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# Lesson 2.

3 Functions
1
A. Definition of a Function

Determine if the relation defines y as a function of x. For each function,
state the domain and range. Video tutorial

1. { (-2, 5), (-1, 3), (3, 7), (4, 12)}

2. {(-4, 4), (-3, 3), (-2, 2), (-1, 1), (-4, 0)}

- A function is a rule. A function f is a rule that assigns to each element x in a set
A exactly one element, f(x), in a set B.
- Given a relation in x and y, we say y is a function of x if for every element x
in the domain, there corresponds exactly one element y in the range.
- This just means that a function cant repeat any x-coordinates
- A function can repeat y-coordinates
- Any set of ordered pairs (x, y) is called a relation in x and y.
- The set of first components in the ordered pairs is called the domain of the
relation
- The set of second components in the ordered pairs is called the range of the
relation
- Hint: Domain vs. Range
o D comes before R in the alphabet, just as x comes before y
o So, D goes with x and R goes with y
- When you list the numbers in the Domain and Range
o List each number only ONCE

Lesson 2.3 Functions
2
B. Determining Whether an Equation is a Function

Determine whether the equation defines y as a function of x.

1.
2
1
x
y = 2. x y 3 5 = 3.
2
2y x = 4. 1 2 3
2 3
+ = x x y
Video tutorial

C. Function Notation

When a function is defined by an equation, we often use function notation.
For example, y = 2x can be written as ( ) 2 f x x = .
f is the name of the function. (It can be g(x) or h(x), etc
x is an input value from the domain of the function
f(x) is the function value (y-value) corresponding to x.
The notation f(x) is read as f of x or the value of the function f at x
A function may be evaluated at different values of x by substituting x-values
from the domain into the function.
The ordered pairs you get are the same as (x, y), but they are (x, f(x))
So, if f(5) = 10, the ordered pair is (5, 10).

- Solve the equation for y. If you get two solutions for y, the equation is not a
function.
- Some equations that are NEVER a function:
o An equation that has y
2
is never a function
o An equation that has represents two solutions and is not a function

Lesson 2.3 Functions
3
Evaluate the function at the indicated function values.

( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) =
=
= +

=
x f
x f
x f
f
f
2
1
1
0
Video tutorial
1. ( ) 1 2
2
+ = x x x f
Lesson 2.3 Functions
4

2. ( ) 2 3 f x x =
(5)
( 4)
f
f
=
=
Video tutorial

( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) =
=
=
= +
= +
=
x f
x f
x f
x f
h x f
f
2
1
0
Video tutorial

3.
( )
5 3
1 2

+
=
x
x
x f

Lesson 2.3 Functions
5
D. How do you find the domain?

Find the domain of the function in interval notation.
1.
7
( )
2 1
x
f x
x
+
=

Video tutorial #1-4

2.
2 1
9
x
x
+

3.
2
4
( )
9
x
f x
x

=
+

4. ( )
9
2

=
x
x
x f

1) Is it a fraction?
a. Set the denominator equal to zero and solve for x.
b. Domain: ( ) ( ) ___, ___ ,
2) Is it an even index radical?
a. Set the inside expression >0 and solve for x.
b. Domain: | ) ( | ___ , be could it or ___,
3) All other expressions
a. Domain is all real numbers or: ( ) ,

Lesson 2.3 Functions
6
5. ( ) 4 f x t = + Video tutorial #5-9

6. ( ) 3 4 f x x =

7.
2
( ) 3 f x t t =

8. ( )
2
3

+
=
z
z
z h

9. ( )
25 5
5

=
t
t P

Lesson 2.3 Functions
7
A. Increasing, Decreasing, Constant Intervals
Use the graph to find:
(a) The intercepts, if any
(b) The domain and range
(c) The intervals on which the function is increasing, decreasing or constant

1.

Video tutorial