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“Factor Need To Be Considered In Managing Projects: Top Management Support” Muhammad Alifa Farhan - B051210266

FACTOR NEED TO BE CONSIDERED IN MANAGING PROJECTS: TOP MANAGEMENT SUPPORT
Muhammad Alifa Farhan - B051210266 Project Management Assignment

Introduction
The process of project implementation, involving the successful development, presents a challenge for managers. There are many factors to be considered by project manager to manage successful project. A project is generally considered to be successfully implemented if it:     Comes in on-schedule Comes in on-budget Achieves basically all the goals originally set for it Is accepted and used by the clients for whom the project is intended

This assignment objective is to explain briefly what factor should be considered by manager to manage a successful project implementation. One of the most important factors is top management support. This assignment will focus to describe more about “top management support” factor.

Overview of the Articles
This assignment based on 5 journal article, they are: 1. Key Success Factors for Managing Projects Nader Sh. K., Ooi J., Abdollahi A., “Key Success Factors for Managing Projects”, World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, 2011, Vol. 59, pp. 1826-1830. This paper aims to investigate on key success factors of project management in an organization. It is believed that recognizing important factors that contribute to successful project will help companies to increase the overall profitability. The result of this paper has strongly supported the relationship between independent variables and project management.

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The purpose of this article is to explore the issue from different perspectives of people looking at the project. P. 2008. Simon Poon. No. facts. 26. Criteria of project success: an exploratory re-examination. whereas factors are the set of circumstances. pp. D. Sloan Management Review. Jordan. E. 4. Top management support: mantra or necessity? Young. 167-189. “Criteria of project success: an exploratory re-examination”. Criteria are the set of principles or standards by which judgment is made. This research provides evidence that top management support is the most important critical success factor for project success and is not simply one of many factors. 4. “Top management support: mantra or necessity?” International Journal of Project Management. This paper describes development of the ten-factor model of project implementation. R. 2012. Lim. pp. Critical success factors in effective project implementation.. 713–725. “Top management support—almost always necessary and sometimes sufficient for success: Findings from a fuzzy set analysis”.B051210266 2.almost always necessary and sometimes sufficient for success: Findings from a fuzzy set analysis. and M Zain Mohamed. or influences which contribute to the result. Pinto J. The difference between criterion and factor is first discussed. 1999. and Slevin. Fuzzy set analysis of 15 cases showed top management support to be much more necessary than any other success factor and sometimes being 2 . 5. “Critical success factors in effective project implementation ”. In the last. K. Top management support . 3. Young. The finding is justified in the context of the project management literature and the IS factor research on project success. Vol. 17. 1987. pp. 243-248. This paper defines what critical success factors in effective project implementation are.“Factor Need To Be Considered In Managing Projects: Top Management Support” Muhammad Alifa Farhan . this paper explains about strategy a tactics in project management. International Journal of Project Management.. Vol. This paper builds on the work of Young and Jordan (2008) to provide stronger empirical evidence of the importance of top management support for project success. CS.. R. International Journal of Project Management..

A successful project is one that is delivered on time and managed within the budget. who identified six critical success factor for successful projects: a. and f. Organizational adaptability. e. Commitment to planning and control. c. Project manager's leadership style. it is essential to understand the project requirements right from the start and go for project planning which provides the right direction to project managers and their teams and execute the project accordingly. Executive commitment to project management. Corporate understanding of project management. The contribution of this research may be to provide enough evidence to influence top managers and practitioners to re-evaluate the conventional wisdom of the past 40–50 years. b. Slevin and Pinto. who identified ten general factors: Table 1 Ten General Factors Source: Slevin and Pinto (1987) 3 . Some of the major works included: 1. Key Learning Point For a project to be successful. Krezner. Lim (1999) says that the topic of this success factor for successful project has been researched extensively since 1980. There are so many factor should be considered to get successful project. 2.B051210266 sufficient for success.“Factor Need To Be Considered In Managing Projects: Top Management Support” Muhammad Alifa Farhan . Project manager selection criteria. d.

Clear vision and objectives i. The Standish Critical Success Factor a. Proper planning f. Ownership d. User involvement c.B051210266 Slevin and Pinto also made a model of interaction of ten general factors of the project implementation profile. Top Management Support b. Smaller project milestones g.“Factor Need To Be Considered In Managing Projects: Top Management Support” Muhammad Alifa Farhan . Figure 1 Model of interaction of ten general factors Source: Slevin and Pinto (1987) 3. j. Clear statement of requirements e. Realistic expectations h. Competent staff Focused and hard working 4 .

