption from the the scene of action is moved from Gaul to its Spain. From a Eoman point of view Stilicho had . and Consouth-eastern provinces which had " escaped the devastations of the barbarians. in Gaul. harrying Gaul. For the Chronicle of Gaul from Prosper of Aquitaine. which ends a. Ill note 1. of 1 See p. a severe defeat on the intruders. Cf. 455. or. like Maximus. he contributed largely to preparing the way for the foundation of the German kingdoms. universarum gentiumrabies Gallias dilacerare exorsa.d. much to answer for in the dismemberment of the Empire from a Teutonic point of view. failing that. sentatives of the rule of Honorius. 1 that the We can hardly avoid supposing to work which he wished them the tyrant of Britain — . where numerous Gallo-Eoman adherents would flock to his standards. to He inflicted protect the Shine frontier against new invaders. other. Freeman. stantine passed into the fled into Italy probably soon after the arrival of the usurper from Britain. Prosper Tiro. des- tined soon to harry and occupy Spain and seize Africa. though he did not expel them and. each party carries on little of operations there also with as It let or hindrance. or Gratian. lightly Stilicho died before Constantine was crushed. where the passage in Orosius is quoted.d. and its continuation (in the Codex Havniensis). according to Zosimus. each. and the barbarians whom he had so summoned were still in the land. perform was to oppose Constantine.

Apollinaris (father of Sidonius the poet) praetorian prefect offices . 9. It is sufficient to notice the main point. and Caesaraugusta (Zaragoza) became the seat of the Boman Caesar. (ib. mil. crossed the Alps to recover the usurped provinces. where Vandals. then the most prosperous city of Gaul. vi. Freeman has made out. Renatus Frigeridus). the home of Valentinian and the earlier Constantine.). 1 Mr. He held the imperial city on the Mosel. it was time for Honorius and his general to rouse themselves. who had conferred upon his accomplished his purpose (408). could be possessed of much authority in central or western Gaul. Constans." When Constantine obtained possession of Arelate. The defenders of Spain were overcome. But he failed to take Valentia. a monk. Suevians. A Goth indeed. and Sams defeated the army which was sent by Constantine to oppose him. which could not have differed very widely from the earliest and most extended of the many uses of the word Lotharingia. and was obliged to return to Italy without having Britain. Thus in the realm of Constantine almost all the and Decimius Rusticus master of (Greg. before the end of the year 407.140 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE Channel to book ii the the Alps. which Mr. ii. 1 Zositnus.. that we are not justified in accepting the version of the story which states that the representatives of the Theodosian house were It is not necessary for us to follow of the difficult engaged in defending the northern frontier of the peninsula against the Vandals and their fellow-plunderers before Constantine attempted to occupy it. and Julian. Stilicho formed the design of assigning to Alaric the task of subduing the adventurer from two sons. and Alans were ravaging at The dominion of Constantine must have consisted of pleasure. the titles of caesar and nobilissimus respectively. and a brave Goth. quoted fr. a long and narrow strip of eastern Gaul. The next movement of Constantine was to occupy Spain. Tur. Certain it is that at no very long time after his landing. But at that moment no Eoman prince he was possessed of it. Freeman in his account and obscure operations which were carried on between the kinsmen of Theodosius and the troops which the Caesar Constans and his lieutenant Gerontius led across the Pyrenees. Terentius was appointed mag. 4. but not Alaric. from the Channel to the Mediterranean. But this design was not carried out.

was soon recalled to Gaul by his father. cost him his life Honorius caused him to be assassinated. . chap. and Constantine promised to assist his colleague Honorius against Alaric.. was the only province that had obeyed Limenius and did not in theory obey Constantine. possessing the power of an Emperor. of whose purpose we are not informed. was too weak to refuse the pacific proposals. in the Spanish expedition. combined with the fact that he was never acknowledged by the other Augustus at New Kome. 1 Some time afterwards another embassy. vi DISMEMBERMENT OF EMPIRE BEGINS . Allobich. arrived at Eavenna. strongly suggests that the suspicion was . In any case it was suspected that Constantine aspired to add Italy to his realm as he had added Spain. beyond the Straits of Gades. and the fact that when the news reached him he immediately recrossed the mountains. He sent an embassy for this purpose to Eavenna. and a hope of their release seems to have been one of Honorius' 1 motives in sending the purple robe to the usurper but before the embassy was sent the captives had already been put to death. who had been taken . and elevated to the rank of Augustus. and Honorius. and the suspicion. When this took place Constantine was already in Italy. A high official. as it might have been said that the subjugation of the Vandals and their fellow-invaders had been only a pretext for his entering Gaul. Constans. however. . which he had left masterless the province of Tingitana. legitimised. Berhaps what Honorius was to do in return for the proffered assistance was to permit the sovereign of Gaul to assume the consulship. who was threatening Borne. were in the hands of Constantine. as it were. justifies history in refusing to recognise as the third Constantine the invader from Britain who ruled at Arelate. . But Constantine himself meanwhile. master of the horse. was also suspected of favouring the designs of the usurper. hampered at the time by the presence of Alaric. and that the subjugation of Alaric was only a pretext for his entering Italy. wholly content colleague he desired also to by the son of Theodosius. Thus Constantine was recognised as an Augustus and an imperial brother by the legitimate Emperor but the fact that the recognition was extorted and soon repudiated. Captives of the Theodosian house. whether true or false. was not be acknowledged as a and become. 141 lands composing the Gallic prefecture were included he might claim to be the lord of Britain.

of the legions . And thus was the loss or abandonment of Britain in we may say that it 407 that led to the Africa would not have been conquered by the Vandals if they had not passed into Spain Spain would not have become the possession of Vandals and Suevians. who had been set up . HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE book n and that he depended on the treason of the master of left horse for the success of his Italian designs. 2 to pass into Spain. the new usurper adopted the momentous course of inviting the Vandals. if Geronfurther loss of Spain and Africa. tius 1 had not revolted and invited them vi. led to important consequences. at Eavenna. d. This unwise act produced an insurrection the barbarian soldiers indulged in unlawful and Constans was sent back to Spain to restore order. even as there had been one hundred years Besides Theodosius ruling at New Eome and Honorius before. legitimate or illegitimate. but Gerontius was not of a spirit to submit plunder . raised new Emperor a tyrant against a tyrant Maximus. who for three years had been ravaging . scribed . This act led to the loss of Spain it led also to the loss of Africa. 2 The misfortunes of Gaul are de- by Jerome (ad Ageruchiam. before October). who had been set up by Gerontius. though he did not assume the purple himself. KeXruv Zosimus affects to speak of the Keltoi instead of the Galatai. . and Tolosa only delivered through the bishop Exuperius. 409 a. — — up a in the person of For a while there were six Emperors.— 142 true. In order to hold out against the old usurper. although both he and the Emperor he made soon vanished from the scene. by Alaric . Blame seems to have been thrown on Gerontius. and the Augusti resolved to supersede him by the appointment of a certain Justus. to enter . and. and Alans. to be afterwards the realm of the Visigoths. tt]v 5 : (pvXaKa rrjs airb cttI 'Ifiripiav irapbdov. Suevians. This act of Gerontius. there were Constantine and his son Constans at Arelate there was Attalus at Old Eome. 1 and the error was committed it is not clear whether through a want of judgment on the part of Gerontius or of Constans of substituting barbarian mercenaries for the Spanish legions to — defend the Pyrenees. who mentions that Mainz was taken by the barbarians. who was perhaps his own son. He rose against the usurper whom he had supported. Constans had the general Gerontius in charge of Spain. the revolt of Zos. and Maximus at Tarragona. tamely. Gaul. ruling over parts of the Eoman Empire.

and then stabbed himself. Meanwhile Honorius had sent an army under the command of Constantius and Ulfilas to do what Sarus had failed to do before and win back "the Gauls. 1 Constans soon while fled before Gerontius and his new allies . vi . the Britannic borders. fiaai irpbs vi. : 1 Zosimus. There is no reason to read the conjecture of Godefroy Bpovrria. 16) narration of the scene will be found in - I in Olympiodorus ix. defend themselves. wrote letters to the cities of Britain. his maker. his Frankish master of soldiers (it is to be presumed he held this title). reproduce here the short account a romantic (fr. Rhone. the retreat did not cease even at the Pillars of Hercules. Constans was speedily captured at Vienna and put to death and the victor. 2 Thus besiegers in the interest of Honorius replaced the besiegers in the interest of Maximus at Arelate. 10 'Ovupiov 8e ypa/ut&s iv Bperavvia xPWW&ov 7r6Xets (pv\&TTecr6anrapayyeX\ov<n. For more than three months the siege wore on. perhaps against Saxon enemies. marching down the his father. own The house in which he took refuge was set on fire he and his Alan squire fought long and bravely against the besiegers and at length in despair he slew his squire and his wife Nunechia. Sozomen. and the hopes of the usurper depended upon the arrival of Edobich. who had been once his masters. when Alaric retired from besieging Eavenna. . . to meet death there at the hands of his troops. . bidding them It may We learn that Honorius. if marched into Gaul against the father and son. be noticed here that Britain was not yet forgotten. where Constantine and his second son Julian held out. Before the repre- sentatives of legitimacy the blockading army fled. who had been sent to engage barbarian reinforcements beyond the Rhine. DISMEMBERMENT OF EMPIRE BEGINS . It is really worthy of notice how the loss of the furthest outlying of the Eoman conquests in the "West was followed by this curious and how when the Eoman armies retired from series of effects in . 143 Gerontius and his presence in Spain were a direct consequence of and the tyranny of Constantine the " tyranny " of Constantine Ganl and Spain depended upon his abandoning Britain. at their own request. and not Maximus reigned in state at Tarraco. laid siege to Arelate. 14." Thus Constantine was menaced on the one hand by the general of a usurper and on the other hand by the general of the lawful Emperor. .— chap. and Gerontius returned to Spain.

just as four years before Alaric had abandoned Illyricum and passed into Italy the Visigoths were It is someinevitably drawn to the shores of the Atlantic. Burgundians prototype of the Gunther of the Nibelungen and Goar. and Constantine. ere he had yet gathered strength. and his elevation was intimately connected with the occupation of the Middle Bhine "We know not how it was that Conby the Burgundians. 16. a Gallo-Boman. Jovinus. the subjugation of Jovinus was reserved. pp. the Yisigothic king. the king of the — — . fr. whose house he sought shelter.144 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE at length returned city. At the beginning of 412 Athaulf 2 and his Goths abandon Italy and pass into Gaul. with the court of Bavenna he carried the captive Blacidia with him. the victors of Aries. who barbarians farther from the pale of civilisation than Alaric. were the makers of this Emperor. stantine was sent with his son to Honorius. . " He fled to a sanctuary. and the Then victors gave a sworn guarantee for his personal safety. 1 Olympiodorus. a chief of the Alans." 1 (September 411. stantius and Ulfilas. cherishing resentment towards them for his cousins. violated the oaths and ordered them to be put to death. whom Constantine had slain. against her own will and the will of her brother. v. and a battle which resulted in a victory for the Edobich was slain by the treachery of a friend in besiegers. returned to Italy without striking a blow against the other tyrant who had But arisen on the Bhine. was proclaimed at Moguntiacum Like Attalus. seeing that his crown was irrecoverably lost. and Gundicar. and ConBut that Emperor. thought only of saving his life. thirty miles from Eavenna. see 2 For the reign of Athaulf. the gates of the city were thrown open to the besiegers. Dahn. times represented that Athaulf crossed the Alps as the bearer of a commission from Honorius to suppress the tyrant Jovinus. Athaulf had come to no understanding but this was not so. Koiiige der Germancn. While the army of Constantine was still blockading Arelate.) Edobich was fought near the But Constantine and Constans were not the only adventurers called themselves Emperors in Gaul in the year 411. where he was ordained priest. but for his rival in war and love. book ii with a formidable army. . but by (Mainz). not for the Boman general. he was set up by barbarians. 55-64.

2 w».chap. that Visigoth whom Emperor become a sham Emperor once more. prefect Dardanus. This £ L . that he might co-operate with the tyrant. was in the train of the Visigoths. he was far more disposed to side with Jovinus against Honorius than with Honorius against Jovinus. Why the prince who had been elevated by one Teutonic king disliked the Attains. urosius01ymp. the ex-Emperor. war against him whom not clear iS how far the Eoman «d «/*<«.l9. Hardly was Sarus. "S it" I rekted by 01 J™l>M«nn tin's f. vi DISMEMBERMENT OF EMPIRE BEGINS 145 is himself to the fortunes the feeble and prejudiced Honorius. promising to send him the heads of Jovinus and Sebastian. ne<pa\ j c ve'Awe Tai T V paa^ti .„ . and he seems to have been so prompt that when the ambassadors returned Sebastian decided to quarrel soon ensued between Athaulf and Jovinus and the latter defied the desires and injunctions of the former by proclaiming his brother Sebastian A put him to death Augustus. his relentless conqueror 1 ol he saw acting with partial success against Constantine.„8 & r.. had refused to grant him justice for the murder of a faithful domestic. and Jovinus blamed Attains dark sayings as the cause of the presence of an ungrateful supporter. 2 It is 1 Then Athaulf he had come to assist and defend the rights of the Emperor whom he had intended to oppose. ^wnwkn. and his persuasions induced Athaulf to march to Mainz. who was unable to retain his best officers. w urocrrpe^rw arrived at Athaulfs camp. f/ who which fl fr. An accident decided that he was to be the champion of the legitimate who was to m . after haying performed deeds of marvellous heroism taken alive. He sent envoys to Honorius. deduce nm «. and advanced with ten thousand to crush twenty soldiers. but perhaps he had already entered into friendly negotiations with Sarus. was already crushed. But it appears that the arrival of this unexpected help was not so welcome to the Augustus who reigned on the Ehine as the Visigoths might have hoped. The feuds of the West Uoths proved favourable to the cause of legitimacy Athaulf was incensed when he heard of the approach of Sarus. and who was the mortal enemy of Athaulf as he had been the mortal enemy of Alarm Sarus certainly arrived on the scene at this juncture with about a score of followers to attach Jovinus . support of another not clear.

It clear that between the presence of Athaulf at Mainz and the blockade of vlntia hostile operations were carried on. 4. Carthago Spartana in Carthagena Spain. he back to fled defeated.^ when cut off' ). It seems quite probable that Honorius might have liked to assert the the country ot triumphs of his arms his kin. ^ The p i aC e of execution is mentioned bv Idatius. were exposed at 3 Carthage in Spain. Sebastianus frater ejusdem hoc solum ut tyrannus moreretur elegit Nam continuo ut e est 3 slain at Carthage about the same time that Jovinus was slain Olympiodonis 19 a! : ml ^orideurac &&*> «£x\cu Karfary^f «&"*«£- creatus occisus est. heads have been exposed at Carthage ? Why He also mentions Jovinus cLuierat. threats of Alaric. supported by Orosius (vii. is Mr. its provinces prepared to reject Africa to find at Narbo. Hodgkni would read Milan-but that is arbitrary. we Before following further the actions of Athaulf of Count revolt the notice and must turn for a moment to Africa a conof testimony express Heraclian. Surely. the cut and Julian had been formeily off" (a loose exp^ssion for 'expo d .). The executioner by Olympiodonis. atVarbonne (autumn danus brother. who wrongly unites the deaths of the two brother's in time and mace. the death of Sallustius as one associated with the brother tyrants. whose rebellion. by the which usurpation of examples temporary. and stood by the throne of his threatened and seized by the infectious disease of tyranny whose fleet. Valentia nobilissima Galliarum civitas a Gothis effringitur ad quam se fugiens does not name the Olympiodonis J in these words. if Olympiodorus meant Carthage he would have Surely he meant written KapxnStoos. in Gaul. battles perhaps fought- ms S ofCo^totme where>. then so terribly overrun by bar- - m mentioned barians. but was almost immediately was He him.he adds. and Italy.. immense With an sovereign without provocation. which are always r should the ferred to Carthage. he had and the had resisted so staunchly the proposals of Attalus now was Honorius. as also those ot the tyrants Maximus and Eugenms who had been subdued by the great Theodosius. xn. The man observed in Gaul. was influenced by the 4 before. against the tyrant but it is clear that once Athaulf had turned from Mainz on fled Jovinus Dardanus.146 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE book ii was set had resolutely opposed the tyranny of the man who attitude. years three who. His 413). he co-operated with 1 soon surrendered to the Ehine to Valence on the Ehone. 42). of change s Athaulf influenced up by the Burgundians. sailed to numbers even at the time were grossly exaggerated. -between the totaly y lost to history adherents of Jovig o ths and the & Much difficulty has been found vS i' city s}e Prosper Tiro (19 Honor. to assert in Empire and the Theothat troubled country the might of the New dosian house. . 4 _ Philostorgms. the Visigoths who blockaded 2 and that of his head. but executed by Darwas and him.

He therefore refused to fulfil his part of the treaty. 1 He also made an attempt to take Massilia. Tolosa. execution at this It juncture partly depended on the lady herself. Whether he had meditated but doubtless its this not told . and seized the three most important towns of south-western Gaul. ISTarbo Martius. which he hoped might fall by treachery but it was defended by " the most noble Boniface. who demanded that he and his people should be supplied with corn. and how Athaulf sat beside her. as a Empire. This Paulinus (not to be confounded with his namesake of Nola) had joined Attalus. arrayed in the dress of a Roman and a royal bride. vi DISMEMBERMENT OF EMPIRE BEGINS 147 in Gaul. and when Heraclian revolted and inhibited the transport of supplies. and com." who was afterwards to play a more ambiguous and more conspicuous part in Africa. 496. ss. and this desire was ardently shared by his influential general Constantius. sacr. was the corn chamber of Italy. This revolt in Africa was partly influenced by recent events and it also exercised in turn an influence on affairs The great aim of Honorius. and Burdigala (Bordeaux) the city of the poet Ausonius.). consequence thereof. 1. bounded by his family and his poultry-yard. be recognised as dependants of the Eoman To this Honorius and Constantius agreed but Africa . and. in the house of one Ingenius. larg. . Placidia sat in the hall of the citizen of Narbo. and Athaulf himself was wounded wellnigh to death by a stroke which the Roman . who aspired to the hand of the princess. and was created by him comes privatac largitionis (a combination of the titles com. The assault on Massilia seems to have taken place in one months of 413. Eucliaristicon de vita sua (published in the Appendix of 1579 to de la Bigne's Bibl. Itincr. Accordingly negotiations were carried on with Athaulf. rei priv. 317. Paulinus of Pella. was celebrated in January 414 at Narbonne. whose mental horizon was there. Aspera quaeque omni urbe irrogavere cremata. and the pride of Constantius in his first consulship was spoiled for him by the news that the lady whom he loved was the bride of a barbarian. he too 1 Butilius Namatianus. a lead- ing citizen.) Prosper Tiro says that Aquitaine in this year was given to the Goths. i. We are told how. was to recover his sister Placidia from the hands of the Visigoth. the design before Roman we are princess. it became impossible to fulfil the engagement with Athaulf. and almost immediately after it Athaulf determined to give himself a new status by marrying his of the latest captive. Patr. dealt him.chap.

2 Orosius. complied with the wishes of the general Olympiodorus. Pag. This use of Romania for the territory of the Roman Empire deserves notice. 1 A " contemporary writer he said. or used by writers when they are looking at the Empire from an enemy's point of view. rendered the sentiments of Athaulf still more Roman but Honorius and Constantius were disposed to reject his friendly advances. In the sixth century Chosroes II is to use "Pa/mapia of the dominions of Maurice. Athaulf. the spoils of Rome. and Attalus was The marriage festivities were assisted by other Romans. and preventing all ships from reaching the coast of Septimania. set up the tyrant Attalus. each bearing two large chargers in his hands. Moved by resentment or policy. who had put down the tyrant Jovinus. ardently desired that the all 2 At first. saw in it the fulfilment of Daniel's prophecy. and without laws a republic is not a republic. 3 . and I hope to be handed down to posterity as the initiator of a Roman restoration. following year we find Constantius at Arelate. which has recorded words spoken by throw light on his attitude to the Empire. other nuptial gifts the Visigoth comely youths. But I have been taught by much experience that the unbridled licence of the Goths will never admit of their obeying laws. 1 and moved Romania. filled one with gold. and was always ready In the to be made or unmade as it suited his Gothic friends. Athaulf.148 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE With fifty book ii dressed as a Roman. It is chiefly put in the mouths of persons without the Empire. Pliilostorgius compares this marriage to the union of iron with pottery. who lived in the second half of the fifth century." The birth of a son. I have therefore chosen the safer course of aspiring to the glory of restoring and increasing the Roman name by Gothic vigour. " I Athaulf. ut vulgaritcr loquar. that the queen of the south should marry a king of the north. apparelled in silk. 24. taking his Emperor Attalus." Roman name should be con- should be obliterated. and that verted into an empire of Roman . and the Spanish bishop Idatius. should become Gothia 3 . fr. celebrated with common hilarity by barbarians and Romans gave his queen — alike. as it is impossible for me to change the form of the Empire. Historiae adv. vii. the other with priceless gems They had an ex-Emperor to pronounce an epithalamium. 42. determined to drive his enemy from Gaul into Spain. soil the Goths I longed that Romania and Athaulf be what Caesar Augustus was. the same who had been created Augustus by Alaric in 409. Theodosius. who died in infancy.

Theodosins. was compelled by the brother of Sarus to walk But Singeric's reign on foot in the company of captives. informs us that " he was elected by the Goths just for the purpose of breaking the peace. and unwisely he had received into his service a certain Dubius. and put to death the children of the dead king. and was buried in a church there in a silver coffin. engaging to undertake for the Eomans the war against the barbarians in Spain. So far we are told that the Alani. . Placidia herself. This ill -success " Alarmed at had the fortunate effect of changing his policy. the son of Placidia and Athaulf. 26. Alaric had essayed the sea just before his death and could not reach Sicily even so the ships of Wallia were shattered in the Straits of Gades. 1 The new king was not disposed to adopt the policy of Athaulf and assume a pacific attitude towards Eome. as was his custom. who immediately seized the royalty.chap. to look after his and the servant. The object of Wallia was probably the same as the object of Alaric he was pressed by want of supplies of corn. 4). . — 1 Olympiodorus. who had perished last year by the storm in the straits. slaying his second master. Wallia." 2 His first act. tearing them from the arms of the bishop Sigesar. died at Barcelona. fr. xii. to whose protection they had fled for refuge. apparently at the beginning of 41 6. The news of Athaulf 's death arrived at Byzantium on 24th September 415. 2 Qrosius ' vii 43 . the brother of Sarus. The historian. who had to long waited for a favourable opportunity. attempting to cross into Africa. while God ordained him for the purpose of confirming it. to the stable. endured only for seven days he was slain and succeeded by . vi DISMEMBERMENT OF EMPIRE BEGINS 149 southward along the coast to Barcelona. The other children were perhaps the offspring of that Sarmatian wife whom Athaulf seems to have divorced in order to marry Placidia (Philostorgius. whose husband had killed and whose brother had offended Sarus. who wrote two years later. he concluded a treaty with Honorius and honourably restored Placidia. where it was destined Unsuspectingly that the death of Sarus should be avenged. stabbed him Perhaps the assassin had been encouraged (September 415). commit this deed by Singeric. one of the followers of Sarus. who avenged own his first master by The king had gone horses. was to organise an expedition against Africa but it was not destined that the Visigoths should set foot there. the loss of a large body of Goths.

inveterate and harmless tyrant He punished the by maiming him of a finger and thumb. even as his first consulate. the second consulate of Constantius was sweetened for him by attainment to the object of his hopes. but he was captured and delivered alive to In the eleventh consulship of Honorius and the second of Constantius. 4 Placidia was escorted to Italy by the fr. with an air of patronising clemency. and condemning him to the same fate that he had wished to inflict upon himself. Prosper wrongly places the capture of Attalus in the tenth con. by the constraint of her brother. Attalus escaped in a ship. /cat tov "AttoXov ry fiacriKd 4 : sulate of Honorius. 150 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE is book ii the Vandals." l The conditions of this peace of 4 1 6 were that the Eomans on their part should supply Wallia with corn 2 that Wallia on his part should restore Placidia. would never have recognised a king of the Visigoths as his brother-in-law. On the first day of January she married him 4 against her own will. 31 Philostorgius. and is it said that Wallia very anxious to bring about a peace. Honorius had doubtless not forgotten how Attalus demanded. three years ago. 417. who held fast by the Eoman pride of family. but rightly places As his punishment in the eleventh. 31). and should fight in Spain against the barbarians who had occupied it. vii. Placidia misjht now be restored without detriment to Gothic honour. If by the triumph over Attalus. that the son of Theodosius should retire to some small island. of the Constantius. The marriage was followed by the the consulate of Honorius was sweetened 1 Orosius. the hand of Placidia.evoi the last clause seems due to a confusion with the compact of 418. Olympiodorus. Philostorgius also mentions his punishment. cf. 42) undc discedens navi incerta moliens irapaTtdevTaiai/TolcnTriaeo-LTedetjiwdfrTes /cat fiotpau Tiva tt)s twv TaXarQv %t6paj els yewpyiav airoK\-qpw<j&ij. and tried to elude the vigilance Eomans. in maricaptusct ad Constantium comitem dedudus. a Gothis ad Hispanias migrantibus neglectus et praesidio carens capitur . fr. . had been embittered by her marriage with Athaulf. xii. and rivalry in love placed a barrier between the husband and the suitor of Placidia. should give up the tyrant Attalus. etc. and he now banished his prisoner to Lipara.. he says. wrote his in the following year. During the lifetime of Athaulf such a treaty could not have been concluded. and the Suevi are destroying one another. the Emperor entered Eome in triumph. to the capture. magistrianus Euplutius (Olymp. 3 with Attalus at the wheels of his chariot. 43. 3 The news reached Constantinople on 28th June 416. the narrow-minded Honorius. Orosius (viii. He History against a _ the Pagans .

to the Gothic group of Teutonic nations. vi DISMEMBERMENT OF EMPIRE BEGINS two children. whose name was changed by the Saracen occupation. and destined to be an Emperor himself. which we left in 409 when the barbarian. the modern and the Silingi obtained the southern lands of the Baetis. rich in The four nations. and he used to cast his all deemed his appearance eyes obliquely hither and thither . i. A. 1 Idatius.M. entered that fair land. vii. descending even to We vie with the mountebanks who performed for the guests. (Capitolinus. and he looked askance he had large eyes and when he rode. at the invitation of Gerontius. Cf. of one who might aim at carouses he We must now return and to Spain. and is now called Guadalquiver. the brother- in-law of the Emperor. Km. against whose assumption by his sister-in-law Eudoxia Honorius had protested more than twenty years ago. . divided the land between The Suevians and the Asdings together occupied the crops. When he walked in public. In 420 he entered upon his third consulate. 140. The Vandals belong Dalm. mines of gold and precious Vandal Asdings and the Vandal the Suevians and the Alans. has come " down to us from the pen of a contemporary writer. was amenable and sociable. Placidia at the same time receiving the title Augusta. Honorii. dcr Gcrmanen. by which the natives retained the cities and the invaders possessed the open country. Portugal . . 1 . the north-western province of Gallaecia. They were conquered hy Marcus Aurelius 171-173 a. 151 birth of in 419 (3d A tius. his whole body a large neck and a flat head inclined over the neck of his steed. " his eyes were downcast. and throughout the whole country the Spaniards were able to defend themselves in the cities but the bloody harryings and devastations of the Germans soon'forced the inhabitants to make a compromise. Cf. them." can understand that Placidia was not attracted by this rough Eoman.d.chap. Orosius. V. the regions north of the Douro up their abode in Lusitania. xvii. and early in the following year was co-opted by Honorius and proclaimed Augustus. the Alaus took . personal description of the Count and Patrician Constan- now the most influential minister of Honorius. that At feasts and empire. The eastern coast of the peninsula was not occupied by the invaders. . Silings." says Olympiodorus. Honoria in 418 and Valentinian III July). rich in corn stones. 40.

the northern part of the province of Narbonensis and part of Novempopulania. He marched against the barbarians of Spain before the year was over.152 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE Wallia's treaty with the Empire had been book ii made before the month of June in 416. 3 Compare Constantius Prosper pacem firmat cum Wallia data ei ad habitandum Aquitania ct quibusdam : p. 2 civitatibus confinium provinciarum. 2 chief. Thus the two great cities that are built on the banks of the Garonne. Corduba. It was apparently in the consulship of Monaxius and Plintha (419) that the compact was made 3 by which the Empire granted to the Visigoths a permanent home in south-western Gaul. and and Gades were at 418 the Silingians were totally extinct through the valour of Hispalis. Gothic arms. The whole province of Aquitania Secunda. Kbn. Idatius. Burdigala at its mouth. and fought successfully against the conquerors of Lusitania and Baetica. Gunderic succeeded his father Godigisel in Spain in 409 or 411 (Dahn. Honorii. xxiv. length delivered from the presence of a menacing foe. In the following nominis in fighting " for the Eoman name. i. were not so completely exterminated. . he inflicted great slaughter upon the barbarians. formed the nucleus of the Visigothic kingdom. with High-Dutch art — genus (nobile). as the rival and brother-in-law had been and they were ready to recompense him for his services in Spain. and Tolosa. ." Romani causa. the Visigoth. but their and the remnant of them who escaped the sword of Wallia fled to Gallaecia and submitted to Gunderic. 1 See the notices in Idatius. 186. The Alans king Atax was of the Thus Wallia the the Eomans. killed. . der Gcrmanen. He He was not obnoxious to Constantius and Honorius. now Bordeaux. which was afterwards to include a larger portion of Gaul. the king Asdingian Vandals. is who had been elected for the express purpose of reversing the policy of Athaulf and warring with by the stress of events found fighting for the Eoman name. on the Mediterranean coast. The Asdings were a royal family 17). 143). among them Dahn would connect asd . as they were unwilling to recompense Athaulf for his similar services in Gaul. Idatius places this and Wallia's death in the twenty-fourth year of Honorius = 418. and Eoman power by carrying out the ideal which Athaulf pro- fessed to have set before himself — the ideal of restoring the received his reward. 1 Silingian Vandals year. were ruled over by Wallia and his successors but Narbo Martius. still The chief of the was sent to Honorius.

a definite territory was marked out for them.chap. nor yet in . and they were re. was a momentous event it was the beginning of that compromise between the Empire and the Teutons to which everything had been tending for many years. regard to the Visigoths must have been acceptable to the Gallo- Eoman inhabitants of those regions. About the same time the same policy was adopted in regard to the Burgundians who had settled on the Middle Ehine. the land of Theodosius. i. Narbonensis Secunda. hesitated to concede Spain. or else receive an allotment of territory elsewhere. Novempopulania. by the idea that the presence of the Visigoths might The Eoman inhabitants of the provinces where the strangers settled would naturally be in a 1 By von Ranke. who was the author of this compact. not legitimate to assume that the settlement of the Goths and the measure which instituted a provincial assembly were closely connected ? The imperial government seems to have been deeply concerned for the state of southern Gaul. Aquitania Prima. solicitous for the welfare of those provinces. and Constantius conceived the idea of combining a remedy with the solution of another problem. Narbonensis Secunda Viennensis. iv. In any case the Eoman German Emperor would probably have people . which had lately endured so much at the hands of tyrants and barbarians. . It has been justly pointed out that this arrangement in In the year 418 an edict conferred local govern. to a influenced but perhaps the choice of south-western Gaul was invigorate a declining region. It was evident that the Visigoths must be allowed to occupy the lands which they had conquered for the Empire in Spain. Aquitania Alps. pp. 272. 271. of them against the will of the inhabitants. the land of gold mines. vi DISMEMBERMENT OF EMPIRE BEGINS 153 was reserved by the prudence of Constantius. would not have imposed the Visigoths upon In fact. cognised as dependent on the Empire. after many wanderings. Constantius was herein the successor of Theodosius the Great and Stilicho he carried out that in which they had failed. — who had been Italy This final settlement of the Visigoths — able to find no home in Illyricum. The Maritime Weltgeschichte. 1 of Honorius — the work of Constantius — ment on the inhabitants of the Seven Provinces 2 sentative council was to be held every year at Arelate a repre. 2 Prima. and we may assume any one is it that the government.

life. 1 built at the all union of the Ehone with the Tuscan facilities of trade. abounded so profusely that one might have thought the various marvels of merce and healthy the municipalities. sea. it must repre- have received long and serious consideration. but it to enable the Empire to retain a hold on the lands which The idea consisted in relaxing the strict bonds of administration which connected all the Seven Provinces with the central government. accolit Alpinis opulenta In the fifth century Arelate was close to the . of fair Spain and of brave Gaul. intended to multiply social relations. 1 Of the fourteen nobilcs urbcs Gallula Roma Arelas. sung by Ausonius Arelate comes eighth quam Narbo Martius et quam Vienna colonis. provided with the might have been the centre of a federation. able to have maintained a distinct Gallo-Eoman life for many centuries. as far as I know. of perfumed Arabia and of delicate Assyria. intended not only to give 418 a very ingenious new life to southern Gaul. is our authorities as coming spon- The scheme of representative government for the Seven Provinces. It seems hardly possible to set aside the notion (although. where all the famous products of the rich Orient. it has never been put forward) that the rescript was drawn up with full consciousness on the part of Constantius that the Visigoths were to be settled in Gaul. to have accelerated the civilisation of the Pranks. That settlement cannot have been made on the spur of the sented by the consent of all moment for it . which were to pass into the hands of the was determined to surrender to the Goths. for which purpose representatives of all the towns were to meet every year in Aries. to increase com- was not taken up with enthusiasm by had taken root the history of southern Gaul might have been different." the little Eome of Gaul. taneously from the Patrician. of fertile Africa. Goths. We seeing in the edict of Honorius of April idea. to conduct their own affairs. book ii looser relation to the but it was important that the can hardly then avoid relation should not cease to exist. If the idea all the world were indigenous in its soil — Arelate. by removing the imperial governors and allowing the inhabitants. would. which was under imperial control. " The city of Constantine. sea. belong to a Eoman political body.— 154 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE Empire . Thus the Gallo-Eomans of those provinces and towns. as a dependent federation. without clashing with their masters.

p. appears upon the scene. which Wallia had cleared of their kinsmen two years Vigorous measures were now demanded if the Eoman before. indignant at the insult. large number were slain by the Eomans. 240. 1 tains . We are in the dark as to the purple long. the motive of the hesitation of the ruler of . Olymp. Castinus commanded this 1 See the notices in Idatius' Chro- nicle. Giildenpenning. After the Visigoths Gunderic. when he was still a private individual. and after his death Ravenna 3 2 39. Emperor desired to save Spain. After a reign of seven months he died of pleurisy (2d September). New Borne to acquiesce in the choice of his uncle it has been conjectured 4 that he looked forward to the death of Honorius without heirs and the devolution of the western provinces upon himself. 34. The elevation of Constantius in February 42 2 seemed of good augury for the interests of the Roman republic 3 but the third Constantius was not destined to wear . The warlike intentions of Constantius were fortunately not to be realised. prepared to force recognition by the sword. vi DISMEMBERMENT OF EMPIRE BEGINS 155 and to have prevented the Asiatic stranger from ever crossing the Pyrenees. but suddenly Asterius. attending imperial . after his marriage with Placidia. king of the were blockaded in the Nervasian mounleft Spain there was Vandals. without a bitter element. 5 We know not whether it was at his suggestion that an expedition was undertaken in the following year (422) against the Vandals in Spain.1 ) chap. He is said. king of the Suevians. The announcement of his co-option was sent to Constantinople. was deluged by the claims of persons by whom he had dealt unjustly.m. and in consequence of his operations the VanAt Bracara a dals abandoned their blockade of the Suevians. if the work of the Visigoths was not to be undone. The latter war between and Hermeric. fr. We shall see how this trait came And his elevation was not out in his daughter Honoria. Theophanes. and then they left Gallaecia and passed into the southern provinces of Baetica (420). count of the Spains. . 4 5 Honorius was unwilling to grant imperial title. By Olymp. fr. but Theodosius refused to recognise liim and the new Augustus. It is characteristic that he is said to found the restraints . to have lapsed into the vice of avarice. 5913 a. him the {lb. have power intolerably irksome he was not free to go and come as he used.

but he quarrelled with the commander and proceeded to It is hard to decide whether this was more than an Africa. which attended his presence 1 In 422 he was ordered to in Africa are veiled in obscurity. 2 Idatius. such as the nurse Elpidia. in which Leonteus. and the barbarians who had come with the widow of Athaulf from Barcelona struck blows for the name and the fame of their The breach widened. to Tarraco. her two children. unkindness. and at length the Augusta. Histor. the steward of Placidia. even as her mother had once It is fled from the usurper Maximus.156 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE . book ii expedition but all the expeditions which were sent at various fail. Freeman's article on " Aetius and Boniface. turned into gall. probable that in the court intrigue more powerful per- sonages were involved than the subordinates. But the sweetness was soon was formed. Africa whom Boniface ousted from his we may there- 1 Sec Mr. Spadusa and Elpidia. Boniface now appears on the stage of history. played a prominent part in fostering suspicion and A cabal There were frays in the streets of Eavenna. was banished from the city which Honorius loved. Review. Chron. The circumstances. The general Castinus fled before the enemy After the death of Constantius the relations between Honorius and his step -sister became close and tender. It may be observed that there is no hint that at this time Boniface really quarrelled with the court of Eavenna. accompany Castinus on the expedition against the Vandals in Spain. with mistress. times against the Vandals were destined to until the clays when the great Belisarius overcame Gelimer. and sought refuge with her kindred in Xew Borne (423). 2 in that province to organise the expedition. July 1887. and slanderous tongues whispered that their kisses and endearments portended a criminal intimacy. . and two of her women." Eng. We can the this hardly help conjecturing that the general Castinus and The celebrated Count Boniface were concerned in it. who are mentioned as sowing the seeds of discord. act of disobedience. —whether ment without imperial warrant. and he was at time probably count of Africa (422). he seized the African governhaving been already governor and having been summoned specially to Italy he returned in pique to the sphere administration. and there is no mention of any commander in office . however. of his or.

23. his act might be regarded as disobedient and illegitimate while the same act. the seat of his administration. vii. had by his mere existence held things together.chap. His administration was highly lauded by a conis not represented as having defied. This act of Boniface. the first government was to occupy the port of Salona in the province of Dalmatia. "Socrates. when that very Castinus with whom he had quarrelled " connived " at the usurpation. if it were approved of and supported by the Augusta Placidia. not only would the conduct of Boniface be explained. The intervention of Theodosius at this . 1 Prosper: Castino. and that a quarrel between the two commanders thwarted its execution. 1 If we combine with this the fact that Boniface strongly upheld the cause of Placidia in her quarrel with Honorius in so far as he supported her with that the and remember must have begun much upon the same time as the ambiguous departure in her exile at Constantinople. against the will and consent of Honorius. On the contrary. at this the court of Eavenna. of the When the news arrived at Constantinople. " seizure " of Africa be accounted If he " deserted the palace " . and the city mourned for the deceased Emperor. Honorius. and he period. we shall be disposed to If. which belonged to the prefecture of Italy. lawful. money quarrel between the brother and sister of Boniface for Africa (422) took place. whatever character it bore. might be regarded as of the chroniclers in regard to his for. weak though he was." " conniventi ut putatur 2 Cf. who. but the uncertain language would and proceeded to Africa. we shall find him espousing the cause of legitimacy against the usurper John in 424. 5915 a. when the Augustus and Augusta were in conflict. conjecture that the two events had some links of connection. vi DISMEMBERMENT OF EMPIRE BEGINS 157 fore best suppose that the intention of Italy was to combine the forces and the forces of Africa against the invaders of Spain. was. died of dropsy on loth August care 423. " the beginning of many labours to the republic. the latter were supported by Boniface and opposed by Castinus.m." . Theoph." temporary. The event was then made public 2 for seven days the hippodrome of Constantinople was closed. according to a chronicler.

when he returned. who was ance. might overlook the claims of Valentinian. but from marriage accompanied by his bride Eucloxia. and by Candidian. 1 Philostorgius. In either case there was fighting to be done in the West. and look forth over Grecian waters. the troops of Ardaburius embarked in the ships which were stationed there and sailed across to the coast of Italy. the jprimicervus notariorum ? When Constantius had been proclaimed Augustus. without dividing the power or else he might recognise his child step-cousin as his colleague and act provisionally as his regent and protector. supported by his son Aspar. And so now Placidia and Valentinian received those titles anew. xii. as to recognise the Augustus. the city of Diocletian's palace. 2 and then set forth with a large army to recover their inheritThe army was commanded by Ardaburius. whose name was John. not from a sort of exile. and two courses were open. The infantry were commanded by Ardaburius and the cavalry by Aspar. At Thessalonica. but the court of Constantinople had as little vouchsafed to recognise the nobilissi- mus or even the Augusta. . and the child Valentinian had received the title of ndbilissimus . Theodosius and Pul- cheria decided to take the second course. 11. . who soon arrived to demand his recognition by the sovereign of New Eome. were banished to different places on the Propontis 1 if Theodosius had disdained Constantius as a colleague. is 2 ewavaka^dvei the word of Olympiodorus. have disdained John. for a usurper. and when they arrived at Salona. fr. while the troops of Aspar proceeded by land to festivities. which by to this time had recovered from the terrible vengeance It of the great Theodosius. who had probably accompanied Placidia in her exile.158 crisis HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE book ii was evidently indispensable. and the general Castinus He . 46. the son of the Augustus whom he had refused to recognise. as his grandfather and namesake had ruled it. and to support the kinsman Valentinian and their kinswoman PlaThe ambassadors of John. did not disapprove of the usurpation. Placidia had also been proclaimed Augusta. how much more would he rights of their cidia. he might aspire to rule the whole Empire himself. the grandson of Theodosius the rank of Caesar. see its was raised was destined that he should once more churches. had arisen at Eavenna.

succeeded in against He then sending a message to his son. 43) to the effect that the Huns whom Aetius had collected to aid John (p. But he waited and he might have thwarted the expedition. who was destined to be the great support of the Theodosian house. who had connived at the homes. a storm of Aetius. usurper had immediately proceeded to operate against Aspar. followed them into their haunts in Pannonia and recovered the province for the realm of Valentinian. John was captured and conHis ducted to Aquileia. the right hand of Valentinian as was afterwards said. It is strange that the first appearance of Count Aetius. Ardaburius was unfortunate it was caught in The general himself. Ardaburius employed the time of his captivity in forming connections with the officers and ministers of the tyrant. vi DISMEMBERMENT OF EMPIRE BEGINS 159 Sirniium. Aetius now arrived on the scene with 6000 Huns. Aetius himself was pardoned and reconciled with Placidia and his influence with the Huns was so great that he was able by a donation of money to induce that large army to retire to their The general Castinus. and shaking the fidelity of his adherents in Eavenna. he was driven through the circus before he was executed. . the soldiers of Aspar some thought that the shepherd entered without opposition was an angel of God in disguise. was captured by the soldiers of John. was banished and when all things had been peacefully arranged Valentinian was proclaimed Augustus at Eome on 23d October (425). 1 tyranny of John. . and thence over the Julian Alps to the great city of the Venetian march. bidding who waited him advance Eavenna with all haste. where Placidia doomed him to death. right hand was cut off and. If the near Eavenna. should he brought into connection with Marcellinus' notice that Pannonia was recovered in 427 Pannoniae quae : holds that the troops of Theodosius. . driven ashore and scattered. He relied on the arrival of an army of gave the enemy time. Huns. . . mounted on an ass. uneasily and expectantly at Aquileia. Guided by a shepherd through the morasses which secured that city. in repelling the Huns who had invaded parts of his own provinces. re- He ravaged Roman territory on their return. who were advancing to support him under the command The fleet of . Aquileia.chap. 1 per quinquaginta annos ab Hunnis tinebantur a Romanisreccptaesunt. but John was no longer there to employ their aid. It is conjectured by Giildenpenning 264) that a statement of Socrates (vii.

He had been. of Huns on the part of Aetius did not mean that he Hunnised in an opprobrious sense. f>S~ German. his sojourn in him familiar with Scythian ways. we may say nothing remarkable at this period for a Eoman to use Huns in contending against Eomans x sight we have of — — . and had afterwards been sent as a hostage every general used Hun and Alan. a hostage with Alaric. book ii should have been as the champion of a usurper strange too that the first it may seem him who was to be the great deliverer of Europe from the Huns is as the leader of an army of Huns. July 1S87). "Aetius and Boniface" {English Historical Review. In later years Hunland made too he was on friendly terms with 1 Attila.160 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE . king of the Huns . He was the son of an Italian mother and of Gaudentius. Freeman that there was nothing recreant. as well as . to Eugila. who had fought with Theodosius against the tyrant Eugenius and he was born at the town of Saro^bpum or Dorostena (now Dristra or Silistria) in Lower Moesia. But it has been well pointed out by Mr. with whom he is on the best terms. The circumstances of his youth had brought about his familiarity with the barbarians. . until Attila threatened Europe. merThis employment cenaries in civil as well as in other wars. as a child.

d. The strong cities in Illyricum were fortified. the Huns. the realm of Tkeodosius was in danger from It a powerful combination. an unbroken peace prevailed until the reign of Anastasius. the western government conceded a part of . hovering on the shores of the Danube and and at least The rise of the great putting Gainas to death. and had now become a great power. reign the At the beginning of Theodosius* Eomans gained a victory over this Uldes. was involved in war with three powers. of gold to Paigila or Piua. their king. of the Black Sea. (See below. but in 400 we find Uldes. The Huns had gradually advanced from their Caucasian abodes. and about 424 Theodosius consented to pay 350 lbs. who had established himself in the land which is now Hungary. iii. king of the Huns. and followed up the success by defensive precautions. vii. a kin^ of other Huns. With two VOL. which threatened European civilisation in the fifth century. and to whom. Hunnic power. I short interruptions in the reign of Theodosius. and including many barbarian kingdoms. and Persians. pressing westward the Goths who lined the north shores Attila. two of them. ruled over a European empire stretching from the Don to Pannonia. In 395 Asia Minor and Syria had been ravaged by Huns entering by the north-east passes. cap. about 433. 1 at the same time. M . were in league. and new walls were built to protect Byzantium the fleet on the Danube was increased and improved. But a payment of money was a more effectual barrier against the barbarians than walls. the Huns and Vandals. Vandals. was as sudden and rapid as its fall.) CHAPTEK VII INVASIONS OF THE HUNS In 441 a. 1 The dom relations of the Persian kingto the Empire during the fifth century may be more conveniently resumed in another place. Bk.

The Vandals were unique among the German nations by the fact that they maintained a fleet. moritur cui Bleda succcssit. fr. The interests demanded that an attempt should be made to suppress this evil. where the meeting of 1 Priscus. fr. the general of Valentinian. which included private vessels and corn transports. which has a suspicious resemblance to the number of Leo's great armada in 468 a. Germanus. whose numbers have perhaps been exaggerated. as will be related in another The movements of Attila from 434 to 441 are lost chapter. 1 When Eugila died in 434 his nephews Attila and Bleda. afterwards . and Inobind. which stretched to the Caucasian mountains on the east. and entered into an alliance with Gaiseric. Bleda was older than Attila cf. and Attila Bleda. 2 There is a difficulty as to which was It seems more probable that the elder.162 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE It book ii Paimonia. as the hostilities of Attila were certainly influenced by the movements of Gaiseric.750. Prosper Tiro (eleventh year of Theodosius). 3 Attila cherished friendly relations with Aetius. 3 Priscus. who had taken Lilybaeum and was besieging Panand commercial spelling Bdclla in Theophanes perhaps preserves an unkind Greek pun. Other generals were Anaxilla. 1. 2 the sons of Mundiuch. is given by Theophanes as 1100. and placed under the command of 4 Areobindus. or rather more. that Aetius. He at least thought that Bleda sueceeded Rugila. The number of ships. succeeded him. but at the latter date we find him ruler over an enormous barbaric empire in central Europe. and a large armament.m. It was despatched to Sicily to operate against Gaiseric. 5941 a. 350 lbs. king who had passed from Spain into Africa in 429 and established themselves there. Arintheus. 4 Theophanes. 1. was sent as a hostage and it was he who supplied Aetius with the auxiliaries for the support of the tyrant John. was to Eugila probably. and a new treaty was contracted by which the payment was doubled. was fitted out by Theodosius. cum quo pax firmata. On all matters relating to the Huns and their relations with the Empire Priscus is our chief and best-informed authority. and to make piratical raids was even thought advisable security of traders to fortify the shore on the coasts of Greece it and harbours . of the Vandals. Eugila rex Chunnorum. and it has been suspected that the hostilities of the latter were not uninfluenced by the Huns. so that they were able to afflict the eastern as well as the western lands of the Mediter- ranean. £15. to us. The the Roman ambassadors with is the Huns = at Margus-Constantia described.d. . required against the Vandals and the Persians. of Constantinople against a possible Vandal expedition. . to be the terror of Huns. threatening the provinces At the same time the forces of the East were of Theodosius.

Prosper tells us. He con- descended to allege a cause for his invasion . 2 The cause of the war was the inva- have followed Guldenpenning in transposition of the second and third frag. like Alaric the Visigoth at an earlier. who died as a martyr and became a favourite subject with but how his passage into Mauretania. Coteadis. an ancestor of Cassiodorus won glory by opposing chief. attributed to John of Antioch and preserved by Suidas. who seem to have been encouraged by Gaiseric. 1 Fr.chap. later time. Gaiseric in Sicily (Yariae. The danger came from a son-in-law of Boniface. he complained of the irregular payment of tribute. From a fragment. b l ) after the capture of Yiminacium. should desolate the What happened and Theodoric the Ostrogoth at a provinces of the East before he turned to the West. The negotiations were futile. city of Eatiaria. 3 Danube from siege to the Then Attila.) In 440. an important town on the Ister in Dacia ripensis. the Sicilian expedition. . 194. and. of Priscus. 1 it would seem that he was the commander of a pirate crew which served the Emperor Theodosius and so we might suspect that his invasion of Mauretania was closely connected with Italian painters . and that deserters had not been restored the laid . . the famous Sebastian. it may be noticed here. of the military forces which had not accompanied Areo- bindus to the West accompanied Anatolius and Aspar to the hostilities It there is not recorded clearly. 2). but tidings of some dark danger which threatened him a truce with in Africa induced the friend of pirates to Eoman general and hurry back to his kingdom. Here ambassadors arrived from Borne to remonstrate with the Huns for breaking the and the invader replied to their complaints by alleging Margus had entered Hunnic territory and robbed treasures from the tombs of their kings the surrender of these treasures and of deserters was demanded as the condition of peace. New peace. The Medi- sion of Roman territory terranean at this time was infested by pirates. ed. (fr. of which menaced Gaiseric is not clear. i. who had advanced towards home. but the were of short duration and slight importance. etc. having that the bishop of . 4). which seems very reasonable and he is evidently right in placing the capture of Naissus (fr. which was somewhere on the Theiss. was destined that he. but the government at Constantinople disrehis garded his embassy. Most East. 3 by the Persians and Tzanic auxiliaries was caught and executed (Marcellinus ad ami. 2 At this moment Attila determined to invade the Empire. I his . In 438 a pirate with Saracen (Marcellinus). vii INVASIONS OF THE HUNS make 163 ormus the . Miiller.

Their scouts diswith a successful defence. its Viminacium and Singidunum. The garrison not only defied the foes. but the place fell before the machines of Attila and the missiles of a countless host. in Upper Moesia. which faces Constantia on the the same bishop opposite side of the river. and which had recently given to the Empire a Third Constantius. Asemus did not bend. Attila was not to lay siege to when he invaded Italy he were not satisfied covered the opportune times. and these Theophanes. See Giildenpenning. New Eome. fell by treachery . and halted before the walls of Naissus. were overwhelmed in the onslaught of the " Scythian shepherds. The town of Margus. invaded Lower Moesia and laid siege to Asemus. The invaders advanced up the valley of the Margus. was not to lay siege to Old Eome but he took Philippopolis and Arcadiopolis. While the great towns like Naissus and Singidunum yielded to the violence of the whirlwind.164 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE book ii captured Eatiaria. the Hunnic horsemen rode up the course of the Ister and took the great towns which are situated on banks. — now now called called just as ten years later . different from that which marched to Thrace." and it seems that the friendship of Attila with Aetius did not preserve the town of Sirmium in Lower Pannonia from being stormed. the Morawa. 5942. whom Attila accused of robbing tombs incurred the eternal of betraying disgrace a Eoman town and its christian in- habitants to the greed and cruelty of the heathen destroyer. and a fort named Athyras. The Asemuntians of Constantinople. 1 If the nameless bishop of Margus is branded with infamy for his recreant Hunnism. Then the victors passed south-eastward through narrow denies into Thrace and penetrated to the neighbourhood in the province of Msch. . Dardania the city which had been strengthened and improved by the affection of the great Constantine. A division of the Huns. but so effectually harassed them by sallying forth that they retreated. not far from the Bosphorus. the name of the strong fortress of Asemus in Lower Moesia deserves to be handed down by history in golden letters for its brave and successful resistance to the Hun. 344. even as the town of Plataea earned an eternal fame by its noble action in the Persian war. The inhabitants made a brave defence. p. when plundering bodies of the to the Hunnic army were returning 1 camp with spoils. but of countless multitude.

fr. and many Eoman prisoners. For four years after this the Illyrian and Balkan lands were not laid waste by the harryings of the great enemy. 2 Nor do we know what the master of soldiers in Thrace. vii INVASIONS OF THE HUNS . which had suffered less in the . Pasch. small success of the Huns in Lower Moesia proves the efficiency of the measures taken by Anthemius. for the defence of the Danube east of the Cebrus (p. cf.) 5 The terms were that the former payment of 700 lbs. fr. Giildenpenning notices that the 5. ad init. of gold. fro . lb. see Priscus. but in 447 Scythia and Lower Moesia. it was generally known as the " Peace of Anatolius " (443 a. all Hunnic deserters were to be restored. 1 Meanwhile the Eoman armies were returning from their campaigns in the East and in the West. and the Eoman general Arnegisclus fell in a battle fought on the banks of the river Utus. 3 was doing at Odessus. the prefect. Chron. lb. fr.. of gold were to be paid at once. between the court and of the embassy 2 For these negotiations. 7 of 1 Meanwhile embassies passed to and Attila and the court of Theodosius Priscus. who had commanded against Isdigercl (Yezdegerd). . At the same time another multitude descended the valley of the Vardar and advanced southward though some doubt the record as far as — — Thermopylae. but it is not clear whether the troops were actually employed against Attila. 3 i 5 rightly determined by (p.d. 4 was concluded between Theodosius and Attila. was to be trebled besides this 6000 lbs. the Persian king. As it was Anatolius who was the negotiator. made by the Eomans to the Huns. were rescued from captivity. A battle was certainly fought in the Thracian Chersonese. Pasch.) would is The date Guldenpenning nothave been undertaken by Theodosius until after the conclusion of the peace. seized by the adventurous citizens the were unexpectedly attacked many Scythians were . destined to languish in the wilds of Hungary. opolis felt the presence of the Hun again.chap. Chron. Id. who had commanded against Gaiseric. 346). who points out that the expcditio Asiana (Marcellinus. 6 See Marcellinus ad aim. accomplished anything of note against the Huns. or Aspar. and won the victory. (whose author used Priscus). but we know not who was his opponent. 6 Marcian- was taken. or whether Areobindus. Theodulus Attila After this battle a peace by name. 4. 5. former invasion. while Eoman deserters were only to be given up for a payment of 10 solidi a head. 7 Marcellinus. 165 moments were eagerly pillagers slain. 346) to 443.

acknowledged the overlordship of the king of the Huns. and Pioman officers talked of the chances of the overthrow of the Persian power by Attila and the possible But it consequences of such an event for the Eoman world. had the unmistakable aspect of a ruler of men. who accompanied the amand interesting details. who. which give and will be reproduced in another Until the end of the reign of Theodosius the oppressive Hun-money was paid to Attila . that the Illyrian peninsula It seemed would be again trampled under the . and the realm of Valentinian. as Jordanes says. The Hunnic empire had assumed a really formidable size and power under the ambitious warrior Attila. in spite of his hideous features and complexion. who. has left us copious us a glimpse of chapter. Scythica et Gerpossessed Scythian and German kingdoms " though of his domination is posseclit the extent manica regna Huns had Before 440 the attempted an often exaggerated. he was to shatter his strength in a contest with the forces of Europe on one of the great battlefields of the '' — world's history. was to the storm. invasion of Persia.— 166 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE book ii of Maxinrin the historian Priscus. was not destined that Attila should attempt to confront the great power of Asia. not the realm of Martian. horse-hoofs of Hunnic cavalry but complications in the West resist averted the course of the destroyer in that direction. but when Martian came to the throne he refused to pay the stipulated tribute. with many other German tribes. . we are told. bassador. Gepicls and Ostrogoths. Hun life.

now come the front we see what became the fortunes of Gaul. see Dahn's note. and follow further ruled and so many kingdoms fell we shall see. 261. formed a dependent kingdom in Aquitaine the kingdom of Tolosa. and the probably not Aryan Alans. Alans seem to have dwelt on the Loire (Dahn. 31. i. so far away from the Rhine and the Danube. Die Konige der Germanen. Theodoric shall and Gaiseric. and what became many peoples the Teutonic foes were pressing on the Empire. parts in the first scene dismemberment of the Empire. Bonifacius to and Aetius. Amm. ib. . how the shadow of the Hun fell upon Teutons and Eomans. had not as yet suffered from their invasion .CHAPTEE VIII THE PATRICIAN AETIUS We have seen how Spain was lost to the Empire and occupied by the Teutonic Vandals and Suevians. Africa. . have passed from the stage . where of Africa of Spain. 2 (combined with Procopius. of the who played such prominent new will figures. who down the usurpers in Gaul. finally. invaders and invaded alike. 1 For the various opinions as to the ethnical position of the Alans. but the occupation of Spain by into closer proximity. Constantius and the Pyrenees. i. We — Athaulf. where so . 1) is appealed to. as it is called by Dahn. 1 whom the rebel Gerontius invited south of crossed the Alps to put have seen too how the Visigoths. Stilicho and Alaric. After 406 B. In favour of a German origin. Marc. the Moors. 263). now bringing them But the Roman legions in the Afric provinces had work enough to occupy them in defending the the hordes of Vandals and Suevians was southern frontier against another persistent enemy. G. and how they successfully united to drive away the horror of darkness and desolation which menaced them.

p. 3 and comthat he no longer repelled the incursions of plaints were made the Afric barbarians with his pristine energy.) In this chapter I have made full use of Mr. who was a correspondent of 2 but he was now not only mara rich lady named Pelagia. and the alien nation cannot be recovered it seems most likely that the two former combined by Boniface . summoned to Eavenna to In 427 he was answer the charges and account for his conduct. Thus there was civil war in Africa. ried to p. under three commanders. chastity after the death of his ttoXKuv 7ro\\d/as (Hapfidpajv rjpia- revaev. The Goth Sigisvult was sent to Africa against Boniface. Galbio." may have been rewarded by it the title " Count of though but it seems more likely that he held that title before . delivering Africa from nations. by his opponents. 42 rjv (p. Prosper mentions the appointment of Sigisvult after the mention of the summoning of nations. Mavortius. July 1887. the year 422. 436. but he had allowed his child to receive Arian baptism. but its events are merged in obscurity. Freeman. appears that he began to degenerate. Boniface "had Boniface. quae navibus uti nesciebant. or by both there were operations at Hippo. Freeman's elaborate and convincing article on "Aetius and Boniface. and he was further suspected of living with mistresses. ttoWuiu fiapPapuv /cat dicupSpuv eduQv a7rr]Wa£e ttjv 'AcppiKTjv (ib. if not before. after 5 the the death of the three commanders (probably in 428) Vandals. 427. Felix. seem to have been carrying on active opera- At 2 least we find the heroic Boniface 1 shortly after. the general who was sent to crush him." cf. letter 220. Kai G. the master of soldiers who had succeeded By refusing to obey the order. Boniface placed himself in the position of an " enemy of the republic. 434. and the reproofs of St. Aetius and Boniface. and an army was sent from the East under Aspar against the invaders. he Africa. 3 Sec Mr. F. After the restoration of the legitimate dynasty. 1 Olympiodorus. under Gaiseric (who succeeded Gunderic in 427). H. having perhaps been summoned . and refused to acknowledge the claims of John. which was besieged by the Vandals. BovrjcpaTios fr." in the English Historical Revieiv. and Sinox. 4 5 . Placidia acting here by the advice of Castinus. and places both events in But the Vandals came in 429. 67.168 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE at this time book ii who tions." and an army was sent against him all of whom were slain. But the relations between the recalcitrant general.) /caret avT)p ijpwLKds vowed wife. Augustine. 4 : arrived in Africa in thither May or 429. Of the following facts alone can we be certain. many barbarous "We have seen how Boniface supported the claims of the sister and nephew of Honorius.

