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Gabriel Omolewu Professional Studies Division Wilberforce University 1055 North Bickett Road, P.O.BOX 1001, Wilberforce, Ohio 45384 ABSTRACT In the international competitive environment, the ability of an organization to develop a transnational organizational capability is the key factor that can help the firm adapt to the changes in the dynamic environment. As the fast rate of globalization renders the traditional ways of doing business irrelevant, it is vital for managers to have a global mindset to be effective. Globalization of business has led to the emergence of global strategic management. A combination of strategic management and international business will result in strategies for global cooperation. However, there are obstacles to progress along the way. The problems caused by these obstacles can be solved by cooperative ventures based on mutual advantages of the parties involved. Proper effective communication will be a key element for global strategies because what is proper and effective in one culture may be ineffective and improper in another. Marketing products globally is complex and difficult because of several factors including: International Strategic Alliances, coordination and control of international marketing, communication, regional trade blocks, European Union, and choice of global strategy. The firm with the choice of an effective global strategy that takes into consideration its strengths and weaknesses in the face of the opportunities and threats in the environment, will survive. Keywords: Strategic Management, Globalization, International Business, Global mindset INTRODUCTION Traditional ways of doing business are rendered irrelevant in today’s business environment because of the explosive large scale globalization. There is need for managers to become global managers with a global mindset that is appropriately supported by relevant skills and knowledge. Globalization, according to Kedia & Mukherji (1999), can be defined as a market situation where political borders are irrelevant, economic interdependencies are heightened and national differences resulting from societal cultures are the central issues of business. Today’s global business managers are like the Old World Explorers, Magellan and Cook who navigated the great Pacific Ocean, facing brutal storms of shark-infested waters for days without any reliable chart to guide them. The global managers face the brutal storms of competitors, unknown frontiers of technology, endless seas of change in markets, customers and completely strange cultures. It is their responsibility to face the forces of change and the challenge of leading their business organizations into the new unmapped global marketplace, Coregerson, Morrison & Black (1998). In order to succeed in the dynamic environment, the global manager needs a global mindset and experience in strategic


There are four types of mindsets. education and other sectors of society to define the emerging global systems and assist institutions to adapt to changes. The management control systems change along the way to reflect the dramatic changes in the definitions of the strategic business unit. It manufactures at any site. A standard model may be produced for sale in Brazil while a fully loaded model may be manufactured for sale in United States. Global Mindset A global manager must have a global mindset. offers standardized products in all country markets. competitors and produces and or markets its products in many countries. explorer. The explorer focuses on foreign markets to help increase sales and its business though it is internally focused like the defender. The standard approach to this management control according to Dyment (1987) is to measure performance and compare actual result with the expected result and take corrective action. marketing and distribution of its products. There are several “super-trends” which are driving forces that are moving the world in new directions. controller and integrator. A product for global corporation may be designed in United Kingdom with components manufactured in Taiwan and assembled in Canada. how much should be earned and whether it would be a planned result. 1991). government. It organizes itself in a way that facilitates efficient manufacture. A model may be produced for sale in Brazil while a fully loaded model may be manufactured for sale in United Kingdom with components manufactured in Taiwan and assembled in Canada. The global firm has one global strategy. The controller tries to dominate the overseas market using well-developed systems that worked in its domestic market. Global Strategic Management which is a blend of Strategic Management and International Business. These include a growing population that is expected to stabilize at about 2 . A global firm is organized and managed to take advantage of the opportunities across various country markets. uses any plant sizes that minimizes delivery cost of products across its markets. The defender is a mindset that is internally focused and is mainly for domestic market only. GLOBAL STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT The rapid globalization of business has resulted in the emergence of a new field. A multinational corporation operates in each country with locally defined strategies and organizational structures. The global corporation operates with coordinated strategy that includes all the countries in which it operates. 1999). the defender. there is a complex management control problem that revolves about who should earn the profit. In this process. (Kedia & Mukherji. Global Corporations Global Corporations evolve from domestic to multinational and to global. The integrator has a global perspective with a worldwide web of relationships with suppliers. The World Future Society sponsored “World 2000” to conduct a global strategic management process among business. Strategic Management is identifying and responding to opportunities and threats in the environment (Wortzel.

