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DIAGRAMA DE ELLINGHAM

ΔG 0 = A + BT

ΔG 0 = ΔH 0 − TΔS 0

ΔG 0 kJ / molO2

Si( s ) + O2 ( g ) = SiO2 ( S )
Δ G 0 = − 902000 + 174 T

ΔG 0 > 0

T* =

902000
= 5183.9
174

0

ΔG 0 < 0

M + O2 = MO2

T*

T

WBM

DIAGRAMA DE ELLINGHAM

ΔG 0 = A + BT

ΔG 0 = ΔH 0 − TΔS 0

ΔG 0
ΔG 0 > 0

2 M ´ + O2 = 2 M ´O

0
2 Mn( s ) + O2 ( g ) = 2 MnO( s )

ΔG 0 < 0

Δ G 0 = − 769400 + 145 . 6 T

T* =

><

T*

769400
= 5284.6
145.6

T
WBM

DIAGRAMA DE ELLINGHAM

0

ΔG 0

2 M ´ + O2 = 2 M ´O

M + O2 = MO2

T*

T
WBM

DIAGRAMA DE ELLINGHAM

M + 2 M ´O = 2 M ´ + MO2
0

ΔG 0

2 M ´ + O2 = 2 M ´O

M + O2 = MO2

T*

T
WBM

DIAGRAMA DE ELLINGHAM

Líneas de Richardson

WBM

DIAGRAMA DE ELLINGHAM

M + O2 = MO2

ΔG 0

P3 = 10 4 atm.

f

0

a

c
d

P = 1atm.

e

P1 = 10 −4 atm.

b

P2 = 10 −10 atm.
T1

T2 T * T3

T
WBM

DIAGRAMA DE ELLINGHAM

0

a

P1 = 0.8atm.

P1 = 10 −4 atm.

ΔG 0

2 M ´ + O2 = 2 M ´O
P1 = 10 −8 atm.

b

c

P1 = 10 −12 atm.

M + O2 = MO2
P1 = 10 −16 atm.

T1

T*
P1 = 10 −32 atm.

T
P1 = 10 −26 atm.
WBM

TRANSFORMACIONES
DE FASE
0

ΔG 0

ΔG

M ( s ) + O2 ( g ) = MO2( s )

M ( s ) + O2 ( g ) = MO2( s )

ΔH

M ( l ) + O2 ( g ) = MO2 ( s )

0
ΔH Fus
, MO2 ( s )

0
Fus , M ( s )

0

Tm M (s )

ΔG 0

Tm MO2 ( s )

T, K

M ( l ) + O2 ( g ) = MO2 ( s )

M ( s ) + O2( g ) = MO2 (l )

ΔG 0

T, K

M ( l ) + O2 ( g ) = MO2 ( s )

M ( s ) + O2 ( g ) = MO2( s )
M ( s ) + O2 ( g ) = MO2( s )
M ( s ) + O2( g ) = MO2 (l )
M ( s ) + O2( g ) = MO2 (l )

Tm M (s )

Tm MO2 ( s ) T , K

Tm MO2 ( s )

Tm M (s )

T, K

WBM

TRANSFORMACIONES
DE FASE

4Cu( s ) + O2 ( g ) = 2Cu 2O( s )

ΔG10 / J = −338900 + 14.2T ln T + 247T

4Cu(l ) + O2 ( g ) = 2Cu 2O( s ) ΔG20 / J = −390800 + 14.2T ln T + 285.3T
4Cu( s ) + O2 ( g ) = 2Cu2O( s )
4Cu(l ) = 4Cu( s )

4Cu(l ) + O2 ( g ) = 2Cu 2O( s )

(298.15 K − Tm )
(Tm − 1503K )

ΔG10 / J = −338900 + 14.2T ln T + 247T
0
− 4ΔGFus
/J

ΔG20 / J = −390800 + 14.2T ln T + 285.3T

0
ΔG10 + (−4ΔGFus
) = ΔG20
0
4ΔGFus
) = −338900 + 14.2T ln T + 247T − (−390800 + 14.2T ln T + 285.3T )
0
4ΔGFus
= 51900 − 38.3T

0
ΔGFus
,Cu ( s ) / j = 12970 − 9.58T
0
ΔH Fus
,Cu ( s ) = 12970 j
0
ΔS Fus
,Cu ( s ) = 9.58TJ / grado

WBM

ΔG 0 / J = −390800 + 14.2T ln T + 285.3T

ΔG 0 / J = −338900 + 14.2T ln T + 247T

WBM

ΔG10 / j = −105600 + 41.8T ln T − 375.1212.9T

ΔG20 / j = −286400 + 63.68T

ΔG10 / j = −346300 − 12.68T ln T + 212.9T

WBM

TRANSFORMACIONES
DE FASE

Fe( s ) + Cl2 ( g ) = FeCl2 ( s )