This important notice. and Boniface died shortly afterwards of disease said produced by chagrin and his opponent obtained posCurious legends have session of his property and his wife. p. But they extended their dominion rapidly over Africa they defeated the army which was sent from the East under Aspar and soon they held all the strong This expedicities except Cirta. the Vandals conquered Africa both the rebel and the suppressor of rebellion seem to have soon retired. Observe that (1) it confirms Mr. fact that in the only by tious conquest is to be explained not . 614). to part to There was civil war force a self-willed general to submission. yeveadat. as Boniface before. who is not a reliable authority on history before his own 2 time. who decided their feud by single combat. I 279) rightly doubted the story that Boniface invited the Vandals. . but now he has a new opponent in a military tumult against the Aetius. Aetius and Boniface. clvtov 5e r^s avrou y<tfj. . H. It rests on Procopius (B. 1 Von Ranke ( Weltgeschichte. Hippo. iv. 2 in 43 0. Aetius seized the property and wife of Boniface. 169 However this may have been. 3 grown up round this battle which was fought at Ariminum Boniface and Aetius were afterwards represented as rivals of ancient date. they did not take. marry Aetius.. A fought near in battle was was defeated. For some unknown cause Placidia decided to depose Aetius from his office as general and Aetius. vin THE PATRICIAN AETIUS common enemy. and Aetius Ariminum Italy. has been overlooked by Mr. and the story has only recently been finally exploded by our greatest . fr. i. who in recounting the deeds of Aetius. G. and Carthage herself. iroWrj 8ia(3&PTa %eipt (bare airb ttjs Alj3vt}$ fiev KaTearpaTrjyTjcrev eKelvov virb (ppovAhuv vbaoi TeXevTTJaai.€TT]s nod rrjs irepcovaias Kvpiov butAetius. We saw the Vandals . V. and in the year 432 Boniface appears in Italy restored to favour and holding the His rival Felix had been slain in office of master of soldiers. the victor in the war was not Boniface . . 445. 201 (p. and points plainly to civil war (2) it indicates that the battle of Ariminum was not decisive. the hero who had been lately distinguishing himself in and was Gaul. Freeman. 1. which have no doubt rests on the history of Priscus. chap. and. enumerates among theni that rbv 8e Bovr)<pdrLov aiiv 3 . 3). but he proved superior to his opponent in it is strategy. F. refused Boniface was now called upon to play the opposite to submit. iv. destined to win yet greater distinction when it devolved upon him to resist the Hun. that which he had recently played. See John of Antioch. — — living English historian. like Sigisvult. whence the legend that Boniface before his death counselled her to .whooutgeneralledhis opponent (3) as the victor in a war. which. however. in Africa besieging Hippo. 1 . Freeman's rejection of the legend of a single combat.

not intend to stop short of the total conquest of Africa. another portion was distributed among the Vandal warriors in lots (sortes Vanclalorum) probably the poorest territory was left to the Roman provincials. gave an excellent opening for an invader. who went about the country preaching and practising socialism. had pursued the policy of Constantius. In spite of his wonderfully rapid career of success. Africa had become a Vandalic kingdom. at Hippo). might have taken steps to expel the provisional. and might be Vandals with more justice than Boniwho. where a large portion of the population were heretics and preThe oppression of the pared to welcome a change of rule. Donatists. who was known not to be a Catholic he had lapsed from Catholicism to Arianism it probably came from these heretics. if he had lived. It is to be observed that the Vandals now held a position of vantage in regard to the Empire that none of the other Teutonic nations ever occupied. tinian. who was now the right hand of Placidia and Valen- called the friend of the face. but by the state of Africa itself. Gaiseric was glad to make a compact with the Empire in 435 (11th February. who bound themselves to pay a tribute. of a similar nature with the compacts which had been made with the Burgunclians and the West Goths. The province of Africa except the city of Carthage the province of Byzacena.— 170 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE book ii Italy Africa was forgotten for the more immediate struggle between Aetius and Boniface. Thus the Vandals were in the same position as the Burgundians and Visigoths. invader. But this compact could only be . A large part of the land was reserved as a royal domain. also prepared the way for a conqueror. for their lands. sworn foes of existing circumstances and closely identified with — — the followers of Donatus. and a part of Numidia. — the position of dependants allowed to live in Aetius. and their consequent opposition to the imperial government. perhaps of corn and oil. And so we may say that the Vandals had come round to the back of the Empire and were able to . were handed over to the Vandals. The bands of Circumcellions. Boman territory. and Gaiseric did In (October and than five Carthage taken less years was 439). and if any invitation was sent to Gaiseric. In relation to the foreign peoples of northern Europe. the front of the Roman Empire was the Rhine and the Danube.

the Burgundians. driven from Eoman ground by the arms of Julian. and extended their of dominion northwards. . 171 that. When the Burgundian kingdom was overthrown. the Upper Ehine. leader of the Franks was Chlojo. they came back to their old haunts and settled on Thus before 437 there were three nations. to enlarge the land which he held with Eoman 1 consent by acquiring Aetius prevented The new lands without Eoman consent. kingdom. the sea was made pervious to them sea. but not taken and Corsica and Sardinia became for a time parts of the Yandalic harry it in the northern ocean. They had been This change made way for the Alemanni. The dependent kingdom of the Burgundians in the districts Mainz and Worms (Gesoriacum) was not of long endurance. and the Alemanni. vin THE PA TRICIAN AETIUS behind. See Idatius. Wallia's successor. but at the beginning of the fifth century. though the Saxons and other men of the north used ships to Sicily was soon the object of Panormus was besieged. He warred successfully against the Franks. and prevent the nations from trespassing on soil which was not opened to them.. the Alemanni profited by the event. in the attack it Another peculiar feature was language of a chronicler. as they created a naval power and attacked the Empire by no other Teutonic people had done in the Mediterranean. and the small remnant which escaped the punishment of disloyalty moved south-westward. him from realising his aims. about Lake Leman. Chron. Before the end of the century their extended kingdom was incorporated in Francia by the battle of Tolbiacum (496). For Theodoric tried to do what Gaiseric actually did in Africa. who had invaded the regions between the Somme and the Ehine. the Franks. for in 437 Aetius almost exterminated the nation. 431 A. amid the general confusion of migration. which may be called the second Burgundian kingdom. from the mouth of the Ehine to its source. as Boniface. and received from the Eomans territory in Sapaudia (Savoy). chap. two at least nominally under Eoman supremacy. their attacks . It was not only against the Burgundians that Aetius was active in Gaul to maintain the respect due to the Eoman name. .D. in check. 1 and he kept the ambition of Visigothic Theodoric.

the court of Eavenna received the general again into favour. he had Litorius gratified rites the Hunnic soldiers of by the . who was a Eoman of the Eomans but nevertheless. In 439 an event occurred which paved the way for friendly relations between the great general and the great king. and the fact that the Visigoths were believers in Christ and the Huns goths were beaten back from Arelate. in regard of the Visigoths and Gaul. with the former of It whom he presents many points of resemblance. When Aetius was absent in Italy the Eoman captain Litorius. by a menacing embassy. of both Stilicho and Aetius to keep the Teutonic barbarians in check. per- formance of pagan it and the consultation auspices and . whom he had left in charge of the army. as Stilicho had won the confidence of Honorius and was the function . attacked Tolosa. and conferred on him the title of Patrician (433) and the office of magister . . or even of Valentinian. Aetius. but it may be noticed that Aetius employed Alan and Hunnic auxiliaries against the Teutons. his disgrace in 432. When the war with Boniface was over. hoping to accomplish a success which would throw the deeds of his commander in the shade. book ii might have prevented Gaiseric and the VisiWe need not follow these hostilities. or even by a hostile demonstration. a strange reward for his services in Gaul. 172 if HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE lived. coming of barbarian stock themselves. indicates clearly this distrust. Aetius But he carried on the work which Constantius had begun. whose help he had obtained nine years before to support John. had In this neither of considerable sympathy with the barbarian. and obtained the assistance of the Huns. and yet both. infidels. The opposition between Christianity and paganism was emphasised here. after several adventures. and was repulsed by Theodoric. withdrew to Pannonia. never fully won the confidence of Placidia. 1 It is time for us to speak self. this rendered conspicuous the christian attitude of Theodoric showed how much nearer he was to Aetius than were Aetius' soldiers. They did not fail him in his need by their means. them was like Constantius. more particularly of Aetius him- the great figure of the West. perhaps. . ad 439. 1 Prosper Aquit. So far we see in him only the successor of Stilicho and Constantius..

so that his . the idea of Europe as the habitation of Teutons and Eomans Eomans in the widest sense. was to be sown on the Catalaunian Empire. and made it follow his leadership.chap. dauntless in perils. Conscious. do with the happy decision of a crisis which concerned wider interests than those of the Eoman the to a man who had most to The exigency of a common interest the opposition foe was now to set a seal on the relations which had been recently established between the Empire and many of the Teutonic nations and the germ of a new idea. have been related. able to endure the hardships of hunger. thirst. and the devastation suffered by the Illyrian and Thracian provinces. l he forced Placiclia and Valenposition throughout his career tinian to have him against their will. vin THE PATRICIAN AETIUS . He was middle height. and brave in using the spear he was an excellent warrior and famous in the arts of peace free from avarice and greed. most patient of wrongs. skilled in shooting the arrow. vigorous in limb. The rise of the Hunnic empire under Attila. of manly con- body was neither too weak nor too weighty. A panegyrical description of the man has been preserved to us. active in mind. one who never deviated at the instance of evil instigafrom his own purpose. a lover of work. perhaps. endowed with mental dition. — — Fields. written by " of Eenatus Frigeridus. Idatius 2 Gregory of Tours. Hitherto he has appeared to us greater indeed than Conbut not as great as Stilicho we shall now see him as . and arrange the delicate relations into which it was thrown with the Teutonic nations. 173 This transaction is significant of Aetius' utrmsque militiae. that he was the one man who could guide the Empire through this critical stage. A pane- gyrical poena on Aetius is extant. he pressed himself on the court. a most dexterous horseman. common — — . by Merobaudes . and sleeplessness. tors But the successful accomplishment of the gigantic task which now awaited Aetius has made him justly famous as no panegyrics could have done. stantius. 8. At the time of the embassy of Maximin it had seemed that there was little likelihood of serious hostility 1 against western Europe on the part of the ad 433. well shaped. . by both yielding and refusing to yield at the right time. Huns . ii. for." 2 virtues.

yalentinian gave her as a gift to his mother Placidia blamed her daughter much . . At the age of sixteen she had condescended to the embraces of a chamberlain named Eugenius. act. and thus Honoria 3 For this part of the story we have .d. one might take a hint for its treatment from a story of George 1 Marcellinus places the 434 a. 1 and when the signs of pregnancy revealed the degradation of a princess.174 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE arose. but one of these was more though small points of difference very friendly relations with Attila. he had perhaps a disproportionate reverence for the conventional laws of respectability. his cousin Theodosius. sister as a and represent the brother and Tom and Maggy Tulliver of From a political the fifth century. . dosian house by one of Eliot. cohabitation with Eugenius and the appeal to Attila in the same year but the latter event must have taken place Jordanes at least fifteen years later. 3 its members as to forgive an insult or injury offered to If the subject of the it by a stranger.cousins. it was only natural that a princess who dared to consult her caprice or her affections should be The ultimate fate strictly dealt with. The factors others. . she took the adventurous course of offering her hand to the great enemy of the Empire the daughter of the lady who shrank from union with christian Athaulf was willing to unite herself to heathen . but afterwards Valentinian seems to have nourished resentment against his sister. to her brother Valentinian. and demanded that the share of the Empire. with a wildness which she had perhaps in- herited from her father's Illyrian ancestors. the indignation of her mother and her brother 2 banished her to Constantinople. should be instantly restored. Aetius book ii had kept up which operGaul invasion of seem to have ated in bringing about Attila's important than the been three. Attila slow to take advantage of her impetuous principle that all children. inherit equal porhe sent the ring of betrothal which he had received from Hyacinthus. the husband of innumerable wives. tells the story of Honoria. 2 only Valentinian was At this time The punishment of fifteen years old. princess Honoria were chosen for a historical romance. where she lived for fifteen years or more in the prim and irksome She was betrothed society of her religious step . . Attila. point of view. and at length. the secret messenger of Honoria. and was as unwilling to pardon a disgrace wrought to the Theo. Here we are brought to speak of the strange story of the princess Honoria. daughter of Placidia and Constantius. He had some of that quality which was weak obstinacy in his uncle Honorius and a more gentle firmness in Like Honorius. Honoria must have been willed by Placidia. whereof that sovereign had unrighteously deprived his sister. against her will to a respectable consular named Herculanus. of Honoria is buried in a defective fragment of John of Antioch. tions from their father. was not Adopting the male and female.

chap. But the question at stake the was not a quarrel between the unimpeachable authority of contemporary Priscus. and with a cruelty which even Attila might hardly have practised. Gaiseric sought the friendship and alliance him up to make war upon the Eomans who is our best contemporary authority. The bitter hatred which followed upon this outrage influenced the attitude of the Huns. fr. Gaiseric and the other to Huneric. -whose intimacy with important ministers afforded him every opportunity of knowledge of the political transactions and court intrigues of the day. . In a struggle for the succession between two Frank princes the and he against whom Attila decided Here was another circumstance which forced the Huns and the Eomans to measure swords. he mutilated her ears and nose. daughters. of Theocloric to had two whom one was married the king of the Suevians in Spain. 1 Priscus. and he came equally to make war on the Visigoths for the sake of the Vandals. . but from the relations between the Teutonic courts of Carthage and Tolosa. states expressly that Attila made war "to oblige of Attila. viii THE PATRICIAN AETIUS act of it 175 The Honoria gave Attila an excellent pretext against so the Empire. Gaiseric. and sent her back to her father. across the seas to Carthage misfortunes were reserved Gaiseric suspected her of plotting against himself. and especially credible in all that relates to Hunnic politics. but he might not have taken advantage of soon save for another event which arose. among barbarians outside the pale also operated. Theodoric was the friend and and ally of Aetius . he came to wrest from Valentinian half of his dominion. Teutons he could claim to be the ally of a recreant Teutonic nation. but for the daughter who was by sent fate. The story of Theodoric's daughter is told by Jordanes. and stirred their allies. The Suevic son-in-law was on good terms with the Visigoths —we hear of his paying his father-in- law a visit at Tolosa. Priscus. the son of the Vandal. Thus when Attila invaded Gaul in 451. 15. appealed for help to Aetius. in the name of Honoria. not from a quarrel at the court of Bavenna." 1 But the quarrel in the imperial court itself and the quarrel between the barbarians within the Eoman pale were not the only factors which operated in bringing about Attila's invasion a quarrel . As against the Empire he could claim to be the champion of a recreant imperial princess as against the rivals appealed to Attila.

who now stood in the breach. and had reigned at Kome or Kavenna. it was the perpetual question of history. The menace of that monstrous host. This decision was momentous . or at Arelate.176 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE' book ii Valentinian and Honoria. which was preparing to pass the Ehine. nor a disputed succession of the Franks . and sounded the Eoman trumpet to call the nations to do battle for the hopes of humanity. was to exterminate the civilisation that had grown up for centuries. the struggle between Europe and Asia. and to paralyse the beginnings of Teutonic life. and persuaded him to join the Eomans against the invader. and might Empire even then the beaten back the Hun. explained the situation. cities which were happily never to be Teutons were more vitally conthan the interests of the Empire. the struggle between cosmos and chaos the For Aetius was the man struggle between Aetius and Attila. told recently by Trikoupis. was the secret that there was a latent affinity between them. then. and they would not have been able to learn longer at the feet of Borne the arts of peace and culture. doric the Visigoth did not realise the danger. If Attila had not been repelled. nor a feud between two German peoples. the Eoman and the Teuton were to cause against the Hun. to undo the work of Plataea and the Metaurus. We can Attila had been the victor on the great day. and of history that in the remote past their ancestors had spoken the same — Neither knew — make common that . — But the interests of the crisis cerned at this imagine that if and had hurled Valentinian from his throne. the emissary of Aetius. which under the rule of the Saracen. was as much for the future of Theothe Teutonic nations as it was for the Eoman Empire. But Avitus. the struggle told long ago by Herodotus. might have Aspar Marcian and Leo and Burgundians and the and the Visigoths But the doom of the called the seats of to pine for a short space Franks would have been inevitable their nascent civilisation would have been crushed under the yoke of that servitude which crushes and blights. was once have held out in the East. an Asiatic sovereign. . to spread desolation in Gaul and Italy. and defend the cause of reason against champions of brute force. The work of Aetius. unspeakably more lost and degraded than Turkey at the present day. western Europe might have been converted into a spiritual waste.

and his son Thorismond was proclaimed king on the field of battle. he accepts Mery-sur-Seine as the most probable place (p. Most writers have given up the old theory of Durocatalaunum. rusted arms. and the locus Mauriacus was probably either Mery-sur-Seine or Moirey. I N . whose father and uncles fought with Attila. Theodoric. laid siege to Aureliani (Orleans). ed. It cannot be proved that they are relics — — of Theodoric. B. Burgundians and Franks joined their and the inhabitants of Brittany and Armorica. then. the editor of the M. whose name deserves to be handed down to fame. Visigoths. no less than that of his more celebrated Ostrogothic namesake. this event nor the exact place are known the month was perhaps July. mostly and possessing no choice in the matter.chap. Hodgkin's Italy and her Invaders . and the great battle took place in the wide district known as the Catalaunian Fields. of Gregory of Tours. decides for Moirey The question is discussed in (p. while the soldiers of Aetius and Theodoric were comparatively few. Neither the day of . against the overwhelming numbers of the foe.G. having taken Metz and other towns. 69). Hodgkin ornaments gives an account near Mery-sur-Seine. was a tremendous victory. and withstood. innumerable. 177 language ranks. The fact. the second volume of Mr. but the city was relieved by the arrival of Attila's subjects Attila. But the Hunnic forces were except slaughter on both sides. of Attila the " we hear that at the onslaught prudence of the Patrician Aetius. some Bur- gundians and Franks and Suevians. does not help to decide the question. The discovery (in 1842) of bones. as were the Greek soldiers at Plataea or the Greek sailors at Salamis. was drawn the Huns and the Visigoths fought long and hard without any result. was such that by hastily collecting around him a band of warriors from all sides he was able to oppose the multitude of the enemy on an 1 Arenclt. but these were yet wild peoples without the pale. herein lay the great success of the Eomans . though it did not The king of the rout. was killed in the fray. and gold of which Mr. The Ostrogoths and the Gepids and the Thuringians. Aetius (June 451). As for the part played by the Eoman Strictly speaking. the Huns. that the small army hewed down the ranks of the immense host. VOL. The and chief feature of this battle . 163). vin THE PATRICIAN AETIUS . 1 in the neighbourhood of Troyes. is that Attila was rendered unable to advance their allies. the battle — — general himself in the engagement. fought in the ranks of Attila. Chalons-on-Marne. they all knew not that they were kindred nations fight- ing against a true enemy.

cannot forget that the only Teutons within the Soman who. the Vandals alone that not forget o sided with chaos and barbarism . who plays a passive part in history afterwards. Her father's name was Carpilio. l The union of a certain clearness with a certain obscurity as to the events of this great day of deliverance lends the tale of the battle of the Catalaunian Fields a peculiar charm. as were for Attila. but had . who out-Hunned the Huns by deeds of un. no Pindar. 203. and the Thuringians. 7) tells " the sound came to Rome Romam sonus adiit that Aetius was labouring in the greatest peril amid the phalanxes of the enemy. preparing us for those legends which afterwards grew up that the spirits of the fallen warriors con- tinued the battle in the of Europe. and though they were Christians it seemed that something in their nature drove them to espouse the cause which had been before represented by the Carthaginians. a part of the mantle of the Phoenicians had fallen upon them. the cause the cause even of those Teutons who fought for the invader. But the Vandals had no Epaminondas. even as the Greeks could not forget that the Thebans had chosen the side of the Persian invader and refused to fight for the freedom of all the Greeks. Eomans and the Teutons. whereupon his wife. . and was afterwards to be represented by the Saracens on the But their power passed away northern coast of Africa. after whom one of her two sons was called . air. even as the power of the Huns passed away. the other Germans who warred We pale. were the settlers in Africa we can when Aetius and Theodoric did battle for the common cause of cosmos and civilisation. the other. though they came by another way. utterable cruelty The Ostrogoths were in his ranks. of civilisation. not only hoped for the victory of the Hun. as the descendant See Panegyric on of Gothic chieftains. when they entered redeem their name. and their name has only been commemorated in an opprobrious word expressing the barbarous spirit which defaces the exterior graces to . and basilicas prayed that she might receive her husband safe from this way " (de hac via). from the West and not from the East. ] Gregory of Tours (ii. quickly. constantly visited the of the holy apostles. but both Thuringians and Ostrogoths were as all yet without the pale. even provoked him to war. Africa. Majorian. was Gaudentius. anxious and sad.178 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE " book ii equality (non impair).' Thus the cause of the prevailed . whose name is not recorded. — — how Sidonius represents this lady. no Plutarch It seemed that. though they did not take part in the conflict.

but gives a and evidently correct explanation of the true reasons which induced Attila to receive the embassy favourably. were spared the humiliating while Ticinum and Mediolanum were compelled to buy from the invader exemption from But the south of Hun . but Leo I. and a trustworthy authority hands clown another account. The story is surrounded with a legendary halo the apostles Peter and Paul are said to have appeared to Attila. 31st January 451. but they were exposed to the violence of the Scythian. Aetius. the this occasion thanks of Italy were on owed not to the general Aetius but to the bishop his Visigoths and other dreamed of departing with Valentinian to Byzantium. It is not in itself probable that heathen Attila. the chisel of Algardi. fiuhtins: " having lost confidence in and then with renewed Aquileia. now unaided by German allies.) Italiam desaevisse. the city of the Venetian strength invaded Italy. According to the generally received account. Huns cannot be for admitted.chap. and Eome herself. perhaps near the south shore of Lake Garda. visited the camp of Attila. 2 ' ' The safety of Rome might deserve . own the ground. never to rise again trace of it . Haenel). sight of the presence of the Scythian shepherds. and was razed to returned to his land. and some indulgence is due to a fable which tinian III (ed. obscoenissimam famem per totam has been represented by the pencil of Eaphael and. fire and sword. Attila. and the majesty of the Church persuaded the barbarian to withdraw. the enemy of Christendom. which does not conflict with the circumstance of the embassy. and by their threats terri- of Eome. fied him into The fact leaving Italian of the soil. " The Huns. Avienus and Trigetius. 2 was the sole cause embassy cannot be doubted but that it which brought about the departure of the . 1 march. in the next century hardly a could be seen. the city which two hundred years before had endured with bravery and constancy the terrible siege of the barbarian tyrant Maximin. rational 1 In 450 Italy suffered from a severe famine see Novel xxxii. now fell before the Huns. is said to have . would have cared the thunders or the persuasions of the Church . vin THE PATRICIAN AETIUS " 179 After the great check. was suddenly induced to retreat the lands the Po. of Valen. " are stricken by strokes from heaven." (Gibbon. with two noble Eomans. the interposition of celestial beings. Verona and Vicentia did not share this fate." says Idatius.

— Mark that Attila conferred undesignedly on a spiritual benefit. but both (not Eomans and Teutons. which were sent by the Emperor . which revived. And being thus returned subdued. he was vexing the host of Attila was glad to make peace. As the death of Attila followed hard upon his defeat. of the bursting of He died and in the morning his attendants found the bride whom he had married the night before sitting Some said that he was " stabbed by beside his bed in tears. Thus Aetius was not skulking or preparing to flee with a force too small to venture an open battle. the death of Aetius followed hard upon his victory. and the troops of Aetius. book ii partly slain by famine and partly by disease moreover.d. . 1 His reward Hun- Do et the words pariterquc in scd i bus caelestibus plagis et the troops of Marcian invaded suis per Marciani subiguntur exercitum imply that land 2 ? Marcellinus . fought side by side Germania on the Mauriac Plain. . and he yielded graciously to the arguments or entreaties of Leo and Avienus." But there was another benefit as well as the doubtful foundation an artery. Italy . Greece alone fought at Salamis republican Eome alone fought at Metaurus and Zama imperial Eome . which had been sent from Marcian. they are by auxiliary troops. of the city of St. a common cause." writes Gibbon. that the grass never grew on the spot where Yet the savage destroyer undesignedly his horse had trod. . 2 the hand and knife of a woman. in the feudal state of Europe. both Eomania and Gothia alone). Attila survived this Italian expedition only one year. alone held the Euphrates against the Persian Sassanid . tained sufficient booty to satisfy him. Marcian. 454 a. laid the foundation of a republic. under the leadership of Aetius. having made peace with the Eomans." " It is a saying. . to their . the art and spirit of commercial industry.180 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE . they all own abodes. " worthy of the ferocious pride of Attila. harassed them. him that first . he had obthe destroyers." 1 Thus the position of the Huns was untenable in northern famine and pestilence thinned their ranks. It was the need of opposition to awoke the idea of a Eoman and Teutonic Europe in the West it was under the dread of his unshapely shadow that it first dawned upon Eomans and Teutons that they had Europe.

the master of soldiers He discovered that Heraclius. entertained enmity against Aetius. Vand. is not genuine. was slain at the same timGj even as Heraclius afterwards shared the fate of Valentinian (Prosper). He attributes the fomes odiorum to the eunuch Heraclius. to the Emperor. +i a fr. 4. Sidonms Apollmaris. Valentinian suddenly leaped from the throne and accused him of treason. 200).. That Maxi- a part in the fall of Aetius confirmed by Marcellinus Valcntinianus clolo Maximi patricii cujus ctiam fraudc Aetius V erierat. was also an enemy of Aetius. like himself. 2 2i s t Sept. Plarirfin ™ P ans Va entinian— an alentmian ^acidus means \ allusion to lus mother s name 4 See the spurious frag." Who was now to oppose 4 the Vandals ? The assassination of Aetius led directly to the assassination was at the — 1 I follow the account of John of Antioch (fr. and due who were jealous power and had influence at court. was fated that Valentinian should pull down the bulwark of his own government so he admitted the representation of Maximus. Eell. and some one afterwards aptly remarked. . chap. Boethius. 4- ^ . laying his account before the Emperor and reckoning up the moneys that had been collected by taxation. Miiller) . and rushed upon the defenceless officer. who same moment attacked by the chamberlain Heraclius. . idatius mentions the "jugulation " of aliqui honorati. . Prosper mentions that Aetius and Valentinian had agreed about the marriage of their children— that is of a is : 4• mus played son of Aetius. „. and they persuaded the Emperor that he would perish at the hands of Aetius. . of John of . Pan. " You have cut off your right hand with your left. The story of Valentinian's adultery with the wife of Maximus cannot be accepted as historical.•„ ~a\i i. 1 Maximus. . perhaps of seeking the Empire for his . the praetor i an pre fe ct.• oncw . 1.. he conspired with him.. attributed by Midler to John of Antioch ^ /?. Not allowing him time to defend himself. i. The Salmasian fragment. Empire was. it is said. very great influence with the Emperor. Thus perished the patrician and consul Aetius 2 Aetium Placidus mactavit semivir amcns 3 . 2). the cabal of certain persons of his hastened to slay him " It first." Even when the general was in the palace. that he should fall by was like that of Stilicho.. Avit. to oust the general from power accordingly. 111 which the story is related. he drew his sword. vin THE PATRICIAN AETIUS hand his fate 181 for supporting Valentinian's Valentinian's . son Gaudentius. « Antioch (200 ed. 201. and wished. . 454. and devised death against Aetius. . a eunuch who had in Italy. „ A . because I hold that he followed Priscus. etc. a noble and powerful man. who had been twice consul. probably Gaudentius. also Procop. Avith one of the Emperor's daughters. and probably comes from lost parts of the history of John Malalas. unless he to a similar cause.

and when the prince turned to see who struck him. " A few days later. and were intimate with Valentinian. 1 Prosper notices that Valentinian was imprudent enough to cultivate intimacy with the friends of Aetius ut interfecti Aetii amicos armigcrosque ejus sibimet eonsociaret. 2 And when he dismounted and proceeded to practise archery. A The death of Aetius and the death of Valentinian. but in this too of by Heraclius. 4 16th March 455 (Prosper).). Thus died Valentinian. having lived thirty-seven years.— 182 " — book . Marcellinus speaks . The strong man who might have opposed the imminent danger from the Vandals. charges against the men this was a precaution against a very dear friend of Aetius. named Optila and Thraustila. 3 The place of the deed was called dvo dcupvuv fxicrov the Two Laurels (Chron. ad duos lauros (ProsHe had left the "Laurel per). Pasch. Gregory of Tours calls Optila Oecila bucellarius Aetii. 3 Optila struck Valentinian on the temple. " guardsman of Aetius. went to Valentinian. were removed there was no general to succeed Aetius as there was no member of the Theodosian house to succeed Valentinian. . And after the murder the prefect. Maximus was wroth. Thwarted in both his wishes. accompanied by Optila and Thraustila and their attendants. who had fought campaigns with Aetius. And Maximus. of which the most authentic account has been be best preserved by the historian John of Antioch. after the death of Aetius. seeking to be promoted to the consulship and was failing it foiled he desired to obtain the rank of patrician. But a strange marvel happened to the corpse of Valentinian. and drained and wiped away all the blood that flowed from it to the ground. 1 When he met them pledges were exchanged. which were causally in close connection. : a revolt on account of the fate of Aetius. And Thraustila slew Heraclius. brave in war. Valentinian slew also Boethius. swarm of bees lit upon it. Optila and those with him attacked him. Palace " (Lauretum) of Ravenna to be slain between the laurel trees in the : Campus. dealt him a second blow on the face and felled him. who was their bodies unburied in the forum. and he accused the Emperor of the murder of Aetius and advised them to take vengeance on him. suggesting that they would win very great advantages by justly avenging the victim. were grave misfortunes for the West." 4 . and brought many And having exposed he immediately summoned the senate. . to narrate " it in his own words. it seemed good to Valentinian to ride in the Campus Martius with a few guards. and the weak man whose mere existence maintained the Imperium. who countervailed the aims Maximus and persuaded Valentinian that being well rid of the oppressive influence of Aetius he ought not to transfer his power to Maximus. They escaped all punishment for their deed. HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE It will ii of Valentinian. and he sent for two Scythians (Huns). 2 Idatius notices that the army stood round exercitu circurastantc. And the two assassins taking the imperial diadem and the horse hastened to Maximus. . of Aetius.

viii THE PATRICIAN AETIUS 183 of the Patrician Aetius as " the great safety of the western re- public " {magna occidentalis reipublicae salus). and up to the "We cannot present day has not been able to raise its head. heir of the Theodosian house might have prevented some of the troubles which befell Italy in the days of Count Pdcimer and the array of Emperors whom he pulled down or set up. King and with him the Hesperian realm fell. But we must not leave out of sight the importance of the death A legitimate of his master Valentinian without male offspring.chap." disagree with this judgment the death of Aetius marked a distinct stage in the dismemberment of the western provinces. . the terror of Attila " . .

he syncretistic show that his religion was a I. monotheism. Whether Constantine the Great was personally a Christian The evidence seems to is a point that is open to dispute. CHAPTEE IX THE CHURCH IN THE FIFTH CENTURY In the fourth century the Church had to solve two problems The political one was political and the other theological. Constantius conceived a political idea which was a distinct advance on his father's system. century both these questions had received general solutions and these very solutions gave birth to new problems which . as Emperor he was a pagan. however. or in Mithras. Amwished to concentrate all things in imperial absolutism. the idea of a close union be- tween the Imperium and the christian Church. was content to see the . agitated the fifth century. In order to realise his idea it was desirable to . mianus speaks of him as wearing on all occasions the cothurnus of imperial power (imperatoriae auctoritatis cotlmrnum ubique custodie?is). problem was to determine the relation of the Church to the Imperium the theological problem was to determine the At the end of the fourth relation of the Son to the Father. is the God of the Hebrews. Deity in the Sun. although. he may possibly have been a Christian before he He extended special died. but of such a kind that the Church should be entirely dependent on the Herein he anticipated the policy of Justinian he Emperor. but the general line of his policy was toleration.. or in The important point. as that he did not break with the old Eoman ritual Constantine. . favour to the new religion. .

the creed of Damasus. chap. less easily comprehensible homo-ousian belief of Athanasius. and power in the Church stood most in the opposition. which was directly connected with the pagan party in Eome. formula of Sirmium could not stand avoiding the difficulty in spite of . The revolt of Eugenius. which prevailed in the "West. the doctrine of Arius. bishop of Milan. went far to strengthen the deeper. Symmachus. The depression of the Church under the pagan Julian. prefect of the city. This intermediate of at the time. so the patronage which the Emperor Valens bestowed on the less deep doctrine of the Godhead. But the decision of the young Valentinian was not so important as the attitude of Theodosius. Gratian and Theodosius the Great completed the union of the Church with the Imperium. Emperor in the East. Their edict in 380 officially adopted Athanasianism. His by his persecution of Athanasius. was not christian. ix THE CHURCH IN THE FIFTH CENTURY of Arius . . which was rent asunder and Constantius' interference took the form of adopting the formula that the Son was of like essence (homoioitsios) with the Father a compromise between the homo-ousios (of same essence) of Athanasius and the — Jieterousios (of other essence) of Arius. Gratian had abdicated and abolished the office of Pontifex Maximus but an act of the pagan party in Eome in 384 brought the question to a crisis. as long as the official religion of the Empire. way of the designed unification. 185 produce a unity in the Church by the schism itself. only And just as Julian's championship of the strengthened it. . it was merely a way it but Constantius carried much policy is further characterised whose stability by his personal influence. bishop of Eome and the councils of 381 (at Constantinople and Aquileia) defined one creed for the universal Church. dying cause furthered the victorious creed. and aimed at restoring the religious customs of the old Imperium. But the union of State and Church could not be looked on as complete. The restoration of the altar of Victory in the senate house. . as distinguished from the personal religion of the Emperor. whose reign was the last glimmer of the ancient faiths. addressed a petition of this purport to Valentinian II. was requested by the senate. it was rejected through the influence of Ambrosius. which Constans had removed.. rendered a declaration on the part of Theodosius necessary he took the .

Thus at the end was christian. as the successor of St. was the head of the Church. passed in 386. and heretics were esteemed as guilty and as dangerous as pagans it may be said that the last spark of religious freedom was contained in the law of Valentinian II in favour of Arians. and the Patriarch's residence. afterwards between New Rome and Old bishop of He was considered Rome in the West) (like the the suc- cessor of St.. empire byzantin monarchie franque. it contributed to rendering the Patriarch of Constantinople and the eastern churches independent of the bishop of Eome. pp. whose ecclesiastical authority was further increased by the fact that his capital was at the . Gasqnet has some ct Rome. Almost at the same time we have the earliest example of a State inquisition in the prosecution of Priscillian side of by Maximus (385). while from Constantinopolitan interference he was quite free. which in the fifth century became the most important city in the world. V la . but in the East the Church and the Imperium were closely allied. Peter. and afterwards attained secular power. The 1 Note that at first the rivalry was character. whereas the independence of the bishop of Eome was aided by the fact that the Emperors resided at Milan or Eavenna. 186 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE book ii Ambrose and Valentinian. 23-33. of the fourth century the Eoman Iinperium same epoch the Church had asserted her independence. the Church being dependent on the Emperor. The result was that in the West the ecclesiastical hierarchy was independent in spiritual matters. and the weakness of the Empire in the West increased his power and confirmed his independence. to free himself from the jurisdiction of Eome. at least it was not to be second. The bishop of Eome. 1 The oriental and occidental churches had a tendency to separate along with the political systems to which they belonged and consistent with this tendency was the desire of the Patriarch of Constantinople. In order to do so he naturally leaned on the power of the Emperor. The defeat of Eugenius combined the Church and State closer than ever. At the same time the State entered upon a path of intolerance. 2 The Emperor was regarded in the East as endowed with a semi-pontifical good remarks on this subject in his recent work. between Alexandria and Rome. 2 This was a leading feature in the Byzantine world. and the penance of Theodosius at Milan indicated that if the Church was not to be first. Peter. But the geographical distance from Constantinople had also another effect.

The question might be interest is raised really of importance for the future whether this controversy was of mankind. and the civil Church. and that the victory of Athanasianism. the 187 and his position depended on the allegiance of all three. representing the triumph of a distinct historical note in so far as affected the 1 A special cause which in the fifth and sixth centuries tended to weaken powerful sees of Alexandria and Antioch. was the opposition and jealousy of the work by Mr. In one respect the Patriarchs obtained a new hold on the sovereigns during the fifth century. the Son had a beginning. but in the later Empire no longer existed.chap. ecclesiastical. 1 and it was his defeat in a long struggle with the court that mainly determined the subsequent relations between the imperial and the patriarchal palaces. Athanasius held that their essence was the same the Logos was God. while the Patriarch of Constantinople was not strong enough even to avoid punishment. only of immediate politics of the fourth century whether in fine. The great controversy between Arms 2 and Athanasius concerned the relation of Christ to the Father. . In both cases the populace but Ambrose defied the Empress with impunity and carried the day. but Anastasius' treatment of the same hierarch some years later shows how subordinate the representative of spiritual was to the holder of temporal power. . The opposition of naturally suggests the opposition which Chrysostom to Eudoxia Ambrose of Milan pre- sented to the Empress Justina. was the first Emperor crowned by the Patriarch. whether its or is more than merely it . II. sided with the bishop . H. if Arianism had survived. Emperor was the head the army. . the spirit of the world would have been much altered. The consent of the Church was officially recognised as a condition of elevation to the throne by the introduction of the ceremony of coronation. ix THE CHURCH IN THE FIFTH CENTURY of the three hierarchies. Arius adopted the rationalistic and easier doctrine that their essence was not the same . when the custom of coronation became indispensable. I conceive that its importance is world-historical. Gwatkin. to extort a confession of faith from Anastasius . and Euphemius made use of this power service . Leo I. M. co-eternal with God the Father.The subject of Arianism has been treated in an admirable and elaborate the position of the Patriarchs. The career of John Chrysostom illustrates the power and the weakness of the Patriarchs.

For the whole significance of Christ. the political divergence of the East and West began. was contained in his Divinity. or the Logos. difference.188 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE book ii idea. and the controversies which distracted them were of a different kind. envelope. . its divines turned from the rare air of the sphere of the Absolute to anthropological questions concerning original sin. The two opposite schools of the fifth century which swerved 1 It may be noticed that simultaneously with these controversies there were virulent disputes over the writ- ings of the great Origen. the human and the divine. faith. The problem was to find a category which could express the union and avoid the confusion of the two natures " an unconfoundecl nature-union. had contented themselves with phrases to express the union of the natures. human vague Early authorities inweaving. as Athanasius said. if it had prevailed. The western Church held fast by the Athanasian doctrine. Soon after the final decision of the Church (381) that the Son was co. a tendency which. We can see from the mere statement of the question that two How — opposite views would necessarily arise according as the or the divine nature were emphasised. and works. is of just as great consequence to the general historian as The very essence of Christianity For the special power of Christianity depended on the idea of Christ. The western and eastern Churches henceforward underwent each a different development. but the Origenistic question is of purely ecclesiastical interest.essential with the Father. as less than God. And thus in the fifth century the eastern Church embarked 1 in a series of christological controversies as bitter as the Arian. . were the two natures. would have ultimately banished Christ prematurely from the world. They could not rest content with the general symbolum that the Son was " of one substance with the Father " they must determine the exact mode of this coincident identity and to the ecclesiastical specialist. was at stake. The tendency of eastern theologians was always metaphysical. because they were vague." aav^vTo^ — (fivcn/crj evcoaLs. such as mixture. combined in Christ this was the problem of Christology. and the doctrine of Arius tended to depress Christ. But such phrases were unsatisfactory. and was not concerned to probe it further.

It was Celestine's duty and pleasure to 1 Sisinnius succeeded the mild and courtly Atticus. But the spiritual fathers of Xestorianism and Eutychianism were Theodoros of Mopline of orthodoxy mean suestia and' Apollinaris of Laodicea. . But the main point is assumed two persons. Theodore of Mopsuestia founded a new christological theory. and was succeeded by Nestorius in 427. two human dipt one person. and thus the word Theotokos (Mother of God) became the catchword of the controversy. and spirit {irvevfia) the nature of the Divine man consists of body. whose soul cared for other things than controversy. or. the category of becoming that he the Word became flesh ") he judged rightly to be inadequate for philosophical purposes. illustrating this junction . and the controversy turned especially upon of The theory what was namely. men who did not. 2 Both Cyril and Nestorius appealed to Celestine the bishop of Kome . Nestorius.chap. and thereby the possibility of change. but a will higher than mere choice. — the category of inhabitation. and he promised to present Theodosius with the kingdom of heaven on condition that he purified the Church of heretics. The Nestorian heresy was crushed at the council of really an incidental corollary of the Mary should be called Ephesus in 431. The nature of a human individual. one flesh whom in their union he esteemed one person. take an active part in explained the nature of Christ on this wise. logos. in 426. He was a man of surprising energy we may call it fanaticism. 1 bishop Constantinople. only Mother of Christ. 2 clandestine services . To explain the union of the two natures he adopted . andria. soul. like the eponymous propagators party contention. which did not ascribe complete humanity to Christ. not spirit. ix THE CHURCH IN THE FIFTH CENTURY rigid 189 from the schools of Xestorius on either side were the and Eutyches. Nestorius assumed the attitude of an equal. was a presbyter of Antioch. Mother of God. by man and woman blended whereas Apollinaris of certain elements. of namely the — pneumatic — natures being- the in Theodore was taken up by ISTestorius. which ascribed to Christ the fulness of humanity. but while Cyril adroitly deferred to his superior knowledge and dignity. the most chiefly through the energy of Cyril of Alexinfluential opponent of Nestorius. (" ivotfcrjo-Ls . In opposition to this theory. Apollinaris of the heresies. whether main doctrine. as Nestorius held. like Chrysostom. He was only five days Patriarch when he burned down the church in which the Arians used to hold . including a free will. he said. for spirit implies free will. soul. consists of body. and logos.

£repa 5e irpbs Airy. with whom Johannes the Patriarch of Antioch /cat rrjv evae^ecrTdrrjv Avyovarav EvdoKiav rr\v tfify av/m^iov eTricrreWeLv. . Athanasius rejected hypostatic union. We must make a remark on the attitude of Theodosius II. at which the Emperor Marcian condemned monophysitism. category higher than substance. presided. laid clown at the ecumenical council of Chal- That council. for he understood thereby merely substantial union. win the favour of the court. and Nestorius was condemned by a synod of Italian bishops held in Rome (430). Both he and his father were religious men. and took a great But it cannot be said that interest in ecclesiastical affairs. of which the real originThe value of this doctrine turns evidently ator was Apollinaris. Ephesus more than 200 bishops deposed the Patriarch of Constantinople. Theodosius recognised the acts of the synod and the condemnation of Nestorius and in 433 Johannes was Pulcheria was reconciled with Cyril. after- 1 the opposite side. and whom the Emperor Theodosius was long disposed to favour. wrote in his celebrated Dogmatic Epistle to Flavian. the doctrine of monoHe did not clearly see that the tenet of two physitism. and . modern philosophy we may perhaps render it approximately by personal substrate. cedon (451). as Pope Leo I. wrote rather sharply in answer wards he completely deserted side with the deferential and orthodox Patriarch of Alexandria . on the category of hypostasis. throughout opposed to Nestorianism. In the but Eudocia seems to have been inclined Cyril left no stone unturned to to it. which seemed to confound the subThe hypostasis of Chalcedon is not substance it is a stances. sending presents to Pulcheria. or unity of person in both natures. x From a letter of Theodosius to Cyril it is clear that there was rivalry and disunion at the court between Eudocia and Pulcheria. natures does not imply the tenet of two persons he did not understand the category of hypostasis being. the ttnio hypostatica. but is not yet the subject of . 190 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE One of the most book ii vehement anti-Xestorians was Eutyches two persons made him rebound into the opposite extreme and promulgate the doctrine that there was only one nature in Christ. After many intrigues and indecent scenes. Theodosius was consistent either in orthodoxy or heterodoxy.. and to court ladies. . .T]v d5e\(pr]v tt]v eva. orthodox doctrine." This Dogmatic Epistle was the basis of the symbolum of his zeal against the heresy of the . "very imprudent and exceedingly unskilled. Before the synod of 431 he was a partisan of jSTestorius. Ilov\rty e/j. and that the ecclesiastical parties endeavoured to take advantage of this : ij rlva etye \6yov erepa fxeu irpbs i]fj. which seems to have received a new shade of meaning since it was used by Athanasius. At to the appeals of to Cyril . to influential ministers.

vol. and in Antioch. in accordance with the doctrine of Chalcedon . the edifying spectacle of bishops compelled to write their names on a paper which was to be filled in afterwards. Kruger. who held diametrically opposite views to the JNTestorians. Leo and Zeno the scandalous acts of violence committed by both the orthodox and the monophysites in Alexandria under Timothy the Weasel (monophysite). Compare Guldenpenning. G. became so serious that a new attempt In the struggle of Basiliscus and at union was demanded.chap.s dtxo- vorjaeiv tfX-maas £k tQv tt}s arjs deoaefieias ypafifxaTuv. but the word " nature " was diligently avoided. at which Flavian (Patriarch of Constantinople) was condemned. x. whose opinions were guided by Leo. under Peter the Fuller. expressly stated that Christ was both God and man. the recognised doctrine of the whole christian Church. the Ethiopian Chronicle of Johannes of Nikiou. a symbolum which was intended It was to reconcile both parties by veiling the point at issue. Those "who are interested in the monophysitic struggles may consuit the Memoirs of the Patriarch Dioscorus.. who succeeded him. . in order to effect the desired union. and Armenia. xii. Monophysitische StrcitigTceiten in Zusammenhangc mit aler Reichspolitik (Jeua. seventh series. 1 I must refer the reader to an ecclesiastical history for an account of the events of 449 the Robber-Synod of Ephesus. The Eutychianism of Theodosius caused an unpleasant difference of opinion between himself and his sonin-law Valentinian III. 1884). This half measure (which reminds us in spirit of the homoiousian failed Xept'ai> el doctrine of the party. written in Coptic and translated by E. Concilia. as Eutropius had patronised Chrysostom. History (in Syriac) of Zacharias of Mitylene (died before 553). 1880. In this he was probably influenced by the favourite eunuch Chrysaphius. 1882. 1883). the Patriarch Acacius. Nestorianism especially in the far east. Dyophysitisni became. manufactured the Henotikon. and the Eccl. Revillout {Revue Egyptol. and an indirectly slighting allusion its to the council of Chalcedon was inserted to win the monophysites. 191 Eutychian which was not decided until the reign of his successor Marcian. and Timothy Salopliakialos. but the heresies lingered on. as well as the Breviarium Sec the monograph of of Liberatus. who out-Cyriled Cyril. and published by Zotenberg in Journal Asiatique. the bishop of Rome. 294 sq. written about 700 A. who was deposed by Leo. Palestine. (Harduin. and the Zeno and restoration of Zeno was a triumph for orthodoxy. Das ostrbmischc Reich. Zeno the religious question played an important part. by the council of 451. preceding century) a live not only to /xr] satisfy dixovoelv either iprjdrjs rj but was coal blown i]/j. who 1 patronised Eutyches. Eutychian- In the reigns of ism in Alexandria. 1341)..D. i. ix THE CHURCH IN THE FIFTH CENTURY strife. he was a partisan of Eutyches. p. published by Land in twelve books (of which Three to Seven are genuine). the — violence of Dioscorus.a.

ix. cumstance by the " sleepless " of orthodox Chalcedonism in been dangerous for any one to deliver the sentence of excorr. propose to read I Salakophialos. and Felix successor. who was favoured by Zeno. informed of the cirmonks. who were strong pillars Byzantium. held a council at Borne (484). as the first half of the fifth century the western dependent on the it was no longer it were. Jerome's translation of the ScripGreeks for its theology. and a secret stratagem was It was pinned to the back of Acacius as he was adopted. his his part. thus placing his power on a par with that of the bishop of Borne. 1888). and two rivals for the vacancy appeared. — A breach which was caused by the opposition of Simplicius to 1 In the same year Timothy Salophakialos.192 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE book ii between the eastern and western Churches. who took II. not unquestionably though during the reign of Anastasius. 251 sqq. at which he deposed the apostate legates from It would have their bishoprics. this word means "with a white bandage or turban ((paKla\os=fasciola. from <piap6s. by imprisonment and threats. and the see of Constantinople comes to a climax. were induced. died. we may say. Die politische Stellung des Papsttums zur Zeit Theoderichs des Grossen. p The most recent work on this schism G. and aa\os. Patriarch Acacius. officiating in St. and a few moments afterwards he retorted the sentence on Felix. after this Simplicius died. and reDuring presents the opposition of the East and West. come of age . to recognise the appointment of Peter. The schism 2 continued after the deaths of Felix 1 According to Ducange. whereupon Felix. tures and Augustine's new theological system had set occidental Christendom on an independent path of development had. Schniirer's essay (in Grauert's Historisches Jahrbuch. John the who was actually consecrated bishop. founded Latin Christianity. unquenched for In this schism the rivalry of the see of Borne thirty }T ears. prosecuted the opposition to Constantinople The legates whom he sent thither with vehement energy. of Alexandria. is not seem likely. who. and excommunicated Acacius. Talaias. Simplicius was Pope when the Henotikon of Zeno was pubspecial circumstance tended to widen the lished (482). munication openly to the Patriarch. and Peter The rejected Stammerer. Church had. Sophia. Talaias repaired to Eome and Soon laid his case before Simplicius. a This does fictitious word for white). and Acacius. becoming X on account of the preceding 2 X). and to translate " cox- comb -sleek" (0iaXos. .

" What has the Emperor to do with the Church ? " But in Africa they had force on their side. who emphatically insisted on Eoman see as the highest spiritual we may refer especially to his letter to the bishops of Dardania. In the fourth century the followers of Donatus had been men of strict and pure morals. and presented an edifying contrast to the demoralisation that infected the orthodox Church * but pride in their own sanctity led to a holy contempt for all who were not of themselves. as Ziegler says {Gesch. the precedence of the authority on earth . They were highly objectionable to the civil power. VOL. ix THE CHURCH IN THE FIFTH CENTURY At 193 orthodox like Zeno. against both of which the bishop of Hippo w as a ness here to go into the of Augustine T work leading combatant. This pacification was Eome . the names of Acacius and Peter the Stammerer were erased from the diptychs of Constantinople. The schisms . the year after Anastasius' death. . Britain was said to have been fertile in tyrants fertile in . adopted Zeno's Henotikon. His successor. when the new Emperor Justin inaugurated a victory for an orthodox reaction. or western Catholicism. whose varied activity chiefly contributed to the creation of an independent western Church with a Latin theology. and ultimately to a fanatical hatred which doomed Catholics and other sects to the flames of hell. was a milder man. like his namesake the Emperor. — It has already been noticed that the foundations of Latin Christianity. Pope Anastasius. and the Popes were thus inde- pendent of the Felix was succeeded by Gelasius. and Jerome. 1 Donatism. as well as the foundations of the German kingdoms. but the bitterness broke out again in the episcopate of Hormisdas. der Christlichen ffihik. ii. and more conciliatory. nor was the saying of Donatus forgotten. were It is not our busi- laid in the first half of the fifth century. was "ein Protest gegen die Verweltlichung der Kirche. this time the Ostrogoths ruled in Italy. and able to resist his authority. and was not finally allayed until 519. 189). But we must briefly notice the suppression of the schisms of Donatus and Pelagius. Africa may be said to have been was no part of the Empire which was more rent and riven by the divisions and the furies of religious sects.chap." Donatus was not a heretic he disagreed with the Church only on questions of discipline. at least there . Emperor. Donatism and Pelagianism. I .

411 the — — . Julian favoured the Donatists. used clubs in their deeds of violence. . infected with religious Having suffered from the stress of the times.194 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE book ii rich proprietors lived in constant fear of bands of men. that God has given us the capacity for good. But in the last twenty years of St. in which the dialectic of Augustine won the victory according to the judgment of the tribune Marcellinus. but that the will and the performance are The doctrine was opposed by Orosius and Auguscondemned by synods in Africa it was condemned was tine it was condemned by his bishop of Borne Innocent. Augustine's life (410430) the great question of the day was the problem of prePelagius." In 348. born of a Eoman family in destination and free will.) alters . p. d. the doctrine that man's will is free . by Zosimus. who had first exonerated Pelagius and his at successor In 418 an imperial rescript ordained that views from blame. they fanaticism. it . bishop of Mile vis (about 370 a. and also an alphabetical psalm (Abeccdarius) giv- ing a history of the schism (see Ebert. 1 wrote controversial Augustine works against Donatism. and his friend Celestius supported. perhaps because Constantius had oppressed them. and their theory was afterThus the wards rejected at the general council of Ephesus. "Put up thy sword. by the Vandals. because Christ had said to Peter. propounded. Allg. which Honorius confirmed. These men were socialists. but they continued to exist as an unquiet factor. desired to introduce into society an equality. who was appointed to 1 arbitrate over the Donatist Petilian. and in great public controversy took place. . wisdom of the Church condemned the deadly doctrine of free our own. they enlisted the cir- cumcellions to fight in their cause. . Gesch. severe penalties were enforced the Donatists were persecuted. all Pelagians should be banished. when the Donatists were threatened by the military power. Britain. and divine vengeance. i. who were called circumcellions and threatened their possessions and their lives. but Gratian deprived them of the right of holding services In 405 severe laws were passed against them. 242) but perhaps the most important work on the subject is the de Schismate Donatistarum of Optatus. and probably assisted in the conquest of Africa (377). After this judgment. by which they could profit. der Literatur dcs Mittel- im Abcndlandc. and regarded themselves as the instruments of They posed as the protectors of slaves.

159) Genauer angesehen versetzt die Lehre . dann zweitens die Erbsiinde als eine um mit der Fortpflanzung gegebene Verdorbenheit in die Natur selber zu verDieser plotzliche Sturz aus der Thatlichkeit in die Erblichkeit und Verdammlichkeit ist der dunkle und noch nicnuds aufgchellte Punkt seines Systems. I cannot decide whether he had any rational glimpse of the higher freedom. Gesch. and Augustine naturally adopted the more consistent and simple doctrine of christian fatalism. Such a position was extremely dangerous. W. Ethik (1886). but as far as I can gather from the disquisitions of Hefele. Milman. men in the world who need no men who can dispense with the work of Christ and the consolation of Christianity. remarks that Augustine gave up the sensual the and Pauline dualism of spiritual nature of man. der christl. ii. and if his will is free. and Jodl. legen. It is always hard for a layman to feel quite certain that he has comprehended the technicalities of theological phraseology or penetrated the inmost mazes of theological mystery. 212 sqq. If man is Pelagius was fraught consideration it On born as sinless as Adam was before the fall. — they may have been inwardly filled with a religious consciousness of it had no philosophical idea of true freedom.. can hardly be denied that the view of with peril to Christianity. and Robertson. has a good account of the controversy. Augustine and the Church however much As Augustin'sdieganzeSchweredesTJnheils in den ersten Act des Ungehorsams. was argued on the and the view of Augustine won." Sec also Ziegler. i. not because his metaphysical armoury was better.— : chap. necessity 1 is only a moment in it. But in the fifth century the I have not studied the controwritings of St. von welchem alles Weitere abhangt. any more as than regard space finite . ix will. p. Gass. As each party embraced one horn of the antinomy and But in this controversy the question . which in later ages assumed the form of Calvinism. Eeason knows that both the doctrine of free will and the and doctrine of necessity are defective and therefore false that true freedom does not conflict with necessity. Of Augustine's ' ' own theory he says (p. platform of the understanding rejected the other. and thus there may be redemption. der Ethik in der Jodl ncuercn Philosophic. diesen steigert sie sammt seinen un- versial ermesslichenFolgenzueinemil/i/sfemtm des Abfalls (ineffabilis apostasia). but because he and those who embraced his view had more autho1 rity. Gesch. there is no inconsistency in assuming that many may pass their lives utterly devoid of sin righteous . the question itself could not be rationally a controversy between men who and men who regard it as infinite. p. THE CHURCH IN THE FIFTH CENTURY 195 and the most learned and earnest theologians did not shrink from the possible consequence of the denial of moral responsibility. 57 sqq. in his Geschichte der christlichen Ethik (1881). but that decided. Augustine.

and in his twenty-four . entitled Collationcs. ii and between the two compromise when Cassian of Massilia tried to views by mixing a little of one with a little of the other it was really as if one tried to solve the semi-pelagianism antinomy of Zeno by blending an element of the finite nature of space with an element of its infinity. see Ziegler. cit. though the former mixture opponents did not point of view of reason — might not have been on the face 1 of it so absurd.— 196 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE rise to the 1 book . op. de coenobioinstitutis. ii. lie attempts to systematise the monastic morality of his time. 208. On Cassian. rum In his twelve books. books.

1 To some small extent this oriental colouring may have been due to direct eastern influences affecting Byzantium during the fourth century. "in the eastern provinces of the Empire " to the title of the present chapter. through the city or the neighbouring was accompanied by imperial guards who carried golden tips and shields with golden centres encircled by golden eyes. See the evidences on this subject collected from the works of Chrysostom by his editor Montfaucon (vol. . and in Bk. which makes no pretension to be exhaustive.) 1 To be precise. cap. To begin with the Emperor. The caparisons of his horse were of gold.CHAPTEE X LIFE AND MANNERS IN THE FIFTH CENTURY was distinand luxury. 2 and 3. the whiteness of the mules. 2. caps. whose harness glittered with the same metal. and the revolving plates of gold which gleamed in the sun as the car to which they were attached moved along. he spears with . wrought dragons shone on his silken robes. . and as he rode. xix. and may be supplemented by the details to be found in Bk. i. seated on life The of the higher classes at Constantinople its guished by oriental richness a saddle white as snow. but in the main it was merely the splendour of Old Borne translated to the palaces of New Eome. and a golden diadem set with precious gems adorned his head. I should have added the words. ii. His golden chariot was drawn by white mules. and when he drove out men gazed in wonder at the sheen of the purple and the gold. a rich purple dress enveloped his whole body. their belts and their boots their garments were of gold-threaded country. And it was not only the Emperor whose appointments were enriched with the most precious of the metals his courtiers and attendants and all men of opulence used it in ornamenting their saddles and bridles.

p. See dramas himself hence 6 dvfxe\ii<6s was used in the sense of heretic. were so heavy that two youths could hardly lift one. remember that Chrysostom was unusually austere. . It however. writing the andria. . plate. Patriarch of Alex. Chrysostom comhe was specially plained of the lewdness prevalent in theatres and the obscenity of the songs that delighted the audiences . p. the ceilings lined with gold. left money for theatres. Oriental cooks were employed and at banquets the atmosphere was heavy with all the perfumes of the East. Many rich nobles possessed ten or twenty mansions and as many a thousand. or. . 'Ictto/hkoj/ 5okL[xiov dedrpov ical tt)s fiovo-LK^ tusv Bvfai>Tii>wt/ The heretic (Venice. The beds were made of ivory or solid silver. 289. of wood plated with silver or gold. Malalas mentions that Theodosius erected theatres Dioscorus. These are some of the details which great may be gleaned from life the writings of Chrysostom respecting the luxurious of the and opulent men of it his time. We must. surprises us somewhat to learn that the habit was kept up in 1 M. if on a less expensive scale. In their gorgeous houses the doors were of ivory. while the harps and pipes of musicians delighted the servants . HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE their book ii carriages were covered with gold or silver. and wherever commoner stone was used the surface was beautified with gold Spacious verandahs and baths adjoined the houses.198 silk. . many things have been related in the course of the narrative which illustrate the manners and morals and they need not be repeated here. In the preceding chapters of the age. Sathas considers that in the days of Theodosius II the first foundations were laid for the conciliation of the Church and the theatre. scandalised by the exhibition of women swimming. Chairs and stools were usually of ivory. and retainers. parasites. 7. if not wellnigh two thousand. It is hardly necessary to say that Christianity had not been able to do very much towards refining the character of theatrical representations l or improving the morality of green-rooms. ears of the feasters. their were tricked out with golden ornaments. ib. private baths slaves called them lord. irepl rod Sathas. 1878). made of gold or silver. and their halls were thronged with eunuchs. and the most homely vessels were often of the most costly metal the semicircular tables or sigmas. the floors inlaid with mosaics or strewn with rich carpets the walls of the halls and bedrooms were of marble. which was so revolting to him that drove him in the direction of social communism. . Arius conceived the idea of creating a theatre in his church.

he insists. lead to the result that they see and hear as little as they well can of those things by which the wisdom of life is acquired they live in a sort of sensual retirement. As of the nothing. bishop of Gaza. 1 we may that trust the evidence of a very a tzukanisterion. The concern of the Emperors for their dignity. Contin. thus we read of Romanus (Theoph. who states he laid out The game was perhaps derived from the Huns. counting what befell Porphyrius. 1 Codinus. Basil. in was stigmatised by the Neoplatonic speech bishop Synesius. The motive of this retirement. the he delivered before the Emperor Arcadius.chap. The oriental court life which was developed at Byzantium with an elaboration which. p. perhaps. late writer. but right ( in his = tscheivJca?i) is a Persian word. Theoand it was probably reign that the game of tzukan or polo was introduced was passionately fond if of riding. As to the amusewe know that they used to hunt in the neighbourhood of dosius II in his at Byzantium. Constantinople. is more effective in conveying an idea ways and manners of an age than the actual words of a contemporary narrator describing the unimportant details of a journey or an enterprise. ments of the Emperor and the nobles. koL rrj 8ei\r) ev r^vKaviaTrjpiip acpaipLcras 8ok'l/jlwi> fiera tCiv koX efxirelpoiv Kal themselves may have from Tartaric races. the Macedonian. borrowed it ttoW&kis toItovs vLK7]aas. . riders. in the precincts of the palace. improved and enlarged the ground. 81. is the wish to appear more than man. acpaipifa as well as r^vKavifa was used of playing tzukan. If Hammer is . and their soul is a mist. perhaps more than anything else. He compares this life to the life of oysters. x LIFE &> MANNERS IN FIFTH CENTURY of permitting 199 christian society courtesans to exhilarate or contaminate weddings with their presence. gave that city its peculiar flavour. and their fear lest they should become ordinary mortals if their subjects beheld them often. and likens the small and stupid men by whom the monarch is surrounded to peacocks flaunting their colours. who were accomplished or polo -ground. or of lizards which peep out occasionally on a hot day. as one of the evils that endangered the weal and safety of the Empire. he said. 472) when he and conjecture that tzukan the con jecture that the Romans borrowed the game directly from the Huns falls Persians the to the ground. I have thought literal it well to give a tolerably re- translation of the narrative of Marcus the deacon.

