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Mauyuran Empire o Left behind democracy, bureaucracy (well regulated system of patronage). o First time 3-4 century empire depended on revenue to survive. Was a sophisticated system empire. o Bureaucracy – system where job is more important that the person. Regardless of person, religion. Job obtained based on qualification. o Official ethos, an outlook. A civil religion. It was Buddhism but was tailored to state need. o Involved tolerance and non-violence. o Empire declined rapidly after Ashoka. He divided the empire into two. It was a mistake because the empire didn’t survive well in this and it collapsed. o British said the empire collapsed because they believed in non-violence. o Ravar Thapar – empire disappeared because head disappeared and the new rulers were incapable of ruling. The empire fell apart because its caretaker died. o When empire dissolves really good things happen because empire is not there to take all the revenue.

200 BCE – 300 BCE  Steady pressure from NW. Linguistic changes were taking place. During this time, the source materials are much scarcer than they had been during the Mauyuran Empire. Not good enough to derive an accurate pic of society during this period. Valuable source is coins. Only Greeks lefts are in NW India. Chinese and Buddhist pilgrims left behind some sources. There are no chronologies 20% inscriptions, 60% coins, 20% references in literature that was still very oral. Characteristics of era of invasion o South East India disappears until 1st century CE when Roman trades come to life. Roman was buying more from India. o Nomadic tribs of NW were Indianized. o Little reliable chronology Mauryans last in a weaken form. Brahaman minister of some Clan launched a short lived dynasty. They were followed by Andahra dynasty. Andahras: ancient confederacy unknown origins. Late 8th centrury, Greeks started putting pressure on Punjab. They were autonomous. Know about the Greeks by their coins. Demetrius had the most coins. Malinda Pana – questions of Malinda. 165 – 150 BCE time span of conversation. Malinda made a point to preserve this conversation because he became a Buddhist. Indo-Greeks created Mahayana Buddhism. Indo-Greeks were confronted, fought and mixed with nomadic tribes from central time. Did what Aryans had done in their times – migrate in better land. Chinese constructed the great wall to keep out nomads.

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Ashoka used non-violence as a motif and create a religion. o Bharamanical authority despised Buddhism. Division of the territories: Kabul. o Theistic cults arose during this time. Had 4 titles in different languages. Kushana. Called 4th Buddhist council to reconcile differences. o Discourse was inscribed on copper sheets. Kushana o Explosion of sculptures o Matra school of art: uses pink sandstones. They copied their coining system. He founded Sassana dynasty.                  Shakas: o Came down into Bactria and then they turned to northern India. Kanishka – best known Shaka king. Mirat. Indian rulers are praised for defeating outside rulers. Shaka were succeded by another Shaka invading clan. Jains were using Sanskrit. 500 monks attended. they were ruthless. Shaka ruler in Gujrat: . Gupta Empire payed a compliment to the Kushana Empire. Features of era of invasions: o Inlfuence of Buddhism. o Caste system was hardening as an ideal. o Creation of Epics:  Mahabharat and Ramayana. The Greeks called them Sitiyans. o Last ruler was defeated by Iranian aggressor. Used modified Greek letters. Becoming more modern and practical from threat of Buddhism. Has first Sanskrit inscription. o Increased use of Sanskrit. By 600 BC. Azi the first: began Vikram era in 58BCE. o Updating of Brahamanical. o From this point Mahayana Buddhism spread Mahayana o Reconcile Hinduism with Buddhism. Shaka territory was vast. Kushana o Were in Peshawar. o Bhramanical counter revolution – increased use of Sanskrit. Met in Kashmir. Use of Indian names. Mediators between mankind and Buddha – budhasatva. direct access through temple was allowed. He is also a selfless teacher. o Gilds gave political power to non-elities o Shaka Era 780 CE Vikrama Era 58 BCE Shunga Kanvas Andhra Yavanas . Has spiritual power but has stopped himself from crossing to help others. Had a fabulous PR team. Ujjain. Creation of Mahaiyana Buddhism. Didn’t slaughter the Shakas. Instead of going through a Priest.

    Apabhramshas – corrupts Shaonanoshao – emperor of emperor Tien Tzu – son of the heaven Devputra – son of gods .