global integrated economic. Organization – small or large firms. philosophy and goals 2. (Pearce & Robinson. Corporate–level decisions are value oriented. The business-level decisions are strategic decisions that fall between those of corporate-level and functional-level decision making. 3 . political and universal banking and international cultural system (Italal. they have significant impact on long-term prosperity of the organization. It deals with nine initial areas: 1. and information technology that will wire the globe into a single network. They can be classified into six major categories: 1. conceptual. Strategic choice of the best alternative strategy 8. There are three levels of decision-making hierarchy of business firms: the corporate level. The characteristics of strategic management decisions depend on the level of decision-making hierarchy. Identifying and defining the problem 6. requires strategic management. 1993). External analysis of opportunities and threats 4. directing. Identifying alternative strategies 7. Identifying the present and desired situations 5. organizing and controlling of the decisions and actions of the organization. Dimensions of Strategic Decisions The strategic decisions have six dimensions. operational. industrial output that will increase by a factor of 5 – 10. Internal analysis of strengths and weaknesses 3. usually have major multi-functional consequences on the organization’s strategic Business Units (SBUs) and they usually impact and are impacted by the organization’s external environment. Forces in the Design of Strategic Management Systems There are many forces that influence the design of strategic management systems. Strategic Management. It involves planning. The functional–level decisions are usually quantifiable. Implementation of the best strategy and 9. they involve allocation of large amounts of resources. Review of the evaluation of the success of the process as basis of control and future decision making. cost and profit potential. Determining the organization’s mission. Why Strategic Management? Business decision making is so complex and sophisticated that for a firm to deal with it effectively and grow profitably. high-tech revolution. the business level and the functional level. according to Pearce and Robinson (1985) is a set of decisions and actions that results in the formulation and implementation of strategies that will help the organization achieve its objectives. 1985). have greater risk. They require top management decisions. and periodic and lead directly to implementation of the overall strategy at the corporate and business levels. they are future oriented.14 billion by mid twenty-first century.

4 . improves employee motivation and participation. many markets and customers. 5. and when to close up a plant (William. Complexity of environment – stable. when to introduce a new product. and train managers. GLOBAL PLANNING Firms that engage in global operations are usually involved in two types of planning: strategic and operational. However. The process is costly in terms of the time spent by participants away from their regular work. 6. It is usually a set of highly detailed plans. It enhances problem prevention capabilities of a firm. It leads to a clarification of role differentiation which reduces gaps and overlaps in activities among diverse individuals and groups. It is the most significant and complex. when to enter a new market and how. 1984). complex tough problems. The strategies are evaluated with some criteria in order to select the best. (Pearce and Robinson. 1985). Nature of problems – new. Complexity of production processes – capital intensive. The strategic planning is a long-term planning with time horizon of 3 to 7 years. high technology. long production lead time. Management styles – democratic. Participating subordinates may become disappointed or frustrated over unattained expectation. The operations management is tactical planning. The uniqueness and complexity of strategic planning in the global market creates differences in the types of decisions the multinational corporations make such as: what countries to expand to and when. The managers must therefore be trained to minimize the negative effect on operational responsibilities. severe competition. 3. It is significant because it establishes the future directions and major courses of action. analyzing the strengths and weaknesses of the company and the opportunities and threats facing it. intuitive thinker. experienced in planning. Purpose of planning system – coordinate division activities. It also reduces resistance to change because participation eliminates the uncertainty associated with change. Strategic planning in both domestic and global are similar. labor-intensive. It is therefore a major responsibility of top management.2. Strategic Planning Model Strategic planning model starts with defining the business in which the firm is. procedures and budgets for the firm for day-to-day decision making for one or two years. 4. Benefits of Strategic Management Strategic management has several benefits. Objectives are then formulated with strategies for dealing with them. policy maker. Action plans are developed to deal with the implementation of the strategies with contingency plans to cope with the changing and unexpected developments. authoritarian. there are some unintended negative consequences of strategic management.