Some of authors define as “devoting time as proportion with the cost and potential benefits of a project”. It also includes clear authority and power given by the top management to the project leader and team members for ensuring the success of project implementation. Nader’s Research (2011) One of the researches that explain the relationship between top management support (involvement) and project performance is research that held by Nader (2011). In general. top management support comes in the form of sufficient resources allocated both manpower and the physical resources.B051210266 From these success factors of the project implementation. helping team to overcome obstacles. Another definition is “when a senior management project sponsor/champion. follow up on results and facilitate management problems” Top Management support can take several different forms such as demonstrating commitment. making things happen and provide encouragement to team. There are some definitions of top management support. After this point.“Factor Need To Be Considered In Managing Projects: Top Management Support” Muhammad Alifa Farhan . Other authors define as “the degree to which top management understands the importance of the project functions”. The result of Nader’s research about the relationship between independent variables of Leadership of Project Manager and Top Management Involvement against the dependent variables of Project Performance is summarized in this table: Table 2 Summary of Regression Analysis of Nader's Research Source: Nader (2011) 5 . many researches provide evidence that top management support is the most important critical success factor for project success. this assignment will continue to focus on top management support. the CEO and other senior managers devote time to review plans. Top management support is essential in ensuring Project success. These researches has concluded that top management support have been recognized to have positive impact on project success.

Focused And Hard Working The question of how important TMS is for project success in Young’s research will be studied through descriptive case studies. no CEO involvement and no top management interest tends to be fail project. Smaller Project Milestones 2.B051210266 The result gained from the regression analysis shows that there is relationship between top management involvement and project performance. an organization with a strong sponsor. whereby in this study. ABS. The result of Young’s research is an organization which has no sponsor at any level. TMS deals with organizational phenomena where the boundaries between the phenomena and context are not clearly evident. Project Methodologies: Clear Statement of Requirements. Project Staff: Competent Staff. 6 . Clear Vision And Objectives 5. Case study organizations were five organizations in Australia. Young’s Research (2008) Young’s research (2008) provides evidence that top management support is the most important critical success factor for project success and is not simply one of many factors. Proper Planning. Raymond and Ernest also stated that “top management involvement is meta-factor that encompasses other success factor” in project performance. Ownership 3. Young condensed The Standish critical success factors into five major categories: 1. This is also in line with the research done by previous researchers. On the other hand. At the first. They are TechServ. where he concluded that project is very likely to be successful if visible support from top management is present. This paper evaluate the importance of Top Management Support against the other commonly recognition. User: User Involvement. Top Management Support (TMS) 4. Agency and SkyHigh. High-Level Planning: Realistic Expectations. it confirmed that top management support or involvement possess positive impact to the success of project performance. This result is obtained by comparing the TechServ project which was a complete failure and the SkyHigh project which was a complete success.“Factor Need To Be Considered In Managing Projects: Top Management Support” Muhammad Alifa Farhan . This finding is also in line with the findings of Kerzner. archival research. TechMedia. Hence the case study has a distinct advantage over alternatives such as surveys. active CEO involvement and active involvement of the other top manager tends to be successful project. historical analysis and experiments because there is a ‘how’ or ‘why’ question being asked about a contemporary set of events over which the investigator has little or no control.

Young did another research to provide stronger empirical evidence of the importance of top management support for project success. This latest research use 10 more case study so they are 15 case study organizations. User Involvement Figure 5 Project Success vs. Project Methodology Figure 3 Project Success vs. High Level Planning 7 . Figure 2 Project Success vs.B051210266 Young’s Research (2012) In 2012. This research will address this issue by applying a fuzzy-set theoretic based methodology to case studies developed using qualitative techniques.“Factor Need To Be Considered In Managing Projects: Top Management Support” Muhammad Alifa Farhan . TMS Figure 4 Project Success vs.

Even though we know that TMS is the most important factor for project success. The other CSFs shown in Figures 2–5 have much more variability and weaker correlations with success. The result of this research shows that the most important success factor of project implement is top management support.3) or better. project with best TMS but with bad project methodologies or incompetent staff will tend to be failure project.“Factor Need To Be Considered In Managing Projects: Top Management Support” Muhammad Alifa Farhan . high level planning also seems to have a positive relationship but slightly less so. Project staff may have a negative or no relationship with success as long as the quality of staff is fair (0. Project is complex system that needs more than one factor to be considered to be success. Staff Figure 1 shows TMS correlates strongly with project success means that better top management support will give better relative success. managers still have to consider other factors. Many researches provide evidence that top management support is the most important factor for project success than other factors. For example. One of them is top management support (TMS). 8 . User involvement and project management have positive relationships. Opinion There are so many factor should be considered to get successful project.B051210266 Figure 6 Project Success vs.

713–725. pp. pp... Ooi J.. E.B051210266 References Nader Sh. 1826-1830. 243-248. Vol. D. and Slevin. Vol. “Critical success factors in effective project implementation”..“Factor Need To Be Considered In Managing Projects: Top Management Support” Muhammad Alifa Farhan . P. World Academy of Science. Jordan. Engineering and Technology. 9 . R. “Top management support—almost always necessary and sometimes sufficient for success: Findings from a fuzzy set analysis”.. Abdollahi A. 1987. CS. 17. pp. International Journal of Project Management. 59. pp. and M Zain Mohamed. Pinto J. Lim. Sloan Management Review. 4. No. 2011. K. 1999. 2008. R. “Criteria of project success: an exploratory re-examination”. Young. Simon Poon.. International Journal of Project Management. “Key Success Factors for Managing Projects”. “Top management support: mantra or necessity?” International Journal of Project Management. Vol. 2012. Young. 167-189. K. 26..