ΔG10 / j = −346300 − 12.68T ln T + 212.9T

(298 − Tm , FeCl2 ( s ) )

Fe( s ) + Cl2 ( g ) = FeCl2(l )

ΔG20 / j = −286400 + 63.68T

(Tm , FeCl2 ( s ) − Tb , FeCl2 ( l ) )

ΔG10 / j = −105600 + 41.8T ln T − 375.1212.9T

(Tb , FeCl2 ( l ) − Tm , Fe( s ) )

Fe( s ) + Cl2 ( g ) = FeCl2 ( g )
Fe( s ) + Cl2 ( g ) = FeCl2 ( s )
FeCl2 ( s ) = FeCl2(l )
Fe( s ) + Cl2 ( g ) = FeCl2(l )

ΔG10 / j = −346300 − 12.68T ln T + 212.9T
0
ΔGFus
FeCl2 ( s )
ΔG20 / j = −286400 + 63.68T

0
− 346300 − 12.68T ln T + 212.9T + ΔGFusFeCl
= −286400 + 63.68T
2( s )

0
ΔGFus
= 59900 + 12.68T ln T − 149.0T
FeCl2 ( s )
0
⎡ ∂ (ΔGFus

. FeCl2 ( s ) / T )
= −T ⎢
⎥ = 59900 − 12.68Tj
∂T
⎢⎣
⎥⎦

ΔH

0
Fus . FeCl2 ( s )

ΔS

0
Fus , FeCl2 ( s )

2

=

∂ΔGFus , FeCl2 ( s )
∂T

T = 969 K

= −12.68 ln T − 12.68T + 149.0

0
ΔH Fus
. FeCl2 ( s ) = 47610 j

0
ΔS Fus
, FeCl2 ( s ) = 49.13 J / grado

WBM

ΔS

0
Fus , FeCl2 ( s )

=

ΔH Fus , FeCl2 ( s )
TFus , FeCl2 ( s )

Fe( s ) + Cl2 ( g ) = FeCl2( l )

TRANSFORMACIONES
DE FASE

=

47610 j
= 49.13 j / K
969 K

ΔG20 / j = −286400 + 63.68T

(Tm , FeCl2 ( s ) − Tb , FeCl2 ( l ) )

ΔGb0 FeCl2 ( s )

FeCl2 (l ) = FeCl2( g )

ΔG10 / j = −105600 + 41.8T ln T − 375.1212.9T (Tb , FeCl2 ( l ) − Tm , Fe( s ) )

Fe( s ) + Cl2 ( g ) = FeCl2 ( g )

0
ΔG20 / j = −286400 + 63.68T +ΔGb FeCl2( s ) = − 105600 + 41.8T ln T − 375.1212.9T

ΔGb0 FeCl2 ( s ) = 180800 + 41.8T ln T − 438.8T
ΔH

0
b. FeCl2 ( l )

ΔS

⎡ ∂ (ΔGb0. FeCl2 ( l ) / T ) ⎤
= −T ⎢
⎥ = 180800 − 41.8Tj
∂T
⎢⎣
⎥⎦

0
b , FeCl2 ( l )

2

=

ΔH b , FeCl2 ( s )
Tb , FeCl2 ( s )

=

126500 j
= 97.46 j / K
1298 K

T = 1298 K

ΔH b0.FeCl2 ( l ) = 126500 j

T = 1298 K

WBM

DIAGRAMA DE ELLINGHAM

ÓXIDOS DEL CARBONO

ΔG30 / j = −564800 + 173.62T

ΔG10 / j = −394100 − 0.84T

ΔG20 / j = −223400 − 175.3T

WBM

ÓXIDOS DEL CARBONO

(1)

C( s ) + O2 ( g ) = CO2 ( g )

ΔG10 / j = −394100 − 0.84T

(2) 2C( s ) + O2 ( g ) = 2CO( g )

ΔG20 / j = −223400 − 175.3T

(3) 2CO( g ) + O2 ( g ) = 2CO2 ( g )

ΔG30 / j = −564800 + 173.62T

(4) C( s ) + CO2 ( g ) = 2CO( g )
ΔG40 = 0

T =

ΔG40 / j = 170700 − 174.5T

170700
= 978 K
174 . 5

WBM

ΔG 0 > 0

C( p =1atm ) + CO2 ( g , p =1atm ) = 2CO( g , p = 2 atm )
ΔG40 / j = 170700 − 174.5T