creating a harmonious economic-societal relationship that will form a symbiotic society – environment interface. according to Chakravarthy & Perlmutter (1991). Considering the economic imperative. The factors that contribute to this complexity in a global operation include International Strategic Alliances. The key to successful development of total global strategy is to develop the core strategy. Obstacles to Progress In global strategic management. cost drivers. regional trade blocks. Cost drivers include lowered manufacturing and production costs. there are obstacles that are dilemmas which may slow down progress. The multinational corporations face a challenge of balancing economic imperative of global integration with the political imperative of prudent stakeholder management and their own strategic predisposition. The proportion of the value added in the activities of the industry’s value chain determines the strategy the organization will pursue. These include making a leap from the fragmented economic and political systems of the industrial past to a global order. developing decentralize institutions that will empower individuals and fostering collaborative international alliances. Government drivers are trading blacks and large scale privatization (Kedia 1999). The elements of a master strategy that will overcome these obstacles are disseminating advanced technology to unify the Globe.Complexity of Strategic Planning in MNCs The globalization of businesses with increasing activism of business stakeholders has made strategic planning more complex in a multinational corporation (MNC). managing the complexity of the new global environment. The market drivers include the increasing per capital income which has increased the purchasing power and the demand for goods coupled with increased global travel. competitive drivers and government drivers. coordination and control of international marketing. Globalization Drivers Global managers need to be aware of four globalization drivers: market drivers. The global strategy deals with cost leadership differentiation and segmentation. One major factor that has also influenced the globalization effort is the reduction of barriers as a result of communication and transportation technology. Competitive drivers are the new global competitors and global strategic alliances. A country-centered strategy deals with national responsiveness or protected markets. internationalize the core strategy and globalize the international strategy by integrating it across countries. Apart from the industry drivers that influence the potential for 5 . achieving sustainable development and closing the gap between the wealth of the southern and northern hemispheres. reconciling various economic interests into a sound global productive economy. communication. integrating economics and society by reconciling economic life and social life. an MNC has two strategic options: a global strategy and a countrycentered strategy. European Union. and choice of global strategy.

Savvy deals with global business savvy and organizational savvy. Dual structure planning requires simultaneous global integration and national responsiveness. bottom-up planning. the firm is organized by geographic areas and is focused on political imperative. Monitoring and control are financially oriented in the system. The benefits of global strategy include cost reduction. Inquisitiveness is the key for success because it is the fuel that increases their global savvy. Global strategy. the MNC uses tight integration of its worldwide activities to provide global competitive advantage. they need the knowledge and skills to cope with the dynamic increasing complexity of the globalization environment. Organizational savvy deals with the great “depth and breadth” of the organization which is required for effective business operation. however. the MNC must utilize matrix structure with product and area as its two dimensions. government and market. enhances their ability to understand people and maintains integrity and augments their capacity for dealing with uncertainty. duality. In top-down planning. It reduces adaptation to local customer behavior and marketing environment. personal character. MSCs Strategic Planning Systems The Strategic Planning Systems used by MNCs are top-down planning. In bottom-up planning system. 6 . In order to succeed. It increases currency risk and the risk of creating competitors. Global Manager’s Characteristics for Success According to Gregersen. has some drawbacks. enhanced customer preference and increased competitive leverage. It sometimes sacrifices local competitiveness. It creates earlier or greater commitment to a market than the market warrants on its own merits. therefore. what needs to change and what needs to stay the same. Duality involves having a capacity to manage uncertainty and knowing when to act. and balancing tensions as they confront the pressures for global integration and local responsibilities. Portfolio planning is most effective when the planning is either regional integration or national responsiveness. globalization of financial markets like multiple exchanges that list corporations. In order to use this system. and savvy. the characteristics the global managers need to succeed are inquisitiveness. and improvements in business travel. The firm is usually organized by product group and is focused on economic imperative. and dual structure planning. other drivers that play vital roles are revolution in information technology. The global business savvy will assist the managers to recognize the increased worldwide market opportunities that globalization provides. improved quality of products and programs. Global strategy is less responsive to local needs and distances activities from customer. Morrison & Black (1998). Skills Needed for Success by Global Managers In order for managers to be globally competitive. portfolio planning. there will be need to develop world wide strategies that find a balance between over globalizing and under globalizing. They need the skills of acculturation of other cultures and leadership for managing diversity. personal character involves emotionally connecting with people from various backgrounds and showing uncompromising integrity.globalization: competitive cost.

