7 feet thick and 14 feet high. and Name Functions The process includes: Identifying Clarifying Naming What.000. even what appears to be overconcentration of mental work on these functions. He called in a construction supervisor and asked him what he could do to work out the problem. Having studied value analysis function-based techniques. who had not worked with problems of radiation.000 FOR CONCRETE-WHAT IS THE FUNCTION? A new laboratory under installation was to contain very powerful X-ray equipment for deeply searching large forgings and castings for hidden defects. Intense concentration. dress. "If you decide to move the laboratory. the drawings included a concrete wall. the concealed wire in the motor. seemingly idle and carrying no load. 2-2 Identify. he thought in terms of "what else would stop radiation. However. he told the manager of the laboratory that he would approve the contract. The construction engineer. is the function that the customer or user wants? Case Study $50. The "Rembrandt. Many products and services require both use and aesthetic functions." He asked whether dirt would stop it and was advised that it would if it was provided in sufficient . The nail within the walls of the building. forms the basis for unexpected steps of advancement of value in the product or service. Some require only use while some require only aesthetic functions. and flower vase all require both use and aesthetic functions in varying ratios. Recognizing his responsibility for the area. For this. in the shape of a horseshoe outside of the building. The contract was taken to the works manager for his initialing.26 Techniques of Value Analysis and Engineering that he wants performed. automobile." the diamond. pipe. and aesthetic functions please him or someone he wants to have pleased. really. The best bid on this wall was approximately $50." This was an unexpected condition to which the laboratory manager was unprepared to subscribe. Providing for the protection of adjacent areas from radiation was required. he was advised that it was to stop radiation. The refrigerator. and the oil in the automobile require only use functions. he said. shoe. Inquiring into the function of the concrete. you will take this concrete away with you and get it out of our way. Clarify. was astonished to see in the plans an enormous amount of concrete. and the perfume have only aesthetic functions.

This approach. the exact opposite is the rule. allows and promotes measurement of the appropriate cost for a specified function in more specific terms. of the function-based value analysis techniques resulted in a superior product. State the function in exact sentences. namely. Bids on it showed that it could be installed for $5. the works manager immediately approved. Examine the sentences. In fact. at the proper time. Describe what the function does and name it with a verb and a noun. radiate heat. naming them articulately is so difficult and requires such precision in thinking that real care must be taken to prevent the abandonment of the task before it is accomplished. 2-3 Quantify Functions When Practicable To provide more benefits. enclose housing. functions are named whenever possible using a verb and noun that have measurable parameters.A11 Cost Is for Function 27 quantity. a grassed-over earth mound. etc. Some verbs Contain Move Shorten Support Protect Prevent Actuate Time (as a verb) Control Reduce Modulate Secure Locate Space Rotate Fasten Close Insulate Ignite Filter Mount Limit Some nouns Piston Vibration Contacts Volume Torque Switch Volume Current Dust Panel Paint Rust Noise While the naming of functions may appear simple. at one-tenth of the cost of a solid concrete wall. and interrupt circuit may be defined as interrupt current. support contact.000. which was found to be a mound 14 feet high and 14 feet thick. in many cases. Some examples follow: Conduct current Transmit torque Enclose volume Insulate voltage Dampen vibration Conduct heat Transmit flux Communicate intelligence Amplify voltage . control current. Is that exactly what it does for the customer? Is that exactly what the customer wants it to do? Is that exactly what the customer believes he's paying for? Improve and clarify the sentences until they say exactly what the function really is. The use. for example. of course. For example support timer may also be defined as support weight.

The framework has been established in which the worth. The task is to solve the problems a little better and to get better answers than the best competitor (who. Some typical names are: Provide appearance Provide shape Provide color Provide features Provide convenience Reduce noise Reduce size Reduce thickness Reduce time required Reduce skill required The aesthetic functions are fully identified and clarified. It depends entirely upon what the customer wants and is willing to pay for and what the product or service now lacks that is desired. How much current? Under what conditions? How much torque? Under what conditions? How much volume? Under what conditions? 2-4 Unify the Function and Its Specifications Thus is evolved the function and its specification. in the difficult lies the largest opportunity. or the function and its constraints. or appropriate cost. as are the use functions. of the same function under different specified conditions. Cost accepted in use functions is not more wisely used than cost in aesthetic function areas. Spelling out just what will please the customer is much more difficult than spelling out what use functions the customer wants and is willing to pay for. as it is sometimes called. often. However. More specific function names in the aesthetic area often promote some better solutions. which open wide possibilities for predetermining the approximate worth. Each must then be similarly provided with its exact specifications or constraints. of a specified function under specified conditions can be compared to the worth. Likewise the conditions can be held constant and the worth of varying amounts of the specified function can be compared. of course.28 Techniques of Value Analysis and Engineering When this naming system is used. 2-5 Analyze Aesthetic Functions Naming of the aesthetic functions follows different patterns because the values placed by the customer on aesthetic functions are almost completely subjective. of any function under any specific constraints or specifications. has the same difficult problems). The realistic name that seems to apply to all aesthetic functions is please customer. or appropriate cost. Sometimes costs accepted in the aesthetic area bring the best return. . or appropriate cost. the next essential step stands out clearly.

that of a lawn mower to cut grass. when this information is developed. It is often startling. This pinpoints for the designer areas relatively unrelated to the basic function where his different choices may have large effects upon costs. a procedure. the work of a group of men.A11 Cost Is for Function 29 2-6 Classify Functions As Either Basic or Secondary After functions are identified. The basic function of a refrigerator is to preserve food. If the refrigerator has solid-state control equipment with no moving parts to control its operating cycle. understood. Secondary functions are those functions required to cause or allow the designer's choice of means for accomplishing the basic functions to do so effectively. SUMMARY Function The basic purpose of each expenditure. . to learn what high percentages of the cost are consumed by secondary functions. Either or both may cause the buyer or the user to buy the product. clarified. and the other is the aesthetic function. whether it be for hardware. is to accomplish a function. Use Function The cost that is expended to cause the product to perform a use that the buyer wants and is willing to pay for is called the use function cost. One type is the use function. the thinking surrounding them is further deepened by classifying them as either basic or secondary functions. Any costs other than those that provide the amount of each of these two functions that the user or buyer wants are unnecessary costs. and named. Types of Functions In the search for basic objective thinking. It is necessary to establish the language of function and stay within this language. or whatever. then a very different function-different in design and different in cost-may be needed to cause or allow it to accomplish its task. functions are divided into two types. Each is important. If a refrigerator has electric contacts that open and close to regulate its cycle of operation." etc. then the function of mounting and protecting the contacts is required. Basic functions are those functions for which the customer buys the device or service. and that of a bicycle to "move weight.

Basic Function The basic function is that function for which the user or buyer buys the product. but he does not care about the secondary functions. . causing him to buy. Large amounts of cost are contained in secondary functions and become the immediate target for high-grade value engineering work. Secondary Functions Secondary functions are those functions that become necessary in order to allow the designer's choice for means of accomplishing the basic function to do so effectively. As is readily seen.30 Techniques of Value Analysis and Engineering Aesthetic Function The cost that is expended for the purpose of pleasing the buyer through color or shape or feature. is typed as the aesthetic function cost. the customer is extremely interested in the basic function.

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