0
ΔG 0 kJ / molO2

C( p =1atm ) + O2 ( g , p =1atm ) = CO2 ( g , p =1atm )
ΔG10 / j = −394100 − 0.84T

ΔG 0 < 0
2C( p =1atm ) + O2 ( g , p =1atm ) = 2CO( g , p =1atm )
ΔG20 / j = −223400 − 175.3T

T * = 978 K

T

WBM

2C( p =1atm ) + O2 ( g , p =1atm ) = 2CO( g , p =1atm )

ΔG20 / j = −223400 − 175.3T

ΔG 0 / j = 2 RT ln 0.7

2CO( g , p =1atm ) = 2CO( g , p =0.7 atm )
2C( p =1atm ) + O2 ( g , p =1atm ) = 2CO( g , p =0.7 atm )

ΔG20a / j = −223400 − 175.3T + 2 RT ln 0.7

0
ΔG 0 kJ / molO2

2C( p =1atm ) + O2 ( g , p =1atm ) = 2CO( g , p =1atm )

ΔG20 / j = −223400 − 175.3T

1

ΔG 0 < 0

ΔG 0 / j = 2 RT ln 0.7
2

2C( p =1atm ) + O2 ( g , p =1atm ) = 2CO( g , p =0.7 atm )
ΔG20a / j = −223400 − 175.3T + 2 RT ln 0.7

T

T

WBM

C( p =1atm ) + O2 ( g , p =1atm ) = CO2 ( g , p =1atm )
CO2 ( g , p =1atm ) = CO2 ( g , p =0.3 atm )
C( p =1atm ) + O2 ( g , p =1atm ) = CO2 ( g , p =0.3atm )

ΔG10 / j = −394100 − 0.84T

ΔG 0 / j = RT ln 0.3
ΔG10a / j = −394100 − 0.84T + RT ln 0.3

0

ΔG 0 kJ / molO2

C( p =1atm ) + O2 ( g , p =1atm ) = CO2 ( g , p =1atm )
ΔG 0 < 0

ΔG10 / j = −394100 − 0.84T

1

CO2 ( g , p =1atm ) = CO2 ( g , p =0.3 atm )

ΔG 0 / j = RT ln 0.3

2

C( p =1atm ) + O2 ( g , p =1atm ) = CO2 ( g , p =0.3atm )

ΔG10a / j = −394100 − 0.84T + RT ln 0.3

WBM

T

C( p =1atm ) + CO2 ( g , p =1atm ) = 2CO( g , p =1atm )

ΔG > 0
0

ΔG40 / j = 170700 − 174.5T

0

C( p =1atm ) + CO2 ( g , p =0.3atm ) = 2CO( g , p =0.7 atm )

ΔG 0 kJ / molO2

ΔG40a / j = 170700 − 174.5T − 0.491RT

C( p =1atm ) + O2 ( g , p =1atm ) = CO2 ( g , p =1atm )
ΔG10 / j = −394100 − 0.84T

ΔG 0 < 0

C( p =1atm ) + O2 ( g , p =1atm ) = CO2 ( g , p =0.3atm )

2C( p =1atm ) + O2 ( g , p =1atm ) = 2CO( g , p =1atm )

ΔG10a / j = −394100 − 0.84T + RT ln 0.3

ΔG20 / j = −223400 − 175.3T

2C( p =1atm ) + O2 ( g , p =1atm ) = 2CO( g , p =0.7 atm )
ΔG20a / j = −223400 − 175.3T + 2 RT ln 0.7

Ta* = 975.5K T * = 978 K

T

WBM

C( p =1atm ) + CO2 ( g ) = 2CO( g )
ΔG40 / j = 170700 − 174.5T

PCO + PCO2 = 1

⎡ (PCO )2 ⎤
0 = Δ G + RT ln ⎢

PCO
2 ⎦ equil

o

⎛ (PCO )2

⎜ 1 − PCO

⎛ (PCO )2

⎜ 1 − PCO

ΔG



= e RT

⎠ eq ,T

− 20531

T

=
e

⎠ eq ,T

0

.6

+ 20 . 99

WBM

1,0

0,8

C( p=1atm) + CO2( g ) = 2CO( g )

%CO

0,6

Δ G 40 / j = 1 7 0 7 0 0 − 1 7 4 . 5 T
0,4

⎛ ( P C O )2

⎜ 1 − PCO




= e

Δ G
RT

0

eq ,T

0,2

0,0
400

600

800

1000

1200

1400

1600

1800

Temperatura K
WBM

DIAGRAMA DE ELLINGHAM
MO2 ( s ) + 2CO( g , p =1atm ) = M ( s ) + CO2 ( g , p =1atm )

pCO
pCO2

⎛ pCO2 ⎞
⎟⎟
ΔG 0 = − RT ln⎜⎜
⎝ pCO ⎠

0
10 −2

2CO( g , p =1atm ) + O2 ( g , p =1atm ) = 2CO2 ( g , p =1atm )

