Science Form 1

Unit 7 Heat Part II (7.4-7.6)

7.4

APPLICATION OF EXPANSION AND CONTRACTION OF MATTER

1. Thermometers
a. The mercury thermometer is used to measure changes in temperature. b. When the surrounding temperature rises, the mercury in the thermometer expands and the mercury column rises and vice versa.

2. Bimetallic thermometers
a. It has a thin, coiled bimetallic strip. b. The metals used in the bimetallic strip are brass and iron. c. Brass expands or contracts faster than iron. d. The expansion and contraction of brass which is faster d. The expansion and contraction of brass which is faster than iron cause the coil to curl and show the rise or fall in temperature. e. Bimetallic thermometer is usually used in electric ovens and car radiators.

• Diagram of a bimetallic strip showing how the difference in thermal expansion in the two metals leads to a much larger sideways displacement of the strip

A bi-metallic coil from a thermometer reacts to the heat from a lighter, by uncoiling and then coiling back up when the lighter is removed.

Thermometers

Car Thermometer Weather Thermometer

Digital Clinical Thermometer

Bath Thermometer

Cooking Thermometer

Thermo scan Thermometer

Industrial Equipment Thermometer

Bottle Thermometer

3. Rivets
a. Rivets are steel bolts used to fasten two metal plates firmly together. b. The rivet is first heated over a very strong flame and then it is fitted into the holes in the metal plates. c. The thin end is then flattened with a hammer. d. When the rivet cools down, it contracts and holds the two metal plates tightly together.

4. Other instruments that applied the principle of expansion and contraction of matter: a. Axles of wheels b. Fire alarms c. Thermostat d. Electric Irons e. Air conditioners f. Gas ovens g. Refrigerators

5. Examples of using the principle of expansion and contraction. a. Railway tracks with small gaps. b. Electric cables and telephone wires hung loosely.

c. Bridges with one end fixed and the other end rests on rollers. d. Concrete road surfaces built in small section or using tiles as pavement. e. Pipelines are usually coiled and have curved joints

7.5

ABSORBING AND GIVING OUT HEAT

7.5 Absorbing and Giving Out Heat
1. The rate of absorption and radiation of heat by an object depends on a. the temperature around the object. i. The hotter the object, the more heat is given out. ii. In the same way, the colder the object, the more heat it absorbs.

b. the type and colour of its surface. i. Dark, dull objects absorb heat better than white, shiny objects.

7.5 Absorbing and Giving Out Heat
2. When an object gives out heat, its temperature drops. 3. In general, a. A good radiator of heat is also a good absorb of heat. b. Dull, black surfaces are very good radiators and absorbers of heat. c. Shiny objects are good reflector s of heat.

Emission experiment
Four containers were filled with warm water. Which container would have the warmest water after ten minutes?

Dull metal

Shiny black

Shiny metal

Dull black

shiny metal The __________ container would be the warmest after ten minutes because its shiny surface reflects heat radiation back into the container so _______ less is lost.

The dull black container would be the coolest because it is the best at ________ emitting _______ heat radiation.

Absorption experiment
Four containers were placed equidistant from a heater. Which container would have the warmest water after ten minutes?

Dull metal

Shiny black

Shiny metal

Dull black

dull black The __________ container would be the warmest after ten minutes radiation because its surface absorbs heat _______ the best.

The shiny metal container would be the coolest because it is the poorest _________ absorbing at __________ heat radiation.

7.6

APPRECIATING THE BENEFITS OF HEAT FLOW

7.6 Appreciating the Benefits of Heat Flow
1. We should appreciate the flow of heat through the three states of matter and vacuums. 2. Their applications make our lives more comfortable.

1. Which of the following is not a method of heat transfer? A. B. C. D. Radiation Insulation Conduction Convection

2. In which of the following are the particles closest together? A. B. C. D. Solid Liquid Gas Fluid

3. How does heat energy reach the Earth from the Sun? A. B. C. D. Radiation Conduction Convection Insulation

4. Which is the best surface for reflecting heat radiation? A. B. C. D. Shiny white Dull white Shiny black Dull black

5. Which is the best surface for absorbing heat radiation? A. B. C. D. Shiny white Dull white Shiny black Dull black