Academy . for the bishop had attended to our affair and had sent for him and explained it to him. And on the next day we went to the bishop and found in his house the chamberlain Amantius. they hurt my I To-morrow shall send for the lain) of eunuch Amantius. the known. for if . we proceeded to our inn. and said. and asked us why we undertook the fatigue of the journey. where they visited a holy hermit named Procopius. which was printed by 1 Haupt Berlin in the Abhandlungen of for 1879. and Amantius was told that we were the persons of whom he had heard. for the Empress excited his indignation against this we made petition by letter. who has great influence with her and shall really a servant of God. all who was would gifted with second sight. And I am not concerned about his anger. and I commit the matter to him. which is but little is contained in Marcus' Life of PorpJiyrius. Having secured lodgings. II. embraced him and kissed him. The voyage to Byzantium occupied likewise ten days. learned the reason he recollected that on a former occasion and recognising me [Marcus] he bade us not to despond but to have hope in the mercies of God. And when we came in. when they were told who he was. inclining his face to the ground. 1 including an account the baptism of Theodosius The bishops set sail from Caesarea and reached Ehodes in ten days. and if God consents all will go well [ttclvv e^et o-Trovhaacu)' Having received these injunctions and a recommendation to God. . the castrensis (chamberis the Empress. I cannot speak to the Emperor. And ' me because I charged her with a thing which she coveted and robbed. great honour and courtesy. . and even body they do the more good to my soul. how licentiously they perform the unlawful rites and oppress the This narrative. he stood up and did obeisance to the most holy bishops. And the most holy Porphyrius explained to him all the concernment of the idolaters. and we told him and when he befall . greeted me kindly. they visited the Patriarch John Chrysostom " And he received us with on the morrow of their arrival. and told them that them when they should arrive at Byzantium.200 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE visited book of ii others Constantinople. And the most holy archbishop John bade them explain orally their affair to the chamberlain. it is themselves they hurt and not me. and they.

' And the bishops took the money and blessed her abundantly and departed. to your privacy. and gave three darics apiece to the most holy bishops.' ' May He who blessed the wombs of Sarah and Eebecca and Elizabeth. wondering at ' 1 her condescension. 'Do not despond. Give me your blessing. for you are fatigued.' for I trust in the Lord Christ. wept and was God. then. But ' if you are fain to instruct am all at your service (/ceXevo-are). saying. Thus bidden. And she says to them. fathers. that I shall persuade the king to do those things that are due to your saintly faith and to dismiss you hence well treated.' And the bishops. Be not despondent. Excuse me. on account of my situation. pray God on my behalf that I may be delivered happily of the child which is in my womb. priests of Christ. chap. and pray God to co-operate with my request. fearlessly practised. In the meantime take this for your expenses. and having received his blessing. And we found him awaiting us. And {fierekOelv ocpcpUcov itoKitlkov) ' 1 KaTabvvaarevovaLV . and we arose and proceeded with all expedition. Do ye therefore pray. " The next day the chamberlain Amantius sent two deacons to bid us come to the Palace. And when she saw them she saluted them first and said. as the castrensis Amantius explained me. and said to them.' With these injunctions he departed. said. fathers.. I me. and the impious which they Christians. in thine. bless and quicken the child After further edifying conversation. Now she was sitting on a golden sofa. and he took the two bishops and introduced them to the Empress Eudoxia. when he heard this. the Son of God.' and they did obeisance to her. to the Augusta. for I But was anxious to meet your sanctity in the antechamber. and I will speak And I trust in the to God of the Universe that He will show His mercy according his wont. and their oppression 1 of the whom they did not allow to perform a public duty ' nor to till their lands from whose produce they pay the dues to your imperial sovereignty. rites they told her about the idolaters. ' I know why ye came it to (icrKvXrjre). for Christ can shield His religion. and we having conversed on many spiritual topics with the archbishop John. filled And with zeal for Amantius. Depart. she said to them. fathers.' She then commanded money to be brought. x LIFE &* MANNERS IN FIFTH CENTURY 201 Christians.' And the Empress said. withdrew.

but she merely said. but it is loyally disposed in to the revenue. she bade them sit And after a long spiritual talk. But the Emperor was put out when he heard it. and her face flushed. and he was rather put despond. and recollecting the word of the thrice Exert said to the Empress yourself for the sake of Christ. we let shall lose so much of the must be. and having first saluted the holy bishops according to her custom. and new beauty beyond that which she already had passed into her face for the appearance shows what passes within. 1 And Then the sainted Porphyrius.' At these words the Empress was filled with joy. she told him touching the bishops. reserving little for themselves. depriving idolaters of their dignities and other public For and straitened on all sides they will recognise the truth but an extreme measure coming suddenly is hard on subjects. ' : . they will betake themselves to flight and revenue. And another thing.' " We the learned these details from the chamberlain Amantius. and requested him that the heathen temples of Gaza should be thrown down. I cannot cease until ye be and depart. for she was ardent in matters of faith. having succeeded in your holy purpose. she said. that according to your word. ' we consent or decline. Pray. and bid up and be used no when they are afflicted . And when the Emperor came all into the apartment of the Empress.' The Empress was very much vexed at this reply. out. offices. the matter of taxation and pays a large If then sum we overwhelm them with But if it terror of a sudden. whether their temples be shut longer. The Lord can assist his servants the Christians.' the bishops obeisance. fathers. for us. us afflict them partially. with the will of God. and in recompense for your exertions He can bestow on you a son whose life and reign you will see and enjoy for many years. and said. * . for. And she said.202 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE greater part of the book ii to the deacons when they went out they gave the who were standing " money at the door. I may bear a male child. pricked by the blessed anchoret Procopius. But do not satisfied God made willing. I ' know that city is devoted to idols. On morrow the Augusta sent down. ' I spoke to the Emperor. and if it so befall. I promise you to do all that ye ask. for which ye spirit.

and. then.chap. she sent for us and met us at the door of the chamber. And Aman- tius the chamberlain used to come to us. offer- ing a prayer. who reigned along with Gratian. the . Draw nigh. who had only message ' just been delivered arisen from her chair of confinement. the Spaniard. and men were sent to the cities of the Empire. And there wherefore he was proclaimed Emperor at his birth.' And she gave them the child that And the holy bishops they might seal it (with God's signet). sat down. fathers. sent this : Amantius to us and with I thank Christ that God bestowed on me a son. for the time of my confinement is near.' And when the seven days of her confinement were fulfilled. the archbishop. for his on account of your holy prayers. 203 I will ask not. in order that I may fulfil those things which I promised you. purple robe. in peace. praying constantly for my happy delivery . with gifts and bounties visit. what I resolved to do in regard to your affair V [Here Porphyrins related a dream which he had dreamed the night before then Eudoxia resumed :] If Christ permit. sometimes bearing messages from the Empress. Pray. child. I intend to do with the consent of Christ Depart then found a church at Gaza in the centre of the city. x LIFE &» MANNERS IN FIFTH CENTURY . me and the child which the Lord granted to me through your holy prayers. the lady says to them. And she inclined her head and said. ' 1 Xoyiiov. Christ himself again consenting. ' unto sealed both her and the child with the seal of the cross. And for we believed in the words of Saint Procopius the anchoret. and rest quiet. the child Theodosius was born in the purple (eV rfj iropfyvpa). full of And when they had spoken heart-pricking (fcaravvgis). through your holy prayers. many words Do ye ' know. "And every clay we used to proceed to the most holy Johannes. child . . life and for my lowly self. sweeter than honey and the honey comb. (^aplo-fiara). at other times merely to pay a And after a few days the Empress brought forth a male and he was called Theodosius after his grandfather TheoAnd dosius. and had the fruition of his holy 1 words. bearing the good news. was great joy in the city.' The commended her to God and left the prayer was made that she should bear a male bishops Palace. " But the Empress. fathers. carrying in her arms the infant in the fathers.

and I trust in the Son of God that He can arrange the whole matter according to the will of Having received these directions we His loving kindness. all carrying wax candles.. beholding such glory. who military contingents. i. and the a task for those are practised writers.e. And we marvelled.aTr)pt. with the illustres and all the other ranks. Apollinare Nuovo in Ravenna as walkin procession from the palace. . you might behold the excellence of the multitude of the magnates (7rpo7)yovfjL6vcov) and their dazzling raiment. One might behold the child . " The days ran by. Then we composed the petition. and the day on which the young Emperor Theodosius was to be illuminated ((pcorl^ecrOaL. so that the stars which was was the Emperor Arcadius himself. in it ye then depart and compose a petition and insert the requests ye wish to make.oi> meant a baptistery. . carried in arms. When the young Theodosius was baptized and came forth from the church to the Palace. give the petition to him who holds the child in his arms but I shall instruct him what to do. And close to the infant. And all the city was crowned with garlands and decked out in garments entirely made of silk (oXocnjpiKcov) and gold jewels and all kind of ornaments. inserting many things in the document. not only as to the overthrow of the idols but also that privileges and revenue should be granted to the holy Church and the Christians for the holy Church was poor. 2 The martyrs. <pwTt. inhabitants. for all were dressed in white. 1 Used especially of the inner spiritual grace of baptism. baptized) 1 arrived. apparel (iv Xa^irpa iaOrjTL). his face cheerful and more radiant than the purple robe he was wearing. The patricians headed the procession (TrporjyovvTo). are all arrayed in white. And when the comes forth from the holy baptismal rite.' blessed her and the infant and went out. so that no one could describe the adornment of the city. and one of the magnates carried the infant in brilliant seemed to shine on earth. manner But beyond my power to describe the brilliance of that pomp and I shall proceed to my present true history. multitudinous as the waves. 204 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE Do all book ii child will be privileged to receive the holy baptism in a few days. arrayed in all of various dresses (iravTolas t'Sea? it is it is ifjuarlcov ivaWdrrovra). represented in mosaics on the south wall of the nave of S. 2 and you would have thought the multitude was covered with snow.

saying. had the privilege of and he rejoiced seeing his son an emperor in his lifetime And that which had happened for the sake of her thereat. son was announced to the Empress. and Eudoxia arranged a meeting between the quaestor. saying. and knowing our concernment. It gives us a con- . and the bishops.chap. was intrusted to Cynegius.' And all having seen marvelled and he did obeisance to the Emperor.' and held And he who carried the child seeing this. and having unrolled a halted. since it is " the first mandate of our son. ' him time. as well as the funds which the Empress had ' promised for the erection of a church at Gaza. out the paper. The request is hard. seeing good humour. was invidious and required a strong hand and will. which might be incorporated in the edict. ' ordered the requests contained in the petition to be ratified. with the document of our petition. that all the wishes of the latter The execution of it. You are blessed. x " LIFE & MANNERS IN FIFTH to us : ' CENTURY If the things 205 Then the holy Porphyrius says which soon vanish possess such glory.' come into the heart of man " And we stood at the portal of the church. for the Empress had instructed him. bade the paper be showed to him. for the things which your eyes have beheld in your lifecongratulating that . which neither eye hath beheld nor ear heard. placed his hand under His majesty has the head of the child and cried out. said. Palace. and when it w as read. part he read it.' And T the Emperor ordered the paper to be read.' The petition was granted.' And him in the king rejoiced thereat. and when he came forth from the baptism we called aloud. and holding it in her arms greeted the Emperor. said. she met it and received it and kissed it. and the bishops returned to Palestine. And the Empress. but to refuse is harder. one of whose offices was to draft the imperial rescripts. having received considerable sums of money from the Empress and Emperor. This narrative is extremely interesting. ' Please let us learn what the petition contains that its contents may be fulfilled. prepared for the elect. and folding it up. my lord. and when he received it And he commanded silence. how much more it glorious are the things celestial. 'We petition your Piety. and she rejoiced and And when the child entered the thanked God on her knees. nor hath to consider.

and a knowledge of Latin was very necessary for a politician. their edifying spiritual conversations with the Empress.206 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE little book ii manner in which things were done. He loved to surround himself with sorcerers. the ruse of Eucloxia to compass the success of the of petition. deserving of especial remark. and of the dramas that probably lay behind the greater number of the formal decrees and rescripts contained in the The wonder of the Codices of Theodosius and Justinian. was more inclined be the Emperor than the churchman. . with the eunuch. the heathen " abominations " because the heathen were respectable tax- payers policies shows that even of when the ghostly and worldly to the Empire clashed. and with men who held strange opinions pagans and heretics were more One of his best welcome guests than orthodox Christians. Livy. Philotheus. friends was Severus. when he resided there as Emperor. crete idea of the kind of provincial bishops at the splendid apparel of the great of the earth. who became Emperor in the West as the colleague of Leo I. brahmans. Tacitus. all life such details help . . Plautus. and magic. and with the archbishop. he had not put away from himself the Greek He dabbled in theosophy love of speculation and mysticism. and who was the grandson of that prefect Anthemius who guided the State through the critical period following the death of Arcadius. As a favourable example of an educated Byzantine of noble position we may take Anthemius. us in attempting to realise the hesitation of the time while the the pious Arcadius to root out he. was an adherent galloped. a pagan magician who had lived at Alexandria and made his house the resort of spiritualists. as it throughout provinces. and theosophists and it was said that Severus was wont to ride on a fiery horse which emitted sparks as it Another of his friends. . all the Empire. He knew Latin as well as Greek. But if he had studied the Latin language and delighted in the Boman literature. was still the official language Yet acquaintance with the im- perial language was beginning already to decline in the eastern and the fact that Pulcheria knew it was considered Sallust. and Virgil were among the books that Anthemius studied. so that he was quite at home in the society of the cultivated senators of Old Borne. and this propensity gave him a bad name in Rome..

" was adequate by the largeness and splendour of its external experience. that the named says 'the sun did not fiari^cov — but was distributed in small change to illumine the rfkios fcara/cep- gay night. and as interesting as Here Ptolemy Soter had established his " brilliant palace and court. andrians . that the — interfere with the meetings to propagate his doctrine. which held Holy Ghost was not a person but a thing spread somewhat like the Earth-spirit in generally through nature The bishop of Eome felt himself obliged to Goethe's Faust. x — . population. But of all this splendour no eyewitness has left us in detail. and had their own port and seashore but all the rest of the town had water near it and ship traffic in all directions. the streets were continually the scene of tumults citizens between and 1 soldiers. royal buildings and parks were walled like the palace at Pekin [and that at Constantinople]." 1 The Eomans found no city in the Empire so difficult to govern as that of the quick-witted and quick-tempered Alex. We have it described in later times as astonishing the beholder not only with its Tatius. but had their author just streets lighted set. as various. says Achilles an cvStj/jlos iirihrifLia.— chap.' The palaces and other off. too. and Xicopolis to the west its Necropolis. Alexandria-onwhere life was as busy. 197. LIFE <S- MANNERS IN FIFTH CENTURY 207 of the sublime or impious doctrine of Macedonius. is home — to wander through its streets. taking a tour without leaving but with the splendour of the colonnades which lined vastness — the streets for miles and kept the ways cool for passengers with the din and bustle of the thoroughfares. . so well who rested not day and night. Let us now turn to the city of the Ptolemies. contrary to the usual Greek practice with the number and richness of its public buildings and with the holiday and happy air of its vast . Every costume and language must have been met in its streets and quays. . Mahaffy. with festivals which were the wonder of the world. and its bathing resorts to the east Canopus. what we are reduced to infer by conjecture. It had its fashionable suburbs. of which the principal were horse and carriage ways. ." writes Mr." " The city. which Philotheus held in that city Nile. Eleusis. Greek Life and Thought. ever. and revolts against the augustal p.

the matter did not go beyond sarcasm. o - tt. When she had completed her education she was appointed to the chair of philosophy. The date of her birth was about 370.208 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE book ii " While in Antioch. left that Trained in mathematics by her father. „a\-„ have followed his of many tracts. account of the latter event falls within the limits of our have reserved it for this chapter. In street uproar.. 2 I and who was for the a professor at the Museum or university of Alexandria. xv. Meyer. On visits. new formulae and catchwords which they could use as pretexts for violence and rioting. had been trans- mitted untainted by the later developments of Porphyrius and Iamblichus. g*. authority. while the later Neoplatonists were not connected with it. the Egyptians are before all others . the great mathematician. the necessity of charging among the citizens of Alexandria. she pure air deeper and more agitating study of metaphysics. the introduction of Christianity only gave the citizens new things to quarrel about. s . tt j n r. in the Alexandrian Museum.. • . It was only in Alexandria that such acts as the destruction of the Serapeum or the cruel death of Hypatia could take place. p. says an prefects. whose careful little tract. as a rule. and her 1 Mommsen's History of Rome." 1 Instead of healing the discords and calming the intractable temper of this turbulent metropolis by diffusing a spirit of amity and long-suffering. as it illustrates the nature of the Alexandrian atmosphere. Hoche (Phtlologus. on cl " slons seem based on a ? f view of jf*J affiliation to .. . Provinces under the Empire (ii. lecture on the writings of used to t -4. the smallest spark suffices here to kindle a tumult. This point Hypatia's 3 — that remains. 264. on account of a dispute between the slave of an Alexandrian of rank and the Eoman footsoldier as to the value or non-value of their respective slippers. ji Tnsmegistus and Hermes mOrpheus. . An period. new causes for tumult. ^T'T^V ^ 7 . T7 i tt He -. . > Plotinus and his master Ammonias Sakas belonged to the university. — . . *? ! i tt ±j T -uthough Hypatia has v been ±i the subiect * *„„ /. Englisli translation). vol. •. Hypatia was the daughter of Theon. Plotinus is due to W.„„+„ I t -u„™ f~n~. A. 7 7 t are extant. and 3 probably became acquainted with the older Neoplatonism of Plotinus which. 1860) showed that the supposed journey of Hypatia to Athens is based on a mistranslation of Suidas. and was probably a mystic as well as a mathematician. on Euclid His scholia . -. the legions were under account of neglected spoiled provisions. v. j.. the Alexandrian rabble took on the slightest pretext to stones and cudgels. " Hypatia von Alexandria" (1886). has thrown much light on the subject. on account of the confiscation of on account of exclusion from a bathing establishment. himself Alexandrian.

The real cause of her tragic fate. The Alexandrian bishop was already very powerful. made and aristocratic circles at Alexandria.." This story. and the tale went that she exorcised his desire by disarranging her dress and displaying to avnfio\ov tt)s aKaddprov yevvrjcreus: " This. the Patriarch of Alexandria. even if we had not the testimony of Suidas. friend of the pagan Orestes. the prefect augustalis of Egypt and we could be sure. chap. Her free and unembarrassed intercourse with educated men and the publicity of her life must have given rise to many scandals and backbitings. who. 2 but part. she was murdered just after the great conflict between Orestes and Cyril. although his studies under her auspices did not him from going over to Christianity." she said. stories VOL. for such cynicism or cynism would be the logical consequence of an extremely consistent Neoplatonism. and her own sex doubtless looked upon her with suspicion. that the anecdote is ben trovato. 1 I follow Meyer's translation of a passage in Suidas. recorded by Suidas. and called her masculine She used to walk in the streets in her and immodest. however. and nothing beautiful. though a later tradition made her the wife of a heathen philosopher. the philosopher's cloak) and ex- plain to any person Aristotle. who wished a record to learn. was without doubt a contemporary and indicates what exaggerated were circulated about the independence and perhaps the freespokenness of Hypatia. The opposition of the Cyril. x LIFE &> MANNERS IN FIFTH CENTUR Y combined in 209 extraordinary talents. "is what you are in love with. which befell her in March We know that she was an intimate 415. Moreover. that she was an object of hatred to Cyrillus. aimed at attaining the supreme power in the city and reducing the authority of the imperial prefect to a minimum. difficulties in Plato Of the influence still of her personality on her pupils we have in the letters of Synesius of hinder at Gyrene. young man. both because she was an enthusiastic preacher of pagan doctrines and because she was Orestes' friend. 2 One of her pupils is said to have declared his passion for her. and who succeeded to the chair in 412. always remained heart a semi-pagan. surprising. and drew to her lecture -room crowds of admirers. scandal. Isidorus. in which the Jews played an important structress. her a centre of interest the cultured academical or gown 1 (rpi/3cov. with her beauty. is veiled in obscurity. One cannot help acknowledging. I p . and was devotedly attached to his in- That some of her pupils fell in love with her is not Hypatia never married. with its contempt for matter and the human body.

was only a pretext.000. and that conflict of Orestes mischm number Giildenpenning (Gesch. ated against the insulting interference with the authority of Orestes. of course. body. of death 14. and when the Christians flocked to the spot on fire. who this immediately wrote a complaint to Constantinople. they cried out that the spy should be arrested. they saw a notorious creature of Cyril present in an assembly. . hewed her in pieces and burned the fragments of her the midst of these infuriated passions. was then that Hypatia seems to have fallen a victim in As she was returning home one day she was seized by a band of men. and the real Whether the motive of reason. on one occasion. — — Synesius) In my we cannot determine. though not openly. 210 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE book ii 1 to the bishop brought matters to a crisis. as Socrates tells us. vii. who dragged her to a church and. For the A. opinion we shall do most wisely to consider that the with Cyril was exacerbated by the fact that Orestes was really. tearing off her garments. des ostroEeichs.. Hypatia. see Socrates. sulted Orestes publicly. and allowall banishing this horror by their property. one of These fanatics in- them hitting in fact the governor ran a serious risk of his him with a stone life. The culprit who body It hurled the missile was executed. a heathen. hastened to the scene. led by a certain Peter. op. The reason alleged in public for this act of barbarity was that she hindered a reconciliation between Orestes and Cyrillus but this. as has been suggested. a proceeding which plunder to ing the Christians and rights. for when. and a direct Patriarch's was was quite beyond the him. and Cyril treated his as the remains of a martyr. was envy. for that he was the instiCyrillus in instigating this murder was a grudge against gator may be considered almost certain Hypatia herself. juncture At 500 monks of Nitria. or whether. fulminJews led to a bloody vengeance on the christian report was spread at night that the great A population. and Orestes gratified them by inflicting public chastisement on Jews The menaces which Cyril. 2 he intended by her assassination to wound another person (Orestes or . sniffing the savour of blood and bigotry from afar. p. Meyer. cit. 225) reckons the of Jews at Alexandria at this period about 200. enraged by this act. 1 2 By W. surrounded the Jews Hebrews from the city. church was Cyril replied to and massacred them.

and it had abhorred Julian for his paganism and austerity. Its streets were brilliantly lighted at night. nearly four and a half miles long. and the supply of water. Mommsen. after which it was named. dramatic spectacles. and in christian times a city of note as the seat of one of the great Patriarchs of Christendom. and a covered colonnade afforded shade from sun or rain. . when Christianity was in con- with paganism as in the latter half of the fifth century was turbulent as Christians themselves — ever." Its chief street. ' 1 See Julian's Misopogon. for its old cypresses. " In no city of antiquity. . was so good that there was no fighting at the public baths. Julian had abhorred it for its corruption and Christian1 ity. Hence Hypatia. Antioch had more to offer than the city in which no one went idle/ " It was a gay and corrupt place." says of life ' Mommsen. and its magnificent much-frequented festival of the 10th August. century.' about five miles from the city. stretched straight along the river. and its " was the enjoyment so much the main thing duties so incidental as in Antioch-upon-Daphne. dining. but the conflict was then among sects various of monophy sites and orthodox Chalceclonians. for its shining temple of Apollo. was sacrificed in order to lend this aspect to the conflict all the more grateful to the bishop as it and the sacrifice was was a personal blow to and the it his enemy. singers. somewhat as we should say For Daphne was a pleasure -garden 'Vienna -upon -Prater. observes that " for enjoyment of life. Let us now glance for a moment at Antioch-on-Orontes.chap. pleasures of love. Such was Alexandria beginning of the flict at the end of the fourth fifth .' as if the city was significantly called. it has been remarked. comparing it with Alexandria. ballet-dancers. ten miles in circumference. for its flowing and gushing waters. as a prominent pagan teacher and as the intimate friend of Orestes. x LIFE it &> to MANNERS IN FIFTH CENTURY 211 Cyril wished appear that the struggle was not merely the collision of rival authorities or conditioned but rather a strife of by his own ambition. " the christian Church with the " Hellenic society of Alexandria. the famous capital of another great successor of Alexander. and Syria was the home of actors. which even the christian Emperors ordered to be spared. famous for its laurel trees.

and did not proceed to anything more violent. in genethlialogy. classischcn special reference to the revolt of 387 a. 2 In the fourth century. just as we might guess An Alexandrian author. book ii and the heart of Chrysostom of was distressed in vain for the depravity the Antiochian amusements. and it was thus had not the advantage of being a seaport liable to be shaken by frequent and violent earthquakes. A. Hug has an interesting essay on Antioch." practised jugglers and sorcerers. "the city of God. that a writer of Athens was a pagan. in In Antioch. and that of its rival. 1 of Antioch. the chances in regard to his faith would be about equal. we might guess with considerwas a Christian. 2 In the sixth century it was deemed worthy of being re-christened Theupolis. be a Christian than a pagan. Antioch does not seem to have been a resort of pagans. a manners separate chapter 1 may be devoted to it. which I have transhas been preserved. As a contrast to the highly civilised it life of the Eoman Empire. like the When of riots . Superstition was rife. not counting and children. was not so fortunate as It was fourteen miles from the coast. Jews formed an important element of the slaves which. probably be a pagan theologian. lated freely. occurred the causes were generally connected with the circus and though the men men Alexandria. as well as the Alexandria. had sharp tongues. which . as they impressed a contemporary Eoman. able certainty that he . as well as of eloquent theologians . numbered about 200. Pickpockets (" cutpurses") used to frequent the churches.d.Christians of a serious type were to be found there.000. indeed. but in the fifth century probably very few If a non. ultimately proved its ruin. however. Libanius may be mentioned as a pagan of Antioch. with some omissions. will be well to take a glimpse at the primitive of the Huns. A good deal can be gleaned from Chrysostom's homilies about the manners of Antioch. and the place was full of In his Studicn aus clem Alterthum (1881). is of considerable length. would more he were a except Christian Byzantine author would more probably a than a writer of Antioch were named. it may be observed population. who incantations and studied . The situation of Antioch. whose account of an embassy to Attila in the year 448 As the narrative.212 circus HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE clowns. As for a native of Asia Minor. they were generally content with using them.

When we arrived at Naissus . the commander-inchief of the Illyrian armies (magister militum per Illyricum). and to receive five of those seventeen deserters. soothed their wounded feelings and after dinner. iv. and having written to the Emperor. which we In the course of the feast. On the morrow we came to the station of Agintheus. 7. Hist. to. Of the this been 1 fortunately : preserved. p. Grace. about whom Attila had We had an interview with him. wapa is 76) re- ferred to. and wrote a Ml has account of what befell them. The Huns grew excited and hot at But we turned the conversation in another direction. Bigilas remarked was not fair to compare a man and a god. and prepared a meal. when we separated.— CHAPTER XI A GLIMPSE OF HUN LIFE The historian Priscus accompanied his friend to Scythia or Maximin on an account. The we lauded the Emperor. for all the ground adjacent to the bank was full of the bones of men slain in war. which is Halting there we Edecon and the barbarians with him to inhabitants of the place sold us sheep and oxen. and this remark. In Muller's Latin translation under the text these words are mistranslated dc quibus ad Attilam scripserat. out with the barbarians. . to announce to him the imperial commands. considered it advisable to invite dinner. which is embassy Hunland in the year 448. 78). . It may be well to warn readers that the Latin translation appended cannot be implicitly trusted. . We halted at a short distance from the river. as the butchered. 2 7rept &v 'ATT7]\q. 2 had been sacked 1 I have used the text of Priscus in Muller's Frag. we found the city deserted. meaning Attila by the man and Theodosius by the god. as though only a few sick persons lay in the churches. " it . in an open space. 'AtttjXo. eytypairro (p. following a free translation " We set thirteen days for a fast traveller from Constantinople. who was posted not far from Naissus. gems. ypd/xfiara (fr. Maximin presented Edecon and Orestes with silk garments and Indian barbarians lauded Attila and that it . vol. and arrived at Sardica.

that Maximin will give him many presents if he would procure him an interview with Attila and. I informed Scottas. As we were dining in the evening we heard the sound of horses approaching. and proceeded with the barbarians about seventy stadia. Having crossed the Danube. messengers came from Attila bidding us wait on account of the late hour. not as a member of the embassy. and two Scythians arrived with directions that we were to set out to Attila. and when we wished to pitch our tent on a hill the barbarians who met us prevented us. who rowed us across the river in boats made by themselves out of single trees hewn and hollowed. that the embassy will not only conduce to the public interests of the two powers. He had come with us to Scythia. and portending unusual events. These preparations had not been made for our sake. that Edecon and his party might go on in front and inform Attila of our arrival. airo rdv opicov mention these instances to show that the translation must be used with caution. we were compelled to wait in a certain plain. but to convey across a company of Huns for Attila pretended that he wished to hunt in Roman territory. At the river we were received by barbarian ferrymen. When I saw that Maximin was very dejected. who was aware of the nature of their embassy. Having passed these rough places we arrived at a plain which was also well wooded. (Then a message is received from Attila. but he again bade us depart if we had no further mandates beyond what he already knew. and they dismounted and made good cheer.) When the baggage had been packed on the beasts of burden. and we were perforce preparing to start in the night time. When it was day we expected a gentle and courteous message from the barbarian. taking with me Rusticius. an Italian whom Aetius had sent to Attila to be that monarch's private secretary. . brother of Onegesius). who understood the Hun language. We made no reply. I . We asked them first to partake of our meal. but to the private interest of treated the deserters with kindness. Ncu<rcroO. . I went to Scottas (one of the Hun nobles. we entered a covered valley with many bends and windings and circuitous paths. sent to us by Attila. under their guidance. but his intent was really hostile. Rusticius acting as interpreter. about three o'clock. The fact was that that part of the road faced the east. and when we had dined we retired to sleep. Then men arrived with an ox and river fish. 1 Here is another mistranslation in Muller's Latin version. a montibus Naissi (/). moreover. and prepared to set out. which were numerous. so we halted where the Scythians desired. but on business with Constantius. owing to the irregularity of the ground.214 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE book n them to us. we arrived at the tents of Attila. We thought we were travelling due west. though Bigilas insisted that we should feign to have some other communication to make. because the tent of Attila was on low ground. so they reluctantly prepared to return. . he committed . saying that if they had nothing further to communicate to him he would not receive them. On the next day. because all the deserters had not been given up to him. . The next day we proceeded from the district of Naissus 1 towards the Danube. . but when the clay dawned the sun rose in front and some of us unacquainted with the topography cried out that the sun was going the wrong way.

who returned to the Empire (nominally to find the deserters whose restoration Attila demanded. are the Drecon. I described my interview with Scottas. next to the Danube. It shall be unto the Eomans as they wish it to be unto me. to whom he gave the Emperor's letter. Tigas. saying that the Emperor prayed for the safety of him and his. but really to get the " After the departure of Bigilas. . But we all reached the village by different ways. we pitched our tents on the banks of a fresh-water lake. The king replied. and almost threw down our tents Terrified by the all our utensils were rolled into the waters of the lake. and we entered We Attila's tent. and Tiphesas the smaller boats made of one piece. and found him in a state of perplexity and anxiety. and at the same time prove that the report was true which ascribed to him an Scottas influence with Attila equal to that possessed by his brother. and asking him why he ventured to come when all the deserters had not been given up. used for water by the inhabitants of the neighbouring village. was for Scottas. mishap and the atmospherical disturbance. but when we reached a certain point took another route by the command of the Scythians who conducted us. In the villages we were supplied with food millet instead of corn. to help us.. chap. We stood at a little distance found Attila sitting on a wooden chair. in that place. We proceeded along a level road in a plain and met with navigable rivers of which the greatest. used by the dwellers on the banks rivers we traversed on rafts which the barbarians carry about with them on carts. having travelled a long distance. while I returned to Maximin. . lying on the grass with Bigilas. and recalled the men who had started with the As we were considering what to say to Attila. 1 ' . though he had many other wives. it. and how beasts of burden. . which was surrounded by a multitude of barbarians. We accompanied the barbarian for a time. and raised an Edecon had betrayed to Attila the which he and Bigilas had formed against Attila's life. accompanied by thunder and lightning and heavy rain. each following the road that seemed most easy. mounted his horse and rode to Attila's tent. for his fellow-conspirator Edecon). Scottas came to fetch us. we left the place and lost one another in the dark and the rain. for the to A GLIMPSE OF HUN LIFE 215 Emperor desired that he should be sent as an ambassador Byzantium. instead of wine. But a wind and storm. calling him a shameless beast. which we crossed in the monoxyles. and bade him make They both jumped up. approving preparations for an audience of Attila. to present the Emperor's gifts. xi Onegesius. for the money Scythians practised polygamy.' and immediately addressed Bigilas. and Maximin advanced and saluted the barbarian. as the — — : — natives call millet. for the purpose of crossing morasses. to arrange the disputes of the Huns and Eomans. and mead (jxeSos). of what I had done. we remained one day and then set out with Attila for the northern parts of the country. The attendants who followed us received and a drink made of barley. arose. I said. This was design 1 the real reason of Attila's roughness towards the latter. or rather help his brother. and that As Onegesius was not present it there he would receive splendid gifts. Late in the evening. as Attila was proceeding to a village where he intended to marry the daughter of Eskam. which the barbarians call ham.

3 Romulus and his daughter were of Patavio in Noricum. — . and was the same as the famous and in- Greek 2 is eWrjvifa. —that significant Emperor Romulus Augustulus who resigned in favour of Zeno in 476.' J who had also come on an embassy to Attila the Count Romulus. Corsica." but " Mitra and Varuna. and Romanus a military captain. which we found partly in the place where we had pitched the tent. a native of Gaul. and other delicacies. When Sirmium in Pannonia was besieged by the ." 216 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE book ii alarm to obtain what we lacked. Constantius had known them of old in the Italies. This Constantius." because these e/c TaXarQv fieu twv h rfj eawipa (Pris- cus. to whom we paid our respects and presented gifts in return for her courtesy. 4 had preceded his namesake in the office of secretary to Attila. Having looked after our horses and cattle. palm fruit. Indian pepper. Valentinian is described as 6 fiaaiXevuv tQv eairepluw FunaLuv. 86). We remained in the huts till day dawned and then went to look for our lost utensils. 3 " The object of the embassy was to soften the soul of Attila. Promotus governor of Noricum. because he had received golden vessels from a certain Constantius. This use of the plural is parallel to the dual Mitrau in the Rig. as opposed to " the tongue of the Hellenes. and. This.Veda. ' — . asked what we wanted. red skins. Italy with its appendages Sicily. The lady who governed the village she had been one of Bleda's wives sent us provisions and good-looking girls to console us (this is a Scythian compliment). as a writer in Kuhn's Zcitschrift suggested. It is possible also that in a passage in the Iliad AiWre does not mean the two Ajaxes. does not imply that there was any idea afloat at the time of a western Roman Empire. partly on the bank of the lake. — — treated the young women to a share in the eatables. so that he might go in front. lighting the reeds which they use for kindling fires. 2 and Tatulus' son Orestes had married the daughter of Romulus. 4 The way in which a Greek Roman spoke of Gaul deserves to be remarked Gaul for him was "western Galatia : : which does not mean "the two Mitras. who demanded the surrender of one Silvanus. it need scarcely be remarked. we halted at a village for as the rest of the route was the same for us and Attila. but declined to take any further advantage of their presence. Our conductors replied that the storm had alarmed us so they invited us to their huts and provided warmth for us by lighting large fires of reeds. just as "the Gauls" meant Gaul and Spain. the father of Orestes these two were not connected with the embassy. Orestes' son was called after his grandfather Romulus. ev reus 'IraXtcus is. . The Scythians of the village sprang out of their huts at the noise. a silversmith (or banker) in Rome. we directed our steps to the princess. p. 1 It is worth observing how the Greekspeaking Romans spoke of their Latinspeaking fellow-subjects. The gifts consisted of things which are esteemed by the barbarians as not produced in the country three silver phialai. We ." To speak gods generally went together tor (like Cas- and Pollux). and partly in the water. " Having advanced a distance of ten days further. but Ajax Telamonius and his brother Teucer. and Tatulus. 84). We spent that day in the village drying our things for the storm had ceased and the sun was bright. Sardinia. it behoved us to wait. With them was Constantius whom Aetius had sent to Attila to be his secretary. Priscus calls the Latin language ttjv Avaoviuv " the tongue of the Ausonians " (p. but were friends of the ambassadors. Here we met with some of the western Romans.

designed. of Onegesius. violated his engagement. and were so large that seven or more girls walked beneath each. as 6 paaiXeiJS. Onegesius who was the second in power among the Scythians built. Constantius. while the Latin p$f might be used for a king. the bishop of the place consigned the vessels to his (Constanthat if the city were taken and he survived they might be used . to ransom the citizens who But when the city was enslaved. sent to explain that Silvanus was Constantius' creditor. when the affair of the vessels became known to Attila. but to . as he happened to be at Rome on business. The house of Onegesius was second to the king's 1 in splendour. writes in a conventional prose. he demanded the surrender of Silvanus on the ground that he had stolen his Accordingly Aetius and the Emperor of the Western Romans property. was crucified by Attila and Bleda and afterwards. which avoids the expres/3<x<riAei5s. This is the highest honour shown among the Scythians. we proceeded. with a number of servants.chap. Scythians. and they sang Scythian songs. " Having waited for some time until Attila advanced in front of us. but it was not adorned with towers Not far from the enclosure was a large bath which like that of the king. family " when they bathed. would not surrender the innocent Silvanus. and he used to minister to him and his — — . Occasionally Priscus speaks of Attila word which in the ordinary spoken language of the time was reserved for the Emperor. a 1 Priscus. for Onegesius appointed him bathman. however. and surrounded with a other places. not for protection. and greater as payment for making the bath. and. bearing meat and wine. suspected of treachery. and saluted him and begged him that can be friend. Attila refused to desist from his others for sacred purposes. and having crossed some rivers we arrived at a large village. ransom him and in case he were slain. Constantius were led into captivity. There were many lines of damsels thus When he came near the house canopied. the vessels having been pawned and not stolen. his attendants raising the tray saddlebow and having tasted the wine. wooden enclosure. under thin white canopies of linen. however. he went on to the palace. and that he had sold them to priests and If. which lay on his way. To gratify the wife of his to his he ate. . of the bath was a captive from Sirmium. was still legitimately used of the Persian monarch. where Attila's house was said to be more splendid than his residences in It was made of polished boards. having transported the stones from Pannonia for the barbarians in this The builder district had no stones or trees. he. sions of the spoken tongue. but used imported material. xi A GLIMPSE OF HUN LIFE 217 tius') care. on condition that if he gave back the money within a prescribed period the dishes should be returned. to partake of her hospitality. which were held up by the outside women who stood under them. . who expected to win his freedom But he was disappointed. demand. trouble befell him than mere captivity among the Scythians. and was also encircled with a wooden enclosure. just as he sat on his horse. the Emperor. pawned the vessels to Silvanus for a sum of money. the wife of Onegesius issued from the door. When Attila entered the village he was met by girls advancing in rows. would send him the value of the vessels. but otherwise should become Silvanus' property. but for appearance. however.

not "EWtjv. Then he smiled and said that he was born a Greek 2 and had gone as a merchant to Viminaciurn. resembled a well-to-do Scythian. enjoying what they have got. and married a very rich wife. for he had returned from his expedition with Attila's son. and he was stript of his prosperity. a Greek. But we remained in the house of Onegesius. As I waited and walked up and down in front of the enclosure which surrounded the house. He then married a barbarian wife and had children. and took up our quarters nearer the palace. and so obtained freedom. at his invitation. along with the attendants who found the doors closed. This man. I asked him who he was and whence he had come into a foreign land and adopted Scythian life. for he had no leisure himself. whom from his Scythian dress I took for a barbarian. a man. except captives from the Thracian or Illyrian sea-coast and these last are easily known to any stranger by their torn garments and the squalor of their head. and I was to find out whether he would have an interview with Maximin and at I arrived at the house. on the Danube. and explain the accident which had happened to the young prince. and having his hair cut in a circle after Scythian fashion. and had the privilege of partaking at the table of Onegesius. Having fought bravely life He considered his new life among the Scythians better than his old among the Romans. The next morning. and on account of his riches was allotted to Onegesius in the division of the spoil. I told him that his Hellenic speech had prompted my curiosity. The Romans. When ' — — . at dawn of day. with the word dvai to yevos (p. he had paid the spoils he won to his master. . I ' ! what time. After dinner we left the house of Onegesius. swept together from various lands. Having returned his salutation. as he had to relate to Attila the result of his expedition. as men who have met with a reverse. 2 £<p7] TpaiKos fj. harassed. where he had stayed a long time. on the contrary. Scythians for the chiefs to reserve for themselves the rich prisoners. 86). . For the subjects of the Huns. and the reasons he urged were as follows After war the Scythians live in inactivity. and had to wait until some one should come out and announce our arrival. "EWtjvlkos and iWrjui^eiu were still used in their old sense and we even meet ttjv 'EWtjuoju (pwvrjv. . But the city fell a prey to the barbarians. against the Romans and the Acatiri. speak. not a Hellene. in which of course many barbarous Tataric tongues were spoken. 1 or as many as have commercial dealings with the western Romans Latin but none of them easily speak Greek. which would mean a pagan. either Hunnic or Gothic. When he asked me why I wanted to know. who had slipped and broken his right hand.218 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE book ii which was higher than the other houses and built on an elevated site. on the other hand. Maximin sent me to Onegesius. and not at all. TpaiKos. beside their own barbarous tongue. Hunnic or Gothic were the recognised languages of the Hun empire. His wife and kinsfolk entertained us to dinner. are " : ' 1 That is. Hail I was surprised at a Scythian speaking Greek. came up and addressed me in Greek. as it was the custom among the carried the gifts. so that Maximin might be at a convenient distance for visiting Attila or holding intercourse with his court. with presents offered by himself as well as those which the Emperor had sent. or very little. being well dressed.

long time spent on lawsuits. having by practice exhausted all their fear beforehand.' 1 " My interlocutor shed tears. . were ruining the State. made one class of men guardians of the laws. but also by their wills. fur his kindness 1 Those who spend money on a suit and lose it in the end cannot fairly And as to the put it down to anything but the injustice of their case. not possessing the spirit of former generations. I asked him to be good The enough to listen with patience to the other side of the question. . . to use arms. . just as a payment is made by the farmers Is it not fair to support him who assists and requite him to the soldiers. and so much money to The climax of the misery is to have For no one will give a court to the injured man except he pay a sum of money to the judge and the judge's is expended on them. on account of their tyrants. and are not allowed. Romans treat their servants better than the king of the Scythians treats . military corn-supply. and to go forth to war without dread. so long is the course of lawsuits protracted. his subjects. because the laws against all classes. that is due to concern for justice. sum of . The support of the horse benefits the horseman. and the testamentary . admonishing conduct which they have children. to support both themselves and those who fight in their defence. by having to give senit is better that they should reflect. like the Scythians. . but deplored that the governors. by contributing the ' ' To those who protect the interests of the litigants a money is paid by the latter. who does not understand business. as they have to rest their hopes of safety on others. and confessed that the laws and constitution of the Romans were fair. again were assigned to attend to the cultivation of the ground. Empire to slavery in the .' " In reply to this attack on the Empire. . clerks. And their generals. xi A GLIMPSE OF HUN LIFE 219 in the first place very liable to perish in war. But the condimore grievous than the evils of very severe. who were to have no other object than to be always ready for battle. that judges may not fail in passing accurate judgments. and appointed another class to the profession of arms.chap. wishes of a Roman in regard to his property are law. the institutor of justice. in order to prevent things from being done at haphazard. as though to their ordinary Others exercise. pay in order to obtain justice. them as fathers or lines of them from esteemed honourable to abstain and follow the teachers. . is the cowardice of tion of the subjects in time of peace war. than that by judging in a hurry they should both injure The man and transgress against the Deity. . to inflict death on they can them.' I said. creators of the Roman republic. while a poor man. They have numerous ways of conferring freedom manumit not only during life. who were wise and good men. for the exaction of the taxes is inflict injuries on others. They deal with evil . that is if he does not depart this transgressor A who life before the trial. undergoes the legal penalty. and unprincipled men far are practically not valid belongs to the wealthy classes is not punished for his injustice. those who use them are injured by who cannot support the conduct of war. and conclude the case tence offhand more tardily. they reprove them for their errors like their own They are not allowed. This passage is interesting as an illustration of the attitude of the higher 1 classes in the fifth century.

whose name was Kreka. 227). but the Romans need not think they could ever prevail with him to betray his master or neglect his Scythian training and his wives and children. and Onegesius appeared in the tent without delay. She had three sons. to visit to him constantly. He expressed his thanks to Maximin and the Emperor for the presents. for it would not have been consistent with Maximin's dignity as ambassador by investigating peace. Attila's wife lived here. if there were sons) of the reigning Emperor might succeed him. and with the gold which the Emperor sent you. I hurried up.220 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE book ii "As we were engaged in this discussion a servant came out and opened the door of the enclosure. saying. as he was about to go forth. He then retired. and inquired how Onegesius was engaged. and addressed him. Maximin said that the time had come for Onegesius to have greater renown among men. or to prefer wealth among the Romans to bondage with Attila. He replied that I should meet him if I waited a little. A number carving. and told me to announce to Maximin that he would go to him immediately. The next day I entered the enclosure of Attila's palace. ' If you cross into the lands of the Roman Empire you will lay the Emperor under an obligation. and. others of straight boards beautifully planed beams. fastened on 1 It is worth while noticing this expression ry exeivov yhei. if he would go to the Emperor. without round wooden blocks which rose to a moderate height from the ground. I delivered the message. some of carved fitted together. having consented that I should act as intermediate in conveying messages from Maximin to himself.' Onegesius bade his servants receive the gold and the gifts. He added that he would be of more service to the Romans by remaining in his own land and softening the anger of his master. Maximin . having been admitted by the barbarians at the door. if he were indignant for aught with the Romans. Theoretically it was not hereditary (see p. and by his wisdom arrange the objects of dispute between the Romans and Huns. and how he could arrange the disputes. and the other nations who dwell in Pontic Within the enclosure were numerous buildings. of whom the " eldest governed the Acatiri Scythia. and asked why he sent for him. than by visiting them and subjecting himself to blame if he made arrangements that Attila did not approve of. but it would have been treasonable to hint that any one but a relative (a son. for I desired to give him a message from the Roman ambassador. and begs you to appoint a time and place. The floor of the room was covered with woollen mats for walking on. which unintentionally expresses the general idea that the Roman Empire was hereditary. And after a short time I saw him coming out. bearing gifts his wife. I found her reclining on a soft couch. and establish concord between them and thereby he will also procure many advantages for his own family. and you will arrange the matters at replied : issue the their causes and deciding them on the basis of Onegesius said he would inform the Emperor and his ministers of Attila's wishes. 1 Then Onegesius inquired what measures would gratify the Emperor. ' The Roman ambassador salutes you. as he and his children will be always friends of the Emperor and the imperial race. and I have come with gifts from him. . The ambassador is anxious to meet you.

and stood on the threshold of the hall in the presence of Attila. such as either side. which was covered with linen sheets and wrought coverlets for ornament. along with the embassy from the western Romans. the guards of Attila and his stood in the middle of a great crowd I saw a number attendants knew me. spoken with some barbarians. and stood in front of the house . and received ambassadors of barbarous peoples. which was subjected to Attila. and many persons who had Then lawsuits with one another came up and received his judgment. will be adjusted " by arms. " As we were talking about the state of the world. and deliberated with him what answer we should make to the question of the barbarian. Having first . They asked me whether we had been dismissed or are constrained to remain. Soon after Maximin came out. and that he would not receive any other than one of these when he (Maximin) replied that it was not meet to mention men three by name and so render them suspected in the eyes of the Emperor. was with Attila. a man from the Pannonian territory. . He was accompanied by looking round on this side and on that. that of the . I said that the Romans desired him to come to them and adjust the matters of dispute. otherwise the Emperor will send whatHe then bade me fetch Maximin. according to the national When we we might pray before we sat down. to our tent I delivered the message to Maximin. where Attila I was. whom he ever ambassador he chooses. returned to our tent the father of Orestes came with an invitation from Attila for both of us to a banquet at three o'clock. " As I was waiting for Onegesius. xi of servants stood A GLIMPSE OF HUN LIFE 221 round her. who. and from it steps led up to his bed. he bade me inquire of Maximin what conWhen I came sular the Romans are sending as an ambassador to Attila. I was accosted by Romulus and Promotus and Romanus. Having tasted the cup. room on Attila sat in the middle on a couch . and so no one hindered me. they told me that his decision could not be moved. and a great commotion and noise. and maids sitting on the floor in front of her embroidered with colours linen cloths intended to be placed over the Having approached. he returned into the house. When I inquired in my turn whether Attila had vouchsafed them a kind reply. Onegesius. and waited for Onegesius. Attila said that if they do not choose to comply with his wishes the differences . and that he threatened war unless either Silvanus or . sented the gifts. . Attila's egress And he came forth from the house with a dignified strut. Returning to Onegesius. — of people advancing. and walked to the other houses.. a second couch was set behind him. Onegesius came out we went up to him and asked him about our concerns. . told me that the barbarian wished Nomos or Anatolius or Senator to be the ambassador. and preScythian dress for ornament. and I replied that it was just to learn this from Onegesius that I was waiting outside the palace. saluted her. chap. and conducted to the presence of Attila. we proceeded to take our seats all the chairs were ranged along the walls custom. the drinking vessels should be given up. the ambassadors who had come from Italy about they were accompanied by Rusticius and by Constanthe golden vessels tiolus. as I knew. The cup-bearers gave us a cup. When the hour arrived we went to the palace. I went out. being expected.

was quite simple. After the songs a Scythian. whose mind was deranged. and might not sit down until the king. When the viands of the first course had been consumed we all stood up. the latchets of his Scythian shoes. so that each could take of the food on the dishes without leaving his seat. others reminded of wars were excited in their souls. us in the same mony was The attendant of Attila first entered with a dish full of meat. who. He took it. served on silver plate. who would come forward in order to present the wine. way according to the order of the seats. drank to the health of Attila in the goblet of wine presented to him. And of the guests. whose bodies were feeble with age and their spirits compelled to rest. After him Zerkon. was of wood. as they looked at the singers. His dress. returned the cup to the attendAll the guests then honoured Attila in the same way. while yet others. but Attila ate nothing but meat on a wooden trencher. a cupbearer came and handed Attila a wooden cup of wine. with gold or gems or anything costly. In everything else. and two barbarians coming forward in front of Attila sang songs they had composed. Each of us had a special cupbearer. He had been sent by Attila as a gift to Aetius. he showed himself temperate his cup . and over against Onegesius on a chair sat two of Attila's sons his eldest son sat on his couch. and then tasting the cups . Berichus. and tables. The places on the right were held chief in honour. When the second in precedence and those next to him had been honoured in like manner. were placed next the table of Attila. When evening fell torches were lit. the bridle of his horse were not adorned. but he did not stand up. a noble among the Scythians. too. appeared. but "EXX^j/ey. the Moorish dwarf.222 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE 1 book ii and Romans use to deck bridal beds. We then sat down. affecting only to be clean. some were pleased with the verses. and saluted the first in precedence. and by uttering outlandish and senseless words forced the company to laugh. entered. like those of the other Scythians. or even more. saluting him. and when "EXXt/v was not opposed to Xpianavos. ant. celebrating his victories and deeds of valour in war. honoured by the salutation. had been made ready for us and the barbarian guests. not near him. which they laid on the tables. When all were arranged. After this course the same ceremony was observed as after the first. were only second. and a second dish was placed on each table with eatables of another kind. to sit at. large enough for three or four. and behind him came the other attendants with bread and viands. and Edecon had persuaded him to come to Attila in order to recover his wife. sat on our side. 1 — Greeks were not Romans. When this cereover the cupbearers retired. those on the left. and did not resume our seats until each one. having tasted or drained the wine. when the cupbearer of Attila retired. this In using expression Priscus had ancient times in his mind times when the "EXX^i/es re koX "Pw/acuoi. with his eyes fixed on the ground. The sword he carried at his side. but at the extreme end. stood up. whom he had left behind him in Scythia the lady was a Scythian whom he had obtained in marriage . while to the guests were given goblets of gold and silver. in the order before observed. Onegesius sat on a chair on the right of Attila's couch. shed tears. in shy respect for his father. A luxurious meal. where we sat. but had the precedence of us. too. . Attila toasted Greeks of Attila .

gave me to understand that prophets had forewarned Attila that his race would fall. though they are most often practically synonymous. I was surprised that he made so much of this son. The Huns. and therefore." It will be noticed that in the fore^c-ino.chap. and threw all except Attila into fits of unquenchable laughter by his appearance. his voice. and his words. and neglected his other children but a barbarian who sat beside me and knew Latin. And thus. torians and as a great many different nomadic nations were united under the sovereignty of Attila. "When the night had advanced we retired from the banquet. He did not succeed in recoverOn the occasion of ing her. be perceived. but would be restored by this boy. which were a confused jumble of Latin. his youngest son. . not wishing . narrative the word. the banquet he made his appearance. we might say that Attila was king of the Huns and emperor of the Scythians. to apply to his subjects. to use a more modern distinction. Hun seem at first sight to be used in- A certain distinction between them I can. have reproduced both words in the translation Scythian is not merely an ancient term applied to a new people. Scythian and the word differently. natural name own nation. remained immovable and of unchanging countenance. and gazed on with a calm look of satisfaction. Attila's were Scythians. and Gothic. just as they occur in the original. bidding me not reveal what he told. to assist further at the potations. Attila. Hunnic. however. xi A GLIMPSE OF HUN LIFE 223 through the influence of his patron Bleda. whom he pulled by the cheek. it was a very convenient and . however. in the same way as the Goths and the Slaves were often called Getae by pedantic hisScythian was a generic term for all nomadic nations. but all Scythians were not Huns. his dress. for Attila was angry with him for returning. nor by word or act did he betray anything approaching to a smile of merriment except at the entry of Ernas.




and the choice of a new Emperor rested with the army. undid his work in this respect. with Kaiser- wahnsinn. and securing his recognition by the army as a Caesar or Augustus. with which the office had At the same time a been originally so closely connected. come great danger was the devolution of the Empire on princes who were weak or afflicted. natural instinct led Emperors to wish that their sons or members of their own house should succeed them and by the title of Imperator or . . On Marcian's death the Theodosian dynasty had an end. The . adopting the plan of nominating a successor in their lifetime. like Commodus. Theodosius as his successor before his death. 1 It was always a critical moment when a dynasty ended while it .CHAPTEE LEO I I The Eonian Empire never recognised of hereditary succession . Marcian's title being sealed his had designated Marcian by marriage with the Empress Pulcheria. and his system of two Augusti and two Caesars was designed to guard against it but Constantine . explicitly the principle Augustus was always conferred by the army. or a member I. whose consent was to 1 Diocletian saw the danger of this tendency. Emperors could found a dynasty without violating the theory that the elevation to the throne was elective. of claims without a designated successor. Theodosius had created title to his son Arcadius Augustus Arcadius had given that his infant son Theodosius II. Accordingly the Empire tended to become practically hereditary was theoretically elective and the constant examples to the crown founded on relationship prove that there was a feeling that heredity involved a right. of the family who cared to claim the crown.

though an Alan and not a Leo however firmly resisted the aggressiveness of great fact which this influence. Aspar's worked in of recruitplan the formed he Germans. little touched who lived almost like by the influence of This is Leo's Hellenism. was first introduced the not prove as amenable to influence as Aspar had hoped on — . Eicimer in the West. 228 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE book hi in every case necessary. was a kingEicimer. He and his three sons. Thus Aspar. p. and the danger which had threatened the Empire in now the reign of Arcadius through the power of Gainas was barbarians. was the representative of German influence in the Empire. was steward of who native of Dacia and an orthodox Christian. could not hope to sit on the imperial throne and thus the only course open to Aspar was to secure the elevaHe chose Leo. conceived an idea. vi. an independent people.. of Patriarch which occasion the ceremony of coronation by the did he Constantinople (then Anatolius). . on February)— But when Leo assumed the purple (7th maker. he took measures to reduce the resources of had confamily. " Great. received high eulogies from his namesake. 364. who with his father Ardaburius had distinguished himself thirty-five years before in suppressing the usurper John and helping Yalentinian III to his legitimate Aspar's position in the East resembled that of succession. 1 received probably he which for orthodoxy. See the He citations of Tillemont. a tion of one on whose pliancy he might count. more than for his it. the bishop of Rome. and was the centre of a large faction of Arians In fact Aspar. an Alan by descent. begun by himself of and carried out by his successor. and i from the hishops of the East. native ing the line from the hardy race of Isaurian mountaineers. of consisted the army he chose purpose this For subjects. counteracted that danger throughout State the threatened which German preponderance He the fifth century. whose execution. The man of most authority in the army was the general Aspar (magistcr militum per orientem). Leo was popular with the Church. des Mrnp. Aspar's contrary. and German. in the wild regions of Mount Taurus. being Arians and foreigners. which by its close relations with the army siderable power. repeated. like his own household." title the deserves he which for great original work. Hist. and in order to neutralise the and flower of bulk the that namely favour.

in spite of the fact that he was a barbarian. His pleasures consisted in actors and jugglers and all stage amuse- ments. and that there were riots and seditions in the city. to raise one of Aspar's sons to the . apparently at the time of his rank of Caesar. When for Leo undertook the incapacity of the which but the commander would have exterminated the kingdom of the Vandals and made his reign really glorious. for in the great lire which laid waste a large part of Constantinople in 465 it is recorded that Aspar exerted himself unsparingly for the public interest. iii. doubtless also in the reign of Leo. as it was a direct encouragement to the Arian party.chap. the persistence of Aspar. which may be true. shows the relations which existed between the king and the kingmaker the firmness of Leo. Aspar was jealous of the fame that Leo might probably gain. " Nor yet is it meet that he should be constrained and driven like a slave. Dindorf). he won repute in the humbler part of an energetic citizen or a competent policeman. of Priscus. it is not meet that he who wears this robe should speak falsely " to which Leo replied. It appears that a deputation of orthodox clergy and laymen waited on the Emperor. he was an untutored barbarian. and spending his time on these ill-famed occupations he lost all count of the things that make for glory. " he betook himself to relaxation and womanly ease. When he delayed to perform this promise. vol. imploring him to appoint a Caesar who did not hold heretical views. while the Empire enjoyed rest. 2 We may say that the chief political feature of the reign was a sort of duel between the Emperor and the general for power and popularity. 251 (ed. and idle and frivolous in peace. 20. " Emperor." 1 But if he was no longer active as a warrior. Leo had made a promise. but the concession was displeasing to the senate and to the orthodox population of Byzantium." This story. During the reign of Marcian. i LEO I 229 Aspar appears to have possessed all the characteristics of Brave and active in war. p. Aspar is said to have seized him by his purple robe and said. a protest against the elevation. p. — new Caesar. On this occasion. . great naval expedition. Leo yielded. and seems to have wished to thwart 1 its success 2 by obtaining the nomination Zonaras. and created one of Aspar's sons Caesar. however. and thereby designate him as his successor.

