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FMEA (Failure Mode and Effects Analysis or German: Failure Mode and Impact analysis or short impact analysis) and FMECA (Failure Mode and Effects and Criticality Analysis) are analytical methods of reliability engineering to potential Find vulnerabilities. In the context of quality management and safety management is FMEA preventively to avoid errors and increase the technical reliability used. The FMEA is particularly in the design and development phase of new products applied or processes and supplier of standard parts for the automotive manufacturer (see ISO / TS 16949) but also called for other industries.

FMEA follows the basic idea of a precautionary error prevention rather than remedial Error detection and correction (fault management) through early identification of potential Causes of errors already in the design phase. Thus be otherwise incurred control and Avoid errors resulting costs in the production phase, or even in the field (the customer) and the Total costs reduced. Through a systematic approach and gained Findings is also the repetition of design defects in new products and processes avoided.

The FMEA is included in the DIN 25448 since 1980 as failure modes and effects analysis. This was 2006

replaced by DIN EN 60812th The methodology of FMEA is already in the early phase of Applied product development (planning and development) within the product life cycle be because a Kosten-/Nutzenoptimierung in the development phase is the most economical. Because the later a fault is discovered, the more difficult and costly is its correction be.

Table of Contents 1 Types 2 Applications 3 measures 4 review 5 Historical 6 derivatives 7 Software 8 Literature 9 links species The FMEA can be divided into three types: System FMEA The system FMEA (also S-FMEA) investigated the interaction of subsystems in a superior system and the interaction of several components in a complex system. It aims thereby to identify potential vulnerabilities Especially at the interface caused by the interaction of the individual Components could occur.

Design FMEA The design FMEA (D-FMEA also) aims at the construction of individual products or Components and examined them. Vulnerability to potential failure modes

Process FMEA The Process FMEA (PFMEA also) based on the results of the Design FMEA and address possible weaknesses in the manufacturing or service process The system FMEA and design FMEA are the so-called product-FMEA summarized as the considered system usually can not be clearly resolved.

The system FMEA is applied in the development process. Your task is to examine the product to fulfill the functions specified in the requirements specification through. there are all risk-related parts of a product appropriate measures to prevent or To plan discovery of potential errors. The system FMEA at component level corresponds to the previous definition of design FMEA. It is used for analysis of all component features for Fulfilling the required component function are required. The system FMEA process is still used in the production planning process. they logically builds on the results of the Design FMEA. An error in the system FMEA Product whose cause lies in the manufacturing process is, logically an error in the process FMEA applied. Task of the system FMEA is, the entire production process to investigate the suitability of a product for producing the product back. Here, for any errors that may occur during the manufacture of the product, appropriate measures to

To plan or avoid discovery.

application In the first application, a team of employees from different business functions (Interdisciplinary Team) was formed. The assessment shall in particular design, development, Test, production planning, manufacturing execution, quality management, etc. The analysis process even then with the help of forms (QS-9000) or equivalent software formalized manner (VDA 4.2) performed.

Contains the FMEA ? a limitation of the system under consideration, ? structuring of the system under consideration, ? Definitions of functions of the structural elements, ? an analysis of potential causes of errors, error types and error consequences arising directly from the functions of the structural elements derived ? a risk assessment, ? Measures or solutions to prioritized risks ? a pursuit of agreed measures and avoidance and discovery ? a residual risk assessment or evaluation.

Potential errors are analyzed by the fault is located, the error determined, the Described failure effect and then the cause is determined. For the determination of possible Causes is often created a so-called cause-and-effect diagram. It is possible that simply because of a fault is detected immediately cause indications of possible measures can be derived for error prevention. Indicators on the importance (the error result), the probability of occurrence (the cause) and the detection probability (the error or its cause, even if the sequence) are a basis for risk assessment. The figures are integer values between 1 and 10 and will be assigned with the help of rating catalogs.

By calculating the risk priority number (RPN), an attempt is made to rank the Create risks. The RPZ produced by multiplying the B-, A-and E-rating numbers (RPN = B * A * E) and accordingly can accept values between 1 and 1000. There is a Claim that the RPZ, at least in comparison with other RPN the same FMEA, a Statement within the meaning of better / worse allowed.

The goal with the RPN to assess the importance and rank of error to from this Derive priorities for action to be taken, the question is asked again and again. it are experiments with the parameter (A * B), or alternatively, in addition to work. In DRBFM, at the Toyota used FMEA system, remains under the definition of key figures in full. Measures are there exclusively to common sense or as a result Team Discussion fixed.