10 −1

ΔG30 / j = −564800 + 173.62T

p

ΔG 0 kJ / molO2

1

pCO
=1
pCO2

2
equil ,TP

ΔG 0 = 0

T < Tp

10

c
ΔG 0 < 0

10 2

T =?
pCO2 < pCO

M + O2 = MO2

Tp

T

WBM

MO2 ( s ) + 2CO( g , p =1atm ) = M ( s ) + 2CO2 ( g , p =1atm )

⎛ pCO2 ⎞
⎟⎟
ΔG = − RT ln⎜⎜
pCO


0

⎛ pCO2 ⎞
⎟⎟
ΔG 0 = − RT ln⎜⎜
pCO

MO2 ( s ) + 2CO( g , p =1atm ) = M ( s ) + 2CO2 ( g , p = 0.1atm )

pCO
pCO2

10 −2

2
equil ,TP

+ 2 RT ln 0.1

pCO2 =

10 −1

ΔG30 / j = −564800 + 173.62T

p

ΔG 0 kJ / molO2

equil ,TP

pCO
= 10
pCO2

0
2CO( g , p =1atm ) + O2 ( g , p =1atm ) = 2CO2 ( g , p =1atm )

2

ΔG 0 = 2 RT ln 0.1

q

1

1
= 0.1
10

T < Tp
ΔG 0 = 0

10

Tq

c
ΔG 0 < 0

10 2

pCO2 < pCO

M + O2 = MO2
ΔG 0 = 0
Tq Tp

T

WBM

MO2 ( s ) + 2CO( g ,1atm ) = M ( s ) + 2CO2 ( g ,1atm )

⎛ pCO2 ⎞
⎟⎟
ΔG = − RT ln⎜⎜
pCO


0

equil ,TP

⎛ pCO2 ⎞
⎟⎟
ΔG 0 = − RT ln⎜⎜
⎝ pCO ⎠

MO2 ( s ) + 2CO( g ,1atm ) = M ( s ) + 2CO2 ( g ,10 atm )

10 −2

2CO( g , p =1atm ) + O2 ( g , p =1atm ) = 2CO2 ( g , p =1atm )
ΔG / j = −564800 + 173.62T
0
3

m

10 −1

p

1

ΔG 0 = RT ln 10

10

c
ΔG < 0
0

10

M + O2 = MO2

2
equil ,TP

2

+ RT ln 10

T = Tm

ΔG 0 = 0

pCO
pCO2

0

ΔG 0 kJ / molO2

2

Tm
pCO < pCO2

Tm > Tp
pCO
= 0.1
pCO2

pCO2 =

1
= 10
0.1

WBM
Tp Tm

T

DIAGRAMA DE ELLINGHAM
MO2 ( s ) + 2CO( g , p =1atm ) = M ( s ) + 2CO2 ( g , p =1atm )

pCO
pCO2

0
2CO( g , p =1atm ) + O2 ( g , p =1atm ) = 2CO2 ( g , p =1atm )
ΔG30 / j = −564800 + 173.62T

ΔG 0 kJ / molO2

n

10 −2

m

10 −1

p

1

q

10

r

10 2

c
ΔG 0 < 0

M + O2 = MO2

Tr Tq Tp Tm Tn

T

WBM

MO2 ( s ) + 2 H 2 ( g , p =1atm ) = M ( s ) + 2 H 2O( g , p =1atm )
pH2
pH2O

0

10 −2

ΔG 0 > 0

10 −1

M + O2 = MO2
1

ΔG 0 kJ / molO2

10

10 2

H

2 H 2 ( g , p =1atm ) + O2 ( g , p =1atm ) = 2 H 2O( g , p =1atm )
ΔG10 / j = −4920000 + 109.6T

ΔG 0 < 0

T*

T

WBM

MO2 ( s ) + 2 H 2 ( g , p =1atm ) = M ( s ) + 2 H 2O( g , p = 0.1atm )

