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Science Form 1

Unit 7
Heat
Part II (7.4-7.6)
7.4

APPLICATION OF EXPANSION AND


CONTRACTION OF MATTER
1. Thermometers
a. The mercury thermometer is used to measure
changes in temperature.
b. When the surrounding temperature rises, the
mercury in the thermometer expands and the
mercury column rises and vice versa.
2. Bimetallic thermometers
a. It has a thin, coiled bimetallic strip.
b. The metals used in the bimetallic strip
are brass and iron.
c. Brass expands or contracts faster than iron.
d. The expansion and contraction of brass which is
faster d. The expansion and contraction of brass
which is faster than iron cause the coil to curl and
show the rise or fall in temperature.
e. Bimetallic thermometer is usually used in electric
ovens and car radiators.
• Diagram of a bi-
metallic strip
showing how the
difference in
thermal expansion
in the two metals
leads to a much
larger sideways
displacement of A bi-metallic coil from a thermometer
the strip reacts to the heat from a lighter, by
uncoiling and then coiling back up when
the lighter is removed.
Thermometers

Digital Clinical
Car Thermometer
Thermometer Bath Thermometer
Weather
Thermometer

Cooking Industrial
Thermometer Thermo scan Equipment Bottle
Thermometer Thermometer Thermometer
3. Rivets
a. Rivets are steel bolts used to fasten two metal plates
firmly together.
b. The rivet is first heated over a very strong flame and
then it is fitted into the holes in the metal plates.
c. The thin end is then flattened with a hammer.
d. When the rivet cools down, it contracts and holds the
two metal plates tightly together.
4. Other instruments that applied the principle
of expansion and contraction of matter:

a. Axles of wheels
b. Fire alarms
c. Thermostat
d. Electric Irons
e. Air conditioners
f. Gas ovens
g. Refrigerators
5. Examples of using the principle of expansion and
contraction.

a. Railway tracks with small gaps.


b. Electric cables and telephone wires hung loosely.
c. Bridges with one end fixed and the other end
rests on rollers.
d. Concrete road surfaces built in small section
or using tiles as pavement.
e. Pipelines are usually coiled and have curved
joints
7.5

ABSORBING AND GIVING OUT HEAT


7.5 Absorbing and Giving Out Heat
1. The rate of absorption and radiation of heat by an
object depends on
a. the temperature around the object.
i. The hotter the object,
the more heat is given
out.
ii. In the same way, the
colder the object, the
more heat it absorbs.
b. the type and colour of its surface.
i. Dark, dull objects absorb heat better than
white, shiny objects.
7.5 Absorbing and Giving Out Heat
2. When an object gives out heat, its
temperature drops.
3. In general,
a. A good radiator of heat is also a good
absorb of heat.
b. Dull, black surfaces are very good radiators
and absorbers of heat.
c. Shiny objects are good reflector s of heat.
Emission experiment
Four containers were filled with warm water. Which container would have the
warmest water after ten minutes?

Dull metal Shiny black

Shiny metal Dull black

shiny metal container would be the warmest after ten minutes


The __________
because its shiny surface reflects heat radiation
_______ back into the container so
less is lost.
The dull black container would be the coolest because it is the best at
________
emitting heat radiation.
_______
Absorption experiment
Four containers were placed equidistant from a heater. Which container would have the
warmest water after ten minutes?

Dull metal Shiny black

Shiny metal Dull black

dull black
The __________ container would be the warmest after ten minutes
radiation the best.
because its surface absorbs heat _______
The shiny metal container would be the coolest because it is the poorest
_________
absorbing
at __________ heat radiation.
7.6

APPRECIATING THE BENEFITS OF HEAT


FLOW
7.6 Appreciating the Benefits of Heat Flow

1. We should appreciate the flow of heat


through the three states of matter and
vacuums.

2. Their applications make our lives more


comfortable.
1. Which of the following is not a
method of heat transfer?

A. Radiation
B. Insulation
C. Conduction
D. Convection
2. In which of the following are
the particles closest together?

A. Solid
B. Liquid
C. Gas
D. Fluid
3. How does heat energy reach
the Earth from the Sun?

A. Radiation
B. Conduction
C. Convection
D. Insulation
4. Which is the best surface for
reflecting heat radiation?

A. Shiny white
B. Dull white
C. Shiny black
D. Dull black
5. Which is the best surface for
absorbing heat radiation?

A. Shiny white
B. Dull white
C. Shiny black
D. Dull black