In developed by Motorola and General Electric comers for breakthrough Quality and Six Sigma process improvement methodology is the FMEA (PFMEA or =

Potential FMEA) is one of many tools of a chain of optimization steps in the first three phases of the Six Sigma DMAIC process core.

measures Measures aimed To reduce the probability of occurrence of a cause of the error (for example, by the incorporation of improved components). to increase the probability Discover a potential cause of the error, for example by additional tests are provided.

The risk assessment will take place in the current FMEA no longer alone in the already mentioned RPN instead, but the following sequence: Highest priorities have high meanings (10), then the product of importance and Considered likely to occur (B * A), this is also known as criticality or Technical Risk is defined (Considerations underlying the valuation numbers stored catalogs, A =x is a range and not a fixed number for the ppm of the error probability of occurrence). Intervenes only to prioritize the remaining points the RPZ.

review The assessment is done by interdisciplinary teams to "10" respectively assigned points of "1". ? Probability of occurrence of the cause (low = "1" to high = "10") Chance discover the cause (high = "1" to low = "10")

? Meaning of the error sequence is evaluated from the perspective of the customer (low = "1" to high = "10"). The customer can account both the end user as well (for example, internal company) between customer be the FMEA calls. Can risk priority numbers to rank the agreement of Countermeasures are used in the development process. Different companies have different, ajar to the standard works catalogs to assess risks and criteria for the adoption of measures to reduce risk. Also high individual values (8-10) may, despite low risk priority number draw activities to be.

After initial measures and processed, a renewed risk assessment: It is checked by repeated determination of a risk priority number RPN whether the planned Measures promise a satisfactory result (Keep the meaning of the error sequence unchanged.). If the result is not the required quality requirements of the customer, as further mitigation measures must be taken or discovery and / or solutions developed.

The FMEA is further described in DIN EN 60812 (DIN 25448 Replaced) * failure mode and Effects analysis * anchored. The VDA Volumes 4, Part 2 and 3 suggest a detailed systematic approach.


For the first time a description of the FMEA method was as United States Military Procedure published : MIL-P- 1629 - Procedures for Performing a Failure Mode , Effects and Criticality Analysis , November 9, 1949 . The widespread use of FMEA in the field of Automotive industry was initiated by Ford after it in the 70s when model Ford Pinto sensational problems were [ 1]. Which appeared in the early 1980s , FMEA, Ford publications were the Basis for QS 9000 FMEA method description . In 1996, the Association of Automotive Industry ( VDA) published an improved FMEA methodology . In since 2002 available third edition of QS 9000 FMEA method description were some elements of the VDA approach taken . The fields of application of FMEA have widened over time . Originally in the military Settled area, the FMEA via an intermediate stage " Aerospace " recognition found in the automotive industry . Since the FMEA methods a universal model is based on they are also found in other areas in which work systematically , their fields of application , eg Medical, food industry ( as HACCP ) system engineering, software development.

derivatives Toyota focused on changes of the FMEA method became known as design Review Based on Failure Mode (DRBFM) developed. DRBFM to the separation between Cancel development and quality process and development engineer in the direct Integrated quality process.

To food is the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points concept (abbreviated: HACCP concept, German: Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points) aligned. originally from NASA together with a supplier developed to ensure the safety of the astronauts food to ensure it is run by the U.S. National Academy of Sciences and of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations recommended.

software The FMEA can be carried out on a form as an aid. But it is useful to use modern tools to increase clarity. Literature DIN EN 60812: Analysis techniques for system reliability - Procedure for Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA), November 2006 QS-9000: FMEA - Failure Mode and Effect Analysis, 3rd Ed 10.2001, Carwin Ltd.. ? VDA: Securing Quality Planning - System FMEA, 1 Edition 1996, ISSN 0943 -9412 DGQ: Volume 13-11 FMEA - Failure Mode and Effects Analysis, 3rd Edition 2004, ISBN 3 -410-32962-5 Dieter H. Mller, Thorsten Tietjen: FMEA practice, 2nd Edition 2003, ISBN 3-44622322-3 Otto Eberhard, risk analysis with FMEA, 2003, ISBN 3-816-92061-6 Bertsche, B. and Lechner, G.: Reliability in Automotive and Mechanical Engineering, 3rd edition, 2004, ISBN 3-540-20871-2