" already referred to. the historian. who had become a formidable foe of the Empire in the Mediterranean waters. Leo was a man of no education." according to the chronicler. mil. p. which in the days of Arcadius was decided in favour of the former.m. which was probably unwise. the son of Aspar who had been created Caesar. Ermenaric. loyal attempted to gain over the Isaurians to his father's faction. but he recovered from his wounds while a third son. the Emperor received the name of " Butcher" (makelles). 2 Thereupon Ardaburius. H. but of natural good sense. "Hence Aspar becomes suspected by the Emperor 2 . Patricius. At the end of 469 or early in 470 (ib. who became his son-in-law. the policy of Anthemius and Marcian. 5964)." a friend . 135 (F. who detested Leo and condemned his civil policy as ruinously rapacious. the son of Aspar.) Zeno married Ariadne in 458 or Theoph. as we already remarked. 1 Leo. as a repetition of that struggle elements in But the whole drama has a deeper significance between Eoman and barbarian the Empire.d. but of this it will be more convenient to speak in the following chapter. cession of his own infant grandson Leo he may have feared that he would be unable to hold his own against the powerful bar. an unimportant Gothic rising led by Ostrys. 5951 a. and placed a limit on fiscal oppression. He pursued. In this project he was supported by the Isaurian Zeno. per or. iv. whence is the Byzantine proverb. Malchus. escaped. Basiliscus. . G. After the death of Aspar there was Aspar's scpuire. It should be noted that Zeno is said to have aided the escape of Aspar's son Ermenaric 3 (ib. barian family. It has been said that Leo's motive in removing Aspar and his sons was to secure the suc. An attempt was also made to kill to the abrupt but these intrigues were betrayed to Zeno. The most striking event of Leo's reign was the enormous "Armada. Leo then resorted measure of putting to death Aspar and his son Ardaburius (471 a. happening to be absent. The struggle came to a critical point in some matter connected with two unknown persons (Tatian and Vivian). which he organised against the kingdom of Gaiseric the Vandal. 1 and it was then that Leo decided to have recourse to the Isaurians.230 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE book hi an incompetent commander. says that he was a sewer of all wickeclCandidus. " No one of the dead except Ostrys. 459 Five years later he became mag. 5962) an attempt was made on his life in Thrace by the wiles of Aspar but he escaped to Sardica.) 3 In consequence of this act. who was perhaps disand certainly avaricious.

considered him " most fortunate. which petitioners addressed themselves resided in His unmarried house in the south-west corner of the The Emperor used to Augusteum. close to the hippodrome. alleviations the fatal mode on the other hand. A sister curious detail has survived regarding the manner in 3 to him. an important This leads us to give an account of depot on the Eecl Sea.chap. religious bigotry. pay her a visit with affectionate regularity every week. and. " because she was modest and a virgin. Towards the end of his reign the commerce of the Empire met with a serious blow by the loss of Jotaba. life. driving out the Greek custom1 In the acts of the councils there are dark allusions to a great victory obtained by Leo's arms in Pontus. and every week one of the imperial staff used to collect them. but on the Scenite Saracens. 12). hand. as the sun distributes heat to those on whom shines. gradually wore away the resources of the provinces and affected disastrously their social and moral We must judge of an Emperor's civil policy relatively. There migrated thence to the adjacent province of Arabia. not on the His power graduRomans. combined with the growth of centralisation. that he hated Leo for his one the on must remember. ness. cit. which belonged to the Romans. and. in which petitioners used to place their memorials {ttittclkmi). op. p. by an earthquake in 458. and he seized the island of Jotaba. not absolutely. that in spite of all of collecting taxes. Tillemont. the Persian (IsTocalian) adventurer Amorkesos. 3 Codinus." he supported himself as a brigand. . vi. The public edifices were rebuilt by the Emperor (Evagr. 36. 367. and there seems to have been some a contrivance in the pillar like a modern letter-box. Like Marcian. 2 Antioch was laid in ruins. ii. He is reported to have said that a king should distribute pity to those on it whom he looks. though his military opera1 In regard to Malchus' accusations we tions were unsuccessful." She erected a statue to him beside her house. and his clemency was celebrated by his admirers. or for some other reason preferred Roman territory. making raids. i LEO I 231 but admits that his subjects." and we may conclude that his reign was on the whole prosperous. as well as foreigners. Leo was solicitous to relieve provincial towns 2 that had suffered disasters. ally increased. who " whether he thought that he was not treated with due consideration in Persia.

1 and compelled members of the senate to present him with other gifts what was more important. The Byzantines. ate the matter. See Mal- chus. was admitted to the meetings of the senate. on the principle that what is distant is most dazzling and says that it was impolitic the and. Saracens of Arabia Petraea. and conceived the desire of becoming a phylarch or satrap of the officers. granting him also the coveted title of phylarch. On his departure Leo gave him a valuable picture in mosaic. 232 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE book hi he instituted himself master of it. and lasting for four days. were much scandalEoman Emperor. He made himself ruler of some other communes in the neighbourhood. he shared the imperial table. There is no hint of the existence of a fire brigade at Constantinople. said that nummus 1 (nomisma) as pay for his activity. and added more villages to those which he already governed. through. directly opposite to it. a building in which those who had not houses of their own used to celebrate their weddings. One of the great conflagrations which so often destroyed the buildings of Constantinople broke out in 465. to travel. the who were nominally dependent on He sent an ecclesiastic to Leo to negotiand Leo graciously signified his wish to have a personal interview with Amorkesos. was burnt down. and even honoured with precedence over the patricians. xpvcw Ka " L naraXidov —mosaic work on a gold ground. . .. and offering each a silver private persons were destroyed. When the latter arrived. urging the people to follow his example. Malchus finds fault with Leo severely for the invitation of Amorkesos to his court. Countless magnificent It is residences of Aspar ran about the streets with a pail of water on his shoulders. ised per. it appears. 1. which he had unarmed and defenceless. he transferred to him the permanent possession of Jotaba. The fire ran both from east to west and from north to south. and soon became wealthy by receiving the dues from traders. eiKova Tiva fr. to allow the foreigner to see the towns. a wide area. at these privileges to accorded to a Persian fire-worship- and Leo seems have been obliged to pretend that his guest intended to become a Christian. and also the Nymphaeum. which The splendid senate had been erected after the destruction of Julian's senate house by fire in the reign of Arcadius. laying waste house.

ad ami. i LEO I 233 There were still many pagans in the days of Leo. the court physician. The notices in are presumably derived from the lost histories of Priscus and Malchus. the governor of Bithynia. son of Anthemius. having previously nominated as his successor his grandson Leo. " not surprised. Cliron. but Jacobus. Verina. Leo died on the 3d of February 474. although a pagan. and who. " I see. Avas employed by Leo. Ariadne.m. as you used to judge along with me.) . a native of Aegae in Cilicia and a citizen of Antioch. a young child. 1 Jacobus. and obtained Leo's consent that he should be tried in Byzantium "Do you see in what by the praetorian prefect Pusaeus. interfered in his behalf. for I am human. who married Zeno the Isaurian. Sophia and baptized. and we must not omit to notice the case of Isocasius. His wife. 462. a 1 remarkable man of that time. as well as a physician. who was accused and His case was to be judged by tried on the charge of paganism.chap." Isocasius was led away to the church of St. was an ambitious woman who played a conHe siderable part in the Byzantine world after his death. and am position you stand." asked the prefect. 2 Then impartial justice. Cf. Photius and Suidas Marcellinus. had two daughters. was an and philosopher." was the reply. 5960 a. and human But do you judge me with misfortunes have befallen me. the wife of Marcian. and Leontia. who was so much beloved by the higher classes that the senate erected a statue to excellent rhetor him in the baths of Zeuxippus. 2 Pusaeus and Isocasius had once been colleagues (Theophanes.

CHAPTEE II RICIMER THE PATRICIAN It was a critical Theodosius. the brother-at-arms of Aetius. : won the Imperium in 190 by bribing the praetorian if guards. a and we read in a trustworthy historian 1 "After this Eome was in a state of disturbance and confusion. moreover. after the death of Julian. 2 In a letter to Serranus. was not like Marcian he was not one whom an Augusta would condescend might have . He endeavoured to secure himself on the throne by forcshe had consented. Sidonius Apollinaris notes the wealth of Maximus {Ep. when Commodus had died without issue. 68. Hisaccount deserves credit because he drew his information from the contemporary Priscus it is. though he was a member of the noble Anician house. . 201. Maximus' command of money 2 decided the event in his favour. fr. and possible that his subjects just round him and that he might have reigned not brilliantly but securely like Honorius or Valentinian. even as Pertinax had civil war was possible . and the military forces were divided into two factions. rallied it is ing Eudoxia to marry him. as in 190. But Petronius Maximus. moment in Italy after the death of Valen- tinian III (455). a friend of Maximus. as in when the Julian-Claudian house came to an end. Military riots were inevitable. who had been successful in Italy and become the steward of Aetius. 13). . one wishing to elevate Maximus. as in 363." A third possible candidate was Majorian. the widowed Empress. a certain Egyptian merchant. and he had the good wishes of Eudoxia. ii. as there was no male heir of the house of There had been similar situations before. internally probable. 1 John of Antioch. with whom he had fought against the Franks. 206. the other supporting Maximian.

2 dotum administratione privates nonjam divini cultus lorn sed suorum jussit esse habitacula in universum captivi popvXi ordinem saevus sed praecipue nobilitati et religioni infensus ut non discernerctur Jordanes Maximus was 3 hominibus magis an Deo bellum. set. related to British . —an act almost worthy of her sister-in-law Honoria. intidis- . the new Augustus was a paltry person. determined to flee from Borne. the great-granddaughter of Theodosius had perhaps not forgotten it but the widow of Yalentinian must have known to marry. and Eudoxia hated or despised him so much that she is said to have taken the bold and fatal step of summoning Gaiseric the Vandal to overthrow the tyrant. attended with riots. Maximus. of June 455 For fourteen days they abode in the city and plundered. In any case. 206). 201. On the approach of Gaiseric. she welcomed Gaiseric on his arrival in Italy as a deliverer from an abhorred oppressor. 45) notices that afraid of the foederati. Eudocia and of Gaiseric (pctai had conceived the idea fr. although it did not protect the city against pillage. and vandalism. but the intervention of Pope Leo and the Church. violence. nee ab ccclcsiarum dcspoliatione abstinens quas et sacris vasibus exinanitis et sacerlb. Antioch mentions in language a soldier cast at him Three days later — as it he was riding from the gates. of John which implies that he did not consider it well attested it was " told by some. not with the Boman republic. Maximus. He carried with him the Empress Eudoxia and her two Placidia. and the tyrant was killed by a stone which But in this crude shape it we can . 2 was in the first week Gaiseric and his Yandals entered Borne. Compare Prosper of Aquitaine. which he regarded as a contract made with them personally. and considering that the death of Aetius and Valentinian released him from the treaty of 435. vexed by the importunities and threats of Petronius Maximus. hardly accept the story . an alliance with 61 5e (John of Antioch. The story of the invitation of Eudoxia will then reduce itself to the probability that. and loaded his ships with the precious things of Borne. seeing that it was a good opportunity for attacking Italy.— chap. 1 daughters. who had been subdued by Theodosius. (Get. ii RICIMER THE PA TRICIAN 235 If he was really even for cogent political reasons. or suspected the instigator of her lord's murder. deserted by his His departure was supporters. 3 seems at least to have preserved it from the evils of massacre and conflagration." 1 The true account seems to be that Gaiseric came of his own accord. The monarch of the Yandals ravaged Campania.

Carm. and had. Apoll. Theodoric II. the man who had fought by the side of Aetius. conjunction with the Burgundians. had already sent an embassy to Gaiseric to remonstrate captivity of the imperial ladies. to Marcian. but on this occasion Gaul intervened. he defeated the dwellers in Gallaecia. accord- ing to one account in Sicilian waters. Chron. who was to be Emperor ? At Eome had come to a deadlock. however. was proclaimed Emperor. was no new idea . man We against the fleet of the Vandals. and at the instance of Avitus. 44 Idatius. in the great crisis of Europe. has recorded many personal details about know. Count Eicimer. Athaulf the Visi- goth had married Placidia. vii. It was not strange that a marriage should be determined on between Huneric and Eudocia. who of Urbicus (near Eoman territory. with him on his Italian expedition and on the The arms or skill of Count Eicimer now administered a blow to the Vanclalic navy. . in the great battle 1 His friends told Avitus that on his elevation depended the safety of the world tibi pareat orbis ni pereat — (Sidon. decided by his persuasions the king of Tolosa to march with the Eomans against the Scythians. 2 See the Chronicle of Idatius. Marcus Maecilius Avitus. from whom he had received the appointment of master of soldiers. he invaded Spain harried 3 . and here again it is important to notice that the Visigoths identified themselves with the Empire. 517). king of the Visigoths.236 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE It book hi the Theodosian house. Get. who now makes his entry on the stage. was sent by Avitus to Sicily to operate the himself. Sidonius Apollinaris the poet. first at Tolosa and then at Arelate (9th July 455). according to another statement in the neighbourhood of Corsica (45 6). though his son-in-law. that it was marked by successes against German enemies. who did not hesitate recognise Avitus. The question was. It is important to observe that it was by the united voices of the Visigoths and the Gallo-Eomans 1 that he was called to fill the vacant throne as the successor of Maximus. The Suevian general. 2 While Suevian Eicimer protected one part of the Empire against the Vandals. and Attila had perhaps wished to marry Honoria. 3 Jordanes. . was In protecting another part of the Empire against the Suevians. Of his things short reign we hear little.




Astorga) 1

he took the town of Bracara, where the Eoman Count Asterius had in former days slaughtered the Vandals of Gunderic and he put to death the Suevian king Eechiar. This was a mortal blow to Suevic power, and paved the way

for Visigothic Hispania.

Avitus meanwhile had crossed the Alps. It seems to have been hardly a prudent step it seems to have been hardly







his position untenable.



well ask

why he

did not decide to add Arelate to the


capitals the city where he had many which had received him first, and which was not too far from friendly Tolosa. But Arelate, the capital of the illegitimate Constantine, did not seem a suitable residence to legitimate Avitus. He abandoned the city of the Ehone to take up his abode in the city of the Tiber. But there he was not welcome he was looked upon as a sort of interloper, of insufficiently defined position. He was acceptable neither to the army nor to the senate, and his behaviour does not appear to have tended to make him popular. The circumstances of his fall are thus related by a historian, who, we are justified in supposing, derived his facts from the contemporary writer Priscus 2

of imperial





Avitus reigned at


there was famine in the city, and

the people blaming Avitus compelled



remove from the

city of the


the allies from Gaul

who had


along with


(that so

Goths he had brought for the protection of Eome, having distributed among them money which he obtained by selling to merchants bronze stripped from public works, for there was no gold in the imperial treasury. This excited the Romans to revolt when they saw their city stripped of its adornments. " But Majorian and Ricimer, no longer held in fear of the Goths, openly rebelled, so that Avitus was constrained terrified on the one hand by the prospect of internal troubles, on the other hand by the hostilities of the Vandals to withdraw from Rome and set out for Gaul. But Majorian and Ricimer attacked him on the road and forced him to flee into a sanctuary, where he abdicated the throne and put off his imperial apparel. But Majorian's soldiers did not cease to blockade him, until he died of starvation, after a reign of eight months others say that he was strangled."

there might he fewer



also dismissed the




5th October 456 (Idatius).


successes of the expedition were almost synchronous with the fall of their initiator Avitus. 2 John of Antioch, fr. 202. This

notice is our sole authority for the vandalism of Avitus, which, I have no doubt, was the direct cause of Majorian's law for the preservation of

public buildings.



book hi

According to another account Avitus reached Gaul safely, and there collected an army with which he crossed the Alps once more to assert his contemned authority, but Count Eicimer routed him at Placentia he was deposed from the throne and made bishop of the city which witnessed his discomfiture

(October 456).

The deposition

of Avitus caused a



It is quite

conceivable that at this juncture, or at the death of Valentinian
in the year before, the western line of Emperors might have

ceased to exist, as


ceased to exist twenty years


In 476

the presence of the barbarian Odovacar was an essential element
in the situation, but in


or in


the only barbarian


we can
in the

conceive as acting the part of Odovacar was the Vandal





temporary cessation of a separate imperial rule however, take place on several occasions before

the deposition of

Eomulus Augustulus.

it is

of these

These in-

cessations followed on the overthrow of Avitus.
tervals are often called interregnums

natural to say that

from October 456
the West.

to April



was an interregnum in


the expression really represents the actual

from a theoretical Legally, Marcian was the sole head of the Empire from the fall of Avitus to his own death at the end of January 457, and Leo was the sole head of the Empire from the death of Marcian to the
point of view, the expression

we must not

not correct.

elevation of Majorian.
It has often

been remarked that

at the beinnnino; o o of



situation in Italy

was similar

to the situation in Constantinople.

In both cases the solution of the
similar position to that of Eicimer.

action of a military leader of barbarian

depended on the Aspar held a Both were the makers of

Emperors neither aspired to be an Emperor himself. The elevation of Julius Valerius Majorian, the man who had fought with Aetius, the man who had been the chosen
1 Von Ranke has expressed this very well in the following sentence "Vergegenwartigt man sich die Situation die damit eintrat, so besteht ihr Wesen vornehmlich darin, dass nun in den beiden Reichstheilen der Gegensatz der effectiven Macht zu der bisherigen

Orchmng der Dinge in voile Evidenz gelangte." The supports of Theodosius and Valentinian had been hidden, as it were, by a curtain the curtain was removed (456-457) and the German

supporters stood revealed,





candidate of Eudoxia after the death of Valentinian, and


had combined with Kicimer


it was by the proposal of the Emperor Leo, and obtained the It was also acceptable to the Eoman consent of Eicimer. The laws which senate, for Majorian was a thorough Eoman.

on the 1st April. 1 combination from that which had crowned Avitus

suppress Avitus, took place This elevation rested on a very different

he passed during his reign for the preservation of the buildings of Eome were a direct reflection on his predecessor Avitus. 2

There were




be accomplished by the new

Augustus, both necessary for the security of his seat on the throne. He must, in the first place, quell the Gallo-Eoman










who had been

roused to wrath by the death of








Eoman and





been called upon to

solve, and it was because he failed therein he had fallen. It is evident that at this period the enmity between the Eomans and the Gallic provincials had an important influence on public affairs. Majorian entered Gaul with an army, and found the Burgundians the friends of Avitus in league with the citizens of Lusjdunensis Prima

against himself. 3



however, was effected with

the help of Avitus' son-in-law Sidonius, and Majorian advanced

the relief of Arelate, which the Visigoths were besieging.
thirty years before, so

As Aetius had driven Theodoric back
the walls

Aegidius, Majorian's general, drove back a

new Theodoric from and most firm compacts of peace were made between the Augustus Majorian and the King Theodoric. 4 Majorian had accomplished the first task, but the other was harder. It was absolutely indispensable that an Emperor, whose reign was to be permanent, should win universal confidence
been noticed elsewhere. His first Novel, dc aedificiis publicis (dated' Ravenna, 11th July 45S), provides for the
preservation of the public buildings, and checks the "discolouring of the face of the venerable city." He also endeavoured to check the political evil of celibacy (Nov. vii.)

1 In February lie had been made magister militum. 2 The address of Majorian to the senate (Novella i. de ortu imperii divi Majoriani) is a manifesto which announces the inauguration of a new era {see above, p. 30). Eicimer is thus mentioned Erit apud nos cum parente patricioque nostro Ricimere rei militaris -j tt- j-t t pervigil cura. His diligence

m relieving

^ ^ Prosp. vuuuu. nu^. Contm.

K„ 45/ a.d.

the oppression of the curial system has


Idatius, Chronicle (spring 459).




book hi

by proving himself equal to the great emergency of the time he must " preserve the state of the Eoman world." 1 And just at this moment the great emergency was the hostility of the Vandals, who in their ships harried the Eoman provinces and infested the Mediterranean waters. It might have seemed that Avitus, under whose auspices Count Eicimer worsted the fleet of the foe at Corsica or at Sicily, had in some sense met But the blow was not decisive it did not parathe difficulty. lyse the hostilities of the Vandals. The words of an historian

indicate that Avitus felt the necessity of facing this problem,


also his

inability to grapple with




he was afraid of

the wars with the Vandals."

scale; his fleet

Majorian prepared an expedition against Africa on a grand numbered 300 ships, and was collected in a The hopes of the West Spanish port, probably New Carthage.

were awakened, and their eyes were fixed on the preparations But a curious fatality attended all expeditions of Majorian. undertaken against the Vandals, whether they proceeded from Old Eome or from New Eome, or from both together. The expedition of Castinus had collapsed in 422, that of Aspar had failed in 430, the armament of Ardaburius had not even reached its destination in 441, and now the preparations of Gaiseric ravaged the coasts of Majorian fell through in 460. Spain, and incapacitated the Eoman ships before they left the 3 Yet another expedition, and one on a far larger scale, port. meet with discomfiture and more than seventy years was to

were, to elapse until the rise of the great Justinian,







be blotted out by the success of







he had
" pre-

forfeited confidence

appeared that he was not able to

serve the state of the
to Gaul,



returned from Spain


after a sojourn in Aries

passed into Italy, without

At Tortona the officers of Count Eicimer, who had an army. judged him unworthy of empire, seized him, stripped him of







treaty "

with Gaiseric (John of An-

propitia divinitate servcmus. See Prisons, fr. 27, who is almost verbally followed by John of Antioch, fr. 203. 3 Majorian made a "disgraceful

tioch, ib.)


He celebrated games at Aries, at which Sidonius Apollinaris was present




him (7th August 461).


the imperial purple, and beheaded

natural enough that only two alternatives could be enter;


by the Suevian count, who had the army at his back he could tolerate a strong Emperor, capable of defending the Empire, or he could tolerate a puppet-Emperor, who depended
absolutely on his



But an Emperor who was


strong enough to assume an independent position, and was not
strong enough to contend with the enemies of the State


Eicimer an one was naturally not acceptable to the count. himself seemed determined not to leave Italy, probably judging that its security against the Vandals depended on the constant presence of an able general with a strong army and he did actually defend it in the north against the Ostrogoths of Pan;

nonia and against the Alemanni of the Upper Ehine.

He was

determined to hold Italy at



with the foreign foederati, being
chief elements in his position.

he associated himself and he himself a Sueve

cherished a bitter hatred against the Vandals

these were the

His hatred against the Vandals was due to a family feud. He was the nephew of Wallia, and Wallia had fought against the Vandals in Spain wherefore Gaiseric hated him, and he reciprocated the hatred. The death of Majorian was followed in less than four

He months by the election of Libius Severus, a Lucanian. prowas elected by the senate with the consent of Eicimer and claimed at Eavenna (19th November 461); and though he he did reigned four years four months less than Majorian Eicimer was the true nothing he was only a figure head Stilicho had guided the councils of Honorius, sovereign. Aetius had guided the councils of Valentinian but the personalities of Honorius and Valentinian, weak though they both were, influenced affairs to a certain extent it would be going too far to say that either Aetius or even Stilicho was a virtual Emperor. Eicimer was the first German who had become a 1 virtual king of Italy he is the link between Stilicho and







might seem that





might have

1 His monogram appears on the reverse of the coins of Severus. Severus died 18 Ka! Sept. (15th August) at Rome (Anon. Cusjriniani), 465. According to the Chronicle of Cassiodorus, ut dicitur

Ricimeris fraude Severus Romae in If this is Palatio veneno peremptus est. true, Eicimer had a hand in the death



than four Emperors,






book hi

received another Augustus from Gaul, and that Aegidius, the

general and friend of Majorian, might have crossed the Alps

avenge Majorian' s death.

But Aegidius was occupied with
against the Visigoths,

the task of defending southern Gaul

who, shaking themselves loose after the death of Avitus from the bond which attached them to the Empire, were attempting
to extend their



463 winning

power in the province of Narbonensis. We 1 a great battle at Orleans, and in the

following year he died.

Another opponent of Eicimer in another quarter was the Count Marcellinus. We see him in Sicily in the year 461 in command of an army chiefly consisting of Hunnic auxiliaries he had been probably posted there by Majorian (Scythians) But Eicimer to protect the island against the Vandals. operated upon the cupidity of the Huns by bribes to induce them to leave the service of Marcellinus and enter his own. 2 Then Marcellinus, fearing danger and conscious that he could not vie with Eicimer in riches, abandoned Sicily and returned to Dalmatia, where a few years later we find him ruling as if he were the king thereof, even as Eicimer ruled in Italy and At this time Gaul, as Aegidius and Syagrius ruled in Gaul. Italy, and Dalmatia were practically independent kingdoms. On the departure of Marcellinus, who seems to have defended the island ably, Gaiseric sent his Vandals and auxiliary Moors to ravage the island. A pacific embassy from Eicimer did not avail, but another embassy sent at the same time by the Emperor Leo induced Gaiseric to come to terms at last in regard to the ladies of the Theodosian house, whom he still retained at Carthage. He carried out his determination of uniting Eudocia in marriage with his son Huneric, but he sent her mother Eudoxia and her in return he received a certain sister Placidia to Constantinople share of the property of Valentinian III as the dowry of Eudocia. But now Gaiseric posed as the protector and champion of the Theodosian house against the upstart Emperors in Italy. Olybrius, a member of the noble Anician gens, had married Placidia, and Gaiseric demanded that he should be acknowledged The situation in 463 is described by Prisons 3 as as Emperor.
; ;

1 Aegidius comes utrhisquc militiae in Cf. Idatius, xlv. defeated Frederic the brother of Theodoric. 2 See Priscus, fr. 29.

Armoricana provincia

Fr. 30.








cellinus, lest, his

The western Eomans were afraid concerning Marpower increasing, he should wage war against


for they were involved in diverse difficulties on other they were threatened by the Vandals, and they were threatened by Aegidius, a man of the western Galatians [we


reminded of Celtic reminiscences in the East], who had

fought campaigns with Majorian and had a very large power
the Emperor (Majorian).

around him, and was indignant on account of the slaying of Hitherto dissensions with the Goths For he in Gaul withheld him from war against the Italiots.
fought valiantly against them, contending for border-territory,

and performed in that war the greatest deeds of prowess." We see from this account that the cause of western Eome, the cause of Italy, and the cause of Eicimer were all closely bound together, and that the Italiots looked on Eicimer as




the western

to bring

sent ambassadors to the eastern Eomans, asking


about a reconciliation with Marcellinus and with the Vandals. To Marcellinus was sent Phylarchus, who prevailed on him not

wage war against the Eomans
he retired


but then having crossed over
Gaiseric claimed

to the Vandals,



inheritance left

by Valentinian in Italy and also the inheritance He Aetius, whose son Gaudentius he retained in captivity.

led a great expedition against Italy and Sicily, ravaged the

unprotected parts of the country, and took undefended towns.

There was no efficient navy in Italy to operate against him and as he was at peace with New Eome, Leo could send no It will be remembered how ships to the assistance of Italy. in the days of Valentinian III Attila was at peace with

war with Constantinople now in regard to was reversed. Priscus makes the remark that the division of the Empire greatly injured " the affairs of the Eomans in the West " it was apparent that their great

Eavenna and



Gaiseric the position


chance of safety lay in the support of the East.
into closer relations with the

Accordingly Eicimer, the foe of Gaiseric, begins to enter Emperor Leo. For a year and


after the

death of Severus, in November 465, no

successor was appointed, but at length Leo deigned to select

Anthemius as his colleague, and Eicimer's acceptance Emperor nominated by Leo indicated a close alliance


of in-



The common

book hi


was war against the Vandals

not only Italy and Sicily were threatened, but the entire com-

merce of the Mediterranean Africa was now what Illyria had been in the third century B.C., or what Cilicia had been in the


Anthemius had married the daughter





thus he might be considered in some sort connected with the

house of Theodosius. and his pretensions might be set against
those of Gaiseric's candidate, the husband of Placidia.

He was

the grandson of that Anthemius the

who guided

the Empire during

childhood of Pulcheria and Theoclosius. The alliance between Eicimer and the new Emperor was sealed by a marriage The elder Placidia of the Patrician with Anthemius' daughter. had married Athaulf, her granddaughter Eudocia had married Huneric, both indeed under a certain compulsion yet Anthemius afterwards professed to regard it as a great condescension to have surrendered his daughter to the barbarian


The expedition, which was organised to overthrow the monarchy of the Vandals, was on a grand and impressive scale, but it ended in a miserable failure. Its success was paralysed by lukewarmness and even treachery both in the East and in
the West.

The number

of vessels that set sail from Constantinople


said to have been

1113, and the




men who

But unfortunately Leo, under the influence of his wife Venn a and his friend Aspar, appointed as general a man who was both incompetent and untrustworthy, his wife's brother Basiliscus. Aspar, it appears, was not over -anxious that Leo's position should be strengthened by such an exploit as the subversion of the Vandal kingdom he schemed therefore to procure the 1 election of a general whose success was extremely improbable. The western armament of Anthemius obeyed a more The pagan Marcellinus, who, in defiance efficient commander. of Emperors, ruled in Dalmatia as an independent prince, 2 was
embarked was calculated
as exceeding



1 Asparem Compare Idatius, xlv. degradatum ad privatam vitam filium-


sicut dctectique sunt, dalis consulentes.


que ejus oceisum, advcrsus


Marcellinus, Chron. Marcellinus occidcntis Patricius uicmque paganus.





reconciled with Leo, and he left the palace of Diocletian and

the city of the tepid Jader

to take the


of the Italian


Eoman was now

going forth from Illyria to subdue

the pirates of Africa

seven hundred years before, the Eomans,

before their great conflict with the African power, had gone
forth to subdue the pirates of Illyria.

But here

too lay a

disturbing element.


participation of Marcellinus in the

who was his enemy and just as Aspar regarded the project with disfavour, Eicimer, who, as has been already remarked, held in the West a somewhat similar position to that of Aspar in the East, also stood aloof. The plan of operations was that the eastern forces should be divided into two parts, and that thus the Vandals should be attacked at three points at the same time. Basiliscus himself was to sail directly against Carthage. Heraclius, another general, having taken up the forces of Egypt on his way, was to disembark at Tripolis, and having occupied that town was to march to Carthage by land. Marcellinus, with the Italian forces, was to surprise the Vandals in Sardinia, and sail thence
project alienated Eicimer,
to join the eastern armies at Carthage.

the commander-in-chief had not been Basiliscus, and


the opponent had not been Gaiseric, the expedition would have
easily succeeded.



though physically the



mentally the greatest of the barbarians of his time.

He was

small in stature, ugly in countenance, but in cunning he was

He veiled the machinations of his thoughts under a silence that was rarely broken, and he despised luxury, although he was avaricious as well as ambitious. Even as it was, though Basiliscus had such a foe to cope with, success was within the grasp of his hand. The invaders were welcome to the Catholics of Africa, who were sorely perwithout an equal.
secuted by their Arian lords. 2

Marcellinus accomplished his


in Sardinia without difficulty

Heraclius met no obstacle

in executing his part of the project
iscus scattered the fleet of the

of Sicily.


hearing of this

and the galleys of BasilVandals in the neighbourhood disaster, Gaiseric gave up all for

1 Tepidum is the adjective which Lucan applies to the Jader, the river which "runs out" near "long Sal-



account of the persecutions of

Africa will be found in the five books of Victor Yitensis, Sistoria persecutionis iirovinciae Africanac, written about 486. There is See Ebert, op. cit. i. 433 sqq. a new edition by Petschenig.




book hi


general had only to strike a decisive blow and
his station in a

But he let the opportunity haven at some distance from Carthage, he granted to the humble prayers of his wily opponent a respite of five days, of which Gaiseric made good use. He prepared a new fleet and a number of fireships. The winds favoured his designs, and he suddenly bore down on the Eoman armament, which, under the combined stress of surprise, adverse wind, and the destructive ships of fire, was routed and at least half destroyed. Basiliscus fled with the remnant to Sicily, to join Marcellinus, whose energy and resources might have possibly retrieved the disaster; but the hand of an assassin, inspired perhaps by Eicimer, rendered this hope 1 futile. Heraclius, who had not reached Carthage when he heard of the defeat of the fleet, retraced his steps, and Basiliscus returned to Constantinople, where amid popular odium 2 he led a life of retirement at Heraclea on the Propontis, until he appeared on the scene of public life again after Leo's death. The failure of this expedition, organised on such a grand scale that it might have seemed invincible, must have produced a very great moral effect, somewhat like the moral effect produced in Europe by the collapse of the Spanish Armada. The Eoman Empire had put forth all its strength and had signally failed, not against the combined powers of the barbarians, but against one barbaric nation. This must have not only raised the pretensions and arrogance of the Vandals themselves, but increased the contempt of other German nations for the Eoman power it was felt to be a humiliating disaster by the government at Constantinople, while the government in Italy was too habituated to defeat to be gravely affected. Immense sums of money had been laid out on equipping the armament, and its failure produced a state of bankruptcy in the imperial treasury, which lasted for about thirty years.
Carthage would not have resisted.
and, taking



The idea was abroad that the
mius, the political son of Leo,
1 Anon. Cusp, gives August 467 as the date of Marcellinus' death, but the Chronicle of Cassiodorus and that of Count Marcellinus give 468 (second consulate of Anthemius). The words of the latter chronicle are " dum Rom:

arrival in Italy of





venture to use the

anis contra Wandalos apud Carthaginem pugnantibus opern auxiliumque

ab iisdern dolo confoditurpro quibus

palam venerat pugnaturus.

He was obliged to seek refuge in the sanctuary of St. Sophia.

honest attempts to administer the laws laws he states a fair ideal of equity —he — in one of his own does not seem to have been looked on with favour by the Italians. the bishop of Pavia. Epiphanius. . paganism. He hails Constantinople expression. this thus salve sceptrorum columen. " had overcome the power of Aspar in the East was his " son Anthemius to overcome the power of Eicimer in the West ? For the two problems were similar and there is a dark notice — — . and the pagan character of the poem written by the future bishop of Clermont did not offend him his predehighest ." in the bad sense And in spite of his high standard of justice and of the word. in spite of the unpopularity of Anthemius. {Graecidus). and describes the education of Anthemius in terms of the Anthemius was suspiciously inclined to eulogy. regina orientis. the Patrician ruling at Milan. Eicimer introduced as invictus Ricimer quern publica fata respiciunt. cessor Severus is described as having increased the is number of the gods. The poet was made prefect of Borne. . the son-in-law retorted with the contemptuous epithets Galatian and Greekling . and formed the theme of the panegyric of Siclonius Apollinaris on the Emperor Anthemius. Soon his relations to Eicimer changed from friendliness or mutual tolerance to distrust and hostility the father-in-law regretted that he had married his daughter Alypia to a barbarian . the senate and the people espoused his cause against the Suevian. he loved strange doctrines he was inclined to be " Hellenic. Thus it came to pass that practically divided into in the year 472 Italy was two kingdoms. ii a RICIMER THE PA TRICIAN 247 was the inauguration of a return to unity. the Emperor reigning at Eome. And in this contest. He was too fond of philosophy or thaumaturgy. was employed to bring about a reconciliation characteristic instance of the position of the Church at this period Leo but the army of Eicimer soon besieged Eome. orbis Koma tui.— chap. . But in Italy the Greek Anthemius was not popular.

under the (consulate of Marcian and Zeno). There he was beheaded by Gundobad." he disguised himself and mingled with the mendicants who begged in the church of St.248 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE to book hi in a chronicle which suggests that the opposition of Aspar Leo may have had hidden links of connection with the opposition of Eicimer to Anthemius. and is quite credible. supported perhaps by Ricimer ? The conspiracy of Romanus against Anthemius is mentioned by John of Antioch. At the same time he sent a private messenger to Anthemius with a letter instructing him to put Olybrius to death.deportatur. when his adherents had surrendered to " the barbarians " and left him " naked. and his Vandal connections made him a suspicious person in the eyes of Leo. though historians seem never to have observed it. who planned a curious stratagem. Ricimer's brother. be a member of the Anthemius. it will be remembered. fr. Eicimer guarded the Tiber and cut off the supplies. 1 The hostilities at Eome lasted for five months. The artifice was frustrated. Ardaburius impcrium tentans jussu AntJiemii exilic. "Gundobad. the Eomans were soon pressed by hunger and reAn army under Billimer had come from Gaul solved to fight. July 1886. invested with the purple . and the victor subdued the rest by treachery. The engagement resulted in heavy losses on the imperial side. says. the husband of the younger Placidia. destined soon to become famous. had wished to have a voice in the election of an Emperor and to elevate Olybrius. 209. Compare my note on " The Emperor Olybrius. the senate and people siding with the Emperor. Chrysogonus. as Eicimer intercepted the letter. 4 This circumstance led to the consummation which Leo After the success gained in the battle. Eicimer's nephew (4th July 47 2 ). fr. 5 John of Antioch. Eicimer Olybrius least wished. 1 2 o'i year 469 lb. 5 some fairness to As for Cassiodori Chronicon.&xovv re ev reXei /ecu 6 c%ios. fr. to assist them. and the new Emperor might claim with Theodosian house. . 3 Gaiseric. he employed Olybrius on a mission thither to compass the reconciliation of the two opponents. 3 4 This curious transaction is related by John Malalas. prefect of Gaul ? May not the son of Aspar have aspired to become an Augustus in the. Is it necessary to consider that Ardaburius is a mistake for Arvandus. lb. 2 while Eicimer headed and his sons the multitude of his own barbarians." and afterwards speaks of Gundibalos as his West. 207. Hearing of the clangers of his colleague Anthemius at Eome. 209 : 'AvOefiiu: /xev <rvpe/j. At this time Olybrius was at Constantinople. Aloncr with the besieger was the Scyrian Odovacar. the son of Eclecon." English Historical Review.

The fact is. and when there was war in 472 between the father-in-law and the son-in-law." from Sec F. 2 The death of Eicimer. vol. in the later case the son-in-law was the foreign general. While Eicimer lived. Stilicho. from 490 to 501 "ex besse dominus. he died in less and the new Emperor whom he had created survived him by only two months.) 472. Gaiseric sailed over and plundered. Bluhme's Antioch. G. or in the days of When dissensions arose in 408 between the father-in-law and the son-in-law. and their son was GundoFrom 470 to 490 Gundobad was bad.chap. "tetrarch" of the Burgundians. H. 2). a general formidable to Gaiseric . ii RICIMER THE PA TRICIAN position of affairs 249 of The was now the reverse what it had been in the days of Honorius and Valentinian and Aetius. they not only entered but they occupied. 23d October (ib. when he lived. M. While Aetius was when he died. the barbarians did not venture to enter Italy. but four years after his death. He died of dropsy . there died. lived longer in history — and been a stronger man —he If Olybrius had has no personality his Theodosian connection to stay the approach of the might have aided him day when Italy would be ruled by a German king. like Attila. from vomiting blood (John of nephew. . He died. the son-in-law had the upper hand. was a blow to Italy of the same kind as the deaths of While Stilicho lived. Emperor. 292. Leges. preface to the Leges Burgundionum. 1 18th August 472. iii. 2 fr. there was an able Stilicho and Aetius. the son-in-law also had the But in the earlier case the son-in-law was the upper hand. general to protect the peninsula against Alaric Alaric entered and laid waste. notwithstanding his anomalous position. king of the Burgundians. Eicimer did not survive his victim long than six weeks 1 . . that a sister of Ricimer married Gundiok.

the infant son of Zeno and proclaimed Emperor. and by her had a son. Zeno was a very fast . p. was When Leo I. as He was hardly less rude than Aspar. who according to the Anonymus known) of (2) Arikmesos (by Eustathius Epiphania) (3) Trasalikaios (by Theophanes). being an Isaurian. Zeno. who. before he married Ariadne. and by their violence often irritated the inhabitants of Moreover. . in accordance with his The child conferred the imperial dignity grandfather's wishes. his brother's Longinus apparently a common name He was married to Arcadia in Isauria. the Emperor's daughter. and had a marked His speed of foot was liking for him. John Ant. for the Isaurians were semi-barbarous freebooters. 1 Zeno's original name is variously stated as (l)Tarasikodissa (by Can didus. sub 'Ivdanos. of whom something more will be said. leaving to Zeno nominally as well as actually the sole power.— ) CHAPTER ZENO III Zeno l the Isaurian had succeeded to the power and influence of Aspar and Ardaburius at Leo's court. Zeno was unpopular. but he had the advantage died in 474 his Ariadne. who took part in the revolt of Illus (Suidas. the elevation of Zeno was not Constantinople. Vol. grandson Leo. 617). pleasing to the Empress -mother Verina. and he was marked out by his marriage with Ariadne. 40. who formed a portion of the army. his father's Rusumbladeotus. Basiliscus. and there was a strong spirit of public hatred against the Isaurians. of not being a German. Valesii. a woman of great energy and capacity for intrigue. 9. Fast running was an Isaurian characcompare the marvellous speed teristic of Indacus. who seems i~>erlvibcnt — attributed to a physical peculiarity de co quod patellas in genucula non habuissct sed mobiles fuissent ut etiam cursit velocissimo ultra modum hominum haberctur {Anon. on his father and died in the same year. . . to have known something about him. a probable successor. His mother's name was Lallis. should have Her brother runner. He adopted the name Zeno from a distinguished Isaurian.

obsidens civitatem Constantinopolim. Illus carried on in Isauria against Zeno by already to I his War was and his brother Trocundus. was then created magister militum per Thracias. army Zeno and Illus which were advancing induced him also to desert the Theodoric. aspired to the throne. and rival. . the son of Theosettled usurper. at the end of the year 475 (November). objectans militem. hereafter. 9. 42 : Zeno confortans Isauros intra provinciam delude misit ad civitatem Novam {Novi). and it was said that the world was full of tears at his exactions. demir. His nephew Harmatius. he exacted money from bishops. flight. whom the ministers and senators elected to the purple after Zeno's This change of power was an opportunity for the Byzantines to settle accounts of old standing with the obnoxious countrymen of Zeno. Vol. of gold to restore Gabala in Syria. had embraced the cause of Zeno. a man of considerable influence and ability. in ZENO 251 had lived in retirement since designs his conduct of the Vandalic ex- and he was supported in his by the general Illus. and a colossal massacre (aixvOnqro^ a(paytj) of Isaurians took place in the capital. crowd of monks from doing violence to Acacius the Patriarch of Constantinople. ubi crat Theodericus dux Gothorum. and was only prevented by a very unpopular. but they soon deserted the cause of Basiliscus. which suffered from an earthquake 1 See Anon. endeavours turned to the profit of her brother Basiliscus.chap. 1 In his reign of twenty months Basiliscus had made himself He favoured the heresy of monophysitism. and this desertion decided the fall of Basiliscus and the restoration of Zeno (July 477). a young give whom shall some account Illus. His fiscal rapacity was so great that he did not spare from severe taxation even the humblest mechanic. but her pedition. who had been in Lower Moesia. he was obliged to flee to Isauria. and his Ostrogoths. et eum invitavit in solatium [=assistance] sibi adversus Basiliscum. The result was that Zeno's position was so insecure that. filius Walameris [Walamir was uncle. but the Anonymus really his Val. Verina was scheming to place her paramour Patricius on the throne. Yet we also hear that he contributed 50 lbs. post biennium vcniens. who had fop of went over made himself odious by his extortions. in the face of a formidable conspiracy. with his wife Ariadne and his mother Lallis. and sent with an against the forces of against Constantinople. shared the mistake of the Greek historians].

the intestine 120 feet long. Sebastian. public misfortune of a most deplorable nature. and Finlay perhaps was the first who was ready to say a good word for " The great work of his reign. Harmatius. which contained among its splendours some of the most beautiful works of Greek plastic art. reducing to ashes the colonnades of the public square. But for this fire these precious works might possibly have been still in existence. (9. still A was the destruction of the palace of Lausus. he was shut up with his wife and sons in a dry cistern. and his family were banished by Zeno to a where they were mured np and allowed 1 to perish of hunger. entitled Zrjvuv. Zeno gives him the security of an oath that his blood will not be shed (securum esse de sanguine) . with the adjoining houses. where they perished of cold. and helped. " was the him. which contained no fewer than 120. which.000 books. Zeno has never been a favourite with historians. and other lead- 1 Basiliscus had created his son Marcus Emperor.252 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE He book hi in his reign. but rather the love of art. the Lindian Athene. would be hard to determine. spread far and wide. Among is these rolls. formation of an army of native troops to serve as a counterpoise to the barbarian mercenaries " . fortress in Cappaclocia. Basilike. were written in golden characters." writes Finlay. so. 43) " Basiliscus : fleeing to the church. and greater disaster it reminds us that the chief cause of the loss of works of art christian vandalism. The fate of him and his family is thus described by Anon." See also the Paschal Chronicle. beginning in the bazaar of the bronzesmiths. to render his government un- popular. leaving the ing men are introduced. The ghost of Basiliscus appears in a Cretan tragedy (published by M. which has probably had manifold indirect results of a negative character. on which the Iliad and Odyssey specially mentioned. and he goes on to remark that the man who successfully resisted the schemes and forces church. Vol. This was an immense conflagration. A occurred in the reign of Basiliscus. How far the loss of the library influenced the it condition of culture in the succeeding centuries. Sathas in his Kpvtlkov dearpov) Longinus. the Cniclian Aphrodite. But more serious than this the library was the destruction of the founded by Julian. . as accidents in superstitious ages always help. which collected monuments from their original scattered homes and exposed them in a mass to increased dangers of destruction in was not a large town. of a serpent. Anastasius. enters the baptistery with his wife and sons. and the Samian Here.

v. munifims omnibus se ostendit. and if the date of a certain constitution (ib. and Zeno represents him as very popular : recordatus amove senatus et populi. which only a ruler of strict economy and business habits. has a great liking for Zeno. especially less greedy. and important admission. 2 The Anonymus Valesii.chap. He was prefect in December 477 {Cod. 1 Yet even from the pages of Malchus we can see that he was not so bad as he was painted. . to supply which he was driven and in the following years the Ostrogoths were an while we must further remember that since the enormous outlay incurred by Leo's naval expedition the treasury had been in financial difficulties. and introduced a From an adverse witness this is an system of venality. Mart. be correct. could have remedied. for his religious policy of conciliation did not find general favour he was not personally brave and he . 5). the bishop of Ravenna who stands beside Justinian in the mosaics of St. administration he was perhaps less successful than Iris preMalchus states that decessors and his successor Anastasius. He was not popular. ita tit omnes ci gratias agercnt. One would think that the writer was an Isaurian. . Malchus himself confessing that he was in some respects superior to Leo. 477. that his reign would have been a good one but for the influence of one Sebastian. hardly sufficient to supply pay for the Isaurian. 1 History of Greece. in ZENO 253 of the great Theodoric cannot have been contemptible. army. incubus on the exchequer . was an But he was inclined to be mild But the blame of this may rather rest with Basiliscus. 40 In republica omnino providentissimus. Vitalis. 3 It is said that Sebastian used to buy for a small amount an office which Zeno bestowed on a friend. we may suppose that his influence was not permanent. Zeno wasted all that Leo left in the treasury by donatives to his friends 2 and inaccuracy in checking his accounts. 27. 9). x. Just. vol. 7. like the succeeding Emperor Anastasius. must have been obliged to incur large expenses. In 477 the funds were very low. whom some have wished to identify with Maximian. 180. 44). Zeno was not a man of business. he desired In fiscal to abstain from employing capital punishment. i. Senatu est fuerunt(9. favens gentis suae. : Romano et populo tuitus est ut etiam ei imagines per diversa loca in urbe Roma Cujus tcmpora pacifica levarentur. who. Zeno receiving the profit. reigning precariously for twenty months. p. to extortion. viii. and then sell it to some one else for a much higher price. who was like Eutropius or Chrysaphius. Kal. he acted as . Compare also 9. he was indolent and in many respects weak. Of Sebastian 3 we hear very little. But in defending him we need not go further than the admission of Malchus (who throughout seems to censure in Zeno weakness rather than evil inclination).

prefect to who bestowed appointments on relations of Isaurian no valour. has been spoken of in a former chapter. but probably comes from Malchus. The decline of the scholarian guards is attributed by Agathias (v. They confided their trouble to Daniel a eunuch Maria a midwife. He was naturally effeminate and cruel. to associate freely with the Empress Zenonis. Their intercourse became intimate. who hardly healed their malady by the remedy of bringing them together. The most celebrated was his intrigue with Zenonis. iscus. Then Zenonis coaxed Basiliscus to grant her of dule and teen. preferred against him by ecclesiastical writers. they used constantly to turn their faces and smile at each other and the passion which they were obliged to conceal was the cause . was an additional cause of unpopularity. the nephew of Basilin the streets of Byzantium. was a young man of fashion. of a romance. throw another shadow over his rather obscure reign. to and lover the highest office in the city. which raised up against him deadly ecclesiastical odium. and was very popular (Malchus. whom the Byzantines regarded as brutish clowns. 6). 1 " Basiliscus permitted Harmatius. to whose name doubtless many scandals were attached. Erythrius had been praetorian prefect before Sebastian. and that his wrath was not wont to be relentHis attempt to unify the Church by his famous Henoless. the son of Triarius. I must give an account of some of the personages who played a part at the court of Zeno and were objects of interest Harmatius. x The passage is in Suidas.254 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE book hi Malchus further states that Zeno had nothing of Leo's coarse nature. inasmuch as he was a kinsman. They used to exchange glances of the eyes." The preferment which he received from his uncle elated him beyond measure. The favour shown by him to his countrymen the Isaurians. who has already been mentioned. 15) to Zeno. Theodoric. of undisguised and almost obtrusive immorality. tikon. . his uncle's their love is described by a historian in a passage worthy wife . The presence of the Ostrogothic pillagers in the Balkan provinces might be used by the Emperor's enemies to complete the gloomy picture. fr. which led to constant conspiracies and frequent bloodshed. and we must remember this when we read the charges. while the court intrigues and jealousies. but I suspect the date. The name is spelt both Harmatus and Harma- tius. despised him as a dandy who Zeno before his restoration. and as they were both persons of no ordinary beauty they became extravagantly enamoured of each other.

255 and it was said number of Thracian rebels by cutting off their hands. Not only was he the object of Verina's enmity and machinations. chap. which he plainly intended to use against Illus. When he was exalted by his mistress's husband. confiscated his goods. but he was a chamberer and a wanton like Paris. in inflated with vanity. " He did not.. sac. but he took it as a compliment to his valour. who owed his recovery of the crown to Harmatius. Illus invented Urbicius. and wished to rid himself of him. in ZENO . 1 This man was Onoulf. but Zeno seems to have viewed him with fear and suspicion. was found with a sword. and to proclaim his son Basiliscus Caesar. and handed his person over to Illus. per Illy r. but his position was surrounded by pitfalls on all sides. In 478 Illus was made consul. One day. He confessed under torture that the prefect Epinicus 2 had suborned him. 1 to assassinate his patron. and he manifested this idea by dressing himself as that in the clays of Leo he had punished a only cared for his toilet and the care of his body which guise he used to ride about and astonish or amuse the people in the hippodrome. and became still more Achilles. mil." says the historian. and the rebuilding of an imperial stoa devolved upon him. Soon afterwards. and finally prefect of the city (476). " slay heroes like Pyrrhus. new who had risen to high rank magister. Zeno. Zeno immediately deposed the prefect. an Alan. scholarii to a place of safety in Isauria. 2 Epinicuswas a Phrygian who passed from the service of the praepos. Illus the Isaurian was the most important minister in the Empire after Zeno's return. The populace nicknamed him Pyrrhus. he conceived the idea that he was a man of valour. he was suspected of having suborned a servant to assassinate Illus. mag. his rank was a-TpaT-rjybs 'IAAvpiQv. But Zeno • ? his death did not trust the fidelity of the a man. . brother of Odovacar. to fill successively the offices of count of the privy purse and count of the sacred largesses. and may be considered an instance of double ingratitude. on account of his pink cheeks. and he engaged by the patronage of Har- matius. who despatched him to matters connected with this work. Only a month or two after his reinstallation on the throne. kept the promise he had made to appoint him magister militum in praesenti. while he was attending one of the under the master of offices. cub." Harmatius did not long survive the return of Zeno.

that this was the cause of Zeno's anger. who was the tyrant. his brother Aspalius was dead. whose life attempted. though before he had actually revolted. nus. was made general of the East. was Longinus the Emperor's brother. perhaps really feeling that his life was not safe in Constantinople. induced him to confess that he had acted in concert with Verina. seems to have been connected with the Emperor's brother Longinus. whose supposed imprisonment of ten years (stated by Marcellinus) is extremely obscure. 2 Minor. this time by the Empress Ariadne. the Empress-mother. named Dalisandon. influence and able to Zeno. and speaks as if John the Goth succeeded Illus in this post ("military command. There is evidence that Longinus commanded against Leontius. he put forward the plea of requiring change of air. Isaurian castle." referring to the scholarians ?) I would suggest that Illus left Constantinople in 482. influence there. a certain Leontius had raised the flag of revolt in Syria. took place after Illus had left the city.25G HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE 1 book hi a pretext to leave the capital himself.). (iii. passes over the fact that Illus. and took the sure of command against summary meaimprisoning him in a castle also in . . But it appears to me that the procedure of Zeno against Illus. 620). and visiting the prison of Epinicus. But it is evident that the for what reason we know not. gives an account of the revolt seq. Leontius revolted. power of Illus in those regions made him formidhad been recently withdrew to Asia In the meantime It appears that in 483. Zeno and the court met him on his and Illus induced the Emperor to consign to him that dangerous woman. I think. See John of Antioch. he certainly not correct. with the 1 According to John of Antioch. and not immediately after his departure. we may assume revolted first on his own account. 2 I have not attempted to reconstruct the details of the revolt from our fragmentary evidence. At this period Isauria and Cappadocia were the recognised places for the banishment of political prisoners. . The conduct that roused Zeno's suspicions or anger against Illus. kin. according to Theophanes. who. whom he kept immured in an Isaurian stronghold. on a plea of wishing for change of air. return in the neighbourhood of Chalcedon. Illus. — being a native of Isauria. and Illus. when he had resigned the post of master of offices. p. after the affair of Ariadne. had considerable Another captive. as Liberatus testifies and as Tillemont considered probable. Moreover. who 63. who conducted the siege of the Papirian castle— apparently to operate against Leontius. as Tillemont already conjectured. For Zeno appointed him general of the East in which post he was succeeded — by John the Goth. Mr. Hodg- speaks as if Illus had Constantinople in consequence of This is Zeno's measures against him. In this case the " ten years " of Marcellinus must be a mistake. and induced the latter to join Leontius. 620. while Epinicus might be allowed to return to Verina was then placed in confinement in an Byzantium. and Zeno gave him supreme military command to operate against Leontius that Illus then quarrelled with Longileft . mentioned by John of Antioch (p. having previously taken the vows of a nun at Tarsus. and lived in Asia Minor (Nicaea ?) that while he was there.

Illus and Zeno. It is possible that this conception may have guided Leontius. Theodoric the Ostrogoth. although the two leaders held out for four years in the Isaurian castle of Papirius. who. fifteenth century. however. moreover. to give a She crowned Leontius at Tarsus. The fortress was taken by the treachery of Illus' sister-in-law. though he seems to have been an insignificant and incapable person. seems that Illus was then appointed commander-in-chief of the But for some eastern armies. p. was unable to give active help. and it was practically crushed very soon. Leontius entered Antioch on 27th June 484 and established there an imperial court. we Illus. put himself in communication with Odovacar. in ZENO it 257 intention. 1 See above. may suspect. and made a cities of present of the proceeds to the object of the last the Isaurians. but it is hardly justifiable to apprehend its chief significance as an attempt to revive paganism. and issued in his interests a letter which was sent to various cities. to bid for their adherence against Illus and Leontius made use of the Empress Verina. and was finally a mere figure-head. the king of Italy. was sent to put down the 1 revolt. VOL. of reviving the forlorn cause of paganism. and was sent against Leontius. the wife of Trocundus. It is impossible to unravel the skein of events and see the motives of the two chief actors. Illus. where Verina died during the siege. and attached himZeno had delivered an oration self to the cause of the rebel. as our sources are mere fragments. unknown reason he incurred Zeno's suspicions. 256 note 2. against him as a public enemy. sold his property. The measure was. as the scheme of Pomponius Laetus for a similar revival in the semblance of legitimacy to their cause. and Illus and Leontius were slain.chap. It need hardly be observed that such an idea as the revival of pagan religion had as little real danger for Christianity in the reign of Zeno. as well as with the Persians and the Armenians. who afterwards conquered Italy. but it was the intimacy of Illus with a very remarkable philosopher named Pamprepius that gave the movement a pagan character. who as was living a prisoner in the Isaurian castle. I S . The most noteworthy circumstance about the revolt of Illus is that he was an Isaurian rebelling against an Isaurian Emperor. It was said.



book hi

was a man with a taste for letters, as well as a good military captain, and he spent the long hours of the siege in the
Isauric fort in study.
to be a patron of letters,

At Constantinople he perhaps
but at


events he discovered Pampre-

Upper Egypt, who became his friend, conThe career of Pamprepius is worthy He went of record, as it illustrates life in the fifth century. in his youth from Egypt to the university of Athens, where he studied under the Neoplatonist Proclus, and was appointed but he was not only professor of grammar (i.e. of philology) a grammarian and a philosopher, he was also a poet, doubtless of the school of Eonnus, who was born in the same city.
pius of Panopolis in


spiritual adviser.


Obliged to leave Athens, in consequence of a quarrel with a

won the poem which he recited. The influential statesman procured him a professorship, and increased his As a man of the highest intelstipend by a grant of his own.
magistrate, he sought his fortune in the capital, and

patronage of Illus by a

lectual ability, as the intimate friend of Illus,

and as a pagan

who gave

bold and undisguised utterance to his unacceptable

opinions in a city so religious as Byzantium, he was one of the

In the eyes Greek " or heathen was a nefarious individual who was probably a magician and the mysticism of a Neoplatonist would naturally present many opportunities for During the absence of Illus (478) he was charges of sorcery. banished, but Illus brought his favourite back in triumph and procured him a seat in the senate and the quaestorship, a. post which was especially appropriate to a learned man who could 1 write in a good style. The philosopher accompanied Illus in his revolt, and perished with him. The revolt of Illus was not the only trouble that tended Another rising took place to make Zeno feel insecure. which was very nearly his reign at an earlier period in throne. Anthemius, supported the successful, although Illus the Emperor of the West, had two sons, Marcian and ProMarcian married Leontia, the second daughter of Leo, copius. who could boast of the fact that she was born in the purple as a ground of superiority to her sister the Empress Ariadne.
of the ordinary Christian a "

observed and the dangerous, feared and disliked.

1 So Cassiodorus was appointed quaestor by Theodoric on account of his Panegyric.

chap, in

at the


They conspired
of the





of Verina,

to dethrone Zeno on account and they enlisted a number of




barbarians in their cause.


of the


while everything was quiet in the mid-day heat, and the Emperor


the imperial guard

the palace,

was only saved by escaping from the building. But time was wasted, and at night Illus conveyed Isaurian soldiers from Chalcedon in market boats, as Marcian had seized the ferries. On the following day the rebels were overpowered Marcian was compelled to take orders and banished to Cappadocia; while Procopius found a refuge in the camp of the Ostrogoth Theodoric, the son of Triarius, who had approached the city

with hostile intent.

Zeno had one



of the

strangely disreputable career
scandals at the court.

same name, whose brief and must have been one of the chief

His father desired that he should be exercises, but unscrupulous young courtiers, who wished to profit by the abundant supplies of money which the boy could command, instructed him in all the vulgar excesses of luxury and voluptuousness. They introduced him to boys of his own age, who did not refuse to
carefully trained in


satisfy his desires, while their adulation flattered his vanity to

such a degree that he treated
as if they were servants.

all who came in contact with him His excesses brought on an internal

and he

died, still a boy, after lying for


days in a

senseless condition.

to gain influence

In the declining years of Zeno his brother Longinus began he filled high official posts, and looked forward to succeeding his brother. Zeno, however, consulted a


Maurianos, skilled in occult learning,

who informed


that a silentiarius 2 would be the next Emperor.

prophecy was unfortunate for a distinguished patrician of high fame named Pelagius, who had once belonged to the silentiarii, for Zeno, seized with alarm and suspicion, put him to death. 3

The Emperor

in his last days seems to have been a prey to


Arcadia, his

wife (Suidas).

were palace guards whose duty was to secure that the rest of the Emperor should not be interrupted.



