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ELECTRICAL MACHINES (DC Motors) Chapter 2-1 (201305) Contents • • • • • • • • • Introduction to Electrical & Direct Current Machines Constructional Details of DC Machines Principle

of Operation of Dc Machines Types of DC Motor Power Flow Diagram Characteristics of DC Motors Armature Reaction Speed Control of DC Motors Applications

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Learning Outcomes
Upon completion of chapter-2 you should be able to: •State the principle by which machines convert mechanical energy to electrical energy and vice versa. •Discuss the operating differences between different types of dc machines. •Explain the characteristics of dc machines.

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Introduction
Energy Conversion •Energy exists in many forms. •One form of energy can be obtained from the other form with the help of converters. •Light bulbs and heaters require energy in electrical form. Electrical Machines: •Converters that translate an electrical input to a mechanical output or vice versa are called the electric machines. •This process of translation is electromechanical energy conversion. •The magnetic system acts as the link between the electrical and mechanical systems
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Introduction . Electromagnetic phenomena: Electrical machines use the following electromagnetic phenomena for their electromechanical energy conversion: •Whenever the field in the vicinity of a conductor changes (or) flux linking a conductor changes. an emf is induced into that conductor (Faraday’s Law). •Whenever a current-carrying conductor is placed in a magnetic field. the conductor experiences a mechanical force. . . 4 .

. 5 .Introduction . . .

Energy flow diagram Gen Transformer (step-up) Transmission Line Transformer (step-down) Distribution /Utilization: Loads could be Motors. Heaters. Coolers. Lighting. … 6 .

7 . is mainly produced by electronic rectifiers.Over view of DC Machines Direct-current (DC) machines are divided into dc generators and dc motors. because dc. •DC generators are not as common as they used to be. DC Generator •A dc generator is a machine that converts mechanical energy into electrical energy (dc voltage & current) by using the principle of magnetic induction. when required.

•DC motors are everywhere! In a house. •DC motors are widely used in many applications. almost every mechanical movement that you see around you is caused by an DC (direct current) motor. DC Motor •A dc motor is a machine that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy by supplying a dc power (voltage and current).Over view of DC Machines . . 8 . .

Over view of DC Machines . 9 . . .

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CONSTRUCTIONAL DETAILS OF DC MACHINES • • • • • Stator: Field Poles (minimum 2) .carries armature winding Air gap (between poles and armature) Commutator (ac to dc) Carbon brushes (collects and carry current from the commutator) 11 .magnetic flux Rotor : Armature .

Slot Tooth Rotor of a DC machine 12 .

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Constructional details of dc machines . •The pole cores and pole faces are laminated to reduce eddy current loss. •The armature core. . •The field poles which produce the magnetic flux. which carries armature windings is on the rotor and is made of sheet-steel laminations. . are mounted on the yoke made up of cast iron and carry field windings. 16 . •The slots are cut on the surface of armature core to place armature windings.

Constructional details of dc machines . •The ends of the windings are connected to the commutator segments (built in copper and are very good conductors). . 17 . •Carbon brushes are placed over commutator segments and serve as leads for the electric connection. .

. •The •The commutator is connected to the slotted iron core. ARMATURE (Rotor) •The entire assembly of iron core. •More turns of conductor = higher rectified voltage 18 .Constructional details of dc machines . . and windings is called the armature. windings of armatures are connected in different ways depending on the requirements of the machine. commutator.

.Constructional details of dc machines . . Lap Wound Armatures •are used in machines designed for low voltage and high current •armatures are constructed with large wire because of high current •Number of parallel paths = number of poles 19 . . . There are two types of armature winding: Lap winding and Wave winding. ARMATURE .

. .Constructional details of dc machines . . . Wave Wound Armatures •are used in machines designed for high voltage and low current •are used is in the small generator •No of parallel paths = 2 20 . ARMATURE .

. Two types of field windings are used : –series field winding –shunt field winding Series field windings –are so named because they are connected in series with the armature –are made with relatively few turns of very large wire (sufficiently large to carry the current) and have a very low resistance. . Field winding Most DC machines use electromagnets to provide the magnetic field. 21 .Constructional details of dc machines .

thus. or shunt. .Constructional details of dc machines . –is intended to be connected in parallel with. . –high resistance is used to limit current flow through the field. Shunt field windings –Have relatively many turns of small wire. it has a much higher resistance than the series field. 22 . the armature.

When a DC machine uses both series and shunt fields. Factors affecting the machine output •Speed •Field strength •No. The windings are wound on the pole pieces in such a manner that when current flows through the winding it will produce alternate magnetic polarities. of turns in the windings 23 . each pole piece will contain both windings.