MO2 ( s ) + 2 H 2 ( g , p =1atm ) = M ( s ) + 2 H 2O( g , p =1atm )

pH2
pH2O

0

ΔG10 / j = −4920000 + 109.6T + 2 RT ln 0.1
10 −2

ΔG 0 > 0

10 −1

M + O2 = MO2

2 H 2 ( g , p =1atm ) + O2 ( g , p =1atm ) = 2 H 2O( g , p = 0.1atm )
1

ΔG 0 kJ / molO2

10

ΔG 0 = 2 RT ln 0.1

10 2

2 H 2 ( g , p =1atm ) + O2 ( g , p =1atm ) = 2 H 2O( g , p =1atm )

H

ΔG10 / j = −4920000 + 109.6T
ΔG 0 < 0

Tq T *

T

WBM

MO2 ( s ) + 2 H 2 ( g , p =1atm ) = M ( s ) + 2 H 2O( g , p =10 atm )
MO2 ( s ) + 2 H 2 ( g , p =1atm ) = M ( s ) + 2 H 2O( g , p =1atm )
pH2
pH2O

0

10 −2

ΔG 0 > 0

10 −1

M + O2 (1atm ) = MO2

ΔG10 / j = −4920000 + 109.6T

2 H 2 ( g , p =1atm1 ) + O2 ( g , p =1atm ) = 2 H 2O( g , p =1atm )

ΔG 0 kJ / molO2

10

2 H 2 ( g , p =1atm ) + O2 ( g , p =1atm ) = 2 H 2O( g , p =10 atm )

ΔG 0 = 2 RT ln 10

10 2

H

ΔG10 / j = −4920000 + 109.6T + 2 RT ln 10

ΔG 0 < 0

Tq T *

T

WBM

WBM

Reducción de FeO con C a 600 ºC

(1) FeO( s ) = Fe( s ) + 1 / 2O2( g )

ΔG10 / j = 259600 − 62.55T

(2) C( s ) + O2 ( g ) = CO2 ( g )

ΔG20 / j = −394100 − 0.84T

(3) 2C( s ) + O2 ( g ) = 2CO( g )

ΔG30 / j = −564800 + 173.62T

(4) 2CO( g ) + O2 ( g ) = 2CO2 ( g )

ΔG40 / j = −564800 + 173.62T

(5) C( s ) + CO2 ( g ) = 2CO( g )

ΔG50 / j = 170700 − 174.5T

FeO( s ) = Fe( s ) + 1 / 2O2( g )
(1) + (3) / 2 = (6)

259600 − 62.55T = − RT ln pO1/22( equ ,T )

FeO( s ) + C( s ) = Fe( s ) + CO( g )

C( s ) + CO2 ( g ) = 2CO( g )
2
⎛ pCO

⎜ pCO
2



= 0.08

⎠ equl ,873 K

pO2 ( equ , 873 K ) = 2.9 x10 −25 atm.

ΔG60 / j = 147900 − 150.2T = RT ln pCO( equ ,T )
2
⎛ pCO
170700 − 174.5T = − RT ln⎜
⎜ pCO
2

pCO( equ , 873 K ) = 0.1atm.

pCO( equ , 873 K ) = 0.1atm.




⎠ equl ,T

pCO2 ( equ , 873 K ) = 0.125atm.

P = PCO + PCO2 + PO2 = 0.1 + 0.125 + 2.9 x10 −29

WBM

FeO( s ) + C( s ) = Fe( s ) + CO( g )

DIAGRAMA DE ELLINGHAM

WBM

FeO( s ) + C( s ) = Fe( s ) + CO( g )

DIAGRAMA DE ELLINGHAM
2 FeO( s ) + 2C( s ) = 2 Fe( s ) + 2CO( g )

0
ΔG873
= ab= ΔG0 (2C +O2 = 2CO)
K = −410000
2
+ ΔRTln pCO

0
0
2
ΔG873
K = ΔG873K + RTln pCO

0
2
ΔG873
−175.3x8/ 3+ RTln pCO
= ac+ cb
K = −223400

pCO(atm) = 0.1atm.

WBM

WBM

WBM

ENERGÍA LIBRE DE FORMACIÓN DE SULFUROS

WBM

ENERGÍA LIBRE DE FORMACIÓN DE CARBUROS

WBM

AFINIDADES RELATIVAS DE ALGUNOS ELEMENTOS POR SULFUROS Y OXÍGENO

WBM

AFINIDADES RELATIVAS DE ALGUNOS ELEMENTOS POR CLORUROS Y OXÍGENO

WBM

ENERGÍA LIBRE DE FORMACIÓN DE CLORUROS

WBM

ENERGÍA LIBRE DE FORMACIÓN DE NITRUROS

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ENERGÍA LIBRE DE FORMACIÓN DE SULFATOS

WBM

ΔG30 / j = −564800 + 173.62T

ΔG10 / j = −394100 − 0.84T

ΔG20 / j = −223400 − 175.3T

WBM