3 Arcadius, praetorian prefect, expressed such indignation at this that

Zeno sought to slay him, but Arcadius
fled in time.



book hi

suspicions, as


was indeed not unnatural, seeing that so many had vexed his reign and his unhappiness was increased by his bad health. An attack of epilepsy carried him

off in

April 491.
act of Zeno's latter years deserves special notice, the


suppression of the school of Edessa in 489.
literary centre in western

Edessa was a

Mesopotamia, and exercised a vast

influence in diffusing Hellenism in those regions.
of Edessa, however,

The teachers

were Nestorians, and it is to this fact that we must ascribe Zeno's narrow-minded act, which was clearly designed to please the monophysites and Chalcedonians.




saw how in the reign of Arcadius the Visigoths of Alaric abode in the Illyrian peninsula, and almost formed a kingdom there, before they invaded Italy and established themselves in









in the reign of

Zeno the

same phenomenon was repeated
of Theodoric,

in the case of the Ostrogoths

how they almost formed a kingdom in the land Mount Haemus, before they went westward and founded a

realm in

After the death of Attila in 453, the subject nations immediately threw off the

independence on the

field of

yoke of the Huns, and asserted their Netad (454). 2 Of these nations

the chief was the Ostrogoths, over


three brothers ruled

These brothers Walamir, Theodemir, and Widemir. made an arrangement with the Emperor Valentinian, by which, probably as foederati, they were allowed to occupy Pannonia. 3 After some years, during which they repulsed
1 The chief sources for the events related in this chapter are the fragments of Malchus and the Gothic history of Jordanes. - The foundation of the Gepid kingdoin on the Theiss was another consequence of the field of Netad. The original seat of the Gepids was near the mouth of the Vistula. Their king, Ardaric, fought for Attila at the locus Mauriacus, but threw off the yoke at Netad, a battle which Dahn considers equal in importance to "Chalons," Poitiers, or Waterloo (Kon. der Germ. ii. 15-27):

welche noch das Burgundenrecht auf seine Miinzen nininit, woraus sich eine ziemlich geordnet Herrschgewalt des Konigs und ein ansehnlicher Flor seines Reiches folgern lasst." 3 Their Pannonian territory extended the from Sirmium to Vindobona " false Vienna." Jordanes attempts to tell us how it was apportioned among The Ostrogoths the three brothers. made war on the peoples around them,

cupientes ostentare virtutem (Jord. Get. Gasquet {Ucmpire byz. p. 57) 52).

"Diegrosse Bedeutungdes Konigthums
Ardarich's zeigt sich in der Riicksicht

points out very well that "what the barbarians hated most cordially were [not Romans but] other barbarians."



book hi

an attack of the remnant of the Huns, they came into collision with the Emperor Leo, on account of an unpaid allowance of gold (strenae), and ravished the Eoman provinces but peace was made in 461, in consequence of which Theodoric, the son of Theodemir, was sent as a hostage to Constantinople, where he remained for ten years, and had the advantage of a Eoman 1 training. This training, however, did not perhaps include 2 letters, for it is said that he was never able to write. During these ten years his nation was engaged in wars with the Suevi and King Hunimund, 3 in which Walamir, his uncle, whom contemporary Greek historians wrongly called the father of Theodoric, was killed. In 471 (or 472) Theodoric

returned to his people.


distinguished himself

by a cam-

paign against the Sarmatians, 4 and a year or two later joined

an invasion of Illyricum, while Wiclemir attacked The father and son marched, capturing cities as they went, 5 as far as Thessalonica, and there the old treaty between the Eomans and Goths was renewed, and certain towns (Pella, Methone, Pydna, Beroea) in the neighbourhood of the Thermaic Gulf were assigned to the Goths. But for some unrecorded reason they were soon transferred to Lower Moesia and Scythia, where we find them stationed during the
his father in



of Italy.

usurpation of Basiliscus. 6

About the same time Theodoric
was supported by the bounty
of the

(Strabo, " Squinter



son of Triarius, the chief of another tribe of Ostrogoths that

Empire, comes into pro-


could not boast the noble descent of his name-

sake Theodoric, the son of Theodemir the Amal, from
Theodoric was probably born in 454, for he was eight years old when he was sent to Byzantium. His mother, whose name was Erelieva, seems to have been a concubine treated with the honours of a wife. She accompanied her son on his Thracian and Illyrian marches. Her name in Anon. Val. (12, 58, ed. Gardthausen) is Ereriliva ; and we learn that she was a Catholic and her christian name was Eusebia. 2 I am disposed to believe this statement of Anon. Val., which Mr. Hodgsuspecting that the story was transferred from Justin to Theodoric. The author of the Anecdota relates it of Justin, and I am


inclined to reverse Mr. Hodgkin's suspicion, and believe that it was transferred from Theodoric to Justin, 8 The Suevi, or Suavi, lived with the

Alemanni to the east of the Burgundians and to the west of the Bavarians, Suavia must not be confounded with the Roman province of Savia. See Mr. Hodgkin's Italy and her Invaders,


The Sarmatians had attacked the Empire and taken Singidunum.
5 Naissus, Stobi, Heraclea. This indicates the line of their march up the valley of the Margus (Morava) and down the valley of the Axius (Vardar). 6 Anon. Val. 9, 42.



chap, iv



Y War broke out between he must be carefully distinguished. the Ostrogoths and Scyrians in 4 6 7, and both peoples applied to The general Aspar counselled the Emperor Leo for assistance. to remain neutral, but Leo determined to listen to the prayers Aspar was on friendly terms with the Goths, of the Scyri.

was because he knew that there was no chance of Leo's them that he advised him to reject both requests. In 468 Leo rejected overtures of the sons of Attila, and in the following year the remnant of the Huns combined with the Goths against the Empire, but the campaign was unsuccessful,


because they quarrelled



The Ostrogothic

chief Theodoric, son of Triarius, aspired to

sent an Leo refused forces in two parts, with one division ravaged the territory of Philippi and with These energetic the other reduced Arcadiopolis by starvation. proceedings extorted concessions from Leo he agreed to pay a

succeed to the position

Aspar, and in

473 he

embassy to that effect to Constantinople. his demands, Theodoric, having divided his



yearly stipend of


lbs. of

gold to the Goths, to allot them

a district in Thrace, to create Theodoric magistcr












Emperor against

enemies except the Vandals.



2 moreover, to be recognised as king of the Goths.

In the troubles that followed Leo's decease, the son of
Triarius took the part of Basiliscus, while the son of Theo-

The relations which existed between demir supported Zeno. Zeno and the two Theodorics during the three years succeeding Zeno's restoration (477-479) may be divided into three stages. In the first stage Zeno and the son of Theodemir are combined in the second stage the two Gothic against the son of Triarius

chieftains join forces against the



in the third stage the

son of Triarius and Zeno are allied against the son of Theodemir.

In 477 Zeno received an embassy from the son of Triarius and his federate Goths who were desirous to make a treaty The ambassadors reminded with the successful Emperor.
1 According to John of Antioch, fr. 214, 3, the son of Theodemir was the ave-j/ibs, cousin of Recitach, who was son of Theodoric, the son of Triarius.

2 His wish to be recognised as king by the Emperor shows that he was not of royal descent (Dahn, Konige dcr Germanen, ii. 69).




book hi

Zeno of the injuries which the son of Theodemir had inflicted on the Empire, though he was called a Eoman " general " and a It appears that Theodoric the Amal, who was now friend. stationed in Lower Moesia, had received the title of general in Zeno called the reward for his opposition to Basiliscus. senate, and it was concluded to be impossible to support the two generals and their armies, for the public resources were hardly sufficient to pay the Eoman troops. The exchequer, it must not be forgotten, had not yet recovered from the failure of the Vandal expedition of 468. As the son of Triarius had always shown himself hostile at heart, was unpopular on account of his cruelty, 1 and had assisted Basiliscus "the tyrant," it was determined to reject his offer. Yet, as Zeno for a time withheld a reply, three friends of Theodoric in Constantinople, Anthimus, a physician, and two others, wrote him an account of the course which matters were taking but the letters were discovered, the affair was examined by a senatorial commission of three persons, in the presence of the magister officiorum, and the three friends of the Goths were punished by flogging and exile. It is not quite certain, but
it is

probable, that after the rejection of his request the son of

Triarius harried Thrace


to the walls of the capital. 2


after this, probably in

478, the Emperor, perceiving

that while the son of Triarius was becoming stronger and consolidating forces, the son of

Theodemir was becoming weaker,

fore sent


wise to come to terms with the former.



an embassy proposing that the son of the chief should be sent to Byzantium as a hostage, and that Theodoric himself
should pass the
life of

a private individual in Thrace, retaining

what he had already secured by plunder, but binding himself to plunder no more. Theodoric refused, representing that it was impossible for him, having collected tribes together and formed an expedition, to withdraw now. Accordingly Zeno decided on war troops were summoned from the dioceses of Pontus, Asia, and the East, and it was expected that Illus would assume the

1 He and Harmatius had made a practice of cutting off the hands of prisoners xe?pds re dnore/Jivuv a/ma
,J :





The Greek is hardly and Mr. Hodgkin is

perfectly justified in rejecting the interpretation in Smith's edition of

Gibbon, " cutting off the hands of Harmatins." 2 Compare Evagrius (that is, Eustathius of Epiphania) iii. 25, and Theophanes ad awn,.; also Midler's note in Frag. Hist. Grace, iv. p. 120 (and Mal'




chap, iv




It seems, however, that Illus did not take the field,


Martinianus, his


conducting a

campaign against the son of Triarius in the same year, and proving himself incompetent to maintain discipline in his own army. Then Zeno sent an embassy to the other Theodoric, whose headquarters were at Marcianopolis in Lower
Moesia, calling upon him to fulfil the duties of a Eoman general and advance against the enemy. He replied that the Emperor and senate must first swear that they will never make terms The senators took an oath that they with the son of Triarius. would not do so unless the Emperor wished it, and the Emperor swore that he would not break the contract if it were not first violated by Theodoric himself. The son of Theodemir then moved southwards. The master of soldiers of Thrace was to meet him with two thousand cavalry and ten thousand hoplites at the passes of Mount Haemus when he had crossed into Thrace another force was to join him at Hadrianople, consisting of twenty thousand 1 and, if necessary, Heraclea and foot and six thousand horse the cities in the neighbourhood were prepared to send additional troops. But the master of soldiers was not at the gates of Haemus, and when the Ostrogoths arrived on the banks of At Mount Sondis they the Hebrus no troops met them there. fell in with the army of the other Theodoric, and the antagoThen the nists plundered one another's flocks and horses.

rival's tent, reviled him as a own countrymen, and as a fool not to see through the plan of the Eomans, who wished to rid themselves of the Goths, without trouble on their own part, by instigating

son of Triarius, approaching his

traitor to desert his



party won.

mutual destruction, and were quite indifferent which These arguments took effect, and the two Theopeace.




the second


of alliance,

which we noted above. The reconciled Ostrogothic chieftains then sent ambassadors The son of Theoto Byzantium (in the beginning of 479). demir, upbraiding Zeno for having deceived him with false promises, demanded the concession of territory to his people, a
1 Heraclea, on the Propontis, formerly called Perinthus. Mr. Hodgkin strangely confounds it with the

Heraclea in Macedonia, near the Pelagonian plain, and now Monastir (p.



book hi

supply of corn to support his army
that the domestics,

harvest time, and also


collected the revenue, should be sent at

urged that,

once to give an account of what they had received ; and he if these demands were not satisfied, he would be
support themselves.

unable to restrain his soldiers from plundering, in order to

The son

of Triarius

arrangements he had made with Leo
out, that the

demanded that the 473) should be carried
to receive in

payment he had been accustomed

former years should be continued, and that certain kinsmen of

who had been committed
be restored.

the care of Illus and the

are not informed what answer Zeno made to the elder Theodoric, or whether he made any to the son of Theodemir he replied, that if he consented to break with his namesake and make war upon him he would give him 2000 lbs. of gold and 10,000 lbs. of silver immediately, besides a yearly revenue of 10,000 aurei arid an alliance But with the daughter of Olybrius or some other noble lady. his promises did not avail, and Zeno prepared for war, notiIsaurians, should


fying his intention to accompany the


in person.


intention created great enthusiasm in the army, but at the last

moment Zeno drew

back, and the

threatened a revolt, to prevent which the

murmurs of the soldiers army was broken up

and the regiments sent to their winter quarters. When the army was disbanded, Zeno's only resort was to make peace on any terms with the son of Triarius. In the meantime Theodoric, the son of Theodemir, was engaged in ravaging the fairest parts of Thrace in the neighbourhood of Mount Ehoclope, which divides Thrace from Macedonia he not only ruined the crops, but extorted from the farmers or slew them. The son of Triarius, when he received Zeno's message, remarking that he was sorry that the innocent husbandmen, for whose welfare Zeno 1 did not care in the least, suffered from the ravages of his rival concluded a peace on the conditions that Zeno was to supply a yearly payment sufficient to support thirteen thousand men selected by himself (Theodoric) that he was to be appointed to the command of two scholae and to the post of a master of soldiers in praesenti, and receive all the dignities which Basiliscus had





or Vcrina" (Malclms, fr. This seems to show that Verina

had a preponderant influence

at this

chap, iv



that his kinsmen were to inhabit a city The Emperor did not delay to execute this agreement Theodoric, son of Theodemir, was deposed from the office of master of soldiers, and Theodoric, son of Triarius, This marks the third stage in these appointed in his stead.

bestowed upon him

by Zeno.

changeful relations.

In the meantime the son of Theodemir laid waste Maceincluding Stobi, its chief city. He even threatened Thessalonica, and the inhabitants felt so little confidence in

Zeno that they actually believed that the Emperor wished to hand their city over to the barbarians. A sedition broke out which ended in the transference of the keys of the city from
the praetorian prefect to the archbishop, a remarkable evi-

dence of the fact that the people looked on the ministers of
the Church as defenders against imperial oppression.
case to have been


suspicions' of the Emperor's intentions seem, however, in this


and Zeno sent Artemidorus and

Phocas to Theodoric, who was persuaded by their representations to stay his army and send an embassy to Byzantium.
Theodoric demanded that a plenipotentiary envoy should be

Zeno sent Aclamantius, directing him Goths land in Pautalia, a district of Macedonia, on the borders of Thrace, 1 and 200 lbs. of gold to supply food for that year, as no corn had been sown in the designated region. The motive of Zeno in choosing Pautalia was that if the Goths accepted it they would occupy a position between the Illyrian and Thracian armies, and so might be more easily controlled. Meanwhile Theodoric had proceeded by the Egnatian way to Heraclea in Macedonia, and sent a message to Epirus to one Sidimuncl, 2 an Ostrogoth who had been in the service of Leo and had inherited an estate near Dyrrhachium, where he was living peaceably. Theodoric induced him to make an attempt to take possession of that important city of New Epirus, and
sent to treat with him.
to offer the

for this purpose

Sidimund employed an ingenious



visited the citizens individually, informing each that the Ostro-

goths were coming with Zeno's consent to take possession of
the city, and advising




his property with all haste









'IWvpLKrjs [xoipas itXTiv iirapxia. He was cousin of Aidoing, a friend

cannot avoid seeing in his name the Gothic analogue of the English Edwin (Eadwin).


of Verina and magistcr domesticorum.

who. unwilling to delay. 3 See Mr. accompanied him on his march . This collusion of Sidimund. the Ostrogothic despoiler of the Empire. The were listened to and that he managed to dispose of a garrison of two thousand men proves that Theodoric was he must have possessed considerable influence. hastened onwards. It may be wondered whether at Dyrrhachium (the Calais of the south Adriatic passage if Brundusium was the Dover) it seized Scampa. but Malchus has ZidifiovvSos. F. 126. and well provided with water and victuals. and had been educated at New Eome. as in old time the power of Eome and the Latin name was Adamantius. and arrived at Lychnidus. the attacked by the Epeirot Pyrrhus. with Theodoric. fact that his representations . . When he left Heraclea the city now called Monastir. arrived at the goal of their journey. 1 It is worth noticing that Theodoric's sister. seems to have thought it more likely that the Ostrogoths would employ vessels for the purpose of plundering the Epeirot or Dalmatian coasts. and having most important town between Lychnidus and Dyrrhachium. who were half foes and half dependants. 2 at Heraclea 1 when the messenger of Sidimund arrived with the news that the plan had been successfully carried out and the Amal chief. set out for Epirus. crossing the range of the Scardus mountains. having burnt a large portion of the town because its inhabitants could not supply him with provisions. the Ostrogothic - subject of the Empire. Hodgkin calls him Sigismimd. ii. Built in a strong situation on the shore of Lake Ochrida. was still a Eoman patrician. for Theodoric had been a Eoman general. iv. Lychnidus defied the assault of the barbarians. or more strictly. Tozer's Researches in the Highlands of Turkey. which is probably identical with Ochrida.268 to HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE book hi some other secure town or to one of the coast islands. the entered the mind of Theodoric to ship his people across to the western peninsula and attack the Italian kingdom of Odovacar in the south. 2 Mr. she died at Heraclea and was buried there. G. H. 368. as well as his mother and brother. for he sent a post messenger to Dyrrhachium. according to Mviller's text. is an example of the manner in which the Germans within helped the Germans without. ambassador who had been sent by Zeno to treat with him. 3 situated in that plain of Pelagonia which became famous on the one occasion in the later history of the Eoman Empire those — — Gothic invader proceeded along the Egnatian way.

iv OSTROGOTHS IN ILLYRICUM AND THRACE 269 to blame Theodoric for his hostile advance while negotiations were pending.chap. which led to a strange and striking scene. and. like a king with his fellow. A messenger was sent to inform Theodoric that the Eoman ambassador awaited him. and "they twain. 479 : institutor Romanorum coercitorque fuit tit cluctoribus compar- disciplinae praeterea militaris ita op- . "beyond the timus priscis etur. to assure Adamantius that he might and having proceed confidently to the camp of Theodoric issued a mandate to collect all the soldiers available. speech. returned in the company of a priest. through which a river flowed. attended by a few horse-soldiers. arian. and the Ostrogothic chieftain. who had been sent to Dyrrhachium. and the river. the general and the ambassador moved forward to Lychnidus. Here Sabinianus 1 made difficulties about binding himself by oath . whose name was in later years to become so great." — the representative of the Emperor standing on the edge of the cliff." complained Theodoric. the modern Voclena. Adamantius came to Edessa. messenger. to restore the hostages whom Theodoric was willing to deliver This produced as a gage for the personal safety of Adamantius. on the opposite side of the ravine. Adamantius invented a simple solution of the difficulty. At the foot of the cliff yawned a deep ravine. where horses had never set hoof before. built on a high cliff. are sufficiently simple and definite to enable us to call up vividly this strange scene. and to exhort him to remain quiet and not to seize ships nntil he arrived himself. Theodoric naturally refused to give the hostages. where he found the captain Sabinianus. Starting from Thessalonica. close to the city of Dyrrhachium. and informed him that The he had been appointed master of soldiers in Illyricum. The physical features. Taking with him a body of two hundred soldiers he climbed by an obscure and narrow path. the cliff. the son of Theodemir rode to the bank of the river. Adamantius naturally refused to visit Theodoric. and reached by a circuitous route an impregnable fort. Sabinianus was a great disciplinsee Marcellinus ad ami. The attendants of both Adamantius and Theodoric had retired beyond range of earshot. the chasm." — held " converse of desolate "I elected 1 to live. and passing Pella on the Via Eo-natia. a deadlock .

a prisoner. where there uninhabited. guides who. Allow me to counsel you to assume a more moderate attitude towards the Emperor. the foreign troops (%evuca>). that the master of soldiers in Thrace would meet me with his army. per eas quae adhostem ferebant. yet he never appeared . and created you a master of soldiers. E. deeming that I abode there I should trouble no man. " bestowed upon you the title of Patrician. is rendered 8l' words the most obvious meaning not that of the Greek. surrounded by their armies. not even were your forces tenfold as great as they are. the Latin version mistranslates the Greek : ol ras einropuTepas tQi> odQv edaavres ras els qui. leaving the better roads that would have taken to the quarters of the foe. advancing as I was with cavalry. the envoy proceeded thus " You are acting intolerably in seizing Eoman cities. support your host in plenty. Leave Epirus and the cities of this region —we is cannot allow such great cities to be occupied by you and their inhabitants to be expelled go to Dardania. ye gave me . whence you could never have extricated yourself. secondly. as to war against Theodoric. and should be able to But ye summoned me obey all the behests of the Emperor. and owe them a debt paths. and nothing should induce you to cherish towards their bestower other than filial sentiments. is by . These are the highest honours that crown the labours of the most deserving Eoman officers. me led me by steep and precipitous rocky where I wellnigh perished with all my train. I was therefore constrained to come to terms with them.t." " The Emperor. of gratitude that they did not annihilate me. firstly. ye promised that Claudius. yet I never 1 steward of the Gothic contingent." et expeditis omissis. tutis praecipitialocamedediixeriint. if they had not permitted you to with: . waggons. and all the furniture of camp. and exposed to the attacks of the enemy. betrayed as I was by you and in their power. far away Scythia-ward." replied Adamantius.Q\\ tous iroXe/xiovs (pepovaas dir-qyayov dpdias drpairov. while you are expecting an embassy and remember that the Eomans held you at their mercy." Having endeavoured to defend or extenuate the treatment of which Theodoric complained. k. and sufficient to —and an extensive territory of rich soil.X. per praerupta et 1 In Muller's F. and promised. would come with the pay for saw him thirdly. G. for you cannot in the end overcome the Eomans when they press on you from all sides.270 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE book hi if borders of Thrace. draw. amid the mountains and rivers of Thrace.oiy<\A.

Theudimund and his mother. and had not yet reached Dyrrhachium. around the standard of Sabinianus. who was with him. chap. destroyed the bridge which spanned it to cut off pursuit. see below. iv OSTROGOTHS IN ILLYR1CUM AND THRACE this proposal Theocloric replied that 271 To he would readily consent. by a more direct way. p. 1 He also observed that he was prepared. but that his followers. It was announced to the general that a band of the Ostrogoths led by Theudimund. and. in company with the Illyrian army when he had conquered his rival he expected to succeed to the post of master of soldiers and to be received in New Eome as a Eoman. having crossed a deep gully. 479: Theo- doricum idem Sabinianus regem apud . if He he were permitted to winter at Dyrrhachium he would migrate to Dardania in the He added that he was quite ready to leave ensuing spring. Marching during the night he assailed the company of Theudimund at dawn of day. who had recently endured many pro- hardships.. where they had fully expected to pass the winter. 2 1 For Julius Nepos. sacrificed their followers. fled with all speed cities." it was necessary to send a of the Goth would be acceded to messenger to Byzantium to consult the Emperor. the brother of Theocloric. stationed in the Illyrian had assembled at Lychnidus. to the son of Triarius with six thousand of his most . This band had formed the rear of the Ostrogoths' line of march. and engaged that named by Zeno. Sabinianus sent a few infantry soldiers by a circuitous mountain route. while it saved them. Meanwhile the military forces. the who turned at bay upon five Eomans. and a great booty. into the plain. would be unwilling to leave their quarters in Epirus. was descending in secure negligence from Mount Candaira. And thus . with minute directions as to the hour and place at which they were to appear and himself with the rest of the army proceeded thither. 2 Marcellinus ad ann. which separates the valley of the Genusus from that of the Drilo. rbv "PcofjuxiKov iroXiTevaovra rpoirov. the unwarlike mass of his Ostrogoths in any city posed a compromise. if the Emperor wished. 278. Two thousand waggons and more than thousand captives were taken. martial followers. take the and giving up field against his mother and sister as hostages. This act. after the evening meal. the interview terminated. " to go to Dalmatia and restore Julius Adamantius was unable to promise that the wishes Nepos.

4 we may conclude that. so-called Sycae (a the to passed for him remained to proceed to city. Of the events of the following years our notices are meagre. the two Ostrogothic chieftains combined against the Empire. p. fr. against Constantinople Gracciam debaccJutntem ingenio magis 2 John of Antioch. It on the in an attempt Losthenion. victories over the Bulgarian forces. and that Zeno sought the alliance of the Bulgarians. in the year 480. and he would easily have reduced Thence he guarded the gates in time. both the Theodorics gained on the lower Danube.X. and the pacific offers were rejected Sabinianus was permitted or commanded to continue the war. series. 5. and dissuading from War seemed more honourable to the conclusion of peace. quam Graecia 1 virtute is deterruit. Notice that used of New The fate of Sabinianus is John of Antioch. therefore I conclude that the war continued in Epirus until that year.1 ij 211." Theodorics. 3 From another source we learn that Theodoric. defeated an army of Bulgarians. 213. the Hence son of Theodemir. In the following year (481) "the son of Triarius advanced itself. successfully against " Huns. We find the son of Triarius assisting Illus in the suppression of the revolt of Marcian in the same year in which the campaign of Soon afterwards we hear that he operated 2 and we may be sure that these Huns were identical with the Bulgarians.272 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE book hi After this the Emperor received two messages. had not if Illus it where he again failed suburb). Epirus. . had migrated westward from their homes near the Caspian and hovered Moreover. stated by t&u Qeodepixw <rv$vyia (the pair of the Theodorics) k. Thence he set and departed to feated in a sea-fight. who. G. . . the other from Sabinianus exaggerating his victory.t. master and we hear that John the Scythian and Moschianus were sent to succeed him. Zeno. 1 which seems to have been protracted in these regions for more than two years But the able general was murdered by an ungrateful longer. (ed. av/x/xaxiau TrporptyaaQai. who were now for the first time roused up by Zeno to make war against both the Epirus took place. 4: ko. Panegyric of Theodoric Vogel in 31. in the movements that had ensued upon the dissolution of Attila's power. lb. 211. H. one from Adamantius announcing the proposals of Theodoric. 27). Thrace. 205. d>s 3 avayKaadTJvcu top Zrjvwva Tore irp&Tov Accord- to us 4 KaXov/xevovs BovXyapovs els ing to Marcellinus he died in 481. Ennodius. and so-called and the Hestiais named Pros the place But he was deendeavour to cross the straits to Bithynia.

and a burden and menace to the lands of the Haemus. irapedwaaTevov. 214. For the ensuing six years (until 488) he continues to be a thorn in the side of the Eoman Emperor. like the Visigoths eighty for the conciliated . Others asserted that the blow was inflicted on him by his son Eecitach because he had whipped him. 4 Magister militiae praesentalis (Marcellinus ad ami. I . having been by honours and benefits. performing more outrageous acts than his father performed. 5 Marcellinus. though. 5 and the capital was once more threatened by the Ostrogoths.chap. Parts of Moesia and Dacia were conceded to him (483). tov Alo/jlt]8ovs xaXovfievov (TTafiKov (on the Egnatian Road). 487. and he assisted Zeno against the rebel Illus. most part. 4 In 484 he enjoyed the great dignity of giving his name to the year as consul. 25). the son of Theodemir. 2 But he had slew them afterwards. I translate the short account of John of Antioch. A more elaborate account will be found in the third fragment of Eustathius (apud Evagrium. 3). 483). his father's brothers sharing in the power. he is not openly hostile. Having mounted his horse in the morning he was thrown by it on a spear which was standing erect beside the wall of the tent. Eecitach succeeded to his authority over the people. His wife Sigilda buried him by night. And when l he was at the Stable of Diomede he was killed. left Illyricum to seek a 1 new home in the West. a word used in later Roman history of influential ministers of the Emperor. and reigned alone over the land of the Thracians. whom Zeno instigated to the deed 3 (483 In 482 we find Theodoric biguous — — the name is no longer am- ravaging both the Macedonias and Thessalyand captur- ing the town of Larissa. laying waste the country as he went Melantias was taken. or 484)." Eecitach was soon afterwards slain by Theodoric. 2 iii. years before. and he was appointed master of soldiers. iv OSTROGOTHS IN ILLYRICUM AND THRACE 273 forth for Greece (Hellas) with his son Eecitach and his two brothers and his wife and about 30. But in 488 the land was delivered from their presence. and the Ostrogoths. VOL. 3 Theodoric was a cousin of Recitach (John of Antioch.000 Goths (Scythians). But three years later (487) he marched on Constantinople.

Cusp. John of Antioch. . avexpibs &v avrov. Son of Nepotianus and Marcellinus' : sister. fr. Glycerius' advice of Gundobad. Gundobad the Burgundian was not like Eicimer. and in vireiaeXduv Tow8ovj3a\r]s. 2 3 band of his niece. Julius Nepos. One important Italy was public act is recorded of the Emperor Glycerius. the nephew of Marcellinus. he Cassiodori Chron. TXvKepiov ttjv tov ko/xtitos tQv bofiecrriKwv a^iav ^x oVTa T V V fiaaCkeLav ^ — ayeu 2 For date. threatened by an invasion of Ostrogoths. was proclaimed Emperor at Eavenna. apud Eavennam 2J ^ US praesumptione quam electione Caesar factus est this was the view of New Rome. count of of Eicimer. 3 John of Antioch. which was made without his consent and he selected another His candidate was the husas the successor of Anthemius. Gundibato liortante Glycerius Ravcnnac surrvpsit imMarcellini Chron. " by the nephew even as Severus had been proclaimed But Emperor at the same place by the advice of Eicimer. as the successor of Marcellinus.CHAPTER V ODOVACAR THE PATRICIAN AND THEODORIC THE PATRICIAN For more than was the sole four months after the death of Olybrius. Leo Eoman Emperor. ib. . Glycerius was easily deposed. the On 5th March 473 Glycerius. and during that time the power in Italy seems to have rested with the senate and Gundobad. 209 ttjv 8e rod Yed/xepos 1 did not fight . so that it fell on Gaul. the domestics. Glycerius 2)erium. and he soon disappears from the scene of Italian politics. at another moment . who were moving from Pannonia under the leadership of Widemir. The eastern Augustus did not approve of the new election. see Anon." 1 diplomacy averted the storm. who had ruled independently in Dalmatia. And the career of Julius Nepos partakes of two characters at one moment we think of him as the successor of Anthemius.

" of Epiphanius. 4 What made the yoke of the Visigoths at this time especially intolerable. that Nepos had to measure swords a general named Orestes. Id. which another exEmperor.v THE PATRICIANS ODOVACAR Augusti et &> THEODORIC at the 275 Portus. This letter is used by Gregory of ii. . 3 op. a -"/c" -f . his brother-in-law. M. cit. which was bravely defended by Ecdicius. servitus. Anon. But by the peace was ceded to Euric. iii.„ pro Arvcrnorum. Ennodius. far different from him. who is trustworthy.chap. Val. 3. ' vn. Ligurians selected Epiphanius as the emissary to Euric. G. 1 It is not city of his episcopate. was a fanatical Arian. in order to save and Sidonius breaks out into bitter complaints of this abandonment. and other cities and Sidonius hesitated whether he should regard him as the leader of an Arian party or as the king of Ennodius says that he ruled the " Getae " with the Goths. At this juncture Epiphanius. 1 Some doubts have been . Once more an Augustus at Old Eome and an Augustus at New Eome reigned in unison. nor yet with Gunclobad. Eome (24th June 474). 209). He oppressed the Catholics in his realm he refused to allow Catholic bishops to be elected at Burdigala. . He was ordained and he died—that is Nepos was proclaimed Emperor and ruled at all we know. who was adored in the land of Liguria. T . the old bishop of Pavia. 6 (ed. H. Ep. was the fact that King Euric. 2 Liguria seems to have played a considerable part in these negotiations. See • A provincial council of the 94. -J Id. of his Sidonius. p. the town mouth quite clear was ordained as bishop whether he ever reached the of Salona. 15. appears on the scene. who had acceded in 466. as he had before negotiated a and Eicimer. ed. Arverni Italy from invasion. > dolor. 5 an iron sway. . felt as to Ennodius' Life of Epiphanius. But it was not with Euric. . . F . celebrates grateful fellow -citizens 3 the enthusiasm — " How they gazed at you from the walls of Arverni. 2 Euric had taken advantage of the recent confusion to extend his dominions. the Visigothic king. says merely factus est episcopus.. and lived in the vicinity of the palace. „ 7: ' - A „„. the appointment of Glycerius to the see of Salona but John of Antioch. in portu urbis Eomae ex Caesar e episcopus ordinatus est et ii. 94 6. is express (fr. t"ji e ohit: the c form of expression suggests a doubt whether Glycerius ever reached Salona. Tours. \ 4 7 g idon# Apoll Ep.Yogel. the son of Avitus. and negotiates a peace between Nepos peace between Anthemius and Euric. 25. and had attacked Auvergne." ' . he Trajani. 5 23). had built for himself at the mouth of the Jader. vii. 109. Lemovici (Limoges). Ep. Marcellini Chron. . Partus of the Tiber.

" Ces rapa similar remark. embarked in a ship and fled to Salona. ployed as a general in Gaul by Julius Nepos that he was in Italy in 475. consisting of Heruls. and had married the daughter of a certain Count Komulus. . as Gibbon clearly saw Orestes' own conduct in heading a mutiny against Nepos was " retorted against himself." makes He adds. Am. he had the satisfaction of seeing the man who overthrew him overthrown . This was that was. and he disdained to submit to the rule of him whom the sovereign of New Eonie had sent. and thereby possess the supreme power himself. ' ' 1 The Augustus. ." The foreign soldiers in the army. 258). . He . emcertain it is Orestes who had been the secretary of Attila. for so The Caesar Julius was succeeded by the Caesar Augustulus young Eomulus was nicknamed. Scyrians. This was on the 28th of August 475 the same year that saw the flight of Zeno from Constantinople saw the flight of ISTepos from Eavenna but while in less than two years Zeno returned. perhaps. and his shield-bearer. names. and other obscure nationalities. demanded a third part of Italy for themselves Orestes boldly refused the demand. what Gerontius probably did he determined to elevate his son to the imperial throne. He lived for five years at Salona. chroniclers. And Nepos. Odo. the return of ISTepos was not to be. in the pages of the late meet us like ghosts re-arisen from past days of Eoman history." prochements fortuits presentaient dans leur bizarrerie je ne sais quoi de surnaturel qui justifiait la credulite et troublait jusqu'aux plus fermes esprits: on baissa la tete et on se tut " (p. Thierry. in turn. and the Patrician Orestes pursued him with an army. what Aetius probably desired to do. Augustulus. We are told that ISTepos went to Eavenna. the resignation of Eomulus Augustulus on 2 2d August 476. Eugians. The immediate cause which led to the fall of Orestes was a mutiny of the foeclerati. the third ex -Emperor who had bent his course thither and if Glycerius really survived. 1 whom his father inThese . origin of the name. 2 "We now come to an event which is often presented in a wrong light. vested with the imperial insignia (31st October 475). fearing the coming of Orestes. 276 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE was to book hi of patrician rank.. He determined to do what Stilicho probably desired to do. Les derniers temps de l'empire d' Occident. 2 " M. Eomulus. be his adversary. the little is not recorded. Julius.

while he was king of his own Germans. 3 At the same moment. But as Athaulf and Wallia did not break with the Empire. messengers arrived from Nepos. In 477. administration of Italy. . when Zeno had been restored to the throne of which Basiliscus had robbed him. &* THEODORIC 211 Pavia. nominally dependent on the Emperor. It is very likely he was a Scyrian it is certain he was not a Rugian he atterwards overthrew the Rugian kingdom in Noricum. "Entering Eavenna. and ambassadors were sent to the Augustus of New Eome to signify the new order of things. pitying his infancy. These details are preserved in a valuable fragment of Malchus (10). and the Patrician was slain at Placentia. but that his sole supremacy would be sufficient both for East and West at the same time they had selected Odovacar as a person capable of protecting their interests. to congratulate Zeno on his restoration. so Odovacar did not desire to break with the Empire he aspired to govern Italy as a Patrician. he induced the Eoman senate to endorse formally the permanent institution of a state of things which had often actually existed in the days of Eicimer. but granted him his life. and for his aid in men and money to recover the imperial power. and to ask for his sym- pathy with one who had suffered the same misfortune. It is said he was the son of Edecon but 1 The nationality of Odovacar . 3 . .chap. and he gave him an income of six thousand solidi. 1 was easily taken. to which Orestes retired. his brother Paul was put to death in the pine -woods of Classis. sometimes a Rugian. clear not certain whether this Edecon was identical with him whom we met it is at the court of Attila." These words of a chronicler 2 represent what practically Italy was now to be divided among the followers took place. Eoman senate appeared in Constanti- and informed Zeno that they did not require a separate Emperor to govern them. as south-western Gaul more than fifty years ago had been divided among the followers of Wallia. being both a warrior and a man endowed with political intelligence and they now asked Zeno to confer upon him the rank of Patrician and entrust him with the . of Odovacar. 2 . the messengers of the nople. . For this purpose he made the deposition of Bomulus Augustulus take the form of an abdication. v THE PATRICIANS ODO VACA R headed the mutineers. This is not he is sometimes called a Scyrian. vacar. ^ ^ g ^ . and because he was comely. and sent him to live in Campania with his relations. Odovacar deposed Augustulus.

. practically an independent kingdom. the representatives of the senate he said." And yet this hypothetical case is formally the same as the actual event of 476. like the greater part of Gaul. which sometimes was If. And in any case it might be said that Julius ISTepos was still Emperor he was acknowledged by Zeno. The fact that the union of East and West under Zeno's name was accompanied by the rule of the Teuton in Italy. claim of Nepos. he was acknowledged in southern Gaul 1 so that one might just as legitimately place " the Fall of the Western Empire" in 480. and banished the other. they had slain Anthemius. relates that after the death of Nepos the Gallo-Romans (tuv dvo-fjuKw TaXaruv) rejected the rule of Odovacar and sent an embassy to Zeno but Zeno rather inclined to Odovacar. and if Theodosius II had assumed the reins of government over the western provinces. 1 (p. who had also sent envoys. but theoretically thought that the date marks a great era of the world. no one would surely have spoken of the " Fall of the Western Empire. on the death of Honogoverned by two or more Augusti. 1 Candidus. that of the two perors one. like Spain. rius in 423. There was only one Eoman Empire. 136. there had been no Valentinian to succeed him. . The unfortunate phrase " Fall of the affair of Western Empire " has given a false importance to the 476 : it is generally But no Empire fell in 476. Miiller). . . To Em- whom they had received from the East. and if. the year of his death. The Italian provinces were now. .278 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE book hi message affected Zeno's reply to the envoys from Italy. has disguised the true aspect. as is quite conceivable. take Nepos back. fr. no second Augustus had arisen again before the western provinces had all passed under the sway of Teutonic rulers. there was no western Empire to fall. . JSTepos let them now To Odovacar. The fact that Verina was a the kinswoman of the wife of Nepos was a determining element But Odovacar did not acknowledge the in the situation. he replied that he would do well if he accepted the rank of he praised the respect the Patriciate at the hands of Nepos for Eome and the observance of order which had marked his conduct and bade him crown his goodness by acknowledging rights of the exiled Emperor. and Zeno was not in a position to do more than give him advice. . like Africa. ed.

. He annexed Dalmatia to his dominion in 481. not without an Emperor for that would have been an absurdity in theory but subject to an Emperor ruling. arose the great Aetius. of German descent on his father's side and reared among barbarians. The significance of his reign The is that it prepared for the kingdom of the Ostrogoths. than to dwell with solemnity Merobaudes. When the Count Marcellinus in his Chronicle wrote that on the death of Aetius " the Hesperian realm fell." he could justify his statement better than those who place 476 among the critical dates of the world's history. and Odovacar had less difficulty than his predecessors in providing on that side for the safety of Italy." Italy is virtually a Teutonic kingdom.chap. v THE PATRICIANS ODOVACAR once more as it &« THEO DORIC 279 the Eoman Empire was had been in the days of Theodosius the Great or in the days of Julian. and therefore practically independent. and acted in every regard as an independent prince. the German on the imaginary fall of an empire. not at Eavenna or Eome. After a short Eoman reaction under Constantius. . The administration of Odovacar therefore does not come within my scope. but at OdoConstantinople. His successor was the Suevian Eicimer with him the opposition between the German element and the principles of the Eoman Imperium appears he will only have an Emperor whom he likes the Emperor depends upon the Patrician. however. who. The next step is Odovacar the Patrician. . who now warred with the Teutons and now led them to battle. vacar is likewise king of his own nation. It is noteworthy that the one extant coin. not the Patrician upon the Emperor. like Spain and Africa. at once undermined and protected the Empire. was constrained to do what Stilicho never did. — — death of Gaiseric (477) was followed by the decline of the Vanclalic power. to It is more profitable recognise the continuity of history than to impose . against whose influence in the western court the Britannic legions made a Eoman manifestation. after the death of Julius Nepos. and though he is not " King of Italy. which may . who at once encouraged and kept in check the barbarians. was succeeded by the semi-barbarian Stilicho. Aetius might be called a semi-Eoman. If Stilicho was a semi-barbarian. and assign to the Goths lands within the Empire. upon it arbitrary divisions it is more profitable to grasp that Oclovacar was the successor of Merobaudes.

130) finds a difficulty in this passage. King Odovacar Then the Visigoths came left Cremona and proceeded to Mediolanum. whose translation 4 The Burgundians. and fighting there was conquered and fled. volume. note B. . 3 supervened from the city of Novae with his Gothic people. he should. as a reward for his labours." preserved on two separate fragments of papyrus (one in the Imperial Library at Vienna. prae seems to be etc. the Master of mote] had ordained on the 1st April. p. " In the consulate of Faustus and Longinus [490]. Misccll. —or dundant of is else it is a mistake for proregnaret. " And Theodoric the Patrician marched on to Mediolanum. assisted Odovacar by invading Liguria with a great army (Hist. And so Patrician Zeno recompensed Theodoric with benefits and consul. was sent by Theodoric to Ravenna against Odovacar. coming to Faventia.280 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE book hi be probably attributed to Odovacar. Hodgkin's third volume. to the assistance of Theodoric. 165. being sent by the Emperor Zeno from the east to win and keep Italy for him. tantum praeregnaret. and they were put in irons and led to Ravenna. But Odovacar departed to Verona and fixed his camp in the Lesser Veronese plain on the 27th of September [489]. 1 An account of " Odovacar's Deed of Gift to Pierius. clearly of a chronicle. . and has been thoroughly utilised by Mr. Zeno is the suband tantum means "only" Theodoric's government in As Italy was to be only temporary. When he came he was met by Odovacar at the river Sontius (Isonzo). rule in place of OdoAccordingly Theodoric the Patrician vacar. 2 Anonymus Valesii. blockaded Odovacar with the army with which he had been sent . has no reference to the Emperor. that. and the especially Tufa. l We may The words " pass on to the circumstances which led to the of Theocloric in overthrow of the Scyrian monarch and the establishment of the Ostrogothic kingdom the Italian peninsula. And Tufa delivered to Odovacar the " comrades " (comites) of the Patrician Theodoric. 4 and a battle was fought on the river ' ' . 2 . until Zeno came himself. Hodgkin (iii. 3 Mr. Hodgkin for the sixth chapter of his third seems to me sufficiently evident. written in very obscure language. so The Latin bad that it is difficult. . the greater part of Odovacar's army surrendered to him Master of Soldiers. and Odovacar left Ravenna and came to Faventia. re- analogy —prefixed on the praesideo. may be quoted. on the other hand. Ennodius' Panegyric of Theodoric. under Gundobad. the other the Theatine Monastery of St. gave him much and sent him he made him a to Italy. who drew his facts from the lost annals of Ravenna. The Latin is cui Theodericus pactuatus est id si victus fuisset Odoachar pro merito laborum suorum loco ejus dum adveniret ject of adveniret. for praeregnaret. in which the events are and simply related. And Theodoric made a compact with him. "Tufa. is important for these years. praesum. in case Odovacar were conquered. xv. And Theodoric followed him there. whom Odovacar with his chief men [a German FolcIn that year Tufa. Paul at Naples) will be found in Mr. 16). Soldiers. and a but Odovacar being battle was fought and people fell on both sides overcome fled to Ravenna on the last day of September.

Vales. having his pledge that his life would be spared. iii. 5 Supervenio is the vox propria in the Anon. Hodgkin. 1 him to death. being constrained. it is quite and whether it is true or not. Cuspin. the head of the senate. Then the Patrician Theodoric followed him and came to the Pinewoods (Pineta) and pitched his camp. Odovacar's Master of Soldiers. a peck. fleeing was And Odovacar being vanquished fled to killed in the river Bedens. 228. the Count of Domestics. was slain on the 1 1 th August. keeping him shut up in Ravenna of six solidi. gave his son Thelane as a hostage to Theodoric.. 4 but his design was anticipated for Theodoric with his own hand slew him with a sword in the palace of .. Odovacar was discovered to be plotting against him. fell on both sides .) 4 Dum ei Odoachar insidiaretur the other sources which depend on the Ravennate Annals {Anon. . Continuatio Prosperi Havn. hoping to receive at his hands and wear the royal for three years. vir clarissimus. and people fell on both sides. . Cusjrin. Cassiodorus is perhaps a prejudiced witness." Thus Theodoric "supervened" 5 and succeeded Odovacar.. 1 apparel. Lauretum. v THE PATRICIANS ODOVACAR &° THEODORIC 281 Pierius. And he blockaded Odovacar. compromise would have been to divide Italy but Theodoric had come from the East to recover the whole land. . The Anonymus Valesii proceeds as if no interval took place between the defeat of Odovacar in the Pinewoods and the compact of 493 (27th February. and all his kin. Both for as Odovacar had supervened and succeeded Orestes. and Agnellus) do not mention this moment in the transaction. And some days after. Anon. Thus Theodoric entered in (to Ravenna). The statement that Odovacar was found . 3 During the year 492 no hostilities took place. Theodoric could hardly escape the necessity of putting That is. [491] King Odovacar departed from Ravenna by night and entered the Pinewoods along with And soldiers the Heruls and came to the camp of the Patrician Theodoric. though credible . Addua. hut it is supported by the Chronicle of Cassiodorus (Odoacrem molientem sibi insidias) and Procopius. and Levila. And " In the consulate of Olybrius. £3 :12s. B. . plotting against Theodoric has been doubted. to the Emperor Zeno. The death of Odovacar was the most natural and simple alternative confinement in an island was not a method likely to be adopted by a German king. And a bushel of corn reached the price Theodoric sent Faustus. 1 (eiriPovXrj es a&rbv xp^vov). 3 "Then [493] Odovacar. i. 2 The Bonco. 2 Ravenna on the 15 th of July. wherever they could be found. Cf. chap. and Odovacar fled to Ravenna. to slay necessity political one and for the other it had been a his him to accord it would have been dangerous his rival warriors to German and it was not the habit of freedom possible only The immure fallen adversaries in dungeons. G. and was likely to adopt a view favourable to Theodoric. On the same day all his soldiers were slain.

" 2 The Boman Emperor tardily recognised him. St. 63. 117. . Theo" doric therefore could not be sure of imperial recognition. It is not clear what the ornamenta palaMi exactly wera 3 Marcell. 3 Theodoric adopted Bavenna. He had sent Faustus Niger as an ambassador to Zeno. in which his Arian is Goths worshipped. which Apollinaris. ad annum. [Cf. but looked upon Italy as the territory of an enemy rather than of a Patrician. 12. and even sent ships to make a raid on the coast of Apulia (508). attitude of reaction against his Isaurian predecessor. and Theodoric. This church. pp. But having learned of his death before the embassy returned. Val. 57. 1. byzantin. he opposed Frankish Childeric as Aetius had opposed Frankish Chlojo. a new power was consolidating itself in Gaul. 4 The story of Childeric's deposition. when he entered Bavenna and slew Oclovacar. had meanwhile been succeeded by Anastasius and the new Emperor had adopted an . the city of Honorius and Placidia and Valentinian. the Goths confirmed Theodoric as their king. Of the Ostrogothic palace perhaps some relics still remain but of the Lauretum. city. and did not wait for the order of the new Emperor..] L'cmpire Childeric was accused filias eorum (the Franks) stuprose cletrahere. is rightly rejected as legendary by von Eanke. still extant. but Odovacar had adopted it as his home. where Odovacar was slain. no trace is left. Com. 118. Theodoric built a close to the new palace in another part of the church of St. Aegidius' elevation. Weltgeschichte. . . by the Franks in Gregory of Tours. It was Childeric who really founded the kingdom of the Franks 4 he acquired the cities of Koln and Imperial Trier and at Tournai his tomb and corpse with his armour were found in the seven. The negotiator was Festus. iv. storation. however. Odovacar. as his capital. An. The Emperors who reigned in the days of Bicimer had seldom resided in the palace of the Laurelwood. ii. Aegidius was the successor of Aetius in the work of maintaining Boman authority and resisting Teutonic advance in Gaul. While Italy was being ruled by the German Patricians Bicimer. was as afterwards dedicated to and is now known San Apollinare JSTuovo. and Childeric's re2 1 lb.282 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE book hi Italy to But Zeno. Gasquet. who had given the commission of recovering Theodoric the Patrician. Martin." 1 It was not till five years later that he made peace with Anastasius (498) and "received all the ornaments of the palace which Odovacar had sent to Constantinople. 421.

the Visigoths. cit. the old name of the Yssel. Gasquet (op. But Syagrius had no allies his forces were not a match for the might of Chlodwig. In the first place. 122 sqq.). The Salian Franks derived their name from Sala.chap. the kingdom of Childeric arose in lands where Franks had been settled for more than a hundred Yet another mark distinguished them from the neighyears. like the Visigoths under Alaric or the Ostrogoths under Theodoric neither Chlojo nor Childeric had ever been Eoman Patricians or masters of soldiers. cit. baptized or afterwards lapsed into the Arian doctrine.D. If &* THEO DORIC son achieved for 283 Childeric founded. the Patrician was the adversary of Chlodwig. Visigoths. they were more opposed to the Eoman spirit. without the semblance of right. 533. von Ranke. or the Burgundians. with he fled vanquished from a field of battle. i. 1 This This is clear from the Salic laws. place. 7) . 3 Constantius called them in at the time of the revolt of Magnentius Libanius. with his customs and ways. op. the predominance of the Eranks in Gaul. Reiske. p. 2 Since I wrote this sentence. did not dare to save him he was delivered to the victor and put to death. As the Patrician Aegidius was the adversary of Childeric. v teentli THE PATRICIANS ODOVACAR century. I have read the discussion of M. This battle decided . . 3 bouring Teutonic kingdoms. when Chlodwig was converted to Christianity by the influence of his Burgundian wife Clotilda and embraced the Catholic creed (496 A. 'E7rird0tos on Julian (ed. yet as the representative . whereas the other German kings and peoples had either been originally . Ostrogoths. his son. they had never served as foederati under a Eoman Emperor. Among the German nations who settled in the Eoman Empire the Franks had a peculiar position. and Chlodwig it an important position in the political system of Europe. they represented more purely the 1 primitive German man. iv. . Eoman name. nor had they received grants they won their kingdom of territory from an Augustus 2 In the third place. by force. Syagrius. they were less imbued with Eoman ideas.). while the Burgundians. and Vandals formed their kingdoms in countries where people of their races had never settled before. whom he sought refuge. 416. his reared and extended. at Syagrius ruled at Augusta Suessionum (Soissons) as independently of the Empire of the as Odovacar ruled Eavenna. than the In the second Ostrogoths. . and in the year 486 The Visigoths. and am disposed to think it probable that Childeric held the rank of magister militum. the new kingdom.

ii. and rendered them tributary . including the Lilybaeum. the king of the Franks the dignity of the consulate. Chloclwig subdued the Alemanni in a great battle (about 492 A. c. at the expense of Visigoths and Burgundians. their borders did consulship on Chlodwig implies the theory that. Anastasius would hardly have thought of bestowing the consular rank on a German prince who lived in a district of central Europe which had never been an imperial province. however.284 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE their Frankish rulers. the Emperor.). Chlodwig. too. 3 geographical positions The Eoman Emperor conferred upon The of the Empire and the kingdom of as Chlodwig rendered the alliance natural. where King Alaric the Second But against the great Theodoric he could not contend as he had contended against Alaric and forces Gundobad . and the ally it was ruled by a praetorian prefect. and he won a decisive victory over the Arian Visigoths on the 1 Campus Vocladensis. Before the death of Theodoric its were increased to westward and northward. 38 igitar ab : Anastasio imperatorc codccillos solato accepit et in basilica beati con- tunica blattea verticc indutus ct Martini clamide imponcns diademam. 2 Provincia was incorporated in the Ostrogothic kingdom. who stood as the Catholic power of West over against the Arian kings. . the Of the political administration of Theodoric something will be said in a future chapter. of The bestowal. of Tours. and allowed them to retain a small corner of fortress of Sicily. which had in old : clays belonged to the cle 1 Greg.D. . as his territory once belonged to the Empire. book hi act smoothed the relations and between the Gallo-Eoman subjects and was of vital consequence for the history of western Europe. but the a terrible defeat on the Franks and Burgundians outside the walls of the ruled Eoman limits city. was recognised as an by Anastasius. 2 Jordanes. to pay tribute fell. in Department Vienne. Get. meanwhile. he was in a certain way still connected with. Chlodwig was hereby recognised by the Emperor as his successor or vicegerent in Gaul. not touch. 3 Gregory of Tours. ii. 58. he defeated the Arian Burgundians. of the Ostrogoths inflicted he besieged Arelate. We may point out here that in relation to the Vandals he followed the policy of Odovacar. and by a vicar. 37 in campo Vogladense . and compelled them. Vouille. if not dependent on.

. Bulgaribus Syrmium recepit When Theodoric was engaged in the expedition he assisted the Hun Mundo against the imperial general Sabinian. and Dalmatia. Pannonia. are not included. and Corsica. The Ostrogoths were successful (505 a. and passing out of the remembrance of the Eoman . that is.) . and exIn these kingdoms two corners tended east of the Ehine. tory of the — Before I conclude this chapter I must of the give some account of one of the strangest episodes in the his- dismemberment saint. the assisted by the Bulgarians. at the beginning of the sixth century its the political geography of Europe was very different from simple character at the beginning of the fifth. . Beside his possessions in Asia and Egypt. German nations had pene- Chronicle of Cassiodorus (ad annum): vietis Italia. who had Bulgarian allies. belonged to the Ostrogothic kingdom of 1 As the Ostrogothic king was a Eoman Patrician. which comprised all northern Gaul. that is the prefecture of Illyricum but the diocese of Illyricum or Western Illyricum. as it is sometimes called. it Italy. Noricum. it was at protected it against the Eranks. v THE PATRICIANS ODOVACAR Thus &* THE O DORIC 285 Carthaginians. Italy. this time experiencing the invasions of the Saxons and the Angles.d. with a small part of Sicily. including Ehaetia. whose kings accentuated their independence of the Empire by wearing the diadem on their coins. : . Sardinia. which extended from the Loire to the Straits of Gades (3) the kingdom of the Burgundians. Empire. was held by the Vandals.chap. might be said that the Emperor still ruled nominally over The rest of the old prefecture of Italy. Provincia. which passed into the hands of Theodoric when he As for Britain. Africa. which was inhabited by Celtic Britons. condition of the provinces of Empire in the West the Noricum and Ehaetia under the — dominion of a These provinces formed a Eoman island in the midst of a barbarian sea. The old prefecture of the Gauls had been converted into four Teutonic kingdoms (1) the small realm of the Suevians in northwestern Spain (2) the large realm of the Visigoths. Cf. when civilised Europe and the Eoman Empire were conterminous. for 1 Theodoric won Sirmium from the The Gepids were Gepids in 504. and the south-eastern corner. on the Ehone (4) the kingdom of the Franks. the north-western corner. the Emperor exercised direct authority over Thrace and Illyricum. Saint Severinus. Marcellinus Com.

Afterwards it often occurs as the name of the robbers in the Balkan peninsula. A new social organisation was required to render and as joint action requires a certain minimum of unselfishness. book hi trated westward along the Julian Alps and formed a wedge dividing invasions They were exposed to constant from the barbarians who encompassed them — the Ostrogoths. owing to the interruption of direct relations with Italy. west. who. the darkness assumed its blackest hue. prophet. 1 Hun empire. with their dependants. mountainous to infest the wild appalling. of a prophet at least who believed himself divinely in- spired. there was need of some divine intervention. possible an adequate defence against the barbarians. Here." came from the East. This name first occurs in Eugipwhose Vita Scvcrini (recently by H. Sauppe in the Mon. who began and plunder regions the plains. events. some Such a moral regeneration was a condition of success. Hist. they were more ready to quarrel with the provincials than to fight with the enemy. in the neighbourhood Walamir. but such a pro- tectorate was a pretext fell for oppression. Human beings were actually sacrificed in a town of Noricuni to appease some deity or fiend. between the two. Theodemir. edited . the TurcilThe Eugians proposed to protect these ingi and Heruls. 2. if anywhere. of The Ehaetian and disorganisation. to whom the miserable condition of the In Noricum and Ehaetia the pain country was attributed. leaving the abandoned and departed maintenance of order to the municipal magistrates. While the disThe moral chaos is represented as while and prudence pity tinction of right and wrong vanished.286 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE Noricum from Italy. The imperial their dangerous posts in this inhospitable country to Italy. officers lands into a state complete political. The soldiers quartered as garrisons in the strong towns had no means of maintaining communication. " the apostle of ISToricum. 2 pius. which attended the great travail of the fifth century reached its highest degree. scameras. and moral. . 1 of . on the Save Vienna Widemir. and as their pay became irregular. the Eugians to the north and north-east. military. Germ. and finally ceased. the grossest superstitions prevailed. after the break-up of the settled in the lands of the Save. They reinforced the bands of brigands or scamars. had the Thuringians in the north- Alemanni and Suevi in the south-west.) is our authority for these See X. 2 were forgotten. the Eoman Noric provinces against the other barbarians.

the porter of the city gate who had taken him in. as the Inn was frozen. an important commerPannonia. in dealing with individual men. Insc. through a burning desire of the more perfect life " (fervore perfections vitae). but Severinus restored order. And for this work Severinus proved well adapted. Comagenae. 683). which God seemed to have city to cial centre in — . which. which was noised abroad by the porter. changed his position from that of an obtrusive mendicant impostor to that of a prophet and a saint. Lat. . owing to the scarcity of com. He learned there the austerities of a monk. He was not merely an enthusiast capable of exciting enthusiasm in others. v THE PATRICIANS ODOVACAR &" THEODORIC 287 It was in the year after Attila's death that Saint Severinus His past history was a secret that went It was only known that he was by birth an Italian. 1 Soon afterwards Astura was surprised by barbarians. and the fulfilment of the prediction of Severinus. Having made only one convert. Tulln. In this town. abandoned. which he came was Astura. he proceeded to another town. on the borders 1 Now (Mommsen. Astura is perhaps Klosterneuburg near Mount Cettius. but he had a genius for organisation and command. near Mount Cettius Corp. and looked upon the prophet as a common beggar. who escaped from the sack of the town. It was suddenly discovered that he was the one man capable of saving the imperilled countries. oriental countries. The disorganisation and immoral tone in the town prevented its fair distribution. He was skilful in judging an actual situation. He soon had an opportunity of displaying his talents at Faviana (now Mauer).) chap. He bade the people repent and change their ways. and that "he had set out to a solitude in the East. and that he had travelled much in appeared in Pannonia. could not be obtained in the usual quantity. in planning a mode of defence or a sally. {ib. He first of Christ united the mission of John the Baptist with the mission he preached repentance and loving-kindness. prophesying that otherwise destruction would speedily come upon their city a safe prophecy but the people were froward. to the grave with himself. where he was summoned on account of an impending famine. and superintended the apportionment with complete effectiveness. His life in the lands of the him as a sort of mystic theosophist upper Danube makes us imagine with strong practical energy. iii. The .