24 .DC motor principles •The same dc machine can act as a generator or a motor. steel mills. mines. electric trains etc. •They drive devices such as hoists. •DC motors are used in industrial applications that demand a high degree of flexibility in the control of speed and torque (the torque-speed characteristics of dc motors can be varied over a wide range while retaining high efficiency). cars. •The motor converts electric energy to mechanical energy. fans. punch-presses. pumps. calendars.

•Today. . . 25 . The DC motor has no adverse effects on power quality. but they do so at the expense of power quality.DC motor principles . The Advantages •The greatest advantage of DC motors may be speed control. as the solid-state switching devices in the drives produce a rich harmonic spectrum. adjustable frequency drives can provide precise speed control for AC motors.

The construction of a DC motor is considerably more complicated and expensive than that of an AC motor. primarily due to the commutator. The drawbacks • Power supply. It can also cause power quality problems. initial cost. 26 • • . and armature windings. . . brushes.DC motor principles . and maintenance requirements are the negatives associated with DC motors Rectification must be provided for any DC motors supplied from the grid.

The commutator bars are soldered to armature coils. This process creates north and south poles on the rotor that are attracted to or repelled by north and south poles on the stator. It's this magnetic interaction that causes the rotor to 27 rotate.• • • • DC motor – principle of operation DC motors consist of rotating armature windings and stationary field windings. The current must be conducted to the armature windings by passing current through carbon brushes that slide over a set of copper surfaces called a commutator. which is mounted on the rotor. . The brush/commutator combination makes a sliding switch that energizes particular portions of the armature. which are formed by passing direct current through the field windings. based on the position of the rotor.

. and the circular field around the current-carrying conductor. • If a straight current carrying conductor is placed at right angles to the uniform magnetic field existing between the North and south poles of a permanent magnet. .a. the result is shown in Fig.DC motor – principle of operation . • Two fields are present: the uniform field due to the magnet with lines of force that are straight and parallel. shown dotted. 28 . • All motors rely upon the force exerted by a magnetic field on a current-carrying conductor.

DC motor – principle of operation . 29 . . .

Similarly. the conductor will tend to move in the opposite direction. the direction of conductor motion will change.• • • • • • DC motor – principle of operation . b. If it were free to move. as indicated by the arrow. As the lines of force above the conductor in Fig. the conductor would leave the magnetic field. tending to move it down.. . the circular field around the conductor will also reverse.a point in the same direction. Hence. they add together. they subtract. . upwards. Because the field is strong above the conductor and weak below the conductor. the distorted lines of force tend to straighten like stretched elastic bands. i.e. and as the lines of force below the conductor oppose each other. 30 . if the polarity of the main magnetic field is reversed. A force is thus exerted on the conductor. The resultant magnetic field is shown in fig. If the current is reversed through the conductor.

N S 31 .

Torque It is the turning or twisting force about an axis. 32 .

Force on the conductor sin  33 .

With the armature rotating in the magnetic field.  and is as follows: • • • • E0   Zn 60  P A  34 . As soon as the armature begins to turn.Counter emf (Back emf) in dc motors • When a dc supply is connected to the dc motor. a 2nd phenomenon takes place: the generator effect. a large current will flow through the armature conductors because its resistance is very low. These forces add up to produce a powerful torque. causing the armature to rotate. the armature conductors generate an emf. Each current carrying conductor experiences a force (because they are immersed in the magnetic field). This generated (induced) emf is proportional to the speed of rotation of the motor and the flux per pole.

Where. In case of a motor. .Counter emf (Back emf) in dc motors . of poles A = no. E0 is called counter emf because it opposes the source voltage. Z = total number of armature conductors  = effective flux per pole (Wb) n = speed of rotation (rpm) P = no. The armature current is given by I   ES  E0  R where ES = line supply voltage & E0 = counter (generated) emf. thus limiting the armature current. of parallel paths The generated voltage opposes the supply voltage. . 35 . the induced voltage.

When a motor runs at no-load. . with the result that the value of armature current diminishes.Counter emf (Back emf) in dc motors . the counter emf (cemf) is zero and so the starting current is given by: I = (ES-0) / R. the cemf increases. sufficient to produce the required torque. so as to enable a small current to flow. 36 . the counter-emf must be slightly less than ES. As the speed increases. When the motor is at rest. .

is P  E0 I where. P =mechanical power developed by the motor (W) E0 = induced voltage in the armature (cemf) (V) I = total current supplied to the armature (A) The mechanical power P is also given by the expression.55 Combining the above two equations for P. where n is the speed of rotation. P  T  nT 9.28  A    37 . which is converted to mechanical power (mechanical power developed).Mechanical power and torque The electrical power supplied to the armature. nT 9.55  E0 I  T  Z I  P  6.