True leader has telescopism . The first king in his presentation said he could see the whole forest with his telescope. They also need a wealth of knowledge of the international socio-political and economic perspective and mastery of technology. and keep people happy. Morrison & Black (1998). 1999).a deadlock. How was the best to be chosen? Telescope (leader) The telescope empowers the leader to see farther than would ordinarily be possible. a survey of U.A. 67% of the firms felt their leaders needed additional skills and knowledge required to “meet or exceed” the needed capabilities. The leader is able to build a collective vision and to forecast from it. In order to become a CEO King. According to Linregerson. It is a directed vision. to see 7 . economy. globalization will require thinking strategically by identifying different ways for people to meet their goals and determine which actions will set them where they need to be. The telescope helps him to lead and he would surely be the best CEO King. The third king said he had a kaleidoscope that he would use to see colors and beautiful things that change. He could foresee great things that the CEO country can achieve. political system and other factors or they may be transferred to work overseas. The twelve stakeholders. entertain. Using the periscope they would be able to have enough information and will be able to vote on their choice of king. Microscope (Manager) The manager uses the microscope to focus on the health of the corporation. each of them would have to make a presentation to twelve stakeholders. fortune 500 firms that was conducted in 1997 showed that though 85% of the firms felt that they have adequate number of effective global leaders. using their periscopes voted for the best CEO King and each of the three presenters got four votes . who had periscopes to see around in all directions and to see the comprehensive picture. The second king had a microscope. according to Gordon (1992). dance.S. Forming work teams of different backgrounds and perspectives and purposeful training developed around effective structured learning environment (Kedia & Mukheerji. For success. He could sing. He said he would surely be the best CEO King because his microscope would be able to see the details of the problems to solve and develop rules for ideal managing and that would make him to be the best CEO King.Global managers must know how to use different cultures to meet organizational objectives. He could strategically use that to keep the CEO country in happy mood that would make him to be the best CEO King.the ability to see farther into the vision into closer reality. Success in the global market Success in the global market can be illustrated with the story of three kings who wanted to lead and manage a country called CEO. The following strategies will help in developing successful global managers: foreign travel to other countries that will expose them to the culture.

L. and to see changing inspiring patterns. The good manager then has microscopism .H. commit together and eliminate barriers. 124-132. the manager keeps operation headed toward its goals and objectives. It discusses the complexity of strategic planning process for MNCs. Chakravarthy.power or ability to scrutinize details. In order to succeed. participative management. Through the functions of management. 1985. REFERENCES Bartlett. as leaders. and obstacles to progress. 3-10. H. through thinking and laboring together. New York. Success requires interdependent collaboration. They must deal effectively with conflict. Global Strategic Management the Essentials.. They must understand and have the corporate culture and encourage change through adaptability. set direction and align strategy. B. H. Kaleidoscope (Strategic Actor) The strategic actor uses kaleidoscope to inspire. What is a Global manager? Harvard Business Review. must understand where they belong. Collaboroscope (Synergistic Team) The synergistic team uses collaboroscopism to see about and beyond. perceive. 1987. communication and consensus. CONCLUSSION This paper examines why global strategic management is vital as the traditional way of doing business is becoming irrelevant for today’s dynamic environment. The managers should analyze their firm’s strengths and weaknesses. & Wortzel. and understand global strategic management process. the global managers need to develop global mindset. The organizational problem should be thoroughly defined.S. In order for firms that engage in global operations to succeed. Strategies and Management controls for global corporations. A. The best strategy should be selected after a thorough evaluation of available alternatives and using effective management control to see that the selected strategy is successfully implemented. S. John Wiley & Sons. the opportunities and threats. motivate. see details. They must listen. The managers. the team must use interdependent collaboration. the present situation of the firm and the desired situation. 70. V. globalization drivers. The 8 . and provide feedback. and demonstrate the quick change perspective. inspire. 1992. Dyment J. C. participative management and effective communication among managers with feedback. Strategic Planning for a global business. joy and humor to the corporate endeavor. He adds the charm. structure and process. motivate. & Ghoshal. 1991. beauty. communicate.potential ills and avoid problems. consensus. In Vernon-Wortzel. & Pertmutter. J.

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