2 It feralis et noxia. government in Noricum and Ehaetia lasted His task was hardest at the At the beginning he had to beginning and at the end. 1. and that the saint prophesied his greatness. 1 He founded two monasteries. from Faviana. it took up his abode. whose Danube at Faviana . 1 The the history of the intimacy of Severinus with Flaccitheus. . a tax of one-tenth of provisions and one- He imposed on all tenth of raiment for the benefit of the poor.288 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE lie book hi it. meditating alternately in at his mountain cell and in the monastery which he founded Faviana. that his charity solicitude. who had always been the chief objects of his by his own moral influence. one at Faviana. This tax was enforced It is to be particularly observed was extended to barbarians and brigands as Misery was a sufficient recommendation. But his practical activity had not subdued his passion for Suddenly he disappeared solitude and the life of the hermit. and with Ghisa. We may attribute the peace that existed during the reign of Flaccitheus between the Eugians and the provincials of Noricum to the constant warfare waged between the Eugians and the Ostrogoths. Feva's wife. well as others. viii. S. disturbed the existing equilibrium. called "the small. might form the framework of a romance. of his relations with that king's is a matter of interest that Odovacar visited the saint's cell as he journeyed southward in search of a career. We hear how the saint made the king of the Alemanni tremble in but he was obliged first to every limb under his glance that was . of Ehaetia and Noricum. The Ostrogoths were indirectly the for their movement from Pannonia into the cause of this Illyrian lands left a place for other nations to press in. he proceeded to teach them charity. and further. into the path of Having led the people repentance. And so he passed his life. and Severinus' about thirty years (453-482). and made a cell for himself in a valley of Mount Cettius. the centre of his administration. Sev." 2 Eugippius." and one at Passau (Bata vis). and made as were. . whose nature was deadly and pestilential. territories bank of two sons. that when he had attained the royal power in Italy. . at the end the barbarians pressed regenerate the inhabitants harder on the provinces. the saint predicted his downfall. the feeble Feva and the crafty Frederick. reached the left king of the Eugians. called " the great. Vit.

and afterwards to yield to the determination of Feva that the provincials should be transported into the land of Lauriacum. and exterminated the Eugian nation. Feva was put to death and Ghisa thrown into a dungeon. Severinus were conveyed to a monastery at the villa of Lucullus. he had nothing in common. and the remains of St. with whom. His dying injunctions and menaces had little effect Frederick pillaged his monasteries as soon as his eyes were closed. v THE PATRICIANS ODOVACAR &> THEODORIC 289 abandon Passau and retreat to Lauriacum (Lorch). VOL.chap. at the request of a Neapolitan lady. He set out for Italy in 487. The provincials were transported to Italy. the Eugian royal family standing at his bedside. Odovacar avenged the saint. He determined to win back the provinces of Noricum from the Eugians. I . he died in 482. The saint did not long survive this. After adorning his triumph. . though some said he was a Eugian himself.

. He did this in a curiously public manner. Flavius Anastasius of Dyrrhachium was proclaimed Emperor (11th April 491) through the influence of the widowed Empress Ariadne. for he was Euphemius. who by Zeno's permission expelled him from but the church and pulled down his chair of instruction he gained golden opinions from the general public by his It even appears that he may have piety and liberality. 5982 a. 626. 3 Cedrenus (ed. who married him about six weeks later. See Theophanes. Theophanes rightly. was nevertheless a remarkable and well-known opinions. Kaiser Anastasius I. who translates avv^-q^iaBt] in i. Compare A. 13). In 488. when Palladius was elected. which led him to attempt to con- He held unorthodox partly vert others to his own opinions. Anastasius. Bonn). refused to crown Anastasius until he had signed a written declaration of ortho. who was 3 supported by the eunuch Urbicius. at one time dreamt of an ecclesiastical career. unproposed for the vacant chair of Antioch. to an Arian mother and a Manichaean uncle. 2 pleasantly surprised at the choice of the Empress. perhaps. Having placed a chair in the church of St. due.m. figure in Constantinople. Rose. 2 1 (p. 1 arch Euphemius. who held the not very distinguished post of a silentiarius or guardsman. he used to attend the services with unfailing regularity and give private heterodox instruction to a select audience By this conduct he offended the Patrifrom his cathedra. and he was possessed by a sort of religious craze. Sophia.CHAPTER ANASTASIUS VI I After the death of Zeno.

had played against Zeno. a tendency to be unduly parsiof intelligence monious. in spite of his heretical tendencies. feeling that his elevation would be a disaster somewhat as Antipater the Macedonian refused to the Empire a strong support in . brother well. who was president of the of the his undisputed. 30). had with real patriotism refused to designate him as his successor. of slender stature differed in hue. succeeded in removing his rival to Alexandria. early in 492. however. senate. vi ANASTASIUS 1 I 291 doxy. a turn. including the hippodrome. ? Gelasius (Mansi.chap. who knew his that their privileges were endangered. the master of soldiers. Longinus. gentle and yet enerable to command his temper and generous in bestowing but with one weak point. and the capital. con- ceived that he had a claim to the crown. Anastasius. But the accession Zeno's brother new Emperor was not Longinus. and he had actually countrymen the Isaurians. while he could not attract men by an imposing or agreeable exterior. the He organised brother-in-law of Leo. in the course of which a large part of the town. dc xiii. played much same part against Anastasius that Basiliscus. supported by a magister militum of the same name. which and to you man whom " the people called out " I is when he was proclaimed Emperor. By Johannes Lydus. Eeign as you have lived. who saw Zeno." whom a a bishop of Borne 2 wrote. and good education. he did not hesitate to do. was the 1 The document was lodged in the church archives under the charge of the skeuophylax. a man of the highest respectability occupied the throne. and who scandalised propriety by his loose life. was destroyed by a conflagration. Concilia. . a man with a strong religious and remarkable to for his fine eyes. who in spite of considerable ability was very unpopular on account of the unfair favour shown to the Isaurians. where he became a priest by compulsion. gifts. man Zeno. which. i. know that in private life always strove after piety. the numerous Isaurians who resided in the Constantinople year of Anastasius' elevation was marked for by bloodshed and fatal street battles. Longinus. Mag. The accession of Anastasius must have seemed Instead of a to Byzanlike tium a great and a welcome change. to transmit his protectorate to his son Cassander. 47." He characterised in general 3 as man getic.

cbrXoiWciTos. 1 The events of the first years lasted for five years. would be unfair suppose that Anastasius was adopting the policy of dividing the or suspicion. p. roused their excitable countrymen to revolt. In what relations the various generals in stasius' it small army stood to one another to command of Anawe do not know but . de Boor). H. Their forces marched in a north- westerly direction towards the Propontis. The forces 138. who had conquered Illus Johannes. ed.. afterwards Emperor barian. Athenodorus. of Taurus. 497. 2 Other commanders were . The news of Cotyaeum was followed by an edict (issued in the capital in 493) unfavourable to the Isaurians. f relation of Ariadne . filled with indignation. Justin. back to their mountains. in the regions of Mount Taurus. were expelled from Constantinople. for command from motives of of jealousy The number commanders is quite accounted by the nature of the warfare to be expected in the defiles where it was necessary for small divisions to act in many places. Longinus and his friends. while the imperial soldiers followed leisurely and took up winter quarters at the foot of the Taurus range. of which this was the first scene.) The geneAnastasius were Johannes the Scythian. but at Cotyaeum in Phrygia they were met by a small army which Anastasius had sent against them under the command of many experienced The masses of the rebels were utterly routed and fled officers. . numbered about 100. the hunchback Diogenes. noted for his wealth (but al. 292 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE book hi office and returned with many other Isaurians mountainous home in Asia Minor. 2 Among the generals who led the Isaurians in conjunction with Longinus was Conon. iv. the archbishop of Apamea. and an understanding evidently existed between the rebels in Asia Minor and the rebels in Byzantium. p. cit. who arrived. G. deposed from his to his are often obscured tilities by failing to understand clearly that hoswere carried on in Constantinople and Isauria simultaneously the war had begun in Isauria before the Isaurians . and hauled along with ropes the bronze statues of the Emperor. who was Apsikal. a bar- . tioch. Silingis (Ninilingis lllus a bastard brother of ?). The tedious Isaurian war. 19. 491-496.000. John of An214 b (F. a rals of . and a large regiment under a single leader would have been of little use. who thereupon filled the streets with all the horrors of fire and sword. op. 1 Marcellinus is probably wrong in placing the latest events of the war in See Rose. Theoph.

All the property of Zeno and the Isaurians was confiscated the imperial robes of Zeno were sold. Panegyr. habits. was taken in 493. the wife of Longinus Longina.chap. The following year saw the capture and execution (at Byzantium) of Longinus. and was only temporarily terminated by the It 3 Thus three persons named Longinus were connected with this Isaurian Avar— (1) the brother of Zeno.4 but it is hard to believe that this measure can have been carried out with any degree of completeness. and for the next three years (493-496) a somewhat desultory but anxious war was carried on round the strong places of the country. 4 Procopius of Gaza. reinforced their countrymen in the castles and hiding-places of the Taurus mountains. his mother. . Secundinus. c. of gold (which Zeno had instituted) was withdrawn. . (2) the ex-magister (3) a leader executed in 495. as we have already described. son of Anthemius and Herais. the Isaurians held in the Empire. and then a summary edict was issued banishing all Isaurians from the city. this long war led indirectly to other harmful consequences. out in fortunate preparation for the serious Persian was a very unsuitable and unwar which broke 502. 1 By Anastasius' brother-in-law. her daughter. called the Selinuntian. not to be confounded with the exmagister 3 and in 496 the last two surviving leaders. not replace him. one of the chiefs. were taken. from their sentiments. Claudiopolis. vi ANASTASIUS 1 I 293 difficulty sup- These scenes of indecent violence were with pressed. Longinus and Athenodorus. 10. Besides its disastrous effects on agriculture and industry in the south of Asia Minor. . The whole history of the Tsaurian war indicates what an isolated position. burning for revenge. It was as natural for them to take up arms when an Isaurian did not succeed Zeno as it would have been for the Ostrogoths if by some extraordinary concurrence of circumstances Theodoric had become a Eoman Emperor and on his death an Ostrogoth did . 2 Lalis. and mode of life. . husband of his sister Caesaria. among the rest the family of Zeno. Valeria. a very important position. It is important to note that the Isaurians were then removed from their Asiatic home and transported to Thrace. 2 while the Isaurica or annual grant of 1000 lbs. and the war was at an end. who disappears at the very beginning. who married one Zeno. The banished members of the obnoxious nationality. and in 494 a considerable victory was won near the same city in a battle which was fatal to archbishop Conon.

cap. were a stout race. whether of Slaves or Bulgarians. I may conjecture. because. iv. though there is no evidence on the subject. they lived in the homes of the old Getae. and crowned with the glory of a victory over a Eoman army and in 502 they repeated their successful expedition. 2 It seems clear to me that there must have been invasions. on which occasion they severely defeated Julianus. These were the Bulgarians.294 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE book hi peace of 505. by whom they were defeated. . may be here observed that which required operations in small divisions and introduced the practice of numerous independent commands. who were destined to play a great part in the subsequent history of the Eoman Empire. of barbarians. But other enemies had also laid waste the provinces and defeated the legions. . . In the meantime the Balkan lands were becoming acquainted new foes. when they penetrated into Macedonia and Thessaly but it is highly probable that in the intervening years they were not idle. They are first mentioned as having been enrployed In by Zeno against Theodoric. 2 The presence of the Ostrogoths must have in the first instance reduced it the expedition of the Slaves in 493 did further mischief and it may have been after 499 that the The Isaurians settlement took place. which our scanty and brief notices have not recorded. who must not be confounded with the Slaves. 499 they crossed the Danube. The departure of Ostrogoth Theodoric the to Italy left Thrace and Illyricum free for the Slaves. to invade and plunder. sec below. a people of the UralAltaic or Ugro-Finnic race. that Anastasius formed the settlements of Isaurians in Thrace in order to replenish a population decimated by the incursion xii. For the Slaves. The next invasion that we hear of was in 517. though we have no record. but warfare. who dwelt beyond the Danube in the countries which are now called Siebenbtirgen and Moldavia. . The first invasion of which we have record 1 took place in 493. invasion For. which demanded the united action of large bodies under one supreme general. . and devastated Thrace. Bk. they had met with no repulse was easy and inviting. nothing except hostilities among the with . i. the Isaurian An account of this three years' war will be it given in the next chapter. was a bad drill for the war in Mesopotamia. between the years 502 and 512. 1 In the Chronicle of Marcel linus they are called Getae. and would be suitable settlers in a land constantly exposed to the raids of the barbarians. the master of soldiers. and returned gorged with plunder. in the first place. accustomed to selfhelp. pt.

vi ANASTASIUS I 295 barbarians themselves could have hindered them. the provinces had been exempted from the devastations seems probable that in 510 or 511 a really dangerous invasion took place. the latter of whom were favoured by Anastasius. in Asia some useful successes were gained in 498 against the Bedouin or Scenite Arabs. a Theoph.. from which the Bomans had been expelled Jotaba was the centre of an important in the reign of Leo. 5990 A. p. . 3 Anastasius' reign was signalised by many riots and disturb- ances in Constantinople. stretched from the Sea of Marmora at Selymbria to the Black Sea." an expression On the other which might be applied to all fortifications. of immediate cause of the erection of the wall. chap. 2 of still greater consequence was the recovery of the island of Jotaba. as they identified themselves with the unorthodox monophysitic party. 28. 2 Eugenius defeated one party at Bithapsus. its distance from the city was 280 stadia. Romanns routed Agarus at Gamalus. iii. during the ten preceding years. and that this was the This wall. The religious disputes and the schism with Borne were noticed in a previous chapter here . and its effect of the heathen. and custom-house duties were collected by imperial Its possession was thus extremely important for the officers. which traces are still visible. I shall only call attention to the strained relations. Empire. between the 1 Emperor and the Patriarch Euphemius. op. and it is hardly conceivable that he would have built it then if. and it is meaningless cation. But a success They were thoroughly defeated in two battles. Evagrius. Its length was 420 stadia. It rather was to insulate Constantinople. cit.m. Cf. Bed Sea trade all the ships with cargoes from India put in there. rhetoric to call it a " monument of cowardice. . who had begun to invade Syria and Palestine. Rose. 1 Thus the arms of Anastasius were so unsuccessful in Europe that at last no serious attempt was made to protect Thrace he confined himself to saving the capital by a massive fortifiThis wall was really efficacious. already referred to. hand. These often took the form of conflicts between the Blues and Greens. In the second place. 3S. Anastasius built the Long Wall for protection against their hostilities in 512.

of the Patriarch's communication. but the incident of Euphemius. which his enemies might call shabby. and the cus- . We cannot determine to what extent Euphemius if easy conditions with the rebels. which seemed." Thus his staid and frugal court. plice of the rebels. as a traitor and accomwas banished. His conscientious scruples did not permit him to indulge the corrupt populace in the dissolute and barbarous amusements which they were accustomed. and his heretical opinions in theotorn was that grave officials (ol ev Toh reXeac) should duck one another in sea water. or fled. soon afterwards from Byzantium. The May feast of Bruta 1 was on two occasions the scene of scandalous riots. iv. looked or chose to look He upon him. He forbade the practice of contests with wild beasts. thereby (says a contemporary) " depriving the city of the most beautiful dances. we do not hear . one of the Isaurian leaders. but Anastasius. resulting in the sacrifice of life. when Johannes made him aware upon him. acted in regard to the Isaurian revolt related. H. a relic of heathen Eome which was an anachronism in the christian world. entertained a traitorous design . G. which represented the orthodox faith. Majumas. profited might incline us to suspect their loyalty The measures adopted by Anastasius for the reform of abuses created much discontent among those who to by them . forbade its celebration for the future. as we should 1 say. and the Emperor . There was a strong party of opposition whose hostile machinations must have often made the Emperor feel insecure. feast of It Roman festival.296 It HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE book hi happened that in 495 Anastasius informed the Patriarch that he was sick of the Isaurian war. 214 c (F. just during those years.) John of Antioch. We cannot be surprised at its survival so long when we remember that gladiatorial shows lasted for fifty years after Eome had become christian and we must also recollect that the christian doctrine that animals have no souls hindered any strong sentiment on the subject. and would willingly make he could thereby conclude it. He also refused to allow the celebration of nocturnal feasts. How this party. a son-in-law of Athenodorus. It was also called was a fr. his strict censorship of morals. puritanical. he put down informers (delatores) with a firm hand. which were the occasions of licentious orgies. Euphemius was treacherous enough to repeat these words to Johannes.

. consisting partly of the foedeand partly of rustics. 2 A native of Zaldaba. to prevail. Hypatius' trusted confidant. his command to attempt to dethrone the Emperor. ay cos laxvpbs. other hand. By strata- gem he compassed the death of the chief officers of his staff. He appeared before the people without a crown. inserted 0.) and offered to resign the sovereignty in favour of another. and then capturing Carinus. exposed Anastasius to constant odium.71a rptas. which was successful. The rebel. then advanced on rati the capital with 50.CHAP. on the 77/xas. he corrupted the governor of Lower Moesia. who were stationed to defend Thrace and Scythia. who Huns and was the master the first of soldiers in Thrace. or " tyrant. which culminated sanctioned the adoption of a monophysitic 1 To addition to the hymn called Trisagios ("thrice holy"). The commissariat In 514 such an attempt was made. some of whom were perhaps Slaves was not merely as spokesand as protesting against he also the administration of Hypatius. and it was against him in instance that Vitalian directed his attack. He was a man small in stature. 1 6 aravpcodeis dl r)/j. which had been supplied by the State to the corps of foreign foederati. VI ANASTASIUS when he / 297 logy. and the multitude cried to him But discontent continued and the opposition was so strong that it seemed a good opportunity for an ambitious man who had soldiers at that he should resume the diadem. have escaped to Constantinople.000 soldiers. The respect which his uniform conscientiousness had inspired in all predominated for the moment. iXerjcrov . (511 a. and the after adavaros in the following was inserted words : 0710s 6 Beds. in Lower Moesia." as he was called. The brunt of the unpopularity of the government with the soldiers was borne by Hypatius. had been withdrawn. he granted him his life on the conditions that he should co-operate in the capture of Hypatius seems to Odessus and recognise himself as general. quell the sedition Anastasius adopted a theatrical artifice. and could count on their co-operation. that Vitalian posed settled in Moesia and Scythia. but he had associated constantly with Bulgarians. the Emperor's nephew. with a stammer. 0710s dOavaros The orthodox. Vitalian. and the discontent which ensued afforded a new pretext against the existing government. the son of a fostered afflicted man 2 who had been himself count of the foederati.d. It man of the grievances of the army.

Anastasius' nephew. does not seem to have grasped this combination.298 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE whom book hi professed to be the champion of orthodoxy. for . H. Maurice's brother. fr. He creed. his successful career.) to Anastasius. commanded bronze crosses to be set up over the gates of the walls. he dismissed them. He also reduced by one-quarter the tax on animals for the inhabitants of Bithynia and Asia. stasius followed up whose confidence Anastasius won. and pointed out that the present object of himself and his party was (1) to rectify the injustices committed by the magister militum per Thracias (Hypatius). Sophia). " The Emperor. in this which he does not give in detail. having charged city them and proved to them that they were not disdained or passed over. When they had declared with oaths their future loyalty to him. without Vitalian. he was distinguished by honour and dignities. devolved upon him in virtue of his office moreover. He employed the officers and ministers as a garrison for the city. inclined periences (that is. Marcellinus. on the Emperor's he could not be persuaded to enter the and an interview was held in which the Emperor. camp came. Having returned to Vitalian. they departed with him and the army. 214 e (F. and (2) to obtain the recognition and sanction of the orthodox theological ." 2 Next day the chief officers of Vitalian's invitation. as "pretences and perjuries. setting forth in writing the real cause of the rebellion. 2 John of Antioch. " Thus the first essay of Vitalian was frustrated by the dehis promises sertion of his officers. dwelled on many acts passed by the Emperor. ill-disposed G. But when Vitalian attacked the suburbs and marched round the Such missions Master of Soldiers. Patricius. Rose. The parallel is increased by the analogy between the unpopularity of the General Hypatius. and we may confidently assume that he had established intimate relations with the He took care to insist on this pretext 1 disaffected party in the city. who perhaps passes too . and had considerably helped Vitalian himself in walls. availing himself and in reply Vitalian. v. of the liberty permitted to a benefactor took Vitalian sharply to task." 1 So the revolution which overthrew Maurice in 602 rested on a combination of a general (Phocas) without and an opposition party within Byzantium. and that of the General Peter. . indignant at the treatment of certain bishops Anastasins had banished. and vexed by the unexpectedness of these occurrences as well as by the fact that the adversaries who were advancing made a similar pretence of blaming his religion (as the rebels had done on the former occasion). and undertook that the church of Old Eome would be allowed to arrange the religious questions at stake. won them by presents and by promises that they would receive their dues. to be timorous on account of his recent ex- the revolt of 511). Anaby appointing Cyrillus to the lightly over the religious aspect of the revolt. vol. depositing the bill to that effect on the altar of the First " Church (St. as was to be expected. the . was sent to him. describes his diplomacy matter.

which a superstitious historian attributed to The Bomans. lost about 60. gained a signal victory. have no hint that his former adherents. assisted by a sudden darkness. Vitalian preserved him alive as a valuable hostage. recruited probably as before from rustics of the Haemus provinces. accompanied by Theodoras. who were accusloii£ tomed thus to elude the pursuit of their enemies. one end of which was held in their mouth while the other was just above the surface. vi ANASTASIUS I 299 post of magister militum instead of bis nephew. for he was unable to practise the cunning trick of the Slaves. clear that the rebel This act made it was irreconcilable. fell back again from their allegiance.000 was collected. Bulgarians. where he knew that he would find Yitalian actively engaged in new schemes. which he ruled an emperor. Hypatius then fortified himself be^rda^ rampart of In this waggons at Acris. which was soon fol- Julian. a Hun. and. but his head betrayed him. was appointed to succeed Cyrillus. as Bajazet was carried about by Timour. under water through a This victory enabled him to pay his barbarian allies richly. taken alive by the rebels. forces gained We an inconsiderable victory. himself ran into the sea. near Qdyoou e: entrenchment the barbarians attacked him. Cyrillus proceeded to Lower Moesia. driven over magic arts. and perhaps Slaves. and carried about in a cage. a magister memoriae. but was afterwards ran- somed.chap. and placed him in possession of all the cities and as fortresses in Moesia and Scythia. was an enemy of the republic r% and while Alathar. the officers whom Anastasius' adroitness had won over. who was so unpopular with the army. and we may The Emperor's assume that they joined the imperial army. was passed in old Eoman noteworthy {aXKoTpiov — style — and a decree of the senate is the use of this formality that Vitalian iroXireias). breathing hollow reed. who was large A army of 80. was lowed by serious reverses. The . Hypatius precipices and into ravines. and as the general was enjoying the society of his concubines a Hunnish assassin slew him.000 men." new army consisted of Huns. if perchance he might conceal himself in the waves. Vitalian was even more on the alert than he thought. on the Black Sea. Vitalian's " steward of the sacred treasures. the supreme command of the army was assigned to the unpopular Hypatius. or their soldiers.

and was completely defeated off Scutari by Marinus the Lycian. and that many other prominent rebels were punished. an Archimedes of that day. His mild characand his beneficial reforms partially blotted out. The following year (515) was troubled not only by the ravages 15. of gold.— 300 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE whom Anastasius sent with 10. This disturbance. some say with the help of chemicals prepared by a man of science named Proclus. and that Hypatius should be liberated. book hi ambassadors of gold to ransom nephew were captured in an ambush at Sozopolis. but also by a fresh demonstration of hostility on the part of Vitalian. took place in Constantinople because the Emperor forbade the his . and we hear that a Hunnish leader named Tarrach was captured and burned at Chalcedon. This naval vic- He tory decided the war. Vitalian withdrew. In the meantime a tumult. his reign was prosperous. . He marched on Constantinople. who entered Asia Minor through Armenia. and laid waste Cappadocia and the provinces of Pontus. and he appeared in a more favourable light as he was once directly contrasted with his unpopular Isaurian predecessor.000 of a horde of Sabir Huns. ry iravruv fiaaChewv THULepioT&Tcp. may have celebration circus perhaps contributed to induce Anastasius to make a compromise with Vitalian. is 1 This trait confirmed by Lydus. along with the captivity of his nephew and the threatened siege. The conditions were that Vitalian should be made magister militum per Thracias. of a festival on account of disorders in the which had occurred on the same day among others the prefect of the watch was slain. that he should receive lbs. and took up his quarters at Sycae. the deadly taint of heterostill doxy. that the proclamation of the orthodox faith should be renewed. penetrating as far as Lycaonia. probably to the neighbourhood of the Danube. then embarked in a fleet which he had prepared. whence they returned gorged with booty and laden with captives. be called ter Although Anastasius did not accomplish anything that can brilliant. attended with loss of life. is Mildness a trait on which his panegyrist Priscian more than 1 insists.000 lbs. in the eyes of contemporaries and of historians. comparing him to Nerva et mitem Nervam lenissima pectora vincunt.

A him as a dens ex machina and lightening the burdens of the member of the civil service. See Pliny. the construction of a canal connecting Lake Sophon with the Gulf of Astacus. but the soldiers are are preserved in an inscription at Ptolemais in the Pentapolis. He was and. 2 The act which earned for him most glory and popularity was the abolition of the Chrysargyron. i. 50. so that it could not be renewed. Elegiac verses were posted ujj in the hippodrome by his foes. Wetzstein. Ep." army. it was said. So the Emperor Gratian had caused the lists of arrears of taxes to be burnt in every town throughout the provinces which he ruled over. 1863. Acad. iii. i. 39. 212-247). It had been instituted by Constantine. 1879 . to which the humblest labourer and the poorest prostitute were liable. in order to make a private profit facts . and which was reByzantine Emperor stored by the Alexius I. this is not mentioned by any writer. 5 His donations to perhaps another indication of his interest in the indefatigable in restoring " prostrate cities. 4 Another abuse which the Emperor remedied was the unfairness of officers in paying rations to their soldiers. which had involved by the money that policy of Zeno. addressing him as " bane of the world " (koct/jlo$6 ope). vi ANASTASIUS 1 I 301 and another eulogist setting right the wrongs Empire. and in his reign Choricius of Gaza wrote an essay vwep tQp iu Aiovvaov top fiiov einovil. 2 3 Johannes Lydus. Anastasius favoured the theatre. 627.6vT<j:v {Revue de Philol.chap. 3 a tax on all receipts. and Anastasius abolished it in 498. pp. who began his career represents policy. Abhandlungen cler Berl. 43 sqq. and even favourable writers say that Anastasius was no exception." (Finlay. he executed an important public work which deserves mention. 6 " work which Pliny had proposed to Trajan. asserts that Anastasius' careful financial and his ally strictness in supervising personally the details of the first become financiwas expended on Leo's unsuccessful armament against the Vandals. c. His love of money. iii. 1877. The chief fault that the Church had to find with this tax was that it recognised vices forbidden by nature and the laws. Anastasius burned all the docu- raents relating to the collection of this tax. ib. induced him to listen 1 Procopius of Gaza. 182). 5 Zachariii von Lingenthal. 4 Evagrius. Anastasius' abolition of the tax is said (Cedrenus. besides the Great Wall. 6 But the men of Dyrrhachium had the reputation of being avaricious. really saved the State. Bonn) to have been due to a play on the subject composed A by an actor of Gaza . x. and had been kept " in a depressed condition by the shortsighted and " miserable budget. in this reign. named Timotheus.

a who wormed himself into his confidence by promising to raise large sums. says of the measure (iii. policy. tlov TroXeiou 3 » Lydus says the general result was to impoverish the provinces. that our authority. It is very probable. There seem to have been a and Marinus faction and an anti-Marinus faction in official circles. so that few steps could be taken in the provinces " without a divine command. 302 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE Syrian scriniarius. He was above giving offices by favour. 3 It must be noted that this change involved an increase of centralisation. because the appointments were given by auction to those who promised most. but it is only fair assume that Anastasius. whether they represented a city. which on the old system was often cheated through the collusion of the provincial magnates with the governors of the provinces and the tax-collectors The enemies of Marinus said that the vindices (canonicarii). by which the curiae or municipal corporation collected the moneys due to the State. whose mildness was so remarkable." Anastasius is said to have never sent petitioners empty away. however.. bureaux of the praetorian This meant a diminution of his own Agricolas migenms dia saeya re _ i axas curia perversis nam cessat moribus omnis 10 ^J^es ^ injustis solito contemnere . a fort. book hi to the counsels of Marinus. and his panegyrist Priscian represents the measure as healing a flagrant abuse. he refused to make an exception to his principle that only men of forensic training (Xoyi/coi) were entitled His saving policy necessarily involved a great reducto it. the to this from Lydus' expresMapLVLuvTes. took care to arrange a mode of checking this by increasing the influence of the defensores. rd re avdrj 49). 42) odeu Kara : Marinus himself and Anastasius c. who. were apsystem was introduced. or a harbour. were enriched by Marinus' policy. sion ol Evagrius. who is hostilely inclined to Anastasius. pointed to collect the revenue. had strong Syrian. A new farming Officers. ttoXv ol re <popoi dteppvyjaav dieireaev. as well as I 1 infer fees. treated the cities like foes. which seems to have been an object of Anastasius' policy. named vindices. as heterodox. Johannes prejudices against the successful Lydus. (iii. and thus decrease the business done in the prefect. 1 The great innovation of Marinus was the abolition of the old curial system. and when his wife Ariadne requested him to appoint Anthemius to the praetorian prefecture. 2 The nature of misrepresents his new system evidently involved this evil. Henceforward even minute matters were referred to the Emperor. he says.

but that at his death 320. accustomed to the pageants and pleasures of Byzantine festivals. old. vi ANASTASIUS I 303 tion of the court expenditure. and the result of his fiscal economy was that he not only righted the financial depression of the Empire. and he was probably on that account unpopular with the frivolous nobles and the court ladies. of gold were found in the treasury.chap. Anastasius died in July 518. more than eighty years . But the staid Anastasius did not care for pomp.000 lbs.

but there were no protracted or considerable hostilities. In 363 a treaty was concluded. and this cession was followed by an emigration of the Greeks from those lands. the perpetual source of annoyance. in the course of which two Roman Emperors. and the towns of Nisibis and Singara to Sapor. who was as much an object of veneration to Greek historians as he was an object of detestation to the chroniclers of his own kingdom. . including Arzanene and Corduene. When our period begins. and a serious war seemed ever on the point of breaking out.) Sassanid dynasty rose on the ruins of the Parthian Arsacids in the reign of Alexander Severus (226 and fourth centuries.d. the eastern frontier During the third was the scene of fatal wars. was in a state of ferment. Varahran was on the throne. . During the fifth century the relations of the Empire with Persia varied. perished. although Armenia. in the reign of Arcadius. by which Jovian ceded five provinces beyond the Euphrates. because Sapor and the Magi afflicted the Christians with persecutions. but was succeeded in 399 by Isdigerd. Valerian and Julian. This was in a great measure due to the circumstance that the Persian monarchs were fully occupied with dangerous and savage enemies on the north-east frontier of their kingdom while the the Ephthalite Huns Roman Emperors had enough to do in weathering the storms that were convulsing Europe.CHAPTER THE PERSIAN VII WAR sovereignty of the The restored Persian empire under the a. He did not take advantage of the childhood of Theodosius II to vex the Empire and I do not see that there — .

2 whose abode was beyond the Oxus. that Arcadius in his testament Isdigerd the guardian of his son. and recognise was only a way of paying a compliment to a royal The guardianship was merely nominal. and a Goth. however. when lie started for the Persian war. from the physiographical description given by Procopius (Bell. of the Eoman two The consequence was a war. in which the latter was but the tale should perhaps be relegated to the victorious . and the side Eomans on attacks their defended It is Theodosiopolis against the the Persians. and Aris cadius' act of courtesy history. NephThey invaded 1 Heraclius. the bishop of Amida. who breathed it is in the atmosphere of the time. and their petition was granted. Areobindus. with surprise therefore arbitrary in it modern II. and some outrages were committed on merchants. to the influence of the Varahran was sufficiently amenable Magi to persecute the christian residents in Persia. was the humanity of Acacius. I X . which lasted for years (420-421). 1 not without a parallel in later it Eoman men. The weightiest objection against the statement of Procopius is the scepticism of Agathias (iv. who ransomed 7000 Persian captives at his own and the Church's costs. Ardazanes. to An interesting incident of this war. to have heen Huns. vii is sufficient THE PERSIAN WAR 305 reason to follow modern writers in rejecting the statement of Procopius. Varahran appointed a Parthian governor in Armenia in 422. placed his son under the guardianship of the chagan of the Avars. 3). Seventh VOL. see Rawlinson. 26). They do not seem i. thf lite known in Eoman history as the Ephthalite or 2 Huns.chap. A peace. provided made There is nothing incredible that it brother. we regard it in the proper light. in this. Oriental Monarchy. region of myth. dred years. Isdigerd's successor. writers to follow Agathias in pronouncing improbable. narrated that the war was decided by a sort of medieval single combat between a Persian. but this governor's personal character made him so unpopular that the Armenian nobles begged in 428 for a Persian satrap. really Pers. A cruel system of proselytising was carried on in Persarmenia. At this time began the struggles of Persia with the Haithal nation. 295. and The fact that Procopius mentions pression of amazement shows that it did not with no ex- strike all . p. was concluded for one hunwhich deserves be recorded. the Persians held Nisibis against the siege Eoman of general Ardaburius (father of Aspar).

on which historians are silent. by whose cunning stratagem of covered ditches he was defeated and slain in 483. followed him. 306 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE book hi Varahran defeated them. rival Perozes succeeded Isdigerd II (453). led to an almost Isdigerd was soon engaged in immediate conclusion of peace. themselves deduction that naturally followed. but circumstances. which agitated Armenia. 27 . cit. . Balas (Valakhesh). 1 society is The first principle of this teacher was that all men are naturally equal. 342 sqq. of property 1 Community Our See Rawlinson.. made energetic endeavours to convert Armenia to the religion Armenians were so tenacious of their The noble Christianity that his efforts were expended in vain. 5. and in making war on the khan of the Ephthalites. op." who straightway declared war against the Empire. i. as merely tending to overthrow an unjustifiable institution. consenting to pay them a tribute for two years. and Procop. Under Varahran Persia He was succeeded (440) by Isdigerd " the clement. which the Persian lords and the blameless. a war with the Persia. perhaps his brother. but the in supporting the national faith. It followed that the present state of contrary to nature and unjustifiable. P. The reign of his successor Kobad (Cabades). which lasted for nine years. be the temporary friends of a Persian aspirant. He pacified Armenia by granting unreserved freedom of religion. and ordaining that in future it should be governed directly by a king and not by a deputy. B. having overthrown his Hormisdas with the assistance of the Ephthalites. He made a treaty with the Huns. He Ephthalites. and thence that the acts which society considers to be crimes are. and enjoyed a shorter but more peaceable reign. and wives was another The remarkable thing is that King Kobad himself embraced and actively helped to promulgate these doctrines. Soon afterward internal conspiracies forced him to make yet further concessions Vahan the Mamigonian was appointed governor of Armenia. but might His reign was occupied in quelling serious revolts. authorities are Mirkhond and Tabari Agathias. but flourished. family of the Mamigonians was noted as singularly staunch of Zoroaster. . and Christianity was fully reinstated. the son of Perozes. iv. who were the inveterate enemies of the Persian kingdom. Balas died in 487. is remarkable for the rise of the communistic reformer Mazdak.

and Amida. as a man he was a follower of Mazdak. and Zoroastrianism during his restored reign he adopted a compromise as a king he was a fire-worshipper. Kobad found means to escape. Theowas betrayed. hostile Kobad replied demonstration in Armenia. tit.m. and with the help of the Huns In his attitude to Mazdakism was reinstated on the throne. The Emperor. . . the nobles in the castle of Lethe. Theodosiopolis.) Martyropolis. and proclaimed immured him Zamasp king (498-501). orthodox Zoroastrians viewed with utter repugnance and conImpatient of such a recreant monarch. but I follow J. 33. Persia to provide for the defence of the Caucasian pass of Der- bend. the strong places of the great marchland. Rawlinson follows this account. 1 Eor their assistance in restoring him to his throne the Persian king owed the Ephthalites a large sum of money which he had promised them. he applied to Anastasius. but forcibly In the space of two or three years released by his disciples. It was at this point that hostilities were renewed between In 442 it had been agreed that the Persia and New Eome. but he had refused. close to the Caspian Sea. such a mercantile transaction appear contemptible and intolerable. while Mazdak was imprisoned. attributes the war to a demand for the costs of maintaining the castle of Biraparach. to fulfil the engagement. after a duration of exactly eighty (502 a. and so Kose. Eoman government was to contribute a certain sum to enable . p. and Amida. the Theoop. and his refusal took the form of a demand for a written acknowledg- ment or cautio. finding difficulty in raising it. vii THE PERSIAN WAR 307 tempt. Martyropolis surrendered. cf.chap. generally stated Kobad pressed Anastasius for this payment but it is more probable that the cause of the outbreak of the war was somewhat different. Demands had been that twice made of the Emperor Leo It is . as he knew well that to Kobad. was surprised during a festival early in the year dosiopolis 503. unfamiliar with the usages of Eoman law. after a long and laborious winter siege. fell into the hands of the Sassanid monarch one after another. against trans-Caucasian tribes. Lydus Theodoras Lector phanes. and thus the " would by a hundred years' " peace was broken. however. 1 a Persian soldier having chanced to (ii. and. discover 52). had no intention of lending it to him. 5996 a.d.

standard of duty and patriotism required return to Constantinople. (1838). * -o. and Amicla was left with a garrison of 1000 men. 2 The canrpaign of 503 opened with a success for the combined divisions of Areobindus and Eomanus in the neighbourhood of Nisibis but the enemy soon mustered a stronger army and forced Areobindus from the position which he had occupied at Constantina in Arzanene. Hypatius. The jealousy of Hypatius induced him to keep back the assistance which the most moderate the grave mistake of dividing the First generals. ^ylarch . and soon afterwards 1 fell unexpectedly upon the troops of Hypatius Collect. him to send to Areo- bindus. had almost decided to In the meantime. t>x. was found in Amida. curious in the form of a powder. still influenced by the traditions of the Isaurian warfare. and the latter. which had been waged some years before. among these . a nephew of Anastasius. x. 37). .. in wine. left unsupported. Other commanders of less importance but more ability or energy were Justin. The chapters relating to Amida were published. he committed garrison mine. who afterwards became Emperor Patriciolus. production was lost o (p. a post which his military inexperience did not deserve. edited by Land. but. I have consulted. vol. while the Eoman generals were quarrelling. with a Latin translation. and they used to mock the Persians from the walls. perhaps by the persuasions of a priest. but the secret of its TEustatliius special work of Epiphaiiia wrote a on this siege of Amida Mai's Script. -.„1 „ w „t. iii. which A (Evagr. Thus in the course of a year the three most important frontier fastnesses of the Eomans had been lost Amida in Mesopotamia.. Anastasius arrayed an army of 15. the great-grandson of Aspar (on the mother's side) and husband of the daughter of the Emperor Olybrius he was a man who seems to have loved dancing and flute-playing better than the serious things of life. . but was stayed.000 men to take the field. Martyropolis and Theodosiopolis on the borders' of Armenia. the Persians occupied Msibis. the father of Yitalian Eomanus. A massacre commenced. also received a general's commission. 370). •„ .. and it is described in the Syriac ecclesiastical history of Zacharias of Mitylene.— 308 issue HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE of a book hi that the The besiegers had been so long baffled and inhabitants ultimately yielded to the negligence of security. . and he exhibited slowness and slackness in his conduct of the war.+ of Euphrates*. 1 command among several must be named Areobindus. Vet.

had they been led by one able general. The objects of its foundation were (1) to be exercitui perfugium et 1 statio. defeated drew. corn magazines. xi. At this juncture an event happened which changed the tide which the Eomans. Anastasiopolis. The Eoman siege. and cisterns. and Amida was blockaded. vii THE PERSIAN WAR 309 and Patricius (a Phrygian commander) and destroyed a large number of their men. cap. and a valiant Illyrian master of offices. ments were followed by successes which the other generals gained elsewhere. but on very favourable terms.chap. 6000 a. . who at the same time strengthened 'the city of Theodosiopolis on the Armenian borders. He named it after and it was henceforward one of the centres of frontier warfare. on the whole had lost. the garrison finally consented to surrender. Some years later. and while he treated he devastated.m. Kobad protested against the work. (2) to be an armorum officina. named Celer. like the Persian siege two years before. This advantage was followed by the conclusion of a peace for seven years. however. him near Edessa. The of fortune. provided richly with churches. however. Persia. but. and numerous . by this three years' war. while the Persians on the whole had gained. and then he withThe campaigns of 504 were advantageous to the Hypatius had been recalled. might have drawn far greater profit. was appointed as a new He invaded and devastated Arzanene. Theoph. he was ready to yield to the diplomacy and accept the bribes of Anastasius. and boasting two public baths. probably in of Daras in 507. and his achievegeneral. by which of the Amida was left in possession Eomans. forces were demanded in the north-east of the kingdom Kobad therefore desired to But he thought he could have peace and war Areo- simultaneously. hampered as he was by hostile neighbours in the northeast. See Zacharias of Mitylene. bindus. who. but from Huns invaded make peace. lasted throughout the winter (504-505). himself. Msibis was wellnigh recovered. be rcgionis Arabicae praesidium adversus Persas latrones atqae Ismael(3) to itas. and the Empire. 1 Anastasius converted forti- the fied little village Mesopotamia into a splendid town. de urbe Dara condita.

just supposed to be Longinus. no longer produced. so plain in the time of Longinus. His friend attributed it to the Empire of Eome. favourable atmosphere for the rapid decay that had set The author of the treatise irepl v\povs. The critic himself. are literary works supreme excellence." CHAPTEE VIII GKEEK LITERATURE OF THE FIFTH CENTURY An able critic of the first or second century A. the decline of Greek letters of . 1 describes a dis- cussion which he had with a literary friend as to the causes of why. to the growing love of money. would reconcile the disputants by observing of the truth. works in the grand style. could with little justice be called an effect of the Eoman Empire. and to attribute the decadence of letters and the lack of inspiration to the decline of human character. while the decadence. . the growing feeling of indifference . was inclined to defend the " peace of the world against this impeachment. just the chill of imperial Eome —was as the spirit a most in. they asked. A modern critic. and that each gave one aspect Now. and. were largely conditioned by political freedom. which kept the spirits of men in bondage he considered that grandeur of thought. no better could the still lowlier condition which literature reached in the fourth and fifth centuries be called an effect of Christianity. ciprocal influences of character on environment accustomed to take account of the reand of environ- ment on character.D. that the discrepant opinions were only superficially discordant. and consequently grandeur of style. {paOvfjbla). on the other hand. of the Eoman sway 1 — But at the same time. the growing love of luxury. above all.

It should be borne in of Eepresentations taken from pagan mythology were constantly used in allegorical mind had that while zeal for the house God exhibited itself prominently as zeal against the houses still of the gods. chap. only went attention to the effects of rhetorical style. could warn his clergy against superfluous concern for grammar. Greek gods were imitated in the christian churches. Chrysostom. as a christian the priest. those divinities a corner in men's hearts. viii GREEK LITERATURE OF FIFTH CENTURY 311 on the wells of inspiration. Theodosius. Augustine. We see Jerome shrinking in fear from his love . sixth century that culture so far as to marvel that men care to peruse the rules of grammar Both Augustine and and not to obey the divine precepts. permitted his victories to be represented as the labours of Hercules. and then they were neglected. century the Christians themselves felt the glamour of antique perfection. once paganism the charm of paganism lost all power. which had already travelled so far from continued to support in nooks and by. Licentius even spoke of Christ our Apollo.. Jerome were rhetoricians and stylists. she did not hesitate to plume her arrow with the eagle's feather. she did not disdain to learn the tricks and ornaments of pagan rhetoric. sense on christian tombs." Just in the same way pagan art influenced christian art. was a most favourable atmosphere for the stifling of humane literature. the still lingered. For. and inspiration had departed with them. who abolished the Olympic games. who permitted the destruction of temples. could not forget what he had learned in his youth from Libanius Salvian's treatise On Government of God exhibits careful It was not till the had declined so much that Gregory. had works of the ancients lost also their dangerBut in the fifth ous qualities. Although Christianity looked upon pagan literature as full of demonic snares. ways a flickering artificial existence but the gods of Greece had gone into exile. and as christian theology became current. that its little breathing space was left for the faint life of humane literature It former heights. the bishop of Eome. just as she looked upon the heathen gods as demons. Prudentius wrote christian as " hymns in Horatian metres. in his Confessions. and christian ideas penetrated the as it exercised a freezing influence so also the spirit of early Christianity minds of men. notwithstanding all christian zeal against habitations of the The it.

" Infelix simulacrum atque ipsius umbra Creusae " no Christian of his day could approach that. it is and theological value. possessing a double potency. but the work itself possesses very little. degree. and Augustine knew it. The idea itself — a work of great religious the idea of the city of and not of the world has. — — when in the West indifference to letters prevailed. less saintly. and offered most resistance to the new faith. and cite St. In western Europe. We go to Chrysostom or Cyril for history or doctrine. The children of light felt that they could not approach the children of this world in the finite perfections of genius. book in of Cicero. among the Latin . deserve this criticism in a higher example Salvian's book On the Government of God. we might say. into It may be wondered why no works of great literary value were produced in the fourth and fifth centuries under the inspiration of the great christian idea which was changing the face of the world. . remarkin the world God — able in many for respects. even Orosius confessed of his great contemporary Claudian that though he was a " most pervicacious pagan " he was an excellent poet. This difference of feeling may be considered as in some degree the beginning of that difference of culture which distinguished the East from the West in later centuries. of Virgil. But that work is not a work of great literary value .312 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE we see Augustine shrinking in fear classics were. literary value. to attract Augustine calls Homer dulcissime vanus . while in the fell East learning and the study of ancient writers never disuse. among Greek -speaking Eomans. and and to repel. potentially at least. and at the same time it is among Latin divines that we find the strongest abhorrence of pagan literature. paganism held out longest. in eastern Europe. like from Ms love The for many of the early saints. and the feeling in regard to pagan literature was more moderate and indulgent. beautiful horrors. Perhaps some one will contest the statement. where Christianity had spread rapidly. and more rational. but no one would go to either for general ideas. Other christian works of the time. The incomparably less important work of Sir Thomas More on an imaginary state has more worth in this respect than the City of God. Augustine's City of God.speaking Eomans. On the other hand. paganism clung less obstinately to life.

Literary instinct implies a certain elasticity and freedom of mind. seemed undesirable. because it implies the faculty of selection it is not easily compatible with formalism or with dogma. although Stoicism was so much less effective than Christianity. elasticity and thus the thoughts of the time lost their Men's and their freedom in the bonds of dogma. than councils. and there was no literary instinct. just as they it. no ecumenical And that no popes. vin GREEK LITERATURE OF FIFTH CENTURY fact is that there 313 ideas The was a very small stock of new It may current at the time." chap. The christian divines had not this sort of elasticity. of a for literary handling. seem perverse to say that there was a small stock of new ideas in the face of the fact that the general view of the world But the theories current were homogeneous kind. they were imbued with that theological tinge which renders thought unfruitful and unfits it was so thoroughly transformed. but they wandered on a That is partly the reason why the writings beaten highroad. To note the want of literary instinct is merely to note the other side of the same fact — the subjective side of it. and they would not have cared to have . The new and spirit tended to stereotype itself in technical theology. expressed with effect. who quotes with admiration the opening verses of Genesis as an example of the sublime. 1 In this Jerome may be contrasted with the old pagan Longinus. the Stoics no trammels were imposed from without the Stoics had no church. minds wandered through eternity. just as originality would have . also to express itself in a par- ticular phraseology. On the speculations of . being " triliuguis. to those who con- The want of literary taste among christian divines may be illustrated by the case of Jerome. it have had not originality. of the stoic philosophers have much more literary flavour than the writings of christian theologians. or at least unnecessary. doctors of the Church in subsequent ages. and would not have cared to That freedom of mind on which a doctrine or creed sits lightly would have seemed licence to those who delighted in thraldom to a formulated system. in spite of the 1 prepossession for them that his beliefs would naturally produce. Jerome's knowledge of Hebrew is said He boasted of to have been defective. sidered that all things needful had been revealed. who did not care for and could not feel any charm in the style of the old Hebrew scriptures. too is partly the reason why the New Testament writers were far more fertile in original ideas. .

he would have been an unexcepif he had been brought up in the atmosphere of Athens he would have been a thorough-going pagan and refused to bow the knee to Baal but brought up . a Greek writing is a unique literary quality in his curious style. not philosopher. tionably orthodox Christian 1 is The standard work on Synesius the monograph of R. It is characteristic enough of the there man and pagans' of of the cannot be denied that were some literary ability in the fourth century. is the type of the transition from the pagan to the christian gentleman. he appears for a moment on the . by the late Mr. But Julian and Libanius and Themistius had no successors. and The Banquet of the Emperors. If he had been brought up in the atmosphere of Constantinople he would not have been a Platonist. are works that one reads without feeling an inclination to skip a line. as though the perfume of the fourth century had passed into his pages ? And of Greek yet do we not feel that there had considerable literary talent. The. 1 He was the pupil and friend of the unfortunate Hypatia he was superficially imbued with philosophy. which deserves attention as an attempt to express the most writers Julian scathing satire with ironical urbanity. in which English translations of some of Synesius' verses will be found. "Synesius von Cyrene." There is an elaborate article "Synesius" in the Dictionary of Christian Biography (ed. the bishop of Cyrene. He allows his to penetrate his writings in a his writings therefore have a own cultured personality way that no divine could do. Historians of literature deal very hardly with in Latin . of respectability. stage of public affairs he was fond of literary composition he used to indulge in the pleasures of the chase in the . All these details remind us of Xenophon. Wace). a who had the same stamp a philosophy. Ammianus Marcellinus. . dividing his worship between Plato and Christ. .314 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE book hi The same want of taste is displayed in his frigid and degrading comparison of the love of Christ to the love of woman. . Misopogon. vicinity of Cyrene. and human interest. The only essayist of the fifth century who deserves to be mentioned was Synesius. Halcomb. a comparison which time. so Synesius. Volkmann. man fond of And we might add that as Xenophon represents the type of transition from the Athenian of the fourth century to the cosmopolitan of the age of Alexander and his successors.

including the religions. poetical remains of ceived in the same style as the famous Proclus are a few hymns. a platonic bishop." .chap. the eclecticism of Alexander Severus was merely that of a serious dilettante. which possess considerable When he stayed at Constantinople he mixed in a interest. political essays and letters. his pliable nature adapted itself to both influences and he became as His works consist of rhetorical compositions. " is the hierophant of the whole world. Plato did not in this too he was more platonic than they. stronger was not a that Synesius regretted writer of the fifth Greek pagan important Far the most system I have whose of Proclus. circle of literary mediocrities.d. — consent to confine himself to any one set of religious ideas " a philosopher. vin GREEK LITERATURE OF FIFTH CENTURY 315 he was in the atmosphere of Alexandria. one of the few remarks made in the fifth cenremembered in the words in which it originally expressed. and he is himself a typical member of such a society. that are therein . which was at this time divided between pagan philosophy and Christianity.. It is curious to see the aristocratic fifth spirit of and it is only to be man. have dwelt on the dearth of ideas of literary Now Proclus has the credit of having thought that was Well worth expressing in a form expressed a in a form that possesses remembered to be that deserves philosopher would never true that the said literary value. who enjoyed ephemeral notoriety. It contains moreover a thought which was Perhaps that is tury that deserves to be and had constantly inspired others form of a philosophical it maxim that cosmopolitan eclecticism which was practised by such different persons as Alexander Severus and Constantine." he said. I value in that age. demotic virtues. Perhaps the most interesting and attractive feature in Synesius is his love of the pure intellect and his supreme disdain for mere ethical virtue. In this. Both a great philosopher like Proclus and a great statesman like Constantine can feel themselves above the world and the had long been in the than philosophers . although a christian bishop. The Zeus. conhymn of Cleanthes to of and exhibiting the influence the mystical Orphic . He already spoken. " " disdained the almost he goodness call what we set store by . he was more unchristian than the heathen Neoplatonists. air idealises in the things. philosopher century was the the pure intellect in the century a.

At . say a word of the beauties of the place. But after the foundation of the university in Constantinople Athens gradually declined . "In our time. and it was conby some a mark of inferiority. passed by the city of the philosophers without harming it much. vkorpacpeaai -wepl Kkripoiai fiavelecu. now she is worshipped only by bee. poems. the means the way sublime." he goes on to say. the kindly light that leads upwards (<£<w? avaycoytov). cxxxv. it seemed as if the departure of Athenais had led to a cessation of the patronage of the goddess whose name she bore. They formed here a small cultured society. still fane.316 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE The gods book hi . on which the "urbane" society of the residence might look down as provincial. to his brother). suffered by the christian Emperors to live quiet lives in still practised secretly the old customworshipped Athene. the " Hellenes. The storm of the Visigoths of Alaric. cances. But they are not lifeless like formulated chants of . and he prays to the sun. though it had not any political importance. irpb^ Proclus was ever pressing arapirov. there is in them perceptible the breath of an "immortal longing" the same longing that a sorcerer or a vulgar theosophist was to felt by Plato and by " Plotinus. Synesius. almost of philistinism. "Egypt nourishes the seeds of wisdom which she received from Hypatia long but Athens ago she was a home of philosophers. attributes are addressed as mythical beings their have second imports and the reader feels that he does not possess the key to a chamber of theosophic signifi. ws ovdev exovaiv ai vvv 'Adrjvcu aefxvbv d\X' 7) to. p.d." vyfnc^opTjrov of attaining thereto being the study of books that awaken the soul. to the Muses for pure light. Even when Synesius visited Athens (about 416 a. — keepers. Artemis. Migne. 1 Athens. and which the Christians held in abhorrence as pro- unobtrusive retirement. It was the headquarters of the pagans. the same time Athens was regarded with a peculiar respect sidered to was fashionable to go thither.) he was not favourably impressed with it 2 in the description of his visit he does not . is worthy of notice.. where Proclus studied and afterwards lectured. not it have visited it. which laid in ruins the temple of Eleusis. ed." who." . and Asklepios. to Athene. had preserved its fame as a university town since the days of Cicero. ary sacrifices. the works of art or 1 The expression state in regard to the natural of men's earth-bound souls. kKelvcl 2 rQu x w P' LWV ovdpara. 1524 (Ej).

were contained in the philosophy of Plotinus. she also studied physics. while the schools of poetry and learning flourished in the great capital where they came into contact with the general movement of the world. Her pupil Synesius mentions that he had constructed an astrolabe with the assistance of his " respected " instructress. the intellectual and the super -intellectual. We are told by Damascius. who succeeded her after her death in She was not only a philosopher and a mathematician. divisions. 2 and in another place he asks her to superintend the construction of a hydroscope. Alexandria was the centre of the widest culture. a science which was then generally combined with mathematics. Iamblichus and the " Egyptian writer on Mysteries. The germs of both developments. a pupil of Isidorus. ner of Hypatia's death (already described) that secured her a place among the stars. This well brought out Meyer 2 in his tract on Hypatia. contrast with those mystical man to a woman. 1584. as it gave her name a romantic interest. viii GREEK LITERATURE OF FIFTH CENTURY 317 the flavour of antiquity. A. Migne. Desolateness and dilapidation over- whelmed for him all other impressions. LX. In This remark gives us an insight into the character of Hypatia's philosophy.6vt. p. The sober and rational character of this lady's metaphysics may also be deduced from the teaching of her pupil Hierocles. 3 Ep. xv." she laid stress on philosophical method. and to who had is a sufficiently original imitators. of In the fourth and fifth centuries all the Greek poets any distinction wrote at Alexandria. when Stoics and Epicureans taught at Athens. It was perhaps the man- . and misty speculators.op virkp \af3Lov \6yos. theology lived side by side. and followed rather the intellectual than the mystical side of Neoplatonism. a It is fifth century. that his master was superior to Hypatia not only as a but as a philosopher to a mathematician. school of inferior manner This was Nonnus found of Pano- polis. as recommended by Plato. 3 415. 1 There was one remarkable poet in the only one. and definitions. rod 8wpov darpo- 7rp6s Ilai. and most of them were born in Egypt there too pagan philosophy and christian . just as was the case in the days of Alexander's successors. But while Athens was the home of the most profound philosophers.chap. 1 particularly interesting to note that having been by W.

as But living. 3 is char- Ampelos is produced on nature by the death of very charmingly portrayed.— 318 — book in his Dionysiaca. John's Gospel in hexameter verse. nvd^are Kv/x[3a\a. It is easy to say that Nonnus is artificial. /cat TvaXajxrj Sore Ovpcrov deiSofxevov Atovvcrov. often tedious. 2 KVireWov aeprafa %etpt ypairTT) <&oL(3u) Zevs eireuevaev Zx €lv fJ-avrwdea 8&(pi>r}i> kclI p68a (poLvlcraovra podoxpo'C Kvirpo'AOrjvair) yevelrj. is one of the best. we nevertheless feel in reading his verses that he had a really poetical mind. 2 fair We may quote two of the opening lines as a example of the general style. how could he be other To aim at simplicity when simplicity is not than artificial ? in the air is an affectation which can hardly fail to produce Eecognising that he is always artificial and the ridiculous.T]8T)S (xii." phrase that pleases. It is and that he 1 prolix digressive descriptions. Hore wanders in search dead Ampelos. that his long falls into poem in forty-eight books lacks unity. that he " ran beside the naked swift-footed And bound his forehead with Proserpine's hair. he did. and composed a paraphrase of St. He thus presents parallel in Greek literature to Sidonius Apollinaris or Paulinus of Burdioala. 40). h ypcMpideaai <pi\evios 'ibpaxe style. Kal araxvas Aij/LfqrpL tiau). in a self-conscious age. yXavKunridi daWbv Aiov- Tavvp. became a a Christian in later years. finds wherever she goes prophecies in writing relating to the death and resurrection of the youth. and having learned the symbols of prophecy from Hyperion. he HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE when he wrote a pagan in his youth. There are few pages on which we do not find some thought or if it is nothing more than the picture of Ganymede raising aloft a goblet in his scratched hand. 1858. ykavKov eXairjs. The twelfth book of the This introduction of writing into mythological history acteristic. only in the ninth book that he begins the proper subject of his poem. Movcrai. The most recent edition is that of A. Koechly. kclI i]/xepl8as In one place she finds these words (which I quote in illustration of Nonnus' 3 roia fxev Kovprj. and the description of The effect 1 The first eight books are occupied with the mythical history of the Cadmean house of Dionysus' mother Seniele. as to he is the general classical reader a poet completely unknown) . which Callimachus did not excel a^are jxol vapOrjKa.

and from the Christus Paticns. Whether Gregory was the author or not.a Tra\cv8ivr]rov it a ddrj-qno nvi ira\[x<$ wvevfia Trepnrveieii> odi (SouXerai.C. in its subjectivity. is ov dijvaaat (3\e<papois irbdev 'epx^rai rj nbae ^aiveu ovtoj ttclvtos e(pv rinros dv^pos e/c irvpbs vypov Trpeufxari tlkto/j. vin GREEK LITERATURE OF FIFTH CENTURY of his 319 Pactolus restraining the flow water.. could hardly have been written before the air was permeated with christian sentiment. BaK^os ava£ Saxpycre. it "The wind bloweth where thus rendered listeth. a specimen It is so little known that may be interesting. wan with grief. 1/evp. olde 5e irepm d. sionally appears. have been favourites with Christians of culture. and as it pos- some interest a specimen of a class of dramas to which the medieval mystery plays partly owe their origin. far superior to the ordinary christian poem.yx<-- (pavrj 5k . (puvrjs rjepirjs OeoSwea fibixfiov aicoveis ovaaiv vfAerepois ire<pofrqix£vov. pagan youth. Ai'o~?7. Nonnus could not escape from the atmosphere of a dejected of Christianity. 2 We cannot read 1 The Xpiaros Ildax w{/ forms the first volume of Ellissen's Analekten. because he had a premature tincture of that profound individualism and subjectivity which began to penetrate life Both Homer and Euripides were in the fourth century B. /3por(i>v Sdhcpva Lord Bacchus wept. yet The learning displayed Nonnus wields his lore in the lightly.€voio nod ov GTpo<pa\i. he is as far from the obscure dulness of Lycophron as comand day from night. has some points in common with the romantic poetry trait of this But while a poem is of the nineteenth century. for example. The paraphrase of St. sesses it is probably a product of this age. John's Gospel which Nonnus wrote when he embraced Christianity is a curious composition. is prodigious. &X\a Sarjvcu Scheindler." etc. A line.— chap. the latter of whom was far more read under the Soman Empire than his great elder compeers. and which is practically a cento of Euripidean verses. and having the aspect for his man.yyi kovi7)$. like i'va this. the note of the and thus position it kind occauntrammelled fancy. as may be gathered from the fashion of writing Homero-centra on christian subjects. 1 an extant Greek drama which has been attributed to Gregory of Nazianzus. that mortals might not weep. 2 It has been recently edited by A. deserves to be noted Even when he wrote the Dionysiaca. The poets whose influence chiefly affected his style seem to Homer and Euripides.