28  A    where.55  E0 I  T  Z I  P  6. .Mechanical power and torque . n  60 E0 A ( Z P ) 38 . .28 = constant. T = torque developed (N-m) Z = total number of armature conductors F = effective flux per pole (Wb) I = armature current (A) 6. to take care of units (=2) Speed of rotation E0   Zn 60  P A   Speed .  nT 9.

Classification of dc motors The magnetic flux in DC machine is produced by field coils carrying current. Fig. There are two methods of excitation: separate excitation and self excitation. In separate excitation the field winding is energized by a separate DC source. Separately excited DC motor 39 . The production of magnetic flux in the machine by circulating current in the field winding is called excitation.

The principle types of DC machine are: (i) separately excited DC machine (ii) self excited DC machine: 3 types •Shunt machine. . Self excited DC motor 40 .Classification of dc motors . In self excitation the current flowing through the field winding is supplied by the machine itself. •Series machine. . •Compound machine. DC machines are named according to the connection of the field winding with the armature. Fig.

carry the full armature current.Series motor The field is connected in series with the armature and must. IL V= E+Ia(Ra+Rse) IL = Ia 41 . therefore.

Pcf=ia2Rf Pin= VTiL Pm Power Flow Diagram P Pout Pca=ia2Ra P is normally given Pin = Pout + total losses Where.  m    2 N   Pout  Efficiency .  o    2 N  for mechanical  60 Pm torque . mech etc Pm= E a i a  60 P    2 N               60 Po for output / load torque .     P    in  42 . Pca =armature copper loss Pcf =field copper loss P=stray.

V= E+IaRa IL = Ia+Ish 43 .Shunt motor The field is connected in parallel with the armature.

Pca =armature copper loss Pcf =field copper loss P=stray.     P    in  44 .  m    2 N      Pout  Efficiency . mech etc Pm= E a i a  60 P    2 N       60 Po  for output / load torque .  o    2 N      60 Pm  for mechanical torque .Power Flow Diagram Pcf=if2Rf Pin=VTiL Pm P Pout Pca=ia2Ra P is normally given Pin = Pout + total losses Where.

45 . The shunt field is always greater than the series field. the machine is said to be cumulatively compounded. If the magnetic flux produced by the series winding aids the flux produced by the shunt field winding.Compound motor A compound motor carries both a series field and a shunt field. If the series field winding opposes the shunt field flux. the machine is said to be differentially compounded.

.Compound motor . 46 . Either type may be long shunt or short shunt type. .

.Compound motor . . Short shunt V =E+ IaRa + ILRse IL = Ia+Ish Long shunt V= E+Ia(Ra+Rse) IL = Ia+Ish 47 .

 m    2 N   Pout  Efficiency . mech etc Pm= E a i a  60 P    2 N           60 Po for output / load torque .     P    in      48 . Pca =armature copper loss Pcf =field copper loss P=stray.  o    2 N   60 Pm for mechanical torque .Pca=ia2Ra Pin=VTiL Pcf2=ia2Rf2 Pm Power Flow Diagram P Pout Pcf1=if2Rf1 P is normally given Pin = Pout + total losses Where.

Characteristics of dc motors: Load characteristics Shunt motor Consider a dc shunt motor running at no-load. E n T  Φ Ia Φ The speed of a shunt motor stays relatively constant (changes by 5 to 15 percent) from no-load to full-load. resulting in a higher armature current and a corresponding higher torque. As load current increases the torque developed also increases linearly as the field flux remains almost constant. 49 . This causes the counter emf to decrease. If a mechanical load is suddenly applied to the shaft. the motor begins to slowdown.

Characteristics of dc motors: Load characteristics … 50 .

Characteristics of dc motors: Load characteristics … 51 .

. The weaker field causes the motor to run faster than the normal speed At no-load the speed may rise to a dangerously high value. Series motor When a series motor starts up (Eb is zero).Characteristics of dc motors: Load characteristics . T  Φ Ia T  I a2 At light loads the armature current and the flux are small. Φ  Ia Therefore the starting torque of the series motor is considerably greater than that of a shunt motor. the armature current is higher than the normal. . For this reason we never operate a series motor at no-load 52 . with the result the flux also greater than normal.

In a differential compound motor. Hence. Compound motor In a cumulative compound motor.Characteristics of dc motors: Load characteristics . as the load increases. the total mmf increases which in turn decreases the speed. the mmf of series field adds to the mmf of shunt field. The speed drop from no-load to full-load is generally between 10 and 30 percent. the total mmf decreases with increasing load which in turn increases the speed of the motor. the mmf of the series field opposes the mmf of the shunt field. 53 . . In such a motor. .

The field excitation of the motor is kept constant. the speed depends only on the counter emf or mainly on the supply voltage (Armature resistance being very small).Speed control of dc motors Shunt motor There are two methods of speed control. 54 . namely armature control and field control Armature control According to eqn. but the armature voltage is varied from zero to maximum to vary the speed of the motor. E   Zn 60  P A  0 if the flux per pole  is kept constant.