2 write secular poetry. The most striking of her compositions that remain is the versification of the legend of Cyprian and Justina. but in all other respects it seems Pamprepius of Panopolis. account of the revolt of Gainas Claudian. need not say much of the versifiers who imitated Nonnus and formed an Egyptian school of poetry.writers of the fifth century were Cyrus. Other verse. vantages which to Nonnus me inferior. was a poet as well as philosopher. to trans- late a christian gospel into hexameters that have always a pleasing flow. and into words which. two adlacks. is adept. ye are the branches. is produced. 3 Koluthos flourished under Ana- stasius. with a very read- many interesting touches. One Greek 1 species of literature. reached its best 3 this period. Entstelmng und Wesm des EomanSj lg67 chassang Histoirc du roman d(ms Va ntiquit<? 1862 and more re. which had sprung up when the bloom at Between the world of the new odorus (flourished in the reign of Anastasius) wrote a description of the statues in the gymnasium of Constantinople. 2 the Several books have been written on Greek romance Nicolai UeUr . Both Christodorus and Panolbius wrote Isaurica. the prefect of Constantinople. but they possess little interest." rendered thus afiireXos av8'i]€cr(ra irkXoi koll o/xo^uyes v/xeis Kk'ij/xara <£wv?. We be read. It was really in its way skill a triumphant achievement. which has been mentioned in a preceding chapter. who wrote a gigantomachy and metrical histories ot towns-not to be confounded with the great Latin poet Claudian. Tryphio1 dorus' Capture of Ilion and Koluthos' Rape of Helen may still original. has the merit of brevity and the merit of possessing unity. . who wrote an are extant. who probably lived about it The Hero and 500 or a little It has obtained a reputation which hardly deserves. who was a native of Alexandna. the romance.— 320 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE it is book hi a line without seeing that the work is of an lost.evTa crcxfiip f3ef3pt06ra KapTvao. the friend of Illus. implying no ordinary poetical and command of language. or if she did no fragment has survived. Leancler of Musaeus. and also wrote a gigantomachy. centl and full E> Rhod Roman und sdne VorUufcr ^ ^ -^ 187 . but we have no means of knowing whether he can in any sense be ranked as one of the The Athenian Empress Eudocia did not school of Nonnus. however they expand the never offend the taste. and " I although the simplicity of the original able poem. some of whose epigrams Troilus. later. am the vine. Christof which a fragment is extant . spirit was already declining.

— — — . of lovers disparted. chap. there are two The first is that of Longus and Heliointermediate worlds. feeling in the christianised Empire that " not here. who. In these romances love and VOL. dorus and the story. viii GREEK LITERATURE OF FIFTH CENTURY 321 full of amorous Greek comedy and Eoman fabulae palliatae. of faithful servants. are haunts meet for thee. equally frivolous but more refined. of barbarous brigands and cruel pirates.writers of the fourth and fifth centuries the second is that of Floire and Blanceflor." sought to revive their weary spirits on a Helicon of fancy. and which sought in foreign adventure the interest that city life no longer afforded. but while it is marked by an unlifelike refinement and an absence of that naked dissoluteness which was a feature of ancient comedy. partly to replace it. angry fathers. Imberius and Margarona. which with the help of oriental material was built on the ruins of Greek life. as Theocritus had sought in the sphere of his Sicilian idylls to escape from the close and stifling air of Alexandrian reality. And we can detect. and the cosmopolitan life of Alexandria and Antioch while the evolution of the latter was affected in somewhat the same way by the Saracen element that had penetrated southern Europe. The romance-world of the fifth century is also one of amorous gallants. It is a world in the air.. in which the lights and shades of morality are not unattended to. I Y — gallants. The outward influences that partly determined the evolution of the former were the opening up of eastern lands by Alexander the Great. of children lost in infancy. fibres connecting it with the antique intuitions. and the other romances which circulated first in the countries of the Mediterranean and thence found their way to northern Europe in the later Middle Ages. lost maidens. the spirit of adventure that then set in. reared by shepherds and recognised by tokens. behind the artificial form. and smart slaves moving and the world of Bocin an atmosphere of loose morality caccio's Decamerone and Shakespeare's comedies a gay Italian world. and these separate it not only from Boccaccio but from the cycle of medieval tales that was formed a few centuries later. It may be said that the romance succeeded the old drama and fulfilled in some respects the same functions. the sentiment of pagans. it has characteristics of Greek life. . Apollo. just as in modern times the novel-writer may be considered to have taken the torch from the composer of plays.

Floire. An unfailing feature is the love of elaborate description of scenes is of nature. of old classical writers abound. Nature is a picture -frame for lovers of an agreeable place. especially roses. the grassy sward It is a purely sensual love of nature — the soft grass {ttocl fxaXOaKrj) and the clear springs and the cool is — just as in that idyllic passage at the be- ginning of Plato's Phaedrus. Flowernames are often chosen for heroines." have an erotic import. . He also wrote an "Occasional Essay " on roses in spring (No. Choricius of Gaza. is a mere name. . wherein he describes himtaking a walk outside the city in early spring. in which. the author of Daphnis and Chloe. Wandering among groves he bethought himself of Socrates (as described in the Phaedrus) on the banks of the Ilissus bathing his feet in its cool waters kclI eirl iroa nvl /xaXOaKfj KaraKXiverai kcli \pvx&£ei. caves of the nymphs. or echoes. The association of flowers. v. perhaps even to Stesichorus. 322 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE spirit of book in adventure were interwoven. who wrote Lettcippe . Flowers and fruit . words. with love and young maidens is natural and ancient we find it in the fragments of Sappho. A diligent concern for elegance of order of the choice of phrases and the all . Blanceflor. and her blood made the rose red. for example. however. Spicil. we know only that he was a bishop. On such scenes these writers loved to dwell. As Aphrodite sought for Adonis she came on a white rose the thorn bled her naked foot. . All these stories have great similarity style. . wrote a short essay (/meXtTTj) " On the Rose. who lived in the time of Anastasius. around whose name wonderful legends had soon entwined themselves. in medieval romances. 410). Unfortunately we know nothing or little of the authors of three remarkable romances that were written at this period. whose Ethiopica became famous. the great charm of the spot is that so inclined that Socrates and his friend can comfortably " the spot. " is says Achilles Tatius and suitable for romances of love. 2 . there no feeling for nature in the modern sense. while fictitious love-stories may be traced back to Callimachus." which is extant (Mai. the in strange lands having adventure and travel come in with Alexander the Great. we could easily believe that they were written by the same person. and Eodane 1 the song in praise of the rose that was sung by the maiden Leucippe deserves special mention 2 and if there was pleasant in every way. Another essay of Choricius is on a 8 self : apud liorologium. Longus. sometimes graceful.. for . Antheia. is little better of Heliodorus. 1 So Florizel. Mai). and even the name is doubtful Achilles Tatius. characterises them and quotations." lie down. Rom. and Cleitophon.

comme l'auteur de Floire et Blanceflor. 240. any of the other romances an island which. which were not romantic. me that he now regards this new idea as an importation from the East to Alexandria in the days of the Diadochi. Daphnis and Chloe has perhaps more peculiarities than the idyllic life of Mytilene. 3 the Paul et Virginia of anti- flor. and has had a greater effect on the development of romance-writing. and it is worthy of remark that The best is of these times that of Daphnis in all these romances the chastity of women is considered to have a sort of preternatural value. 1 " Longus a cm. each a child of noble parents. on the innocence of the boy and girl. but it is not bolder than the narrative of The maidenhood of Chloe is Alcibiades in Plato's Banauet. As an element of that entered into the spirit of chivalry and thence into the notions of modern society the appearance the sixth the century new we idea shall deserves see it special notice. Daphnis and Chloe has been often Greek Life and See Makaffy. the king of the Ostrogoths. and contrasts with the old Greek feelings on the subject." love at least could be declared 323 not a " Language of by the gift of an apple. legitimer encore leur affection par les ressemblances materielles de leur destinee " (M. Meril. description of Daphnis' initiation that reminds us of a certain idyll of Theocritus.) chap. corresponded to the Arcadia of The the Eenaissance. Introduction to Floire et Blance- called quity. viii GREEK LITERATURE OF FIFTH CENTURY Fruit. ness throughout that the writers are thinking of their diction more than ing their of their matter. 2 cii. who fall in love and are 2 There is an idyllic realism in the ignorant of their own desires. a shepherd and shepherdess of Mytilene. of the symptoms of a new spirit in the world. The author informs Thought. romances and the most popular in recent and Chloe. invests it with a uniajie atmosphere. The magic gem Pantarbe. and heroines pass through This idea is one the most dangerous situations unharmed. dft. like Sicily. In the same way the descriptions of the persons of youths and maidens are long and minute and we have a conscious. . stainless until her marriage. p. p. far longer novel of Heliodorus. They have not the art of conceal- art. exposed in infancy 1 The chief motive of the story turns and found by shepherds. is more typical of the genus. the conceal. the Ethiopica. 3 in operation In on the occasion of the capture of Borne by Totila.

of whom a touching story is told in the Oyropaedeia of Xenophon the Athenian. adventure. which attracts us in the romance of Achilles Tatius. all the wild and varied adventures by sea and land. as a little boy. of And in another part of the same story is picture the rape of Philomela by Tereus graphically described. of word-pictures by Gautier. which had dewe generally see affected artificiality of style . resembling the descriptions of Philostratus. formed a large repertory from which subsequent writers borrowed motives and incidents. book hi merit and fancied death. but it occurs to one that Xenophon may be a pseudonym. and things outlandish. from Pantheia and Abraclates. picture of the rape of Europa. mother." The story of Abrocomas and Antheia is the story of the The adventures and misfortunes of a pair of married lovers. We may between say that they have a common . Antheia and Abrocomas. Love. mythology. Zeucippe. The accounts which the same writer gives of the crocodile and the hippopotamus remind us of Herodotus. fiction of a period Moreover. yet we cannot say repels us a little in the history of Eunapius that the style of historians was inordinately affected and farfetched until Theophylactus wrote on the reign of Maurice. reminding us The romance of Achilles Tatius. name of the author is Xenophon of Ephesus. and this association common them origin in seems to cause a certain later times we have the romantic history of Herodotus. The stage sword. and we have the historical romance of pseudo-Callisthenes. that shut is up like a telescope and proved the safety of Leucippe. Descriptions of pictures and works of art. worthy of a modern " dreadful.324 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE in tombs. are constantly introduced by and have often considerable merit. The which we tolerate in the rhetoric of Libanius. History and romance stand in a relation of kinship to one another. is lead- ing the bull in the midst of a landscape in which such details as a peasant stooping over a ditch at his work a are portrayed. opens with a minute account of a Cleitophon and these writers. . The love of travel. in the history and common characteristics. and that the author may have adapted the names of his hero and heroine. and had at that time a sensational value.

These — . however. Eunapius of Sardis 2 wrote two books. he constrained the inherent tendency that drags down. Eunapius. in the first half of the century. Priscus gives us an account of his personal experiences in Hunland. of the fifth reflected in the histories and sixth centuries as well as in the fiction. and crowns him with a halo of celestial light.. fif- Justinian. 2 Born about 347. vin GREEK LITERATURE OF FIFTH CENTURY is 325 veloped since the days of Alexander. One was a history of the Eoman Empire from Claudius Gothicus (270 A. one to whom the new order of things seems "a world without any order. " By virtue of the power of his nature and the greatness. was less likely to survive than those of orthodox Athanasians. Philostorgius. 1 Four writers of ecclesiastical history flourished at the beginning of the fifth century Socrates. and treats almost the same period. carried down his narrative teen years later . from whose work. and Priscus flourished chiefly pagans. who wrote from an Arian point of view a history of almost the same period as Studied under . who wrote in the last years of Theodosius II. who dedicated his history in that covered by Theodoret. chap. Of these. which did not teach him taste. the point at which Dexippus' history ended) to the tenth year of Arcadius (404). of which only fragments have survived. 324-415 Theodoret. whose history ernbraces the period from 306 to 439 Sozomen. In the following century Theodorus the Reader (Anagnostes) wrote a history of the Church from Constantine to of an Arian zomen. The secular Greek historians 1 of the fifth century were Olympiodorus. Malchus. except that of Philostorgius.. and beginning at the same point as So. 3 Photius." an ecumenical mistake. the diligence of Photius has preThe history served valuable excerpts. His style bears the impress of a training in rhetoric. . Like all ardent pagans of the time he lavishes the most touching hero-worship upon the Emperor Julian (the last who combined the true belief with the power to enforce it). enemies. histories are preserved. 439 to Theodosius II. soul the iron has entered. not less than divine. Proaeresius at Athens. a disciple of Chrysostom. the other was a collection of lives of philosophers and sophists.D. only Candidus was an indisputably orthodox Christian Eunapius and Zosimus were militant Olympiodorus and Priscus were quiescent pagans pagans Malchus seems to have been neither for God nor for God's . and Cosmas relates his visit to the Indian Ocean. and Zosimus in the second half. Candidus. though a good critic thought he wrote prettily 3 he talks of a " rivery tear " (7roTa/xwSe? His spirit is that of an ardent pagan into whose Sd/cpvov). Nonnosus describes his adventures among the Ethiopians. that was in him.

Eunapius was a thaumaturge. 2 good edition of Zosimus has at length appeared. conquest and the merits of Eoman 1 to the stewards of rich households as something banausic. had entered into his " study of imagination " and appeared to him half a god. His political and religious opinions were the same as those of Eunapius. Mendelssohn (1887). like his master. rules of hiatus to which he makes the structure of his sentences conform. xxviii. in still he saw heaven and commune with the bodiless beings. Zosimus states expressly that he looked upon Polybius as master and model in the art of history. or adapted from him. being himself in the body. is on the other hand. ever written in Greek from this point of view. The text is accompanied with some valuable historical as well as full critical notes. and is one of our chief sources for fourth-century history. the opposition of Zosimus was partly affected by his experiences as an officer in the civil It T . 2 whose w ork. wrote a history dominated by a his pervading idea. He shows in the them A preface that the limits of date for the composition of the history are 450 and 501. Polybius' history was written to prove the right of . who had died when Eunapius was a boy of sixteen. whose work was one of his main sources but while the opposition of Eunapius to the new order of things was altogether inspired by his religious conviction." The last pagan Emperor. There was a further bond of attraction in their common mysticism. and he adopted. . the editor being L. rising above the waves of life. knew the beautiful things that are in heaven. are for him imis personations of all that pius' history is written malignant and irrational. It is probably the history was followed some years later by the history of Zosimus.326 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE all book hi ward. but an idea exactly the reverse of the idea of Polybius. and. and that the course of history it exactly what first should not have been. and Euna- from the point of view that the time is out of joint. the last hero of the forlorn cause. Eoman Zosiconquerors mus' history was written to show the unright of christian Eunapius has a lordly contempt which Dexippus was very careful and troubled) he relegates for dates (for . 1 service. p. has come down to us. The christian Emperors. Mendelssohn. He studied his style with diligence. as far as he completed it. sqq. as Demosthenes studied Thucydides. and had been initiated in supernatural mysteries. 3 And Zosimus too. 3 See Preface.

etc. 2). Priscus was not only a scholar or " sophist who. thus to some extent anticipating the style of late chroniclers and whose description of his journey and adventures in the land of the Huns has come down to us. and ended at 474. His style was very good. than a history in the usual sense . He attributes the decline of the Empire in the West to the fact that the old pagan sacrifices were discontinued in Borne. and we are impressed with the wisdom and the credibility of the writer. 2 It embraced eighteen years (407425. ". whereas Constantine removed only the comitatenses from the defence of the marks. Olympiodorus does not hesitate to employ "words like pij£. moving in the midmost circle of the political world. a silva (v\rj) or miscellany. dHTLyvaros. 2 Priscus. His history was rather a collection of materials for history. . superstition is His such that he wonders that no oracle foretold of the greatness Constantinople. Of positive historical errors which he employs to justify his political tendency. but the substance is extremely valuable trustworthy. His history was continued by Malchus of Philadelphia (in Palestine). Polybius Zosimus impugned it. who was also a pagan. Of the nexus of cause and effect the notions of Zosimus are as infelicitous as those of contemporary christian writers. As for the style. viii GREEK LITERATURE OF FIFTH CENTURY 327 justified history. 1 See the essay of von Ranke on Zosimus {Weltgeschichte. 1 Of Olympiodorus. he was a man had a near view of the most stirring events of the time. was also a pagan. trammelled existence of the civilised world is of especial interest. without explanation or so much as a 6 KaXov/xevos. dominion and the demerits of christian Emperors. there is little to say. which were still protected by the pseudocomitatenses. and dealt with western history.chap. but apparently not bigoted.. iv. 3 Priscus' history probably began between 430 and 440. as he may notice that he blames Constantine for having called is it himself. It was utilised by Zosimus and Sozomen. who wrote in the reign of Anastasius. its style so simple and uncared for as to be almost vulgar. Malchus' style is clear and unaffected. It is in the pages of Malchus that we read the somewhat puzzling narrative of the marches and countermarches of the two Theodorics in the Balkan provinces. we withdrawn all the frontier troops. 3 The discussion which took place in the Hun town concerning the comparative merits of the freedom of barbaric life and the like Theophanes.

book hi reputation as a trustworthy narrator. This inscription was found in 1493. We have already become sufficiently acquainted with the subjects of his historical poems. and many-sidedness. 3 The other uncompromisingly pagan poet was Eutilius Namatiarms. though he was a scholar and a rhetorician and he has a good In regard to his religion I should be inclined to suppose that he was a Laodicean he is said to have been " not outside " the pale. or became converts afterwards. abounding in poetical phrases . 2 His history embraced the reigns of Leo and Zeno. rather than that of his He was admirer of the council of Chalcedon. Most will agree with Teuffel. " a most obstinate pagan. fifth On the Latin literature of the century it is not my purpose to dwell at length. inappropriately introduced . were either converts to Christianity when they wrote. the most famous is Claudian. the brother of Jacob." 4 as he said a . Of the The most prominent prose-writers and the most prominent verse- two exceptions. His style was frigid and in bad taste. with two exceptions." it says Photius. . " in the suave. the land of rough taineers. that he superior to Statius. in whose eyes the Christians were " a sect more fell than Circe's poisons. " he had no part or lot. describing his return to 3 Italy from Gaul. own mind is The tone by of the ase his deriva- tion of Isauria. elu hi BcpyiXioio vbov koI fiovaav 'Ofxripov KXavdiavov Fib/mr} Kai(3ao-i\r)S(!deaav. and doubtless hairy mounfrom Esau. in fertility." who towers above the heads of all his is far contemporaries. an elegiac distich expressing that Claudian was Homer and Virgil in one. were christian theologians. an illustrated attempted to achieve. richness of fancy. but an excellent poet. in his picturesque poem cle reditu suo." 328 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE . An inscription on a statue erected in his honour at Naples contains an ancient parallel to Dryden's quatrain on Milton. 457-491. 1 ovk e£w rod xP L<TTLaVLK °v 6ido~ov (Photius)." although was just the suave that he orthodox of the orthodox. who had the distinction of being a con- temporary of Martial and Tacitus. writers. which throw mixed light on the history of Arcadius' reign we need only add that his mythological poem " The Eape of Proserpine shows him at his best. 4 Deterior circaeis secta venenis. 1 The only undoubted Christian who wrote secular history 2 in the fifth century was Candidus the Isaurian.

of Avitus . the waterless city of marshes. in which there is an interesting account {sec above. bishop of Kola 409. He at home in . H. who might become Eome. cit. 147. On a curious anonymous poem. Christianity. possess the peculiar charm of transporting us into a circle of old Eoman culture amid the alien surroundings His pagan poetry is Eoman. of Sidonius is that recently published in the M. . the capital of christian Emperors. amid the monuments of one a Christian. infected with something not Eoman . and exhorts to chastity.— chap. p. by C. sed nihil inveni melius quam credere Christo. op. p. 305. ib. de providentia. His Epithalamium Juliani et Julianae is a protest in its spirit against pagan epithalamia. " where the living thirst and the dead swim. the son-in-law of the Emperor Avitus. per singula quaeque cucurri. cadent. the daughter of Anthemius. sec above." qua vivi sitiunt natant sepulti. 2 Panegyricus to Majorian on the occasion of his consulate. In the consulate of his friend and father-in-law the Emperor Avitus he spent pleasant days at Eome he wrote and 2 and it was decreed by recited a panegyric on the Emperor of the pagan . 1 who afterwards Sidonius Apollinaris. Panegyricus Avito socero is dictus. whose writings are partly or be mentioned Macrobius. and Paulinus of Burdigala. see Ebert. The poems of Sidonius Apollinaris. it is is the poetry Emperors and the memorials of the pagan republic but he is by no means at home in Eavenna. vin — — 329 LA TIN LITERA TURE OF FIFTH CENTUR Y to Of converts wholly pagan. converted about 390.d. G. The best edition the ideal Byzantine. where all the buildings are of brick. i. As to Paulinus of Pella. on the African Dracontius. 367. . and in 468 addressed and read a poem to the Emperor Panegyricus quern Pomae dixit Anthemio bis consuli. Luetjohann. In 467 Sidonius attended the marriage of Ricimer with Alypia. was converted in time to write a panegyric on Theodosius may L in celebration of his victory over Eugenius to be and two remembered as an expression . Licentius. 1 titulis videret inter auctores utriusque fixam 353-431 a. . The education described his services to Aetius on the eve of the and battle of the Catalaunian Field the circumstances of Maximus' elevaIn 458 Sidonius addressed a tion. became bishop of Nola. 206) of the education of Anthemius. lines written in his christian period deserve of the general experience of the age plurima quaesivi. the senate that a bronze statue should be erected to him in the Forum of Trajan. and gives in it a remark able description of the hostility which Majorian experienced from the nameless wife of Aetius. but deof the fifth century.. between the Latin and Greek libraries cum meis poni statuam perennem Nerva Trajanus bibliothecae.

of their Two cattle swains are introduced. Salvian and Cassian. as were warm wine with cool day. lias " ein sehr bedeutendes literarhistorisches Interesse. p. because the sign of the cross. 1. enters driving along a herd of cattle which the lence had not injured. Into the characteristics of the ecclesiastical and religious writers. L. written as a sort of supplement to Augustine's City of God. Byz. attained less celebrity. a pesti- Christian. l Twelve years later he was to become the bishop of Clermont. vi. A few fragments of other poems remain." " 330 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE book hi . The inscription on the statue 173). Of christian poetry. " signum quod perhibent esse crucis Dei. 3 It is practically. I cannot attempt to enter here I can only repeat what has been said before. The animals had escaped. and have been published by Bekker in the Bonn Corpus Hist. 1724). 2 Ebert (243 sqq. The asclepiads of Severus Endelechius " on the deaths of cattle mixture suited the taste of the exhibit the same christianising tendency as the writings of Paulinus. of St. Orosius' . his enlarged translation of Eusebius' Chronicle was very important and served as a model for Latin chroniclers.) remarks that his Psychomachia . and as they talk. though Augustine and Jerome tower so considered its far above the others that they may be founders. ." because it is the first christian poem in the West in which the allegorical style " es gehorte is thoroughly worked out so zu sagen zu den standard works des 1 Flavius Merobaudes' Panegyric on Aetius has been referred to (above. complaining of the loss by the plague. Thus the poet of Avitus was set up in bronze beside the poet of Stilicho and the poet of Aetius." was branded on their foreheads. beside the 2 hymns . Augustine and Jerome. Besides Jerome's translation of the Bible. Mittelalters. as Tityrus explains. Ambrose. 3 these writers contributed in a greater or less decree to the establishment of a school of Latin theology. that they retained the form of pagan style and employed the arts of pagan rhetoric. the writings of Prudentius water. Tityrus. erected to him in 435 (on account of his military services and his Panegyric) is extant (C. a christian WeltgescMchte. and the won popularity it they blended Horatian love-poetry with Christianity. while they contended against the pagan spirit. History against the Pagans. I. 324). as Ebert remarks (p. and is now All read more for its historical statements than its arguments.



as against Pope or Patriarch. to the reign of his nephew Justinian . we must grasp the fact that it is a direct continuation of the history of the fifth century. monument of his greatness. is chiefly important as preliminary I. which results in the overthrow of the Ostrogoths. he was absolute. CHAPTER THE REIGN OF JUSTIN I. Sophia he bequeathed to posterity an imposing Politically astically . south-eastern Europe is is still Roman in the wide sense of the word. is but that there one great difference in the situation. and leads to the division of the peninsula between the Romans and the Lombards.. It is a continuation of the struggle between the Romans and the In the fifth century Germans. buildings in number and splendour were the marvel of his age and in St. He set in order a system of law for the world. western Europe is irrevocably lost to the Empire and secured to Teutonic peoples. but their relation has altered. J I AND THE EARLIER YEARS OF JUSTINIAN'S REIGN In order to understand the European history of the sixth century and the reign of Justinian. Italy the intermediate land between these extremes. the Germans were conquering lands from the Romans. spirit carried out the idea of regaining a footing in western Europe. as against the aristocracy ecclesiHis he was absolute. in the sixth century the Romans are reconquering lands from the NorthGermans. and consequently becomes the scene of the last combat. His enterprising Justinian is the great figure of the time. The reign of Justin I. Europe is now divided between them.

moreover. Justiniana Prima. and that he was. financially and ecclesiastically. .334 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE Justin is book iv said to have been originally an Illyrian peasant with his two brothers in the reign have already met him as a trusted officer of Anastasius. - ii. and the people acclaimed. a pronounced monophysite. Hypatius and Pompeius. see note. Vitalian had indeed been repressed. 7. He hoarded the income of the State instead of expending part of it as productive capital. But Justin was more wily and more ambitious than Amantius calculated he took the treasure and secured the interests of the soldiers for himself the senate consented. At the time of Anastasius' death (1st July 518) the eunuch Amantius formed a plot to invest a friend or creature of his own with the purple. which makes Justin a Slavonic peasant. and he consequently enlisted Justin in his service and supplied him with money to bribe the soldiers. Compare 434): "primurn inseparables trinitatis favore. the orthodox anti-Anastasian party. including the blue faction. The opposition to his government was expressed in the revolt of Vitalian. which their uncle favoured. October 1887." . nee non electione firmissimi exercitus ad imperium nos electos fuisse. especially two nephews. 1 We . As to the identification of Jus- Justin's letter to Hormisdas. . and were secure of the support of the monophysite party and the green faction. 2 Observe the position of affairs. bishop of Rome (Mansi. his attitude was hostile. though childless. deinde amplissimorum procerum nostrisacri palatiietsanctissimisenatus. but he was still in Thrace. viii. see tinian's birthplace. Bryce on Theophilus' Vita Justiniani (a work which had been lost since the days of Alemannus and was discovered by Mr. Bryce) in the English Historical Revieic. had near relations. But Justin ousted both Vitalian and the nephews of the late Emperor. vol. To attain this end it was absolutely necessary to gain over the guards. Justin's religion was orthodox. assisting in quelling the Isaurians. The government of Anastasius in his later years had been most unpopular in two ways. and his accession to the throne rested on the facts that he attached to himself to Constantinople who came of Leo. who professed to represent the cause of orthodoxy. who might urge a claim to the throne. p. and he increased his hoard by oppressive exactions he was. and he was afterwards advanced to the post of commander of the guards {comes excubitorum). and he was doubtless in relation with a faction in the city which shared his disaffection. by his military reputation and his position 1 On the Slavonic legend. Anastasius. the article of Mr.

i THE REIGN OF JUSTIN hostilities. were now removed. assumed the consulate in 521 in the latter part of the fifth century which the Empire was involved had been solved by the care of Anastasius. fact. To make up Justinian. months he was assassinated. not much and he was The enemies of the afterwards said that he was an imbecile old new dynasty man. Justin 1 was an old. speaks of Anastasius' frugality as the " parca posterioris subtilitas principis" military matters. which he is said to have used for signing his name. became sole monarch. But before the accession of Justinian this sum is said to have been considerably reduced.. notsteered the Empire into a new of era and guided a thoroughgoing reaction. in a constitution of 519. 2 for his own deficiencies in culture and know- ledge of civil government he had the assistance of his nephew who was destined to a. . Justinian and exhibited games and This munificence was a contrast to the careful frugality of Anastasius. When he came to the throne he was {Cod. 25). 3 Justin. 2 Justinian was born about 483. on the death of his uncle. and indicated to In the people the reactionary policy of the new dynasty. Just. John Lydus. because he was unable to do anything. able soldier. the causes for dissatisfacVitalian was which had led to them. In the Secret History a contrivance.. is described. vii. ally attributed to the jealousy of Justinian. ii. iii. and the new Emperor found a large sum of money in the treasury.d. as the Emperor recognised the dogmatic symbolum of Pope But Vitalian enjoyed his new honours for only a few Leo I. and in August. office of consoled with a consulship and the master of soldiers and the great schism (which had lasted since Zeno's Henotikon) between the Eoman and Byzantine Churches came to an end. and his assassination was gener. especially as I 335 as commander of the guards. succeed him. Such a a slight is He was man of ambition withstanding his advanced age. The financial difficulties in 1 dirpdyfiuv. so formidable that Vitalian could not continue tion. for the frugality of Anastasius had been followed by a more liberal expenditure. 3 April 527 Justinian was created Augustus. 51. but was already aptitude wellnigh for civil seventy years affairs. says lie was and understood nothing save about sixty -six years old. spectacles of magnificent costliness. He had illiterate. who did neither good nor evil to the Empire. cHAr. no value in regard of the and strong will who.

nor a vessel in a house. of gold annually. was the duty of the prefect to supply money for needful John not only supplied it but became immensely wealthy himself. 21) the moneys John Lydus. 24. Tribonian. The abilities of these men were worthy of the large conceptions of their soveBut the crreat works could never have been executed but reign. 3 Procopius. 2 collected by the praetorian prefect in excess of the regular tribute amounted to 3000 lbs. Sardanapalus special acts and such names were lavished on him. and by the end of Justinian's reign the civil service was in a very poor condition. . He was regarded as a demon. According to the Secret History (cap. who helped to ruin the subjects. 4 as Cyclops. and Anthemius. whose name has been handed down to infamy. Cerberus. devastated it for the space of a year. or rather modification. 5 the result of 4 One of his worst creatures was John Maxilloplumacius (Flabby. This was John 2 the Cappadocian. P. the conquest of Italy and Africa. attended by a of demons. Since the time of Theoclosius I. cursus publicus. and there is so much with the achievement of public glories truth in the unkind remark that Justin did no good or evil to The great works by which Justinian's name is rethe State. and were called the Aerikon. who was appointed praetorian prefect. and has left us a narrative of his and the exactions tinued. like theirs. who oppressed Philadelphia. Justinian's ideas soared higher than to the — enormities. Of we may notice the partial abolition. 57. The most authentic account of him is that of John Lydus. He was at first a logolb.cheek). and they It expenses. too ready to do his bidding. and he required money to carry them The harmless administration of Justin was incompatible out. B. 5 The post which connected Byzan- with the Persian frontier was not abolished." 3 The provinces of Lyclia and Cilicia especially suffered from his extortions he let a company of his creatures loose upon Lydia. leaving (according to John band his of Lydia) not a virgin or a youth undeflowered. for another human instrument. Lydus lays this result partly to the charge of John the Cappadocian. and the public edifices are connected with the names of three men. Belisarius. and supplied the treasury by oppressing the subjects. State post. i. and not. as the author of the Secret tiura . iii. the works on Eoman law. 1 of the 51. who was a civil servant at the time. the office of praefectus praetorio had been decreasing in power.336 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE for 1 book iv which he had been blamed were not conmere maintenance of a brilliant court. " He did not fear God or regard man. thete. and led a life of gluttony and debauchery. to fame. membered.

that Procopius. We can all . . In the other parts of the East the change for the worse consisted in the substitution of a few asses for a large number of horses. the Empress Theodora. 30). did not inquire too curiously into. certain expenses were saved to the treasury. The impoverished provincials flocked to the capital a large number of new taxes were invented to extort money. whose author would doubtless.chap. he had dark . we may be sure. 11. but if we were entitled to form an idea of her features from the mosaic picture in San Vitale at Ravenna. Justinian was prepared to enforce rigorously the collection of but he may not established dues we know from his laws have been aware of. and. Nevertheless I think we may conclude that Theodora was a beautiful woman. Compare Anecdota. if he could. dungeons under the praetorium for punishing his subordinate officials. cap. not from the praise of Procopius. Lydus is continually inserting a parenthesis to warn us that the EmThat peror knew nothing of this or that unjust transaction. and justice is said to have been so abused that men would not go into court. I Z . have disparaged her History admits (cap. i THE REIGN OF JUSTINIAN disastrous. in speaking of her beauty. according to John Lydus. and he married her. but from the admissions of the Secret History. we should infer . and none were exempted from the indignity of torture. Justinian shared his throne with a remarkable woman. all the details of his minister's actions. easily understand the value failed to he laid upon a prefect who never supply him with the funds requisite for the achieve- ment of his schemes. VOL. A conbefore he became Emperor. de Aed. The prefect instituted the use of hideous and painful fetters. and the business of advocates declined. but the unfortunate provincials were obliged to undergo the labour of transporting their produce themselves to the ports for transference to Con- stantinople. 10. Justinian was ignorant of the excesses of the prefect. She was originally a ballet-dancer her beauty and intellectual ability attracted the love of Justinian. 1 Procopius. uses the language of a courtier. and large quantities of corn rotted in the granaries. 337 which measure was economically Directly. i. temporary said it was impossible for mere man to describe her comeliness in words or to imitate it by art x we cannot judge how far this remark was due to the enthusiasm of adulation. The remarkable point is that.

Nero the blue colour. opinion or will of the people could be expressed and the 2 Greek name 1 of a " party " was S?}/u. . recognised by the government. clined to the heresy of Eutyches. he seems to admire rather than censure. 1 the sixth century. 1827. It two parties must be observed that these parties did not consist merely of the participators in the games . supported the Blues the fifth . 2 It should be noticed that the distinction of Blues ( Veneti) and Greens (Prasini) prevailed throughout the larger provincial towns Antioch. who wis inparties of the Church . of. the orthodox Emperor. which he assures us was not sickly. and there was doubtless a sort of freemasonry throughout the Empire between members of the same party. In the year 501 a battle took place between the the hippodrome. but the pallor.338 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE The only blemishes which he can book iv charms.o?. Tarsus." Much in- formation is to be found in the de Caerimoniis of Constantine Porphyrogenitus. any citizen might belong to them. supported the Greens. In order to understand her political position we must direct our attention to the factions of the circus. and we can hardly avoid connecting this with the religious differences which agitated the East. a deme. the Emperor himself generally patronising either blue or green. They were main- tained on an organised system. etc. is symbolised by the colours white. and at the end of century the monophysite Anastasius in favoured the Greens. in which white and red had been respectively absorbed. Caesarea. The origin of the four parties of the circus. and veiled in obscurity. At Constantinople in the fifth century they seem to have assumed greater political importance. Eor the parties of the circus became soon identified with the the eunuch Chrysaphius. green. Marcian. or " people. especially at the beginning blue. Apamea. find in her are that she was rather short in stature and had a somewhat pale complexion. The masters or leaders of these parties (clomini factionum) are first mentioned in the reign of Nero. they cheered and fought throughout the capitals of the provinces they had existed in Byzantium since (at latest) the time of Septimius Severus. and the rivalry of the parties continued to a late period of the Empire. entitled "Ueber die Partheyen der Rennbahn." On this subject I have consulted with advantage the in article of Wilken the Abhandlungen of the Berlin Academy. Caliorila favoured the green. with regular officers. which were of considerable historical importance throughout. At — — . They were a machine by which the . red. It was not merely in Eome that these factions existed.

they wore their hair longbehind like Huns. We must not forget that the factions were and among the Blues there was clearly a select fellowship of unprincipled adventurers and debauchees. service and she held monophysitic transferred her It is When she married Justinian. 29. . as Anastasius had favoured the green. organised bodies. who afterwards treated her with scurrilous virulence in the Secret History. Her said to have been employed in opinions. under the cover of orthodoxy and loyalty. . The Greens. for he feels that there somewhere at which human endurance will rebel. father is identified with the green its faction. cap. were harshly treated. About this time they adopted the . to by Justinian in it He is said to have allowed commit the most outrageous acts of petulance and violence with impunity. but did not change her creed. characteristic that the opposition writer. ascribed this change of colour to personal pique. public opinion is more or check on a limit the acts of the sovereign. Even less a is in the most despotic state. and even to have heavily chastised governors who ventured to punish members of that faction for their misdemeanours. . in the days of her life as a public dancer. threw off the unable to mixed companies restraints of society. she sympathies to the Blues. We can perceive that the licence permitted to the favoured party was in a manner a political necessity. . who. Many looked upon the interest taken the blue faction as a mania. as we can infer from a notice in the Secret The Stj/jloi were History. over which demarchs (or 7r/)oo-rdrat) presided. favour the blue party. But it would be an error to suppose that all the members of the factions were like these obtrusive fashion of wearing beards like the Persians individuals. his vigorous policy his rapacious ministers events the affairs of the factions in the provinces interested and infhienced the factions in the capital. i THE REIGN OF JUSTINIAN 339 The support of the Blues was one of the elements on which the new dynasty rested the hostility of the monophysitic Greens was one of the lurking dangers against which It was natural for Justin and Justinian to it had to guard. and shaving the crown of the head to the temples. Now Jus- tinian's financial exigencies forced him and to try the endurance of his subjects all . exposed to the malevolence of their opponents and retaliate. Now was Theodora. on the other hand.chap.

It takes up so much space that the reader receives the impression that it was an important scene of the sedition. The affair was further complicated by the fact that the disaffection was taken advantage of by the party of the Anastasian dynasty. . Besides naturally excited satisfied this the monophysites were hostile to his government. etc. finally extinguished. a turning-point came. of the age of Justinian. On the 1 3th of January l the Greens complained to the Emperor in the hippodrome of the grievous oppression whicli they suffered. and favouring one division. opinion was a force which he could not ignore. The import of this event was that Justinian attempted to render himself independent even of the blue faction. . John the Cappadocian and the other unpopular ministers were safe. a guardsman. who had been a Green in the days of Anastasius and had become 1 As the conversation which took place between the Emperor and the Greens (recorded verbatim by Theophanes) is not really closely connected with the sedition which followed. the sedition of " Mka." which shook the throne. It was consethe quently Justinian's policy to enlist in his service one party as government organ. The populace were dison account of the reduction which was made in the distributions of corn. especially from Calapodius. I have preferred to reserve it for the chapter on manners. whereas it was only an accident that the sedition followed at this moment. 340 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE book iv much discontent. As long as the two parties were opposed. the conservatism of the patricians and senators revolted against the Emperor's ideas of innovation and no favour was shown to the professional classes. Now circus was the place in which public opinion could express itself. while his position depended on a party... especially as had made itself heard in the reign of Anastasius. .d. But it is evident that such a policy could not be permanent Justinian could not be content. which had grown intolerably turbulent. and his party was naturally the which had been the party of opposition under Anastasius. The blue faction consequently coalesced with the green and the Emperor quelled the rebellion by the soldiers. an element of danger which the Emperor a sort of blue. In 532 a. He could thus paralyse resistance on the part of the people by keeping them divided. the denies of the circus were organised parties capable of political combination and action. and there Public were it many adherents of the family of Anastasius.

Malalas. The Blues supported the Emperor. He died in 545. As some of the criminals were Blues. i. and carried the two criminals to the adjacent monastery. was "To the " friendly Greens and Blues long life 1 . guards of the palace. 4 from the Persian war. Green. bicly). still against the oppressive administration. which had taken place. great general was about twenty-seven I conjecture that he was years of age. bcl or Mel (Russ. The were not numerous. but as Justinian had made a practice of selling sinecure commissions The troops present capital who used formerly for large sums. i THE REIGN OF JUSTINIAN 341 new dynasty. 2 Another street cry. 18th January. the. a Blue and a without difficulty. " conquer. V. 11) we learn that Belisarius was born in a dis3 ' trict called Germania. Tribonian the quaestor. designating the coalition of the parties." from which the sedition has received its name. cf. a name which points At this time the to German colonists. Belisarius. and Eudemius executions to from 14th flagrations city. Conon interfered alive. corps was not very lately returned efficient. Beside Procopius. the city was a scene of conall and witnessed in the the horrors of street warfare. for Be\t. and as the hitch in the execution tended to make the incident more impressive than usual. the Paschal Chronicle. who gives an account of sedition in his cle Bello Persico. consisted of 3500 men.chap. had a force of who were lodged in the precincts of the palace and it happened that the Gepid leader Munclus. and they chose the watchword Nika. i. between Illyri- cum and Thrace.= Slav. — tlie Procopius. . and the streets were soon the scene of sanguinary But a circumstance occurred which determined conflicts. and that his name means' White Dawn. 1 and twice the bodies fell. the hangman blundered. does not mention that three of the prisoners were to be hanged. to be recruited by hardy Armenians or Isaurians. Then the monks of St. ! xP 77AtaTl a ) was Tribonian's love of money (0tXonotorious (Procopius). of a Slavonic family. and Theophanes are our chief authorities but there is a short notice in the Chronicle of the contemporary Marcellinus. to the ground. the Blues and Greens united in a determination to avenge themselves on the civil authorities. The other four were to be beheaded. who was especially associated with During five days. and five of them were executed But in the case of two. who had done good service on the Danube cataphracti who had — cavalry completely mailed . 24. 4 From Procopius (B. a Blue under the the union of the hostile parties in a common insurrection Seven individuals had been condemned to death. 2 of The most obnoxious ministers were John the prefect of the the Cappadocia 3 the praetorian prefect. BeXoxpw/3drot.

the flames enveloped the senate house and spread along the Diabatika of Achilles 4 to St. had escaped to Asia. i. 1 An account of the good Phocas. When he drove forth he received an ovation. a wind blew flames northward. and Tryphon. 1 fairly Basilides. . their brother. de Mag. iii. but we do not know in what locality they were situated. of gold were spent on the new church without wronging any. but would succeed in dissolving their coalition with the Blues and so paralyse the But the excitement that prevailed was fomented by revolt. it This measure it could hardly have been expected to satisfy the Greens. Theophanes merely gives a list of the edifices which were destroyed. The palace of Lausus. difficulty to fecture secure. and a part of the hippodrome on the side of the Augusteum was consumed on the 16th (Friday) the offices of the praetorian prefect were fired. which wrought the destruction of the hospital of Samson and the church of St. rebuilt after the might have been expected that . 2 so that the insurgents had no one whom they could proclaim Augustus. For the topography I may refer the reader to Bk. present in the Besides these there were some regiments of municipal guards. On the 15 th (Thursday) the conflagration continued. cap. one must combine Malalas with the Paschal Chronicle. money was plentiful and life was 4000 lbs. Irene. and either from them or from the praetorium (which may have been in that region). and during his pre- 72 seq. and Probus. city with a corps of Heruls. On the same evening the offices of the prefect of the city were probably burnt. But Hypatius and Pompeius. Sophia were smouldering. Meanwhile the ruins of St. On replace the 14th (Wednesday) Justinian yielded so far to the public wishes as to depose the three obnoxious ministers and them by Phocas. 3 For the order in which the events took place and the buildings were burnt. 4 Malalas calls it the fyi/3oAos. his philanthropy and popularity. the secret machinations and bribes of the partisans of Anastasius' nephews. The people seemed resolved to overthrow the dynasty of Justin. 2 The house of Probus was burnt down when the insurgents sought him and could not find him. will be found in John Lydus. Malalas makes the initial mistake of placing the affair of the rescue of the condemned men on the third day before the Ides. Sophia. the nephews of Anastasius. 342 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE was also book iv frontier against Bulgarian invaders. v. In the afternoon Belisarius issued from the gate of Chalke at the head of his Goths and harassed the rioters until evenWhen he retreated they set fire to the Chalke porch 3 tide.. Justinian persuaded him with accept the office of praetorian prefect. were in attendance on Justinian in the palace.

iinopKeh. ended with the siege of a building in the Augusteum called the Octagon. revolt as an agitation entirely got up by the partisans of Anastasius' nephews. but with no purpose of pacification. to the palace. yav8a. . yavSapi has been proposed. 624. mask The insurgents were elated when they learned that Hypatius had left the palace they met him and constrained him to take the decisive step. who were Pompeius less present to leave among the to rest Hypatius and perhaps he thought that his two rivals would be dangerous outside. as a chronicler calls it) It was proclaimed that the Emperor would converse in person with the people. encouraged many private houses On Friday evencities 1 . ing some ships arrived with troops from neighbouring by this increase of his forces. and perished in the course of the conflagration. Saturday) assembled in the Augusteum. See Ducange. On Sunday morning Justinian ventured to appear in the in his hands." tinian. unable to expel them. Grace. intending The conflict perhaps to make a decisive assault on the palace. tiriopKeis. it is They professed be devoted to the Emperor. the baths of Alexander. while a multitudinous Maria. 2 . oath to Vitalian. and large crowds assembled. set fire to it. i.chap. the final sigma of the first word producing the initial of the second. Gloss. . Justinian sware that he would unreserved amnesty. soldiers. " You lie " in conjunction with some abusive vocative 2 and " As you kept your but all . Klieghim." for which an almost incredible derivation from deidapos = "ever flayed" or "beaten" has been proposed. ordered all the senators it. ayavdapi. and. A grant an comply with the sovereign could hardly say more ! he heard in reply was. et Inf. etc. "ass. where the rebels entrenched themselves the arranged an attack on the insurgents. From Hebdomon.pi is explained as equivalent to yadape. 3 On Monday morning (19th January) he was crowned in the Eorum of Constantine with a golden chain wreathed like a diadem. Chr. and demands than this of his subjects. even so would you keep this oath to us. fire i THE REIGN OF JUSTINIAN 343 in 465. cathisma of the hippodrome with a copy of the Gospels (the holy fjueyaXetov. Jus- when he returned . tried to prevent this consummaMarcellinus represents the Nika tion. 3 It is recorded that Hypatius' wife. Pasch." This theory of the revolt was doubtless encouraged by Justinian. the Emperor who on the following day (17th. Med. Hiswordsare: "Jam plerisquenobilium conjuratis omnique seditiosorum turba armis donisque ministratis illecta dolis invaderetentaverunt(imperium). forget the past. and soon afterwards he not clear whether their devotion was a . sat in the cathisma of the 1 hippodrome. and or not.

it In the meantime the Emperor and his court had messenger. first seize one of the other palaces in the Meanwhile Justinian strengthened the fortifications of the palace. there is no difficulty we have Yonder is the sea. but 1 Recorded by Procopius. biroTeptp is \6yovs avfifii^as PaaiXeus /ecu ?} j3aai\L8os iiri[iv7]<TdeL7). on the present occasion. ample funds. 3 ." was believed in the hippodrome that fled. had sent a messenger to Justinian. when you have once escaped to a place of security. if he was not present himself. and there are the ships. should be noticed that Procopius does not say that Justinian himself was It afraid. the attack the people assembled in the hippodrome. if ever. addressed as rju 5e tls tovtojv History. too grave to take regard of the prin- meet for a woman to speak among men. to save yourself. — de Justinien. John of Cappadocia recommended flight to Heraclea. and called a council of his ministers. This was the really decisive moment. you will not prefer death to safety. . "mistress.adr)s /ecu dicnroipav y\u>crcrav oSros ttjv aKoXaaros edonei elvai. re 5t] cbro/cctXoh? dfj. but their weighty opinions were outbalanced by the short speech of the Empress Theodora * : " The present occasion ciple that it is not is. when he has come into the world." They had come to the hippodrome in order to organise an attack on the adjacent palace. Now in my opinion. not to die but for one who has reigned it is intolerable to be an exile." the usual mode of address. " Hypatie August e. contrary to the judicious advice of the senator Origen. tu vincas.' 2 . 30 : 2 ws kcCXov ivracpiov 77 (SacriXeLa icri.'" 3 mere words of this speech we can understand might have produced but we can hardly realise how that effect was magnified when it proceeded from the lips of the Empress " cette diablesse de genie attachee a l'existence the From what effect it . nature is an unprofitable tutor. bidding him Ephraem. Eor Hypatius. and that Procopius. The Emperor was Compare Secret deairora. not yet sure of success. and Belisarius agreed with his view.— 344 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE book iv assembly below called out. ' winding-sheet. who recommended that they should city. cap. could not himself reach the imperial presence. Yet reflect whether. It is impossible for a man. I think. heard thern from Belisarius. . ' Emperor. I have no doubt that these words were actually spoken by Theodora. Those whose dearest interests are in the presence of extreme danger are justified in think- ing only of the wisest course of action. I agree with an old saying that Empire is a fair you wish. dXX' ov de<nr6Trjv . If . even if her guidance bring us safety. Mcnroiva. May I never exist without this purple robe and may I never live to see the day on which those who meet me shall not address me as Queen.

" 2 and this favoured the attack of the soldiers. Those who draw a line between "Boman" and "Byzantine" history might well look on this striking sedition as the last scene in " an imperial victory which established the form of absolutism by which " Byzantine history. v. and at the same moment another force under Mundus appeared at the Dead Gate on the east side. . see above. Belisarius first attempted to reach Hypatius himself by the spiral stair which led up to the cathisma. and Ephraem proclaimed the tidings in the hippodrome. It now seemed to the rebels and the perhaps unwilling usurper that they had only to take possession of the palace. ad ann. Hypatius and Pompeius were executed. Thomas. 3 Justinian. ignorantly or designedly. but they did not again shake the foundations of the throne as in the Nika revolt." for it resulted in Boman history" is generally characterised — a result perhaps partly implied in the remark of Procopius that the revolt was fatal in its consequences to both senate and people. p. gates of hippodrome. false information that Justinian had fled. Their rivalry outlived their short union." The blue and green factions made themselves conspicuous on several subsequent occasions during the reign of Justinian.000 persons perished in the sedition of Nika. i THE REIGN OF JUSTINIAN 345 he gave the message to one of the secretaries.. and as long 1 The has given may Thomas was a pagan the suspicion that he have been at heart disloyal to fact that rise to 2 For See Chron. it describes as " the last M. Narses' distribution of bribes meanwhile had succeeded in producing dissension between " the friendly Greens and Blues. When Theodora's resolution had conquered the prudence or pusillanimity of the court. Pasch. he entered the hippodrome by inner side. 1 gave him the a pagan. La Vie Byzantine. An unsparing massacre took place. who was Thomas. chap. and it is said that about 35. the eunuch Narses was sent forth with a well-filled purse to regain the allegiance of the Blues and the at the same time Belisarius led out his to troops in with the purpose of cutting the revolutionists pieces crowded enclosure. the general entrance to the west of the cathisma. Marrast 3 convulsion which marks the passage from Graeco-Boman antiquity to the Middle Age. but the door was kept fast by the guard on the Failing here. Bk. 180. i. cap.

and there was a more serious demonstration in suffering seems again to 556. and he is succeeded by Petrus. held the office again in 546 and 547. but his appearance quelled it. and as Persian ambassadors happened to be present. We . the house of the prefect of the against The factions clamoured Justinian in the circus. 1 We can hardly doubt that the Emperor. 556 (?). ) find Addaeus praetorian prefect in 551. who were undoubtedly connected with the conspiracy which was at that time formed against Justinian. the new and popular praetorian prefect of the East. orientis. Petrus in 555 (?). but they were rebuilt by the ambition of Justinian on a more splendid scale. praetorian prefect of the East. and 559. clvii. In 541 constitutions are addressed to Bassus. for the fulfilment of whose schemes enormous 1 John is praet. reviled and stoned the new urban prefect Andreas. during a great dearth at Constantinople. Areobindus in 553. 546. We must postpone to another place some account of the new St. when common have united the foes. The conflagration of so many important public buildings would have entailed a heavy outlay for their mere restoration. the Emperor felt especially indignant and mortified. which were incurred simultaneously with the costly wars in Africa and Italy. The people cried. But in the course of little more than a year John the Cappadocian returned to office and oppression. the condition of the subjects seems to have somewhat improved. book iv as they and in spite of the occasional storms that broke out their importance was really decreasing." and they pulled down city. On 1st June 541 Theodotus is P. and their behaviour led to a battle with the Blues. Sophia. P. It is recorded that a faction fight took place in 549. but they are then far on their way to political insignificance. owing partly to the milder though short administration of Phocas.346 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE were hostile there was no danger for Justinian . whose skill raised the city from its ashes fairer than ever. 545. and in 563 the Greens.). but Bassus seems to have been the prefect during the latter part of 548 (Nov. Notwithstanding these expenses. and we can trace him every year in the imperial constitutions as the holder of this office up to September 540. In 561 a conflict of the Blues and Greens took place in the hippodrome before the Emperor arrived. and the architectural works of Anthemius. I shall have to speak of " the colours " once or twice again in the reigns of Maurice and Phocas. " Provide supplies for the city. to whom laws are addressed in 543. Theodotus perhaps 544. the vicarius of John. pref. in December 533 (Novel ii. clviii.