. Armature control. 55 . . This is only recommended for smaller machines because a lot of power is wasted in the resistance. This method enables us to reduce the speed below its nominal speed. One way to control the speed of a dc motor by armature control is to place a resistance in series with the armature. The voltage drop in the resistance reduces the armature voltage. .Speed control of dc motors . .

Field control We can also vary the speed of a dc motor by varying the field flux. To control the flux we vary the field current by connecting a rheostat in series with the field. If the line supply voltage is maintained constant then the speed is inversely proportional to the flux. F.Speed control of dc motors . This method of speed control is frequently used when the motor has to run above the normal speed. 56 . . .

57 . . If we suddenly increase the resistance of the rheostat. This in turn reduces the cemf. Field control. . both the exciting current Ix and the flux  will decrease.Speed control of dc motors . . . causing the armature current to jump to a much higher value.

Speed control of dc motors . . . Field control. . . The motor develops a greater torque than before and hence runs faster. This method of speed control enables high-speed/basespeed ratios as high as 3:1. Under certain abnormal conditions, the flux may drop to dangerously low values which in turn may cause the motor to rotate at a dangerously high speed. Safety devices are introduced to prevent such runaway conditions.

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Speed control of dc motors . . . Series motor The speed of a series motor can be increased by placing a low resistance in parallel with the series field. The field current is then smaller than before, which produces a drop in flux and an increase in speed

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Starting of dc motors When a motor is at rest, the cemf is zero and so the starting current is given by I = ES / R. The starting current may be 20–30 times greater than the nominal full-load current. All dc motors must, therefore, be provided with a means to limit the starting current to reasonable value. One method is to place a rheostat in series with the armature. The resistance is gradually reduced as the motor accelerates and is eventually eliminated when the machine has attained full speed.
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the armature current is almost zero and hence the flux is also zero and there is no armature m. 61 .Reversing the direction of rotation The direction of the rotation may be reversed by reversing either the armature connection or the field connection (but not both). When there is no load on the armature.f.m. Armature reaction Armature reaction is the effect of the magnetic interaction between the two fields set up by the rotor and the stator on the distribution of main field flux.

This armature reaction produces 2 undesirable effects on the main field flux. 62 .c.Armature reaction . When a d. . (demagnetizes / weakens the main flux). (cross-magnetizes / distorts). machine is loaded. Distortion of main field flux wave along the air-gap. This armature current sets up an armature flux. current flows in the armature winding. . Net reduction in the field flux per pole.

Interpoles: Probably the most common method for compensating the armature reaction is the use of interpoles. . These are smaller than the main field poles and are connected in series with the armature. . 63 . The polarity of an interpole is that of the main pole left behind with respect to the direction of rotation for motoring mode and that of the main pole ahead in the direction of armature rotation for the generating mode.Armature reaction .

Losses and efficiency The losses of dc machines may be classified as follows: Copper losses. 64 . Iron losses and other rotational losses (Mechanical losses) are made very small by design. Iron losses. These are bearing friction. Rotational losses. The ohmic losses (I2R losses) in the armature and field windings. friction of the brushes & windage losses. The power absorbed by the core is called iron losses and is due to eddy currents and hysteresis.

Owing to this eddy current and resistance. Although eddy current losses are effectively reduced by laminating the core. the armature core also cuts the magnetic flux and an emf is induced in it causing a current flow (called an eddy current) in the core. producing heat.Eddy current loss As an armature rotates in a magnetic field. 65 . a certain amount of power will be absorbed. they are never eliminated.

This change is energy consuming and heat is produced within the core. which depends on the nature of the material used for the laminations. Silicon steel has low hysteresis losses 66 . The energy loss is referred to as hysteresis loss.Hysteresis loss The alternating flux causes changes in the alignment of the molecules in the magnetic core.

Efficiency Efficiency is the ratio of the output power to the input power Input power  losses   100 Input power 67 .

• specific applications: fans. 68 . called interpoles. on the stator between the main poles wired in series with the armature reduces armature reaction. conveyor drives. packaging etc. They are suitable for applications requiring constant speed and where accurate control of speed or position of the load is required. Installing additional poles. machine tools. a distortion and weakening of the flux generated by the poles that results in commutation problems evidenced by sparking at the brushes.Applications of dc motors Shunt motors: Shunt motors are prone to armature reaction.

They are used when high starting torque compared to shunt motors are required.Applications of dc motors Series motors: Series motors lack good speed regulation. They are used on equipments requiring a high starting torque. • suitable to use in traction. but are well-suited for high-torque loads like power tools and automobile starters because of their high torque production and compact size. • suitable for lifts or hoists. Compound motors: The concept of the series and shunt designs are combined. electric cranes & hoists. 69 .