Peter was said to have been a favourite of Theodora on account of his skill in magic. where he lived for some time as a priest relentless indignation of Theodora but the pursued him. curious stratagem. He was but notwithstanding. whither he returned after the death of Theodora in 548. was scourged and stripped of his goods for slaying a bishop. and Marcellus. that Justinian. who is described by Procopius. the praetorian prefect in time of Theodosius I. who was not without ambition and eagerly embraced the chance of ascending the throne with the help of the army. aware of the plot. probity was not unrecognised. 3 The officials were Narses. . but that he could make no attempt to throw off the intolerable yoke without aid from some influential person in the ranks of Euphemia communicated this news to her the civil ministers. the successor of John in the office of prefeet. was little better than John. sent to John a secret warning against the trap . found that his treasury was not so since the degradation of this unscrupulous minister. 25. conspired. the wife of the general Belisarius. He ended his days as a presbyter at Constantinople. sent to Cyzicus (541 a. disgraced but still wealthy. in spite of the Secret History. contrived by her friend Antonina. and fell. P." acquaintance of John's daughter Euphemia. and he .d. and Arcadius. and as he had a very high 2 Proc B. 1 belonged originally to Rufinus. a country house of Belisarius. and con- cluded that the only way out of his difficulties was the rethis appointment of John.).chap. as a woman " more capable than any l Antonina cultivated the one to manage the impracticable. it appears that. who had shown ingratitude for all his services. Marcellus still held this office in 548. and gave her to understand that Belisarius was highly discontented with the reigning powers. i THE REIGN OF JUSTINIAN 347 full funds were necessary. captain of the palace guard. The enemies of Justinian might appeal to as their best proof that the as to the reappointment Emperor was utterly unscrupulous means employed to carry out his ideas. the eunuch. John went. had reputation for uncompromising probity. The overthrow of John of Cappadocia was due to the She ruined him by a hatred of the Empress Theodora. Peter Barsames. 2 and the Empress took care that 3 officials with soldiers should lurk near to overhear the impliIt is said cating words and arrest the unsuspecting conspirator. Eufinianum i. father. He arranged a secret interview with Antonina at Rufinianum. According to the Secret History. her husband's secretary.

really. but of depriving physicians of their allowances. (see above. He was accused of discouraging fessions. Such is the general tenor of the charges made by the dissatisfied member of the party of opposition. the because it was so all unsparingly liberal pro- suppressed. . whose duty was to draft imperial rescripts. he always condescends in his constitutions to give reasons. The Justinianean quaestor must be distinguished from the old quaestors of the fifth century. Justinian that his 2 Novel xcix. who was in Greek called vvKreirap^o^. the soldiers were ill treated by logothetae.348 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE The absolutism of Justinian provoked a strong bitterer all book iv and bitter opposition. (9th March 539). hrjfjLoov) In 535 Justinian superseded the prefect of the watch {praefectus vigilum). rfj fiev rifMerepa praetores 5£ plebis Tavrrj irpoaayopeveadoja-av. retarded their promotion. who has " painted the agony of the Empire under " the demon Justinian in the Secret History. and no arrears were remitted. (pwvr) (ed. was strangers who had no . as well as est notre plaisir. who cheated them of their pay. The merchants were harassed by customs and monopolies. of not only suppressing philosophers and sophists. for his acts. kclI rrj 'EW&81 kolvtj irpaiTwpes drj/xcov. 1 wdiose chief function was to keep order in the In 539 he appointed a to prevent idlers and from sojourning in Constantinople 2 and in the constitution by which this office was instituted the legislator dwells with complacency on the fact that the institution of the praetor plebis had been found by quaestor. Zachariii). but we may remark here something will be said that. pitilessly imposed. 205). always seems to be proud native language was Latin. " night prefect. On this subject in the next chapter. and prohibiting the pay which lawyers (rhetors) had been accustomed to receive." a name which the imperial constitution derides as absurd. often of his subjects. p. whose city office both by night and by day. offices instituted by Justinian seem to have been unpopular at Byzantium. etc. although the general tone of Justinian's rule was Tel elaborate reasons. to have Empire or the replenishing of the treasury. special business 1 Novel xxxviii. and gave them deficient rations. and ap- Two new pointed the praetor plebis. Taxation. and that many of his laws seem aimed at the wellbeing and not merely at the external prestige of the professedly. weighed heavier than ever on the landed proprietors and farmers. that of the praetores plebis {irpaircope^ and the new quaestorship.

i — THE REIGN OF JUSTINIAN 349 experience "very advantageous to the inhabitants of this our imperial city. and very unpopular. that For after the always deigns to sustain us with eternal generosities. and Justinian does not weary of boasting of For the divine favour which has been vouchsafed to him. xiv. when even the founders of the old law lay down clearly and distinctly that the constitutions. was the is new one." In a law concerning imperial constitutions and edicts. he goes on forth by imperial decree. what more sacred than the imperial majesty ? who is puffed up with such haughty conceit as to disdain the royal judgment (regalem smsum). known Tanta* run thus as Digest (533). meaning Persian) wars had been lulled to sleep by an 1 Tribonian died 545. 2 In Nov. 12. and was sueceeded in the quaestorship by Junilus (Anecdota. 3 the Emperor exclaims: "What is greater. : it " So great in our regard is the providence of the divine humanity. Tribonian. 3 Cod. 1 the great first quaestor under the new system. Zacharia) this heading will be found in Greek. 2. lb. which " was read aloud " in the new consistory of Justinian's palace in 529. i. which have gone And.— chap. xvii. Just. cap. on the the constitution the opening sentences of example. and he said to have been a lover of gain. 20). The imperial pride is always flavoured with the religious spirit of the time. (ed. the sole to interpreter of them likewise. The imperial style adopted by Justinian in his constitutions The preface to the second edition was pompous and imposing. 4 . . Both these innovations are mentioned in the Secret History as organs of Justinianean oppression." and states that the success of that office sug- gested the introduction of a lawyer. of the Codex (534). are valid as law ?" laws the sole worthy promulgator of the is say. Parthian (Parthica. Triumphator is rendered by TpoiraLovxos and semper Augustus by deiae^acrTos avyovaros. couched in the form of a constitution. lx. begins thus ' 2 : ' In nomine Domini nostri Jesu Vvanclalicus Christi Imperator Caesar Flavius victor Jnstinianus Alamannicus Gotliicus Francicus Germanicus Anticus Alanicus Africanus pius felix inclitus ac triumphator semper Augustus senatui urbis Constantinopolitanae S. This institution of Justinian possessed vitality in the eighth century we shall find that the quaestor existed and exercised the same functions as the Novel of 539 assigned to him.

heavy-laden with old age. shape of an abridgment of moderate size.350 HIS TOR Y OF THE LA TER ROMAN EMPIRE book iv Everlasting Peace and the Vandal nation had been overthrown and Carnay all Libya. to thage." of our watchful form of beauty m the assume a new . had been united again with the Roman Empire it has enabled the ancient laws. which no one. by means care— an achievement. before our reicm ever hoped for or even deemed possible for human intellect.

indissolubly visited Beside him stands Theodora. and Spain. may man . tt)s dpxaias '6\peus tone of his constitutions. it is hard to win a distinct idea we have only a vague glimpse of the features of that form which dominated Europe. we are told. But of whose works changed the history of the world. a book of who have fame which has thrown a doubtful light or shadow on the imperial court. or malevolent pasquinades. etc. He loved the revival of old names (praetor. another baffling problem.) dpaKa\o6/j. We may He may be On His old first resume briefly Justinian's historical position. and perplexes the The sixth century himself. and associated with Justinian for those who have San Yitale in Eavenna. 1 and this was chiefly realised by his conideal. The great juristic works last executed at the beginning of his reign breathe to some degree the spirit of ancient Rome. as well as for those ill read the Secret History. the historian. His elusive personality hides behind meagre statements. And even those who do not care for the ana- lytical dissection of motives. quests in Italy. Africa. the one side his face was turned towards the past. likened to a colossal Janus bestriding the way of passage between the ancient and medieval worlds. — revealed in his works — who see the greatness of Justinian " by their fruits ye shall know them " feel nevertheless tantalised at the elusiveness of his individu- ality.€vos 28). uninstructive panegyrics. 1 Moreover he represents the Johannes Lydus speaks of Justinian o\rjp tt)v as dcppvv (ii. was to restore the proud aspect of the Roman Empire.CHAPTER II JUSTINIAN AND THEODORA be called the age of Justinian. and this is the .

or death of the Greek spirit. v. He tampered with and partly changed the administrative system of Diocletian he allowed the Greek tongue to supplant Latin in official documents the authority of the Twelve Tables. it was Solomon and not Pericles that he desired to imitate and surpass. in architecture. long in disuse. in law. peror as reus /j-era^oXats tCjv del irapbvTuv Tjdofxevov (iii." other hand. and these two events may be considered symbolic of the death of the Eoman and the The Graeco -Eoman. Sophia. " Of those who reigned at Byzantium he was the first absolute 1 sovereign (avroKparayp) in deed as well as in name. and affected the development of western Europe . book iv stage in the evolution of the fulfilled its Koman Imperium From Augustus " . the " dyarchy of the Emperor and the Senate which was abolished in the monarchy of Diocletian and from Constantine to Justinian there was another dualism between the Church and the Imperium. . fida. in him was to Diocletian there was a dualism. In four departments Justinian has won an immortal name in warfare. 1 4. the philosophical the disaffected. Eomaic. Byzantine spirit is installed in their place. The historian Agathias expresses Justinian's absolute government by saying. . Justinian was thoroughly penetrated with the spirit of the christian world and in the erection he spent his nights in theological studies of the great church of St.: . . . part of the period an antagonism which was conditioned by the falling asunder of eastern and western Europe and it was by reuniting the West that Justinian was able to overcome the dualism and assert his ecclesiastical authority. was and fundamental conceptions at length formally abolished peculiar to the Eoman civil law were set aside. he cast into the waters of the future great stones which created immense His military achievements decided the course of the circles. which passed into JusThis second dualism reached in the latter tinian's absolutism. and in church history. Standing on the shore of the medieval or modern period. he was a great innovator On the and a destroyer of old things 2 and this was made a ground of complaint by The consulate was abolished. . . . Thus Agathias makes the Colchian persona Aietes speak of the 9). history of Italy. 1 2 Agathias. schools of Athens were closed. which still remains to commemorate him. 352 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE ultimate absolutism. Em- .

the event as she justifies all her true children. Slaves. partly by money payments. Huns. and Germans. and of authority influenced the distant future Christendom. the historical and the biographical and on the . another. one of the visible signs of the continuity of history. altogether in check they were continually devastating the Balkan provinces. As to the oppressive taxation. Sophia is one of the greatest monuments of the world. which could not be entirely dealt with by this system. in paralysing their hostilities sufficiently to prevent them from West.— chap. a standing protest against the usurpation of the his ecclesiastical Turk . Money payments were often useful and necessary. foiling the prosecution of his projects in the Frequent and large money payments were necessary. VOL. It consisted of two parts. which could be only temporary. ii JUSTINIAN AND THEODORA 353 his legal works are inextricably woven into the web of European his St. (1) a very severe taxation. 1 In spite of all the misery. and he was obliged to oppose them with armies destined for Italy but he succeeded. I 2 A . all the dark shades that we perceive when we look closely at the details of the picture. . the power of Persia under the great king Chosroes Nushirvan. But the means by which he accomplished these things renHe accomplished them by an artificial dered him unpopular. but the defence of the Asiatic frontier was a constant and considerable check on the Italian This is evident from the increased activity in the West which always succeeded a peace with Persia. and in so far the second part of his system depended on the first. There was one limit on his activities. the execution of his designs was inconsistent with the present prosperity of the people. partly by turning them against one . Limited as he was by the circumstances of the time. the universal and the individual. and (2) a system of ingenious diplomatic relations with those barbarian peoples who hung on the northern frontiers of the Empire. we have no option but to conclude that for the bulk of Justinian's subjects his reign was not a blessing. Justinian's reign will give many the pleasant impression that it gave to Bekker. civilisation . system. There are the two sides here as elsewhere. the impression of a fortunate island in the midst of a raging sea "quod tamquam insula fortunata in mari infesto eniteat" (Preface to ed. of John Lydus). and broke down on his death. 1 But history justifies him by campaigns. He was not able to keep these nations.

should we not credit Justinian with elevated and far-seeing purposes.354 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE book iv principle of good coming out of evil. now dead. would be an anachronism to judge him by the To praise Justinian's absolutis ism in the sixth century it not to praise absolutism. which is at Instead of attributing the good results to least equally valid. planet of Mercury. attributed and placed him as a revolving light in the " Fui Cesare e sono Giustiniano. . — transient things. from . a sort of accident not really apper- taining to the glorified Justinian. those effects historical motive. in representing the court as a hotbed of corruption. both in themHistory or providence. consisting of monophysites. looking upon the desire of fame as a celestial quality. and ascribe the miseries of his subjects to door those evils lie the instrument of history cancelled is But this theory is by a rejoinder. " providence " and blaming Justinian for the present evils. and it canons of modern philanthropy. it may be said. may be considered equivalent to the but this avails not the individual at whose . Dante. in aspersing the ministers of the crown. There was naturally a strong and virulent party of opposition Emperor's government. while they are forced to praise his works. the secretary of Belisarius. one might reply. individuals are more or less environment and passing The motives of all the actions of personal. to the They were interested in putting the most unfavourable construc- tion on all imperial acts. and those of prominent men are generally more or less tinged with the desire of fame. selves and in their historical results. and others who felt the touch of his stern hand. taking the individual out of his irrelevant moral judgments. This feeling doubtless gave animation to the activity of Justinian. the green faction. 1 See the Appendix to this chapter. the defective economical conditions of the age ? Perhaps the only value of either of these views is to the antinomy teaches us to refrain from cancel the other introducing the biographical point of view into history. fully justifies present evils by their effects in the future . The 1 essence of this virulence has survived in the Secret History attributed to the historian Procopius. many condemn the great man. condemned." he says words which we might apply in a different sense to to Dante signify that the imperial administration and its evils were to Justinian.

that a member of the opposition. there was method in the author's madness. some malignant presence the that cowering by the throne of Emperor. answ er either of these questions with The details of both problems are reserved a simple yes or no. ever attending his steps. incorporating the calumnies which were afloat about the Emperor and into the up the Empress. ii JUSTINIAN AND THEODORA 355 There are two distinct questions connected with this curious book (1) Was Procopius of Caesarea the author ? (2) Are its statements trustworthy. but that the work or ephemeris of that his- was nevertheless founded on a diary . lived in the shadow of . I think. agree in the is Eanke. we must it observe that the work has a considerable value not only as a product of the age. moved some inhuman horror. dora before her marriage appeared on the stage. or not at all ? We cannot. We can hardly doubt that Theo- statement resting on . faction. In regard to the second question. : T for an appendix . In regard to the first. that Procopius torian main with the opinion of not the author. but conclusions I may be stated here. This book of pain and horror leaves upon the mind the impres'sion that the enlightened spirit of Justinian. one hand. on the not entitled to make use of any particu- the unconfirmed authority of this on the other hand." through whose fatal power the destinies of himself and Theodora. But but setting aside these here.chap. his notable projects. wholly or partially. a historian lar is it seems plain that. and there were underlying facts which gave relevancy to the inventions. John the Cappadocian. . in which regard will be spoken of in another place. haviug obtained possession of the diary or a copy of it worked all form of the Secret History. but also as expressing the feelings of bitterness which the government of Justinian excited. Belisarius and Antonina. document but that. barely touch evidence of the Secret vexed questions. probably of the green it. his high thoughts. lurking in the gallery of the palace where he walked in meditation at night. charge her with licentiousness after her marriage. for the author's picture of her career is would otherwise have no point and there some method apparent in the circumstance that he does not . on which we can and for the present rejecting the History on matters of fact. some unutterable " Dweller by the Threshold.

but a bold and able woman with enough of the diablesse in her to The bold effective explain how she might be traduced. her scheme to overthrow Her . That pasquinades and scandalous stories were in circulation about himself and his wife cannot have escaped the knowledge of the watchful Emperor. The circumstance that John was a disappointed civil servant and makes no concealment of the degeneration of the the purpose of defending Justinian such apologies by the way would make service. he caused a sort of apology to be written before he died. we do not meet a tigress or a malicious demon in woman's form. may be appealed to in support of the theory that he had some special inducement to speak diligently on every opportunity of Justinian's personal blamelessness. and. to which this effect is due. who in their own day exercise a baleful influence in the world. her interference for the wife of Artabanes. . reproduction of the portrait in the chiefly through Gibbon's Secret History. if I may make a conjecture. and When we turn from in after times allure the imagination. to stake everything for empire that intervention on occasion. of which a portion is still extant. Of these. her solicitude for reclaiming aban- importance that doned women. speech which she made on the occasion of the Mka sedition is one of the most engaging episodes in history she was ready and she won. a typical example of those fascinating and voluptuous women. are the only facts of we really know about the Empress. her active interest in supporting the monophysites and their doctrines.356 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE book iv and many other victims. and read what trustworthy authorities tell us of the Empress. were entangled in an inextricable mesh of hates and lusts and bloodshed. the oppressor John the Cappadocian. her charity and almsgiving. The treatise on the civil service of John the Lydian bears many traces of having . have employed John the Lydian in the matter may be concluded from the fact that he did at an earlier elate employ him to write a panegyric of himself and a history of the Persian war. been written with and the introduction of it far more weighty That Justinian might and effectual than a formal panegyric. The Empress Theodora has become. . the Secret History.

. and in intelli- " . theology. unequally divided 1 Liberatus and Victor are severe on Theodora for her heresy. He was a man of wide education. and the remark of Procopius. she fed the sheep of Christ when she sat on the throne and in the eyes of orthodox Chalcedonians the second pasture was far more offensive than the first. earlier sources that she was charit- . reign and a king philosophise. he calls her. of whom the same had been said before. member John the Lydian speaks scribes of her in high terms. " superior in sympathy for the oppressed always awake . when he de- how she informed her husband of the misdeeds of John a woman. But if Justinian were never young. Had she believed in the two natures. 1 and any enor- mity. she might have been more extravagant in lusts even than she is said to have been. the Cappadocian gence. ii JUSTINIAN AND THEODORA damned her most in made them ready to believe of her 357 the fact that the eyes of Baronius and Aleniannus. his days and nights laborious. His mode of life was severely abstemious and ascetic. the historian. There is a cold atmosphere about him the atmosphere of inexorable Eoman — logic. how different he was from the Emperor Marcus Aurelius. — when a philosopher should The remark suggests the reflection. afraid of no consequences which is tinged also with a certain mysticism. will certainly in the present day do her memory little harm. and no of the orthodox Church would have cast a stone. that she could not withstand the supplications of the unhappy accords with this. and a friend of his said that the time despaired of by Plato had come. Gibbon's remark that Justinian " was never young " aptly conveys the sort of impression he gives us. jurisprudence. She is said to have fed the geese of the devil when she was on the stage. learned in philosophy. Zonaras says that she was avaricious yet we know . Her enthusiasm for religion when she was an Empress is put on a level with her alleged profligacy as a girl. her religions faith that Christ's nature was not dual. music. it cannot be said that he did not grow old. and the two remarks together establish the fact that she was a sympathetic and compassionate lady. There is an unmistakable difference between the first part and the last part of his reign.chap. and architecture. from able.

. the deep Euphrates. life lend the Emperor an almost and nocturnal studies seemed to inhuman character which. when he was. however. lay too effects. The conception of Justinian conception of him and Theodora the blood of the Empire or fiends as a malicious demon. and perhaps one of the earliest. or the as a pair of vampires sucking feasting on the misery of men. 2 Greek writers. We can hardly. We may think. Justinian's mother. such a visitation think. The epithet " great " was not indeed permanently bestowed upon him by posterity 2 but then it was not bestowed on Julius Caesar nor on Augustus. is not the same after stress much It was after it. often speak of 6 fxeyas 'lovaTLvtavos. dead of night. Eoman spirit. if not young. is a curious.358 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE book iv by the Great Plague. it may be observed. is said to have confessed that his father was a demon. and the Em- 1 peror was seen walking in his palace without his head. and it was bestowed on Leo I. so it may be said of the Caesar who reconquered Italy and Africa. prepared to carry out his suggested to his enemies the theory that he an incarnate demon who took a delight in death and ruin for their own sake. delight in mischief for its own mere sake. of subordinate importance. 1 This notion. The Secret History is full of tales of this kind. com. As of that Caesar who fulminated at . may — But such outcries do not affect the position which Justinian must always hold. I on its moral as well as physical the Plague that Justinian devoted all his energies to theological points sat without guards at the priests. I the conquest of Italy. vigorous and hopeful. or with the malady of the Middle His ascetic mode of bined with his cold plans at all costs. deep in discussions and almost lost his interest in say. per populos dat jura viarnque affectat Olympo. that he was clispiritedness. His great ideas were accomplished or undertaken in the earlier period. instances of the idea was really of Schadenfreude. with very ancient touched with Ages. Vigilantia. be taken as the outcry of a sacrificed generation sacrificed without being consulted to the realisation of an idea. The plague not only injures the body but paralyses the spirit a man or a nation that lives through .

and was executed on that account. and most historians. who edited it with a learned commentary. the Secret History is is not consistent in two of its allegations with statements of Procopius in his Gothic War. M. January 1887. also called the Anecdota. deed was done nor does an obscure passage in a fragment of a letter from Gundelina to Theodora. in their Impiratrice general tenor. Mallet in his clever essay on " The Empress Theodora" in the English Historical Review. of Cassiodorus (x. Epist. 20). Dahn the author of Procopius von Cdsarda. and suborned the . according to the Gothic War (ii. The only motive assigned for the alleged design of Theodora is jealousy. and in one case its statement intrinsically less credible. attributed to Procopius. 300 scq. separately. preserved in the Far. Accord- ing to the Gothic War. 1 Weltgeschicktc. Theodahad murdered Amalasuntha on his own according account. 1 where the problem discussed. 2. who. Debidour. Theodora devised the murder. the credibility and the authorship. But neither M. discredits the veracity of the anecdotes. It was discovered in the Vatican by Alemannus. The other case is that of the death of Constantinus. Mallet call question.) In the first place. tried to stab Belisarius. iv. The execution is said by Procopius to be due to " the its ambassador Peter to compass in arrive Italy till after the . and he had an intelligible motive to do so to the Anecdota.APPENDIX ON THE "SECRET HISTORY" ATTRIBUTED TO PROCOPIUS One of the most interesting and difficult problems in history is the Arcana Historia. Debidour nor Mr. and is followed by Mr. Gibbon. (1. 8). nor do they refer to the authorship of the document in the suggestive essay of Leopold von is Ranke on Procopius. follow Alemannus in statements of the chronique scandaleuse. But Peter did not perpetration. . including F. afford even the shadow of a foundation for suspecting the Empress. p. in his accepting the U Theodora (1885). if not in detail. It is con- venient to deal with the two questions.

to facts from public history we may doubtfully add that of Pope S^verius. is not clear. cap. This case. The treatise was written either before or after the death of Justinian. which Eanke pointed out. and Belisarius. 22). in which he was obliged to leave out many details. and many minor personages survived Justinian. whereas. for the words of the Anecdota need not necessarily imply that S^lverius Avas murdered or his death caused by Antonina to Liberatus.— 360 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE book iv envy of Tyche. whether its authorship by Procopius were proved or disproved. is obvious. critics have not called attention might be sufficient to raise a presumption against it. Antonina. it is in open contradiction with the last words of cap. Throughout the work Justinian is spoken of as deceased. 30 SirrjviKa ovv )} avOpoiTros wv lovcTTtv Lavas d-rreXOrj tov /3lov are twv 8atp:6v(ov credibility of the suspected book. If these inconsistencies of the Secret History with public accredited history were the only objections which could be brought against the Justinian's death. Secret history must know many things to which public history must close its eyes. he a> 8rj koli to es ^LiXfiepLOv eipyao-rat fxiao-fxa. If it was written before his death. If it was written after his death. in the preface. but they would not go very far towards condemning it. then the same reason which prevented Procopius from publishing the scandals in his earlier works would have operated still and prevented him from publishing the Secret History. however. Again. for suspected intrigues with the Goths. To these two cases of divergence as . as a king of a past age in the last words of the last chapter his death is referred to as an event in the future. 19) is at variance with a passage in the Ecclesiastical History of John of Ephesus. whose death is perhaps ascribed by the Anecdota (cap. As far as to this contradiction." In the Secret History Constantinus is said to have been killed by Belisarius. at the instigation of Antonina. because the actors were still alive. the author. The inconsistencies that really shake our faith and damage the book irretrievably are the internal inconsistencies. says that his treatise is intended to supplement the eight books of the public history. according was banished to the island of Palms. octol rrjVLKa8e Trepiovres rv^axrc rdXr]6h . The dilemma.000 lbs. : ?'} apyutv a7roXvcreL rbv {3lov. the fund of Anastasius I know. they would induce us to infuse the judicious granum salis. 1) to Antonina. and perished there of hunger (qui in Palmariam insulam adductus sub eorum custodia Procopius states that SjUverius was deposed defecit inedia. of gold saved by Anastasius were spent by Justinian in the lifetime of Justin (cap. so that the Emperor himself would not have been the only individual to be feared. for a private grudge. they . The statement that the 320. after was still extant. whether Procopius himself or another sub persona Procojni. where it is stated that.

Again we are told that the opposition in the imperial family to Justinian's marriage was so strong that. which has also credibility of the Anecdota this double bearing. just because it is a book written with a pronounced tendency strongly antagonistic to the imperial government. Justinian could never prevail on his uncle to consent. as . while the empress Euphemia lived. not be amiss to remind the reader of what is often forif these inconsistencies and childish exaggerations did not appear in the suspected document. indicates either a malignity or a fatuity on the part of the writer. 7) : — is described as a wonderfully silly man.- appendix ON THE SECRET HISTORY' ' 361 It will be observed that this inconsistency tells both against the and against its ascription to Procopius. The time of his marriage was a time when he was bent upon conciliating all parties. But the " In one place Justinian yet. The description of them testimony. Even . 16 we are told by the iyw. and the history was not published before 550. most striking inconsistency of all is to be found in the account of TheoIf the judgment of the Anecdotes is to count for anydora's elevation. The Anecdotes inform us that Justinian was equally remarkable for the self-restraint and austerity of his life. and all night till daybreak and yet the author of the Anecdotes is constantly reproaching her for thrusting herself into every department of public affairs. as far as their historical truth is concerned. He had reached an age when he might well be supposed to have outgrown the passions of his youth. preying upon humanity. But Theodora died in 548. at the time of her marriage to Justinian. the most profligate woman of (jier age. tells us that he chose this time to deliberately select for his bride the most infamous woman in Constantinople. The principle is that the admissions and not the It may gotten. it would be incumbent on the student of history to look on every statement contained in it with antecedent suspicion. In cap. professing to be Procopius. that he did not tell the full truth in his earlier work " for fear of the Empress " Theodora. Mallet in the article already mentioned (p. demons in no figurative sense of the word. which discredits his statements. which decidedly damages the really serious exaggeration in its language concerning the Emperor and the Empress. Other inconsistencies within the Secret History have been pointed out by Mr. we must believe that. and Alemannus observes. by common consent. Theodora was. the lofty title of patrician. His ambitious calculating temperament would be the least likely to imperil substantial And yet Procopius advantages by an act of the grossest imprudence. And yet he had sufficient influence to induce his uncle to confer on this abandoned woman. In another place Theodora is blamed for sleeping all day till nightfall. whom the emperor entirely refused to countenance. Another contradiction has been noticed by Ranke. thing. of is as demons murder. Procopius elsewhere remarks on his keen intellect and constant attendance to business. so as to secure the succession to the throne." Another feature its of the Secret History.

but there —necessity is — . when we have no cor- Having seen that the Secret History cannot be accepted as a whole. was a contemporary of Justinian . not necessarily with her character. it is impossible to suppose that he was a writer in subsequent ages who invented for the sake of invention and got his stories from the air. Procopius must have known the former. is plainly untenable. There why But Mr. and wish to poison men's minds against him . and we : the latter he could scarcely invent. Even those who may question the correctness of the attribution of the Anecdota to Procopius will hardly refuse to admit that it was written by a contemporary of Justinian. his statements would have no point except they had some foundation in fact and they would be improbable if they contradicted some fact generally known about the person traduced. and a part true because improbable. who was evidently a man of brains. . This being granted. . is no reason the author should not have invented and deliberate invention on the part of one man is not the only alternative to the truth of the charges. If Theodora had been the daughter of a Teutonic king. We may therefore be sure that. and not calumnies which were evidently improbable. the scandals which he records of Theodora must have been consistent. are met with the question whether it must be entirely rejected and ignored by the historian. the venomous animosity of his tone is too sincere to admit of the supposition that he did not feel strongly against the object of his maledictions. or admits of a sifting process. a writer who wished to calumniate her and connect scandalous stories with her name would not be likely to choose stories which implied that she was the daughter of a Greek peasant. The principle of Gibbon was as follows " Of these strange anecdotes a part may be true because probable. If her youth had been spent in a monastery in Italy he would hardly represent her as an actress in a theatre at Antioch. and has been rightly censured by Mr. and so to stultify his work. In other words. it will be also admitted that if the writer wished to slander and prejudice men against the Emperor and the Empress he would invent calumnies which were 'prima facie probable.362 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE book iv pleas of an advocate are to be received roborative testimony. whoever he was. The author of the book." This Mallet. pernicious He is indeed right in condemning with Gibbon the maxim " that where much is alleged something must be another quite different reason for admitting is hardly too strong a word of drawing certain inferences from the statements in the Anecclota. but with some circumstances of her external life the necessity true". Mallet's own principle " That these scandals must be either substantially true or wholly false " seems to me to be equally — — untenable. unless the writer. intended to discredit his own inventions by making them 'prima facie improbable.

asks Ranke. " wie hatte es uberhaupt einem Autor einfallen sollen zwei verschiedene Werke mit denselben Worten einzufiihren ? Again. And. The other sister was Anastasia. who rejects Ranke considers them.. the introduction is quite inappropriate. Dahn. Dardania gives point to the things that are said about Justinian's uncle if he had been one of the Anician family of the Olybrii such things would not have been stated. but as an introduction to the Secret History they are quite irrelevant. both Professor and Mr. is also mentioned by John Malalas and Theophanes (6020 a. to have The low origin of Justin's family in carried a very sharp sting. where there is no question of geographical division. oirocra 8r) T€Tv\i] K € yevecrOat 7ravra^o^t Try? Pio/xouW evddSe ovk en The words in brackets are added in the Anecdota and do dpxrjsnot occur in the eighth book of the 'Io-to/hcu. But in the Secret History. While I reject. . yrrep [kou/ocov re {xot Svvarbv eyeyoVet twv rrpd^eoiv ras e7rtr7y8etW dpfiocrafxevai' SrfkuxreLs aTrdtras eVi tol Se St) kou] ^coptcav Tpornp tw elp^fxevoi ^vyKeicrerai' hrel ivravua yeypdxperoLL irdvTa. ocra fxev ovv Pco/xguW tw yevei 'iv re TroXe/xots o-XP 1 °^/°° ^vvqvkyu 7] yevecrOai. who record that she married Sittas. to which they formed a suitable introduction. are sufficiently consistent with the actual state of things.) As to the authorship of its the Secret History. TrjSe fxot SeScyjy^TaL. They words of the fourth book of the Gothic War. The inconsistencies already mentioned as affecting its credibility But the very first words tell equally against Procopian authorship. who accepts statements. In the eighth book Procopius deserted his system of geographical division and included in it narrations both of events in Italy and events in the East. and I believe he is right. scenica . mentioned as one of Theodora's in sisters the Secret History. the general of Ar- menia. it not to be genuine. It seems to me that all the anecdotes which the author relates of her early career would have been pointx less if she had not at one time been an actress. .m. and this introduction is an apology for changing his plan. . of the treatise are alone sufficient to are almost identical with the opening condemn that Iry pothesis. Mallet. then.). and as insufficiently vouched for by an enemy who discredits himself. the damaging scandals themselves as incredible. given concerning the oppression and extortion practised by Justinian and his ministers in taxation. unhesitatingly attribute it to Procopius. (2. This is a confirmation of my proves that the author position it he did not invent the built on facts name Komito. and the The details author was far too clever to write pointless stories. as we know it from other writers. etc. I hold that they rested on some basis of fact which prevented them from falling to the ground as prima facie absurd. . the preface awakens expectations which the work does not 1 It is is who worth noticing that Komito." appendix before she ON THE SECRET HIS TOR Y < ' 363 wedded Justinian. or at least improbable.

welche bei der Thronbesteigung Justinians durch die Besiegung der Nika niedergeworfen. Kanke holds that the Secret History is to some extent a compilation rather than an independent work. for example." Now the Anecdota supply new stories. the author of the I<rro/o«xt." says the writer. and the causes of occurrences already recounted. meinem Dafiirhalten sind die Anekdota eine Verquickung achter procopischer Nachrichten mit den oppositionellen Manifestationen einer Partei. therefore be my duty in this work to publish both facts hitherto suppressed. adding and interweaving figments which reveal " Xach the most acrid venom and the grossest superstition. HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE "I have been compelled. He holds that a member of the opposition party got possession of a manuscript of fragmentary jottings written by the true Procopius. . that he worked up these into the form of the Secret History. richt" (p. is singled out by Eanke as an " achte procopische Nach- 303). Combining the inappropriate character of the preface with the abruptness with which the first chapter commences. would have ever used the exaggerated language in which the writer of the Secret History pours out the c vials of his wrath upon Justinian.364 fulfil. aber keineswegs vollstandig unterdriickt worden war. but do not explain the causes of events related in the public history. book iv "to conceal the It will cause of many things which I recorded in my former books. further. almost impossible to believe that Procopius. It is." The history of Antonina's adultery.

tutions. but chiefly by his collection of the imperial constitutions into a code. whether archical. existence ultimately depends upon their These duties are to protect the community against other communities without. oligarchical. it was logical that the leges passed by the people in the comitia should be superseded by imperial consti- This process of supersession took place in the first . As the Emperor stepped into the place of the sovereign people of the republic. The efficacy of each of these two instruments depends upon the other the maintenance of the laws depends on arms. With world the this first general reflection Justinian introduced to the of the great legal monuments. and to protect it against its own individual members within and the means by which such protection is secured are arms and laws. to exist. called after the fortunate name of Justinian. . and successful warfare on the maintenance of the laws. Written law was of two kinds. . the imperial constitutions or placita.CHAPTER III THE LEGAL WORKS OF JUSTINIAN Every government.) — — lawyers. states clearly before his eyes that he has provided for the improve- ment both Empire. He . which have im- mortalised his name and contributed to the welfare and prothat he has kept both duties gress of mankind. but performance. has deraocratical. — of the military defences and legal securities of the of the latter by preserving old and passing new laws. mon- two duties if its to it perform is and it must up to a certain point perform them. It may perform them very badly. and the opinions or answers of recognised we may say licensed (1. or . responsa prudentium.

and often seriously modified the law as stated in that code. and we may say attained. Clearness. practice often conform to the written law in the second place. more ambitious. the bulky Theodosian collection could not be always consulted in courts. to the Theodosian code. and brevity were aimed at. to meet which some attempts had been already made. the obsolete laws expunged. book iv law the last lex we hear of was an agrarian There were collections of the constitutions before the time of Justinian his code was not a novelty. The Gregorian and Hermogenian codes of the fourth century were supplemented by the Theodosian code published in 438. and a commission of ten men. and a feeling that certain writers were entitled to precedence in authority gradually established itself without special enactment. words added for the sake of clearness.) Justinian's next undertaking was more difficult. or (2. There were two causes which rendered a new code desirable in In the first place. which century of the Empire of Nerva. which served as precedents for future decisions.366 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE . copies. contained all the constitutions from the time of Constantine. superfluous preambles or explanations omitted. These answers were scattered about in many treatises. completeness. a very large number of constitutions had been issued subsequently by Theodosius II and by his which were not collected in a convenient form. edited up to date. altered. including Tribonian and Theophilus. erased. No one had ever arranged in an in regard to official and accessible volume the responsa prucases dentium. A new collection of the constitutions. both successors. and on almost any the judge was sure to be perplexed by a large number of inconsistent citations. was determined on by Justinian (13th February 528). or answers given by lawyers recognised as authorities. . and more novel than the code. with the contradictions carefully eliminated. . Hadrian left the choice to the judges' own discretion. and not a few difficulties arose in their application. and failed to therefore the actual . owing to lack of the reign of Justinian. On many points antagonists might produce two opposite opinions. was appointed to execute it. in the Justinianean Code which was published on the 7th April 529. to which feeling the choice of authors in the course of jurisprudence for law special and legal points.

it did not abolish. But it was not too great for the enterprise of Justinian. 17. and that in cases where the opinions were equally divided that of Papinian should prevail. who had assisted in compiling the code. it seemed almost im- but the commission of seventeen specialists worked so it in exactly three years.chap. under the direction of Tribonian the quaestor. — . i. written by those lawyers who had been licensed by imperial authority to "interpret" the law. which may Theodosius II passed a very important measure V. immense that purged of superfluities. for the purpose of reading the books pertaining to Eoman law. and henceforward it only was to be consulted. canto vi.) Justinian's third. This inconvenience led Constantine to discredit the notes of Paulus and Ulpian on Papinian. in THE LEGAL WORKS OF JUSTINIAN 367 Gaius. and contains an account of the arrangement of the material. There was such admass of legal responses that the field seemed limitless and beyond all human capacity. 2 Tribonian divided his committee into three parts. The undertaking was possible. and the works of Papinian. as it were. the evil. which was to be divided into 50 books. Papinian and Modestinus. D'entro alle leggi trassi il troppo e vano. and the commentaries Ulpian and Paulus on the perpetual Edict. The constitution Deo auctore (Cod. and the material to be digested likewise into three parts the Sabinian school. a law library of 106 volumes was compressed to 5 J. the commentaries on the Edict. 1 Dante makes Justinian say {Parad. 2 The work was called the Digest or Pandects. slightest. accompanied the publication of the Digest (16th December 533). containing all the law of so 1300 years. — called the Law of which ordained that the majority of opinions should determine the decision. obtained paramount authority. intended for students. diligently that they completed entire (3. idea of " enucleating the old law. 1) is well worth reading. as they frequently differed from the opinions they annotated but this only lessened." who conceived the On the 15th December 530 he appointed a new commission. They were to eliminate all contradictions and omit all repetitions. 2) The constitution Tanta (i.). — the precursor of the Codex Justinianeus Citations. a holy temple of justice. and best of the principles of known work. 1 and when they had thus won the nucleus of the vast material. they were to arrange it in one fair work. 17. considered the precursor of the Digest just as his Codex was students considerably contributed. According to Eoby's computation. was a manual Eoman law. of .

with numerous additions. which no new opinions would For Constantine had abolished the practice of the supersede. and thus their answers were a given quantity. In the constitution of 530 A. 368 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE book iv in 4 books. The Code. Gneist. 2 This discovery was made by Fried- and Cassiodorus in the same way at- rich Bluhme in 1820. and the divisions were defined by mystic principles: 50 = 7 x 7 + 1. The Emperor's decisions were constitutions. which appointed the commission. final code in a defective and changing world would be really to us. Justinian issued a new . If a code were to prevent apprehend patent to not it would legislation be the reverse of beneficial. not responses. (17th December). to the Digest. prudentes.D. who created the had long ago ceased to exist. " up It is a point of special interest. omissions. because it could be looked upon The licensed lawyers. as was patent it must be continually re-edited up to date. containing it is the constitutions passed in the interval edition that has and this second But nothing could be more absurd than to insinuate that Justinian spoiled his Code by A passing a large number of laws after its publication. and changes. it can and Justinian was not so unpractical as this fact. independently of the nature of the mate2 rial. See Preface to tached importance to numbers. Roby's "Introd.. come down undesirable. each of which consists -fcf twenty-three books. of legal studies to be pursued at the schools of the course Constantinople and Berytus." Jerome . the Institutions. mass of case-law. its first publication. The first part 3 consists of 4 books in imitation of the Pytha- 1 Gaius and the Institutes can be most conveniently compared in the parallelcolumn edition of R. edition. prudentes and arrogated to the Emperor alone the right of deciding between the letter of the law and the dictates of equity. a priori principles. These were divided into 7 parts. and five years after as final. of the commentaries 1 At the same time the Emperor made alterations in of Gaius. 3 The remaining six parts fall into two groups. as indicating the spirit of the time. It is really a reproduction. a code in its very nature cannot be final. — The Digest was a more satisfactory as well as a more stupendous work than the Code. future all only be to date " . on the other hand. that the Pythagorean theories of to the arrangement of the Digest. consist of number were applied which was determined on it is decreed that the work shall 50 books. could not be final.

which at the end The of the second century B. which also determined the number of books : Students were instructed in 36 of the in the Institutions. Greek mysticism. ^ is characteristic that the orthodox Emperor should have And adopted the mystic numbers of the heathen philosopher. I 2 B . formed by the sentences of the praetor yeregrinus in disputes between Roman citizens and foreigners or subject peoples not governed by the jus civile. " the and universality through the spread of the Stoic philosophy. and doubtless imbued with Greek philosophy. of the first 4 odd and the first 4 even. and fifth-year students UpoXvTOLi. the importance of the second constituent. we do not know but it seems more natural to attribute it to the latter. and studied the Institutes and first four books of Digest. 50 books. 2 . The name 2 . As jf// First-year students were called Dupondii." As to which Hadrian gave the shape of an unalterable code. or set in a frame of. Hesychius' notice of Tribonian is curious he remarks that he was "EXX^ /ecu adeos. two portions. third . taken in doses determined by a Greek philosophy. which rested The latter was on the Twelve Tables.year students Papinianistae. VOL. for professors was antecessores. in THE LEGAL WORKS OF JUSTINIAN 369 gorean tetractys. See the constitution Omnem (16th December 533).— chap. Second-year students were Edictales . It attained dignity of priority Stoic 1 law of nature was identified with the jus gentium. it is characteristic of the Graeco-Eoman time that a thorough It mastery of the hard science of Roman jurisprudence should be Roman combined with. and the jus gentium. began to influence Rome. fourth . who was a pagan.year students Aurcu. and consisted of the " perpetual Edict. greater dignity — law the of nations. in which the new course of law for the universities of Constantinople and Berytus is defined. was to make " most perfect youths. law. the jus civile. The that is." increased. Rome passed from the humble position of a town in Italy to The course history modified Roman law consisted of ^0^ that of mistress of the world." of Roman law considerably. remaining 14 books (2 x 7) they could study afterwards by themselves. "in order that by reading 36 books they should become perfect youths." The charm it of perfection in the is num- ber 36 consists in the fact that the sum of the first 8.C. Whether this application of Pythagorean canons to fix the dimensions of the " most holy temple of Justice " was suggested by Justinian himself or by his quaestor Tribonian. numbers.

and consequently rendered the civil law universally applicable. it was natural that in the eastern provinces. and therefore would be a most suitable point from which to date the so-called Byzantine period. and facts are in turn modified by beliefs. Such forms as mancipatio and in jure But the Twelve Tables continued to it enjoy a formal authority until Justinian finally abolished and this among other things indicates that his reign marks the furthest limit of the old Boman world. and Latini ceased to be a But when the Empire was divided. Again. it is certain that the economical conditions which changed the slave system into the colonate and serf system were the chief cause. it would be equally a mistake to say that the circumstances adapted themselves to the sentiment. and to lessen the evils of slavery by humanising the relations with masters. . Christian influences might easily be. the law was influenced by the spirit of the new religion. cives. Eoman law tended to become cosmopolitan too and in the third century a. that the religious sentiment adapted itself to circumstances . 370 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE book iv the Born an spirit became cosmopolitan. among. but to modify it. this also Justinian set aside. of things is generally a simultaneous and reciprocal process of adaptation of fact to sentiment and sentiment to We can perceive that between the age of Gaius and the . which made all free subjects of the Empire Eoman citizens. Beliefs and sentiments generally adapt themselves to facts. As well as by the centralisation of the Boman Empire in lands not Boman. exaggerated. were superseded. Offences before considered only moral came to be considered legal also and on the other hand the harshness of the cold jura Romance was modified by considerations of humanity and equity. . separate seat of rule existed at Constantinople. It would be a mistake to say . one of the most venerable and fundamental was that of res mancipi and res nee mancipi . the distinctions of Boman law. The course fact. and a serious distinction. tended not only to widen the range of the old civil law and its peculiar distinctions. the jus gentium. the natural and universal law. Eor example's sake. The disuse of the slave system is often attributed to it but while we cannot deny that Christianity tended to discourage slavery.d. and often are. the Edict of Caracalla.. peregrini. should almost completely set aside the old civil cessio law of the Bomans.

66. dominion of theoretical science but Justinian's work is alto- gether conditioned by the principle of blending theory with practical legislation. and quam et fovere et tueri Romanis legibus et praecipue nosSlavery." 1 See Ulpian. whereas servitude was a constitution contrary to nature and 1 The ways this view is adopted by Justinian in his Institutes.. Eudolf von Jhering. 4 See Theil ii. (p. or the legislator on the cathedra. was still recognised by the laws. i. slaves. Abtheilung. and punishments were inflicted in the case of unions between freewomen of what he calls Jhering mentions a law of Zeno. but he should leave to science the things that are hers. in which a slave might be manumitted were increased in number by the Emperor 2 and he speaks of himself as the become stronger." 3 "Pro libertate however. cannot be reproached with invading the . and between freemen and the servae of others. 372. and this feeling . The Digest and the is Institutions are in- tended to be at once compendia and lawbooks. quoted i. li). protector of liberty. See Cod. authority. . 2. in THE LEGAL WORKS OF JUSTINIAN man is 371 age of Justinian the feeling that naturally free has was in the spirit of Christianity. legal As an example constructions. in which he puts forward the dependent character of emphyteuticaric contract. 3 It is interesting to observe the criticism which has been made on the legal work of German writers on Eoman Geist des rbmischen Rechts} Justinian by one of the greatest law. Inst. 2 v. in his Eoman legislation Until Justinian's time. result of such a proceeding The is disastrous that science influenced by Justinian's authority tended to cow the theorist. v. by Giieist on Inst. 2. p. " Caesar the things that are the Caesar's. he says. which Justinian set. Just. Florentinus said that liberty was a natural faculty. tro numini peculiare est. iv. The example of the schoolmaster on the throne. . has been only too Science should leave to readily imitated in modern legislation.chap.

) WAR (528-532 The Emperor Justin adopted the policy of conciliating minor peoples who. Belisarius. and an Iberian war occupied Kobad's attention.000 command Belisarius of Prince Xerxes. clare war against the successor of Anastasius. invaded Mesopotamia. as suecessor to Licelarius of Thrace. dwelling on the borders of the Roman and Persian realms. 30. were ready to sell or change their friendship or allegiance.D. Among others the Lazic prince Tzath. who pointed out that by Roman law the adopted son would have a le^al right to the father's inheritance. The was appointed to this post in the last year of Justin. hostilities not begin Justin's as a conspiracy of the Mazdakites. On the contrary. and that This literal deduction Persia might claim the Roman Empire. But Kobad was old. but lifetime. 1 directions to that the 1 As the building operstrong. through the influence of the minister Proclus. a Persian army. visited Constantinople. of Persia. did The in refusal was resented by Kobad. and gave effect. which recalls Arcadius' relations he made the strange proposal The that Justin should adopt his son Chosroes. may strike us as amusingly far-fetched. had shown his incompetence by an un- . Rome. Procopius was at the same time chosen by Belisarius as his secretary. who successful invasion of the territory of Nisibis. When a Justinian came to the throne he determined to found new fortress close to Nisibis.CHAPTER FIRST PERSIAN IV A. with Isdigerd request was refused. ations were progressing. commandunder ant in Daras. but it is an instance who had been the vassal and became the vassal of New and he did not immediately de- — — of the ancient habit of pushing things to their extreme logical consequences. which led to their massacre.

perhaps the nephew of Anastasius. pp." 4 Hermogenes had held the post of a magister. But nothing more occurred in the year 528. were taken prisoners. Belisarius. sent garrisons and new territory captains to the fortresses of Amida. " general of the East. and entrusted to Ponipeius. mil. advanced against them. Constantina. Sotiriadis in his important critical essay on Johannes von Antiochia (1887). Saracen auxiliaries. 2 The hostilities of 529 are altogether omitted by Procopius. Malalas renders their dues to other commanders. of soldiers in the East 3 (instead of Hypatius). and the beginnings of the new fortress were left in The victors had themselves expethe hands of the enemy. but the great king did not really desire it. with the help of Hermogenes. 1 Belisarius escaped. the commander of the. and the ambassador Euflnus waited in vain at Hierapolis. were Sebastian. and in the following month a corps of Phrygians plundered in the territories of the Persians and their Saracen allies. under several commanders who had joined forces. who. which closed with a severe winter. The hostilities of 529 began in March with a plundering expedition of Persian and Saracen forces combined. and Thracians. A new army was formed. and were defeated in a disastrous battle. so as to reflect favourably on Belisarius. and the Count Basilius. who penetrated into Syria. arpa. won his first laurels by a victory at Daras. Tapharas. . into supposing that Justinian introduced a new title. and Proclianus. iv FIRST PERSIAN WAR 373 Eomans. Kutzis. the duke of Damascus. Edessa. 114 sq. and retreated so swiftly that the Eomans could not reach him and force him to disgorge his booty. slain . The accounts of the two historians are carefully compared by G. and was one of the supporters of Vitalian in his revolt. 2 Belisarius was appointed at this time master .TT\ybv rrjs ew (Procopius). 4 who 1 For these events we must combine the slight account of Procopius with the more detailed narrative of Malalas. The following year (530) was a year of glory for the Eoman name. undismayed. Suron.chap. The only thing that was left for them to do was to make reprisals. Procopius exhibits a tendency throughout to colour events or curtail them. but the rest of the year was drawn out in ineffectual negotiations. consisting of Illyrians and Berrhoea. 3 ££ap%os "Pufiaicov (Malalas). under the guidance of the Saracen king Alamundar. and soon retreated into their own while Justinian. the general of the Isaurian troops. almost to the walls of Antioch. rienced grievous losses. and for the general Belisarius. at the early age of twenty -five. Scythians and Isaurians. Gibbon was misled by Procopius' conventional term for mag. There was much talk of peace. duke of Phoenicia. per or.

In the evening outside the walls of the town. in fact. 3 Such. and found their enemy occupying the same positions as on the For the apprehension of the details of the battle. which the Theophanes supplies the date. or sole commander of the Persian army. a trench ran outwards almost at right angles . During the afternoon the armies were diverted by two single combats. which was parallel to the opposite wall of the city. who had accompanied the 2 1 army unofficially. slew two Persian champions. largely conHuns and Heruls while Perozes.000 mixed and undisciplined troops. June 1 at the head of 40. arrived at Nisibis in confident of victory. is the it appears to evident meaning of the description of Procopius. At end of the central trench. and thus I believe it was . interrupted by frequent ways for crossing. however. two other trench.374 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE of book iv acted as a sort of informal coadjutor. 3 trenches were dug in opposite directions at right angles. and the mirran sent to Belisarius a message redolent of that. resolved not to let another day pass without a decisive action. they retired to their camp. This trench. and consequently almost parallel to the first Between the central trench and the town Belisarius and Hermogenes were posted with the main body of their troops. we may either say that it consisted of five separate trenches. The Eomans did not intend to submit to the indignity or^ tediousness of a siege they made preparations for battle. who were drawn up in carefully arranged positions. in which a Byzantine professor of gymnastics. appointed the mirran. a bath should be prepared for his pleasure. as he intended to bathe in the city on the morrow.000 They advanced within twenty soldiers. just oriental insolence — . as their general signified. the dispositions which the inventive genius of Belisarius had adopted must be explained. behind the main ditch and near the left " horn. On the left. were stationed close to a rising ground." a regiment of cavalry under Buzes. About a stone's throw from the gate of Daras that looks toward Nisibis a deep trench was dug. 2 but returned next morning. collected at Daras an army sisting of 25. The Persians arrived punctually and stood for a whole day in line of battle without venturing to attack the Eomans. tinuous right line . and 300 Heruls under their leader Pharas. was not in a conpreceding day. me. and where each of these perpendicular trenches or " horns " terminated. who had been . stadia of Daras.

. so that they counted barbarians began the action. with main body of Roman army. subordinate to the mirran. Cyril. John. Wall of Daras. etc. who has given a far fuller account of the battle than Gibbon. by the outermost ditch and the horn were placed 600 Hunnic The disposition cavalry. Pityazes. Baresmanas on the left wing and Pityazes The corps of Immortals. Hodgkin. and Marcellus occupied the position corresponding to that occupied by Buzes on the left. iv FIRST PERSIAN WAR 375 Heruls occupied in the morning. while other squadrons of Hunnic cavalry. led by Simas and Askan. As soon as noon was past the reserved the engagement for this hour of the day because they were themselves in the habit of eating only in the evening. Buzes. Half of the Persian forces stood in a long line opposite to the Eoman dispositions.— chap. Two generals. on the right. the flower of the army. Heruls. at the suggestion of Pharas Outside the angle made and with the approval of Belisarius. The details of the battle have been described so lucidly by a competent eye-witness that I cannot do better than reproduce the account of the : secretary of Belisarius in a loose translation " Neither began the battle till mid-day. Ao0os. . to replace the soldiers in front when they felt weary. under the Huns Sunicas and Aigan. were posted on the extreme right. while the Eomans ate at noontide. Marcellus. the other half was kept in reserve at some distance in the rear. Baresmanas. was reserved for a supreme occasion. Huns under Sunicas and Aigan. They had interpreted by Gibbon. John (the son of Nicetas). and illustrated it by a diagram his explanation hardly does justice to opdai Kepalai. Huns under Simas and Askan. I cannot agree with the construction put upon Procopius by Mr. Troops under on the right wing was exactly symmetrical. commanded the Persians. Belisarius and Hermogenes. Persians.

The foremost of the Persian pursuers. and forgot and fled in utter disorder. But Pharas and his Heruls. hurling him to earth from his horse. When both sides had expended all their arrows. and were caught and slain pell-mell. compelled by necessity. each side discharged volleys of arrows and the air was obscured with them . but a great number of soldiers fell on both sides. " The mirran [meanwhile] secretly sent the Immortals with other regiments to the left wing. and having routed their opponents. And coming athwart the etc. along with the Immortals. and their Huns. Aigan. victory untarnished. And thus both armies were entirely set in motion that of the Persians for retreat and that of the Romans for pursuit. side of the Persians they cleft their line in two unequal portions.) attacked the pursuers with great ardour. and slew many. . The left wing of the Romans was pressed most hardly. led by Baresmanas. turned But this from their pursuit of the fugitives to oppose the attackers. whom Sunicas killed with his lance. and the corps of the Immortals. . the standard-bearer of Baresmanas. were before them (the Huns) in falling on the rear of the enemy and performing on their offering a At . and placed behind them many of the troops that were under Belisarius' special command. they used their spears. Fresh relays of the barbarians were always coming up yet the Romans had by no to the front. the barbarians shot more darts. lest the Persians. seeing their standard lowered and on the ground. And the Romans. All the infantry of the defeated army threw away their shields. who were posted on the hill." first defeat experienced by the Persians . When Sunicas and Aigan with their Huns saw this they rushed on the Cadisenes at full gallop.376 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE first book iv less vigorous resistance if they were attacked fasting. attacked the Roman right wing at full speed. fled. pressed on them valiantly as they fled. Hence the barbarians fell into great panic. they commanded Sunicas. marvellous exploits against the Cadisenes and the other troops. they turned and fled. should turn and rout them if they followed rashly and they deemed it sufficient to keep the their valour. But when the Cadisenes saw the cavalry of Sunicas also coming against them from When the rout was conspicuous the the side. and Sunicas slew Baresmanas. For a wind blew in the faces of the Persians and hindered to a considerable degree their missiles from operating with effect. the Among the latter was larger number on the right and a few on the left. Then the left wing of the Persians. for Belisarius and Hermogenes would not permit them to go further. this being the for a long time past. who fought on the Persian right with Pityazes. Then those who were stationed in the angle (the Huns. When Belisarius and Hermogenes saw them. for the fugitive Then the other Persians party perceived what was occurring and rallied. And the Romans closed them in and slew about five thousand. movement placed them between enemies on both sides. rushed with Baresmanas against the Romans in that quarter. Yet the Romans pursued only for a short distance. The Romans met them. hand to hand. For the Cadisenes. apprehending their danger. to go to the angle on the right where Simas and Askan were stationed. unperceived by their adversaries means the worst of it. Romans joined together and inflicted a great slaughter on the enemy. unable to withstand the onset. had advanced suddenly in large numbers.

in the year 531 were resumed. whom he took the Persian plan of campaign. of Syria. 6020 A. not only defeated them. . tilities the rebellion. See Malalas. he adds that before this Armenia had counts and dukes. Bonn. They proceeded along the banks of the river in a north-westerly direction to Callinicum. pitching their camp near Gabbulon. and the fifty thousand. was acting general in Armenia. 1 After the conspicuous defeat which his army had experienced. the magister militum of Armenia.chap. the Hun Sunicas. crossed the Euphrates at Circesium. which. who had escaped the massacre which attended the suppression of to the foe of the 'Empire. and attacking a party but learned from the prisoners itself. on a trifling pretext. with a view to invading Syria. but did not hinder the devastations of the enemy. The nominal command of the Armenian army was invested in Sittas. 2 Theophanes. Kobad was not disinclined to negotiate a peace. instead of invading Mesopotamia. at this 1 and Hermogenes. Greek term for moment on the scene of action from brave At this time Dorotlieus. 454. 3 The plot of the Samaritans had been discovered and forestalled. . harried the surrounding districts. iv FIRST PERSIAN WAR 377 in Persarmenia. and the intention of the foe to strike a blow at Antioch Yet the success of Sunicas did not in the eyes of Beli- sarius atone for his disobedience. Bonn. 429. a XdrT/s is the technical and judicious man. (3d\eTo 5e /jLevlas irpoe- 6 /3a<Tt\ei)s . Socit. p. p. if it had not been overshadowed by the success of Daras. ed. . Malalas. Chron. mag. ventured to evade the general's of Persians. engaged to betray Jerusalem and Palestine Accordingly. to Belisarius arrived from Daras with eight men and took up his position at Chalcis. ed. and. and at the suggestion of the Saracen Alamundar 3 fifteen thousand Persian cavalry under Azareth. arparT]- Cf. Meanwhile thousand attempt orders. a new office created by Justinian see . and embassies passed between the Persian and Pioman courts 2 but at the last moment the persuasions and promises of fifty thousand Samaritans induced him to break off the negotiations The Samaritans had revolted in 529.M. p. . One of his captains.. would have probably been made more of by Byzantine historians. mil. 119) points out the difficulties in the text and gives a probable solution. About the same time the Eoman arms were also successful where a victory was gained over an army of Persarmenians and Huns. so that it was not the prospect of their cooperation that determined the invasion tiriadis (op. who arrived Constantinople. arpaT-qXarrju 'Ap- T^lrau . actuated by the hos- desire of revenge.

378 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE book iv arranged with difficulty the quarrel between the general and At length Belisarius ordered an advance against the enemy. have no means of determining the source of the latter. . "the northern part " (to apurqiov /xepos) of the Roman army was the right wing according to my explanation. and on the 19 th of April the armies engaged. on the one hand. which had the effect of drawing from their position the Hunnic cavalry on the left wing they then attacked the Eoman infantry. On the right Eoman wing the fall of Apskal. Malalas. avoidable. that would place the Persians west of the Romans. . In the mere fact of the position of troops there is no reason why alas into accordance and what the mean- 1 Compare the conflicting accounts of Procopius. the neighbourhood. action by a feigned retreat. and thus bring the statements of Malwith those of Procopius. and the Saracens acted like the Phrygians the . and tried But they to ride them down and press them into the river. How Belisarius acted. the captain of the Phrygian troops.. and on this side the battle right and his cavalry occupied the . and J. their Belisarius were on the river. it was the left. centre on the left were the infantry and the Hunnic cavalry under Sunicas and Simas on the right were Phrygians and Isaurians and the Saracen 2 The Persians began the auxiliaries under their king Arethas. ' was drawn. then the Isaurians made for the river and swam over to an opposite island. At Callinicum the course of the Euphrates is from west The battle took place on the bank of the river. left unprotected. but in many cases he furnishes a number of details omitted by the former. 123). 2 I cannot agree with the plan of the battle implied in Sotiriadis' interpretation of Malalas (p. was followed by the flight of a panic ensued. . I adopt the reverse position. his soldiers . cannot determine. others accused the subordinate commanders of and other places Persians in the retreated cowardice. which We the two accounts should differ. where A battle was unthey were overtaken by the Eomans. 1 east. and wing and the Eoman left to as the Persians were stationed to the east of the Eomans. were not as successful as they hoped. and reached the point of the right Euphrates bank opposite to the city of Callinicum. who had meanwhile taken the fortress of Gabbulon the captain. Hun we leaders Sunicas time. What really took place on this unfortunate day was a matter of doubt even for contemporaries. some cast the blame on Belisarius. and his narrative has a more genuine ring. Laden with booty. the secretary and partisan of Belisarius. and Simas were doing in It was said. According to Sotiriadis.

chap. and made for a long time a brave stand against the charges of the Persian cavalry. stantiolus must necessarily have brought out these jealousies and quarrels in the clearest light. and wrongs the facts the case are enveloped in to because are known it us from writers whom we cannot acquit of the opposite tendencies to exonerate and inculpate Belisarius. I think. if rested. the historian who furnished Malalas with his narrative. attempts of the Persians to take Martyropolis were thwarted. and Justinian saw that this feeling was a sure obstacle The investigation of Conto success. infer from the recall of Belisarius that the result of We Constantiolus' investigation was adverse to him on the contrary. the old kin^ Kobad and the accession of 1 It may be suspected that Hermogenes presented the behaviour of Beli- But the death of his son Chosroes sarins in a suspicious light. the fact in distinct terms. I conjecture that the reason of Belisarius' recall was the circumstance that a bad feeling prevailed between him and the subordinate commanders . would have certainly stated . this valiant behaviour was attributed to Sunicas and Simas. 2 cannot. the general who was commanding in Armenia. Sittas. and the remnant of the Boman army Hermogenes 1 was conveyed across the river to Callinicum. provisionally commanded in Mesopotamia. and the general himself was accused of fleeing with the cowards and crossing to Calno sure evidence to make it probable that it was hardly possible for the defeat was due to Belisarius against vastly greater numbers in a field where him to cope linicum. 2 During the interval of delay. blame. sent the news of the defeat to the details of Emperor despatched Constantiolus to investigate any. iv FIRST PERSIAN WAR 379 Belisarius dismounted from his horse. rights against of his better judgment. The Persians retreated. fident spirit in his own skill and perhaps an over-conarmy prevailed on him to risk a battle But the obscurity. On the other hand. and the Justinian without delay. and who was evidently antagonistic to Belisarius. There is . must be confessed that the adverse witness seems the more credible and is generally the more trustworthy of yet the two. the battle and discover on whom the The conclusions at which Constantiolus arrived resulted in the recall of Belisarius and the appointment of Munclus to the command of the eastern armies. Two The arms of Mundus were attended with success. he had no natural or of his soldiers or his artificial defences to support the bravery . and they experienced a considerable defeat. if it had been adverse to him. . rallied his soldiers.

which was .000 lbs. that the Eoman headquarters were no longer to be at Daras but at Constantina. of gold for the defence of the Caucasian passes. The provisions were that New Rome should pay 11. and that certain places were to be restored.380 HIS TOR Y OF THE LA TER ROMAN EMPIRE BOOK IV (September 531) led to the conclusion of "the endless peace" finally ratified in spring 532.

while the latter was nominally dependent. we must take a glance at the condition of the Ostroof Theodoric gothic kingdom. was to re- store the grandeur of the old lie Eoman Empire. The former was openly hostile. Var. he combined the independence love of spirit a German king with a we can see this twofold written Eoman reflected civilisation. i. The whole policy deference to things of was marked by a peculiar Eoman . Theodoric II). He said in so many words kingdom was an imitation of the Eoman polity. 1). published an Edict (like the Breviarium of Alaric 1 which Regnum nostrum imitatio vestri (Cassiodorus. Vandals took possession of all the land. and in the letters by his secretary Cassiodorus. and connected by no tie.CHAPTEE V THE RECONQUEST OF AFRICA AND ITALY Justinian's ideal. to Anastasius that his . . Before we give a brief account of . which had passed into the hands of German kings a reconquest of Gaul can hardly have been thought of. the Visigoths seized two-thirds. The kingdom of Africa and the kingdom of Italy did not bear by any means the same relation to the Empire. the campaigns in which the Emperor's generals recovered Africa and made Italy really as well as nominally part of the Empire. formed the project of reconquering the western Africa and Italy. and accordingly lands. we are told by a contemporary. 1 and his treatment of the Italians was a strong contrast to the conduct of the Yandals in Africa it was The a contrast even to that of the Visigoths in Spain. the Ostrogoths reserved only one-third.

2 See This has been often noticed. 355. Hodgkin's her Invaders. Weltgeschichte. iii. 1 His attitude to the Church was in the highest degree Church the things of conciliatory. which we pointed out as characterising his policy it brought him into friendly relation with the most enlightened and "civil" portions of his community. 342. For this Mr. The schism that tinople existed during the greater part of his reign of between the bishops rendered doric's abstention Eome and policy the patriarchs of Constan. the Burgundians. He did not. but left to the the Church. Italy He secured his provinces and and 3 cf. and Sigismund. Thuringians. and the Pranks diligently the course of their mutual relations. and it promoted the security and independence During his reign Italy enjoyed peace. but he conceived the idea of a system of German states in the West. i. manfrid. 2 He was connected by mar3 riage with the royal houses of the Yandals. He His position really assumed a European importance. where conflicts raged between the Theodoric's league with Catholics and their Arian conquerors. who became king of the Burgundians were his sons-in-law. this successful the Arian Theo- from interference contrasted with the eccle- siastical dictation of the Emperors. of his German kingdom. samund. drained the Pontine Marshes. king of the Visigoths. Ranke. the Thuringians. He executed works for the material good of the country. own daughter by Augofleda. . he watched and made it his His judgment carried and he used to inter. in an independent Italy. repaired the Via Appia. married Augofleda. king of the Franks. Dahn's researches show that it is based on the Codex Theodosianus and the Sententiae of Paulus. king of the His married his niece Amalaberga. the queen Amalasuntha. differed from Africa. iii. No historical connection can be proved between the Breviarium of Alaric and the Edict of Theodoric. and the western Church Here again Italy was well contented with Ostrogothic rule. the Church favoured both those tendencies. He was 1 an excellent observer edict. was the Avife of Eutharic. German civilisation not only conceived the idea of a Eomano. like Odovacar. and restored the walls of Eome. see of justice. He was brother-in-law of Thra- an Ostrogoth. vene " to prevent the encroachments of the aggressive Franks.382 HISTORY OF THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE to book iv was determine the legal affairs of Eoraan subjects." says Procopius. the daughter of Chlodwig. Hodgkin. the Visigoths. 443-445. Her(524). attempt to interfere in ecclesiastical matters. king of the Vandals (who He married his sister Amalafrida). Alaric. " and asserted the authority of the laws. object to preserve a balance of power. iv. great weight at all the Teutonic courts.

to blend Gothic vigour with nations represented. and we soon behold the discordant But elements flying asunder. . 2 tented the other hand. themselves. second to none who shone in that position Italians and Goths alike since the beginning of the Empire. unfavourably to Placidia. Amalasuntha. the Gothic nobles were exceedingly discon. after his death. They regarded gymnastic and music as inconsistent. whom On she caused to be carefully trained in mental studies.chap. and she displayed these tendencies both in political administration and in the education of the young prince. and were able to appeal to the fact that Theodoric himself had never been educated. as we have seen. not only peace with foreign powers. l Eoman But culture. true Emperor. Amalasuntha was obliged to yield Procopius. but harmonious The Eoman and Gothic unity within the limits of Italy. Cassiodorus compares her education of Athalaric with Placidia's educa2 1 tion of Valentinian III. spirits were. but of bravery. and allowed no other to do so In name Theodoric was a tyrant. v RECONQUEST OF AFRICA AND ITALY 383 from the attacks of neighbouring barbarians. in 526. i. freedom and civilisation as discordant. and while it was yet in its initial stage an external force was necessary to prevent the yet unharmonised elements from The will of Theodoric was such a force. violently conflicting. no injury on his subjects himself. had the greatest affection for him. 1. one they wished their future king to be a true Goth like who would not constrain them to act with over-punctilious justice towards their Eoman fellow-subjects. the gymnastical and musical elements this process of which the two amalgamation would have required a longer ti